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  • 51. Ahlström Jönsson, Felix
    et al.
    Janson, Erik
    Barriers of circular economy transition for a construction firm2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The construction industry is one of the most resource-intensive industries in the world, therefore, scientists, the industry and governments are pushing  for a transition to a Circular Economy (CE) within the industry to address this issue. This study explores the barriers to CE transition within the construction industry, examining how these barriers are perceived by practitioners and contrasting them with academic perspectives in the literature. The barriers identified in the literature were categorized via industrial transition theory based on the regime actors of the Multi-level perspective on transition framework by Geels & Schot (2007) and then aggregated via subcategories based on similarities in barrier definition presented in the literature. By interviewing 8 respondents, 28 barriers to CE transition were found within the categories and subcategories of data coding. The findings revealed that the industry is cautious about CE, which is impeding the drive for transition and affecting further perception and awareness of the concept. Furthermore, it is crucial to investigate barriers individually and how they are interconnected to others, as they collectively contribute to the low and slow progress of industrial transition toward CE in the construction industry. 

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  • 52.
    Ahlström, Sara
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Jansson, Patricia
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Chatbot den digitalakundtjänstmedarbetaren: En kvalitativ studie kring hur lojalitetsfaktorernapåverkas av konsumentmötet med en chatbot2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Titel: Chattbot den digitala kundtjänstmedarbetaren: En kvalitativ studie kring hur lojalitetsfaktorerna påverkas av konsumentmötet med en chattbot.

    Ämne: Kandidatuppsats i företagsekonomiinriktning marknadsföring, 15hp

    Författare: Sara Ahlström & Patricia Jansson

    Nyckelord: Varumärkeslojalitet, artificiell intelligens, chattbot

     

    Syfte: Syftet med studien är att ur ett business-to-consumer perspektiv genomföra en djupgående undersökning av hur faktorerna bakom varumärkeslojalitet påverkas av konsumentmötet med en chattbot. Genom den ökade förståelsen eftersträvas att utveckla ett teoretiskt ramverk.

     

    Metod: Studien är av det kvalitativa slaget och har genomförts med en abduktiv forskningsansats. Studiens slutliga resultat grundar sig i genomförda datorbaserade chattintervjuer med konsumenter.

     

    Slutsats: Utfallet av studien har utökat förståelsen för hur faktorerna vilka ligger till grund för byggandet av varumärkeslojalitet förändras med den digitala teknologin chattbots. Genom studien har en förståelse för vilka komponenter bakom lojalitetsfaktorerna som är av stor vikt. Viktiga komponenter vilka uppmärksammats är utfallet av chattbotens service-kvalité bestående av kundnöjdhet och förtroende, och kvalité av interaktionen bestående av kommunikation och personlighet

     

    Kunskapsbidrag: Praktiska och teoretiska kunskaper kring chattbots påverkan på kundnöjdhet, relationer, kommunikation och avsaknaden av den mänskliga kontakten har lyfts fram. Genom det teoretiska ramverket belyses viktiga delar att ta hänsyn till kring skapandet och utvecklandet av chattbots, vilket är av betydelse för företag som vill skapa en positiv upplevelse i mötet med den digitala medarbetaren

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  • 53.
    Ahsan, Syed Rubyat
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Nishadi, Menu Geethika
    Digital Marketing Challenges Face by SMEs in Developing Countries: Cross country case studies from Bangladesh and Sri Lanka2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 54.
    Ajam, Sabin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Batak, Berivan
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    How do SMEs in Sweden perceive the usage of SEO?2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study has been to find out how SMEs in Sweden perceive SEO as a marketing tool. In order to answer the purpose of the study, we have selected five small and medium enterprises to take part in their stories and perceptions of SEO.

    As a method, we have used interviews to be able to answer the purpose of the essay. We have chosen not to focus on a specific industry because the purpose has been SMEs as it is the majority of Sweden's companies. In the thesis, coding has been used as an analysis tool to interpret our collected material.

    The results show that there are varied opinions about SEO. However, The majority of informants perceive SEO as a complex system. The essay shows that IP1 and IP5 informants use SEO as a marketing tool but still do not understand SEO completely. The informants use social media as a marketing strategy to reach out to potential new customers and to focus on the word of mouth model. The study also shows that the informants who use SEO see it as an opportunity to grow and make a name for themselves in the industry in which they operate. 

    Because SEO ensures that companies can be at the top of the list on Google among their competitors and thus easier for potential customers to find the company's website, the company gains a more extensive customer base and grows its business.

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  • 55.
    Ajkunic, Said
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Skagervik, Oskar
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Varumärkesvärdering och tillämpningen av ISO 106682018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: It has become increasingly common to divide the intangible assets into different categories. One of these categories is the value of the brand itself, which can become useful when a brand is being bought, sold and exposed to other legal situations. In order to distinguish the brand, it is necessary to make a valuation of the brand. However, there has been no consensus on how this will happen, which led to the emergence of a new standard, ISO 10668.

    Problem: The reliability of brand valuation has been low, as there have been several different ways of valuing a brand and thus resulted in the fact that the valuations are severely divided. In 2010, the standard ISO 10668 was developed to increase the reliability and transparency of brand valuations. But what valuation methods are used to achieve ISO 10668 and a reliable brand valuation?

    Purpose: The purpose of the study is to investigate whether the new ISO standard has been accepted and applied in practice. We also want to investigate whether there has been a reduction in the problems that have arisen around brand weather and the methods used to achieve the ISO 10668 standard and a reliable brand valuation.

    Method: We have conducted a qualitative study where we interviewed people with good experience in brand valuation. The theoretical frame of reference has been designed for literature, scientific articles and other internet sources.

    Conclusion: To valuing a brand can be a costly process and therefore only when there is a specific purpose, for example, for legal, economic or market reasons. In order to make the valuation as credible as possible, experts recommend to comply with the ISO 10668 standard. This is often done at higher valuations or for example acquisitions or litigation. In order to achieve the standard, it is not merely a method used, but is determined by the purpose of valuation. 

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  • 56.
    AKILAN, Bharath Swaroop
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Digitization of Information into cloud in supply chain : A case study of VALEO2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Innovation has been developing over the last few decades and the digitalization trend is transforming into a reality for all business. In the current scenario, companies are changing supply chain management from conventional to digitalization approaches because the buying and selling system is manual in traditional way and is not cost effective. ICT tools integrate the software to enable the production of the company so effective. But still there is weakness in dropping the business when the technology changes rapidly in market. Companies looks for the technology, which can take over the burden of new technology cost and future replacement of the technology. Cloud computing is the technology making the way for the company to achieve the level of business in the market by integrating the business partners into the business. Therefore, companies are changing towards cloud computing, it reduces the leading time, cost and easy to communicate with suppliers.

    Purpose: The purpose of the study is to have better understanding of ICT tool integration in cloud and its effect on business performance in supply chain. When the business process get into electronic flow of system which be superior on collaboration and reduce the communication gaps with the suppliers in result it improves reliability, agility and effectiveness.

    Methodology: In order to answer our research question, the qualitative research was conducted. Two interviews in the single case study on integration of technology with cloud computing in the supply chain process with business partners in Europe.

    Conclusions: In conclusion, based on the research of analysis and the findings has given hope to take the ICT tools (EDI & ERP) into cloud based operation which gives much better efficiency, reliability and reduces the supplier handling risks to improve the business process for the long term.

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  • 57.
    AL Darabseh, Mutaz
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Nasar, Nazia Rumana
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    An Exploratory Study on the Post-Acquisition Process of Technological Acquisition – a case study of HMS2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Although M&A’s have the greatest probability of failure in organizations, the major reasons for this outcome is the integration process. M&As have been a popular strategy for accessing new markets, introducing new products, expanding their knowledge base, and enhancing competitive advantage. In this study, we explore a case of technology acquisition, and we propose a theoretical framework based on literature that identifies phases in post-acquisition process. The process involves three stages: knowledge absorption, operational phase and commercial phase that is explored and evaluated with the empirical data of the case study. Then, thematic analysis was utilized in this study to identify common themes related to the role of acquisition. The related functions and benefits were grouped under acquisition roles. Since the case study was a successful acquisition, it was easy to figure out the roles and dimensions of integration from it. Both the methods contribute in addressing, the necessary phases that need to be organized with integration and deriving different functionalities to achieve common goals. Finally, we present a discussion and bring out the relationships that emerged from this study from different themes and have been mapped to stages in the post-acquisition process, resulting in outcomes from each role. Thus, this study puts an emphasis on the range of factors that create value from successful technological acquisition and conclude as post-acquisition process with integration elements is the initial pivotal position for the consequences.

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  • 58.
    Al Mouaqet, Amjed
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Rofidal, Clément
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Idea generation in the fuzzy front-end of small entrepreneurial projects2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The success of the new product development (NPD) process is vital for the survival of projects. Especially for small entrepreneurial projects that try to survive in a very competitive environment, affected by constant market and technical changes. Previous literature emphasize the importance of the generation of new ideas, to improve the product concept during the pre-development stage, but it did not pay a lot of attention to the sources of ideas. For this reason, this study aims to develop the knowledge concerning the sources of ideas of small entrepreneurial projects, during the fuzzy front-end (FFE).

    The literature review of this study presents the previous researches that relate to the sources of ideas, during the idea generation stage of the FFE. The structure of the existing model, integrating the sources of ideas, is based on three categories: environmental scanning, innovative organizational culture and joint research.

    An inductive study and a research, based on the analysis of one small high-tech entrepreneurial project, were conducted to cover the literature gap. This choice of methodology reflects the experimental purpose of this research. The empirical data are only primary data, collected by analyzing the diaries of the two entrepreneurs involved in the project.

    Our findings reveal that contact with lead user, entrepreneur experience, customer involvement, brainstorming sessions, competitor analysis, resource constraints and prototype conception represent the main sources of ideas of small entrepreneurial projects in the FFE.

    The practical purpose of this study is to offer some advices to entrepreneurs of small entrepreneurial projects for accessing to sources of ideas, during the idea generation stage of the FFE, and manage their impact on the development of the product concept. The theoretical implications contribute to the identification of new sources of ideas and a proposition of framework of their impact.

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    Master Thesis 2015, Amjed Al Mouaqet & Clément Rofidal, Idea generation in the fuzzy-front end of small entrepreneurial projects
  • 59. Albin, Holm
    Motiven bakom en investering i crowdfunding2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    It is well known that small businesses and entrepreneurs in the initial phase has difficult to gain access to external capital and bank loans. With the background of the problems that entrepreneurs face when they ask for capital has since the financial crisis the phenomenon of crowdfunding developed and evolved. Crowdfunding is an alternative source of funding for entrepreneurs to fund their ideas through small or medium-sized capital contribution from a larger amount of investors, often investors who have any kind of relationship with the entrepreneur or to the very idea. This study examined the factors that motivate and guide an investor's decisions when they select their projects. The results of the study show that the motives of the various existing forms of crowdfunding is big. To answer the question of what can affect an investor's motives, the form of crowdfunding must be mentioned. The motivational factors in the study turns out to be local projects, social benefits in the form of altruism, affiliation, shared values as well as the monetary returns and material rewards.

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    Motiven bakom en investering i crowdfunding
  • 60.
    Albrecht, Marc
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Lindh, Sandra
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Franchisetagarens ledarskap: - betydelsen av det transformativa ledarskapet för effektivitet för franchisetagare inom fastighetsmäklarbranschen.2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Titel:          Franchisetagarens ledarskap - betydelsen av det transformativa ledarskapet    för effektivitet för  franchisetagare inom fastighetsmäklarbranschen

    Författare:         Marc Albrecht och Sandra Lindh

    Handledare:       Pia Ulvenblad

    Bakgrund:          Det är en vanlig karriärsutveckling för fastighetsmäklare i Sverige att starta eget. De flesta mäklare ansluter sig till en kedja och i princip alla stora kedjor i Sverige arbetar med franchise som affärsmodell. Rollen som franchisetagare innebär ofta ett ledarskapsansvar. Målsättningen är att driva en effektiv verksamhet som skapar positiva resultat. Vad effektivitet är, kan definieras på olika sätt.

    Transformativt ledarskap kan bidra till positiva och önskvärda utfall genom att motivera underställda till att vilja prestera. Det kan även bidra med ökad motivation och självförtroende, vilket i sin tur bidrar till bättre prestationer.            Tidigare studier bekräftar att franchise är det mest effektiva och vanligaste sättet att bedriva ett mäklarkontor på. Det är därmed intressant att studera hur ett kontor kan vara mer effektivt och hur effektivitet kan uppnås med hjälp av franchisetagarens ledarskap. Eftersom det finns riktlinjer och begräsningar från franchisegivaren som utmanar franchisetagarens ledarskap är det intressant att studera hur transformativt ledarskap kan leda till effektivitet inom franchise samt hur effektivitet kan definieras.

    Syfte:                   Syftet med denna studie är att beskriva hur transformativt ledarskap kan bidra till effektivitet i ett franchisebolag. Effektivitet kan definieras på flera olika sätt och därför vill vi skapa förståelse för vad effektivitet är inom franchisebolag i mäklarbranschen. Genom ökad förståelse kring effektivitet och transformativt ledarskap vill vi utveckla ett ramverk som ger en ökad kunskap för dess betydelse inom franchise. 

    Problem –

    formulering:      Vilken roll har transformativt ledarskap för en franchisetagares möjligheter till att uppnå effektivitet i fastighetsmäklarbranschen, samt hur definierar franchisetagare effektivitet?

    Metod:                En kvalitativ forskningsansats har använts i denna studie, där studiens empiriska material har samlats in från åtta stycken besöksintervjuer med franchisetagare i fastighetsmäklarföretag.

    Resultat:             Av studiens resultat framgår det att de fyra komponenterna i transformativt ledarskap kan användas för att åstadkomma olika definitioner av effektivitet. Vidare visar studien att effektivitet definieras som struktur genom alla arbetsmoment i den studerade branschen.

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  • 61.
    Aldén, Josefine
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Gavie, Maja
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Sponsringens förmåga att skapa varumärkesassociationer: Når bilföretags budskap fram?2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet med studien är att skapa förståelse för hur företag använder sig av sponsring för att skapa associationer till sina varumärken. Vidare undersöks huruvida associationerna når fram till företags målgrupp.

    Metod: Studien är kvalitativ och har ett abduktivt angreppssätt. I studien intervjuades tre stycken bilföretag individuellt. Det genomfördes även en gruppintervju med företagens målgrupp.

    Teoretisk referensram: Den teoretiska referensramen behandlar varumärke, målgrupp, sponsring och dess associationsförmåga, faktorer som avgör ett effektivt sponsorskap samt nackdelar och risker. Kapitlet avslutas med en egenmodifierad modell som beskriver sambandet mellan de olika teorierna.

    Empirisk studie: Empirisk data samlades in genom intervjuer med sponsoransvariga för Mercedes Benz, Audi och Volvo samt ifrån varumärkenas målgrupp.

    Slutsats: De slutsatser som presenteras är att det är av vikt att företag arbetar med sponsringens associationsförmåga utifrån väldefinierade mål med grund i varumärkets identitet. Företaget ska identifiera sin målgrupp för att budskapet ska nå fram och för att associationerna som skapas ska överensstämma med vad företaget vill förmedla. Både befintliga och nya målgrupper kan bearbetas genom val av evenemang och detta val ska kännas naturligt sammankopplat till sponsorns varumärke. Företag samarbetar över gränser med andra sponsorer för att nå nya målgrupper och för att förstärka befintliga eller skapa nya varumärkesassociationer. När företagets budskap överensstämmer med vad som har nått fram till målgruppen har önskvärda associationer skapats vilket tyder på ett starkt varumärke.

  • 62. Alexander, Muayad
    et al.
    Lii, Hurtig Allik
    Bankers beaktande av företags hållbarhetsaspekter vid kreditbedömning2023Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The society has higher demands on both companies and their financiers to adopt more sustainable approaches, of which banks as one of the main financiers of companies can promote this transition. The study examines how banks evaluate sustainability from an environmental, social and governance aspect (ESG) in the credit assessment process for companies, as well as how it affects the granting of credit. The purpose of the study is to describe how banks evaluate sustainability based on the ESG-aspects, and to analyze how companies' sustainability work is important in lending.

    The theoretical framework consists of previous research in the following five areas: Information asymmetry, ESG, greenwashing, lending and credit assessment. Previous research and theory have been collected to analyze the study's empiricism, where bank officials have been interviewed to inform about banks' sustainability evaluation based on the ESG factors in lending. The study is qualitative with an abductive approach, where the data collection has taken place through semi-structured interviews.

    The result shows that banks' analyzes within sustainability often include questions that cover certain areas of the ESG factors in order to identify possible risks that may affect companies' repayment, or banks' reputation. However, many banks lack analyzes that specialize in ESG, as well as deeper examination within each sustainability factor. This gives room for development in the area. The results also indicate that sustainability risks can, to some extent, influence banks to refuse credit.

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  • 63.
    Alexandersson, Marcus
    et al.
    Halmstad University.
    Svensson, Andreas
    Halmstad University.
    Byta befattning!: - Varför byter specialistofficerarna befattningar oftare än Försvarsmakten avsett?2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Non-Commissioned Officer (NCO) is supposed to be the spine within the Swedish Armed Forces due to competence, knowledge and experience. Stability and time on each position are crucial aspects to ensure this competence and experience in the NCO profession. According to the Swedish Army´s guidelines about development within career and profession the time spent on each position should be 3 – 6 years for an NCO.

    The purpose of this study is to examine and to understand why NCO:s at Krigsförbandsenheten within the Skaraborg Regiment stays or do not stay in in the same position for the recommended number of years, according to the guidelines of the Armed Forces specifies.

    The study is qualitative and inductive. The empiricism has been obtained from interviews  which have been analyzed according to Grounded Theory. The empiricism shows five themes which affects the NCO:s choices to change position. These themes are Motivating Factors, Destructive Forces, Distribution of Monetary Resources, The Conditions of the Organization and Fulfillment of the Ego. These themes are related to and affect each other in different ways, but Fulfillment of the ego is central, and that it affects the conditions of the organization.

    The analysis shows that most NCO:s do not stay in the same position for the recommended 3-6 years, and that this depends on a number of different reasons.

    The organization itself is a big cause why the NCO:s do not stay in position the recommended time. This cause depends on lack of personnel.

    When the NCO experiences lack of motivation, lack of personal progress, or stagnation, he or she will search for a new position. The NCO:s are trained to be full of initiative and to be actionable. This also makes them full of initiative and actionable when it comes to their own self-fulfillment. The guidelines that the organization has created about time on position are not seen as trustworthy or credible, therefore it will not succeed in full implementation. This depends on, among other things that the organization substantially has changed the conditions for the NCO-corps from the time they started their career to how it works today. In addition the NCO:s have not been allowed to be a part in the development and shaping of the future of the corps. The NCO:s are not satisfied with their salaries, but they are not either dissatisfied. If and when dissatisfaction becomes significant, the salary becomes a reason to change position because this is also the only way for the NCO to affect their salary.

    The problems can be solved by better planning of personnel. A better and more frequent dialogue between organization, commander and individual about development and progress needs to be performed. Changes of organization, and creating of large guidelines needs to be performed in dialogue and with participation from those it affects. This would be in accordance with the SAF’s view on the concept of leadership. It is of utmost importance that NCO:s with the right education and training are allowed to take part in the future development of their own corps. The NCO’s knowledge and experience have to be valuable and form the basis for the salary. As long as the only way to affect the salary is to change position, the risk that the NCO will do so is imminent.

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  • 64.
    Alfelt, Oscar
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Eriksson, Martin
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Talent Management inom den svenska banksektorn: Hur den svenska banksektorn använder talent management processen som en del av sitt HR-arbete2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Titel:                                   Talent Management inom den svenska banksektorn.

    Författare:                         Martin Eriksson och Oscar Alfelt 

    Handledare:                      Timurs Umans

    Nivå:                                  Kandidatuppsats 15 hp, Ledarskap, VT 2012 

    Frågeställning:                  Hur använder svenska banker talent management processen som en del av sitt HR-arbete? 

    Syfte:                                  Syftet med denna uppsats är att undersöka hur banker använder talent management processen som en del av sitt HR-arbete och på så sätt öka sin konkurrenskraft och effektivisera sitt arbete. Vi ämnar undersöka hur processen kan anpassas till en specifik sektor vilket i vårt fall är den svenska banksektorn.

    Metod:                               Studien gjordes med ett beskrivande angreppssätt. Vi använde en kvalitativ ansatts med individuella öppna intervjuer. Intervjuerna gjordes över telefon med fem stycken respondenter från svenska banker. 

    Teoretisk referensram:    Den teoretiska referensramen består av tre delar där första delen handlar om att förklara vad talent management är för att sedan presentera två talent management processer samt att beskriva HR inom banksektorn. Detta ligger som grund för vår talent management modell som presenteras i slutet. 

    Resultat:                            Här återges vad respondenterna uppgav under intervjuerna. 

    Analys:                               I analysen jämförs respondenternas empiri och analyseras efter den teori som vi har använt.

    Slutsatser:                          Här presenteras de ändringar som gjorts i modellen sedan den först presenterades i den teoretiska referensramen. Med hjälp av teorin och informationen från respondenterna har vi kunnat skapa en relevant och giltig talent management modell för den svenska banksektorn.

    Nyckelord:                         Talent Management, Human Resource Management, banksektorn, personalarbete.

    Centrala begrepp:            HRM (Human Resource Management): Handlar om arbetet med personal och humana resurser.

    Talent Management: Ett verktyg inom HRM med fokus på arbetet med att attrahera, bibehålla och utveckla nyckelpersoner inom företaget.

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  • 65.
    Algotsson, Wilma
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Bringsén, Emma
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Affärsänglars investeringsprocess: En kvalitativ studie om hur investeringserfarenheten påverkar investeringsprocessen2023Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Business angels are an important source of funding for new companies in need of external capital, since they usually are the first to invest in new companies. Therefore, it is valuable to study how business angels manage their investment process, both before and after the investment has been completed. As more investments are made, experience is gained and applied to the next investment process. Previous research has studied how other experience, such as education and entrepreneurial experience, affects parts of the investment process. The purpose of this study is to describe the investment process of business angels in Sweden and analyse how it differs depending on how many investments they have previously made, that is what investment experience they have. Finally, the purpose of the study is to develope a model to describe how the investment experience affects the investment process. 

    The study is based om an abducitve research approach and a qualitative research method. Empirical data has been collected with eleven interviews and two email conversations, and the respondents consist of business angels in Sweden who have made between one and 20 investments in new companies. The interviews conducted were semi-structured and of a narrative nature. The analytical method used to analyse the empirical data is the Gioia-method. 

    The conclusions of the study are that the investment process consists of five stages; deal flow, screening & investment criteria, negotiation, active ownership and exit. Further in the conclusion, the similarities and differences that exist in the investment process of business angels with more and less investment experience are presented. As experience is gained, business angels get a bigger and better deal flow based on informal contacts instead of formal networks. For business angels with more experience, the process is slower and they make a more accurate assessment of the company and, above all, the entrepreneur. Business angels with more experience find negotiations easier and they are more involved than those with less experience. Experience has an impact on active ownership, where more experienced business angels value taking an altruistic role in the company and the less experienced business angels consider themselves above all to take a value-creating role and contribute resources to the company. Business angels with more experience have a more dynamic view of exit, and business angels with less experience have a more static view of exit. It can be stated that investment experience has an impact on all stages of the investment process.

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  • 66.
    Alkhabbaz, Feras
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Mashhadawi, Ibrahim
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Hållbarhetsredovisning: En kvalitativ studie om skillnader och likheter mellan statliga och de privata bolagen som ska upprätta en hållbarhetsrapport enligt lagen2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainability performance reporting is becoming increasingly important to address fordifferent forms of ownership whether they are state-owned companies or private ownedcompanies. This is due to the implementation of the new law on mandatory sustainabilityreporting. The report scrutinizes the differences and similarities that may occur in these typesof sustainability reporting. Subsequently knowledge would be gained on which companiestake more responsibility regarding sustainability issues. The purpose of this study is toinvestigate how Swedish privately own companies and state-owned companies prepare theirsustainability report according to law and compare the differences and the similarities thatmay exist. The companies being compared are operating within the same industry. The studyis limited to six companies: four privately-owned companies and four state-ownedcompanies. The study is based on a qualitative method with a deductive research approach(scientific investigation). It implements a comparative research design and applies the contentanalysis of the companies' annual and sustainability reports. It implements a comparativeresearch design and applies the content analysis of the companies' annual and sustainabilityreports. The conclusion that can be drawn is that public and private companies have moresimilarities than differences. The similarities are that all companies take roughly equalresponsibility for their impact on sustainability issues. Both public and private companiespresent their sustainability reports in accordance with the Annual Reports Act and follow theGRI guidelines. Another similarity is that both public and private companies present similartopics. The conclusion that can be drawn also is that the differences that exist are notsubstantial. What differs is the amount of information presented in the topics or theinformation presentation. The small differences may be largely due to the form of ownership,the need for legitimacy, sector affiliation or the prioritization of stakeholders.

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  • 67.
    Allert, Alexander
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Richloow, Emil
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Att följa ett hållbarhetsarbete: en longditudinell studie av SJs hållbarhetsrapporter2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title: To follow sustainability - through a longitudinal study of the sustainability reports of SJ.

    Introduction: Sustainability Reporting is a way for companies to show how they work with sustainability, where the companies ambitions, strategies and visions of sustainability are also presented. GRI (Global reporting initiative) is the largest framework in the world that companies use when designing the sustainability report. One way of looking at the sustainability report is that it is for communicating with stakeholders, society and within the management team. In this way, the sustainability report is a way of making sustainability challenges more visible and by creating perspectives and achievements that make changes.

    Problem: One of the main purposes of the sustainability reporting framework GRI is to provide greater transparency for stakeholders, thus providing the opportunity for comparison over time. When there is a lack of clear national provisions for the preparation of sustainability work, evaluations and comparisons are difficult for the rest of the world. The lack of accounting principles and common practice means that it is often not clear what has been measured, how it has been measured and what tasks are covered. Therefore, it is interesting to study what can complicate a comparison over several years, by studying the sustainability work over time in the company SJ, which has been actively working with the framework of GRI since 2007.

    Purpose: Analyze what in sustainability reports that can complicate the comparability of the results.

    Method: It is important that companies sustainability issues are linked to performance measures, just to measure sustainability performance. Therefore, we have chosen to look at the sustainability areas of SJ and the indicators that are linked to these areas. We wanted to see how well it was possible to compare the results of the sustainability areas of SJ over time? This is carried out through a longitudinal case study with inductive approach to the sustainability reports of SJ.

    Results: In this study, it has been found that there is a lack of information about several parts, where the reader of the report does not get enough insight. Information deficiency in definitions and measurement methods leads to a comparison being uncertain and less credible. In the examination of deviating outcomes, the complexity was shown to interpret what influenced an outcome and strongly suggested that there was a lack of transparency. It also emerged that there is a big room for companies to choose which performance indicators and measurement methods they want.

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  • 68.
    Almarsson, Marcus
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Degirmenci, Christian
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology.
    Crowdfunding: Ersättaren av traditionella finansieringskällor för små och medelstora företag?2021Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    SammanfattningSmå och medelstora företag utgör en stor del av alla företag som är registrerade i Sverige.Småföretagen är viktiga för samhället eftersom företagen är de största skattebetalarna i de flestakommunerna samt att de bidrar mycket till näringslivet. Dock behöver småföretagenfinansiering för att kunna fortsätta att bedriva sin verksamhet samt växa. Svårigheten att fåfinansiering är något som de flesta av företagen konfronteras med. Detta har resulterat i attföretagen fått söka andra alternativa finansieringsmetoder där crowdfunding är en avmetoderna. Eftersom crowdfunding är en relativ ny finansieringsmetod samt inte likauppmärksammad finns det flera forskningsluckor som kan undersökas.Syftet med studien är att förstå hur motiven skiljer sig mellan användningen av de olikavarianterna av crowdfunding. Studien undersöker även varför svenska små och medelstoraföretaget vänder sig mot crowdfunding och ifall crowdfunding har potential att ersätta detraditionella finansieringskällorna. Detta har genomförts genom att bland annat påvisa defördelar och nackdelar som finns med crowdfunding. Tillvägagångssättet för undersökningenhar skett genom en kvalitativ metod där intervjuer med sex företag har gjorts.Resultatet visar på att det finns en stor skillnad på det motiv som företagen har när de väljervilken crowdfunding metod som de ska använda. Anledningarna till varför företagen användecrowdfunding skiljde sig också åt men det fanns en viss gemenskap mellan några av företagen.Majoriteten av företagen vill antingen ha en starkare relation till sina kunder eller att derasprodukt eller projekt skulle få uppmärksamhet. Vidare var det delade meningar huruvidacrowdfunding kan ersätta traditionella finansieringskällor, somliga av företagen ansåg attcrowdfunding kunde ersätta helt, somliga tyckte att det kunde fungera som ett komplement ochnågon tyckte att det inte kunde ersätta alls. Likväl är merparten av företagen positivt inställdatill crowdfunding som finansieringsmetod.

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  • 69.
    Almaw Tefera, Chalachew
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Nilsson, Felix
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    MARKET ENTRY MODES OF INTERNATIONAL SERVICE FIRMS2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 70.
    Almgren, Felicia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Ryberg Olofsson, Felicia
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Förbättring inom kommunikationen och informationsförlust i byggbranschen med hjälp av informationssystem - en kvalitativ studie om Building Information Modeling (BIM)2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 71.
    Al-Mimar, Samer
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science. Halmstad University.
    The Swedish sustainable energy market:Opportunities and barriers for new actors.: Barriers and obstacles to Swedish solar market2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden is moving from the fossil-atomic age, making ready for photovoltaics (PV) to assume a noteworthy part in a future formed by renewable power production. Sweden is a global leader in renewable energy, environment technology, and Clean-tech. The country fully embraces green technologies and this area has a major business potential. The goal is to reach a 50 percent share of renewable energy by 2020. Photovoltaic (PV) system is one of the main sources of renewable energy sources, the rate of installed PV increased in Sweden. During 2014 36.2 MWp installed, which is almost double installed power 19.1 MWp during 2013. During 2013 and 2014 1.1 MWp sold to the electrical grid and 9.5 MWp of the off-grid system been sold. It was and will be always a problem to start a business or to enter a new market or technology, struggle to understand the market, solve the problems, and increase the sales to achieve the success. Since many companies face difficulties, selling products and getting more projects, for that a research document made to investigate more and find solutions. The purpose of this research to identify solar market entrance obstacles and barriers, and how can new entrants makes solar market entrance. Investigate the statues que of today market and the predict future for solar market in Sweden. Data collection sequence started with identifying customer needs, then review the literature, and finally interview Swedish solar firms. The interviewed firms were five firms operating in Southern of Sweden. The information outcome from the process identifies market obstacles and barriers, providing ideas about the today market situation, predicting the market future, and setting a plan for market entrance for a new entrant. The research neglected the firm size, concentrating on market obstacles and barriers. 

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  • 72.
    Almqvist, Philip
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET). Campus Varberg .
    Gustén, Oscar
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET). Campus Varberg .
    Problematiken kring ett energieffektiviserande projektförslag i en kommunal organisation2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    When it comes to the priority of a project proposal, a variety of factors is affecting theoutcome. In the municipal sector, factors of non- economic nature appears to be particularlyimportant when the organization is not intended to be profit-making.This study's research question is What problems can occur around an energy-efficiencyproject proposal in a municipal organization? The purpose of this study is to gainunderstanding of what possible problems an energy efficiency project proposal mayencounter, in the municipal implementation process as well as the problems of a changingownership can bring.To conduct this study, the method was qualitative in nature. We have cooperated withVarberg Energi AB and Varberg kommun, which has stood as respondents for the empiricalbasis of the study. In this study, we have conducted four personal interviews.In this study, we have found that there may be several problematic factors associated with anenergy-efficiency project proposal in a municipal organization. In conjunction with theimplementation of an energy efficiency project proposal in a municipal organization, we seethat the problem is that the decision process is preceded by a complexity that includesinadequate decision support, the fear of losing the "public space" and that the street lightsisn´t included in the energy efficiency strategy. In connection with a change in ownership, wesee the increased decentralization leads to a larger distance between the municipality and themunicipal company. Distance can create an agent-principal relationship in which themunicipality has the role of principal while the municipal company becomes the agent. Thedistance may lead to information about future decisions made by the municipal company (theagent), never reaches the municipality (the principal). If information about a future decisiondoes not reach the municipality (the principal), it may be perceived as having lost control ofstreet lighting.

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    Oscar och Philip
  • 73.
    Almshref, Nour
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Factors Influencing the Implementation of Circular Business Model among Small and Medium-sized Enterprises in Sweden2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Circular Economy is on the top of the corporate agenda and provokes the interest of the academic community, governments, and policymakers. The Circular Economy paradigm is seen as a better solution and more sustainable alternative to the current linear system. To realize the benefit of the CE, new thinking and new business models are required. So far, there is limited progress has been achieved regarding the implementation of the Circular Economy. Therefore, scholars strive to understand the phenomena, providing conceptualizations, new strategies, and new business models, lacking empirical testing.

    The purpose- this study is mainly conducted to test empirically a set of influencing factors that include drivers which stimulate SMEs to implement Circular Business Models and the barriers that prevent or complicate the implementation process.

    Methodology- in order to fulfill the research objective, qualitative research with a multiple-case study approach is employed, focusing on three Swedish SMEs that operate in three different sectors.

    Findings- the outcome empirically confirmed that organizational drivers related to leadership and organizational culture, resource availability including technology and knowledge, financial factors, product and process development, society, environment, and stakeholder pressure, geographical proximity, entrepreneurship, and bran strengthening are seen as driving and facilitating factors to implement Circular business model. While, the lack of supportive regulation and policies, consumer behaviors related to single-use culture, the nature of the product and material, and the presence of incompatibility and monopoly in the supply chain are observed as major barriers.

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  • 74.
    Alonso Rodríguez, Marta
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Calmès, Anne-Gaëlle
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Advertising and the role of gender: A study of Sweden,France and Spain magazine advertisements2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The gender portrayals study aims to understanding how the roles of men and women are portrayed in magazine advertisements. This has been an issue investigated over the past decades as companies try to achieve a higher level of sales of their products and services and the gender issue influences in how this companies plan one advertising program or another. However, there is a debate among authors: some of them believe that advertising reflects what is already on society and others express that advertisers use the most convenient reality to sell their products. Thus, it makes us wonder what is the actual truth behind this debate. This thesis tries to answer the question of how men and women are portrayed in advertising campaigns. There are several studies on gender portrayals across countries but none that compares France, Spain and Sweden. This thesis tries to fill this gap.

     

    The study is conducted following Hofstede framework that classifies countries whether masculine or feminine, and is completed by analyzing the data gathered from four magazines of these three countries. We classified this data following Courtney and Lockeretz classification scheme and analyzed the data obtained with theories of some other authors.

     

    The results of this thesis show that males were dominant among working roles while females were in non-working roles. The findings might not add a huge contribution to this field of study but may be used as guiding tool for further research.

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  • 75.
    Alriksson, Sofie
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET). Halmstad University.
    Torstenson, Emma
    Halmstad University. Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Intern Marknadsföring: En rapport om intern marknadsföring inom produktionsföretag2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Utifrån den teori som idag finns om intern marknadsföring upptäckte vi som forskare för dennarapport att det skrivits relativt lite om intern marknadsföring i produktionsföretag jämfört med itjänsteföretag, varför vi såg det intressant att gå djupare in på detta område. Vi diskuteradedärefter syftet med rapporten som blev att kartlägga hur intern marknadsföring tillämpas i ettproduktionsföretag utifrån de tre olika perspektiven; utbildning, informationsspridning och kundmedvetenhet.Detta för att få en inblick i hur produktionsföretag agerar inom intern marknadsföring.Utifrån detta syfte kom vi fram till följade problemformulering; På vilket sätt tillämpasintern marknadsföring i stora produktionsföretag i Sverige med perspektiv mot utbildning,informationsspridning och kundmedvetenhet? Utifrån teorin valde vi att intervjua två lämpligaproduktionsföretag som fick ligga till grund för vår insamlade primärdata. Vi valde att intervjuatvå personer i varje företag, en operatör och en i ledningen. Efter att vi sammanställtintervjumaterialet fick intervjurespondenterna gå igenom underlaget för att skapa högre validitetoch trovärdighet för vår rapport.

    Med denna uppsats har vi kommit fram till följande slutsats; att produktionsföretag är oeniga omvem som är kund, lojalitet och tillfredställelse uppnås inte enbart genom företagsprodukten ocharbetsuppgiften, kunskap i form av information kan öka personalens effektivitet och motivationsamt att större vikt bör läggas på utbildning av personalens kundmedvetenhet.

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  • 76. Alsaghir, Ahmed
    Sambandet mellan låg produktengagemang och varumärkeslojalitet2024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT

    Background: Brand loyalty is a significant factor in assessing a company’s value because itinfluences customers’ purchasing decisions. It is also linked to the customer’s behavioral,cognitive and emotional attachment to products and services.

    Purpose: The purpose of the current study was to explore the relationship between lowproduct engagement and brand loyalty. In addition, factors influencing brand loyalty and itsimportance for companies and consumers were investigated.

    Methods: The study introduced qualitative methodology and interviews as the main tools ofthe data collection process. A sample of ten participants was selected, and interviews wereconducted with seven participants due to the level of saturation achieved in the codingprocess. The study follows inspired grounded theory method for analysis purposes and isapplied to be consistent with the qualitative research methodology.

    Results: The results of the study showed that brand loyalty affects the decision-makingprocess of customers, followed by higher product engagement among customers. Some otherfactors that influence brand loyalty include price, performance, quality, durability, availability,customer reviews, recommendations from acquaintances, peer influence, convenience, andaccessibility.

    Implications: The study has implications for managers who want to incorporate factors thatincrease customer loyalty. The study is limited to the responses because the sample size wassmall, and future studies intend to introduce a mixed methodology and a larger number ofrespondents as well as other instruments to collect data on a specific sector to assess the effectof high product engagement on brand loyalty.

    Keywords: Brand Loyalty, Customer Purchase Decision, Engagement, Decision MakingProcess

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  • 77.
    Al-Shalabi, Ammar
    et al.
    Centre of Computer Aided Design and Knowledge Manufacturing (CCADKM) Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Multimedia University, Melaka, Malaysia.
    Omar, Khaled
    Centre of Computer Aided Design and Knowledge Manufacturing (CCADKM) Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Multimedia University, Melaka, Malaysia.
    Rundquist, Jonas
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Outsourcing and organizing of NPD: A Survey of Malaysian industry2007In: Proceedings from EIASM 14th IPDMC, European Institute for Advanced Studies in Management (EIASM) , 2007, p. 12-Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Malaysian manufacturing firms are interested in New Product Development (NPD) methods, due to the fact that they are competitive tools for survival. The purpose of the present study is to investigate NPD practices in Malaysia, in particular the outsourcing of NPD and the organizing of NPD. We achieved our objectives by conducting a survey of 72 companies in the automotive, chemical, and electrical industries and analyzing the results. Managers involved in NPD will benefit from the findings presented in this paper. The results indicate that the NPD practices used in Malaysian firms focus more on production cost and manufacturability, whereas the need for increased knowledge receives lower priority.

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  • 78.
    Alström, Annie
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Flysjö, Lina
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Vägen till en grön profil: En kvalitativ studie om uppbyggnaden av personligt varumärke2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The environment is one of today´s most discussed subjects. A big reason for this is the fast growth of social media and influencers. It has opened up the conversation about sustainability worldwide. Personal branding is a practise where you emphasize and market yourself as a brand. It is when you control the perception other people have of you. The work of an influencer is to administer the personal brand and to act as a opinion leader in various subjects. Therefor they play an important part when it comes to sustainable buying behaviour and lifestyles.

     

    The purpose of this study is to describe and gain a better understanding of how influencers use environmental sustainability to build up their personal brand. With a deductive approach, the study started with explaining established theories about branding, personal branding and influencer marketing.

     

    The method that was used was multiple case studies including five different cases with one respondent/influencer in each case. In-depth qualitative interviews were accomplished on selected sustainable influencers. The conclusions of the study is that previous theories about being authentic is also applicable on sustainable influencers. All the influencers have strong values and works towards a more sustainable lifestyle through their brand principles. They all develop continuous with their personal brand for both their own sake and the planet.

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  • 79.
    Altmann, Peter
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Engberg, Robert
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL). Getinge Sterilization AB, Getinge, Sweden.
    Frugal Innovation and Knowledge Transferability: Innovation for Emerging Markets Using Home-Based R&D2016In: Research technology management, ISSN 0895-6308, E-ISSN 1930-0166, Vol. 59, no 1, p. 48-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Western firms are generally advised to rely on emerging market partners when attempting to develop frugal innovations for these developing markets. Underlying such advice is the idea that the requirements of emerging market consumers may not be familiar to Western firms and local developers will better understand local needs. We propose an alternative approach for high-tech firms—one that relies on home-based breakthrough R&D focused on emerging market needs. Three frugal innovation projects at a Swedish medical devices manufacturer serve to illustrate both how home-based breakthrough R&D can help managers reconceptualize their core products and the contextual factors favoring such an approach. © 2016, Industrial Research Institute.

  • 80.
    Altmann, Peter
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Engberg, Robert
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Managing Human Resources and Technology Innovation: The Impact of Process and Outcome Uncertainties2015In: International Journal of Innovation Science, ISSN 1757-2223, E-ISSN 1757-2231, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 91-106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High technology innovation performance relies on a skilful utilization of human resources. The main purpose of this paper is to explore the impact of interpreted outcome and process uncertainties on the effective management of human resources for technology innovation. This is achieved through an insider-outsider based case study approach of three medical device innovations with varying degrees of radicalness. Findings suggest that uncertainties in process and outcome strongly influence what constitutes effective management of human resources for technology innovation. Findings also offer insights into when certain innovation theories hold, and suggestions on how to manage human resources and technology innovation under various conditions of uncertainty.

  • 81.
    Altmann, Peter
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Lee, Carmen
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    The novelty of Open Innovation2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Proponents of Open Innovation argue in support of its novel additions, critics however question its novelty and argue that the roots of Open Innovation predate Chesbrough. We investigate what is novel about Open Innovation by comparing predating theories and concept swith the main themes we found using a literature review. Our results indicate that the novelty of Open Innovation lies in its holistic approach. These findings were synthesized into a star model that could help both scholars and managers in their work with Open Innovation.

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  • 82.
    Altmann, Peter
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Rundquist, Jonas
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Florén, Henrik
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Sustained innovativeness and human resource management2011In: Research on Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management 2009-2011: Introducing the Research Area of Innovation Science / [ed] Sven-Åke Hörte, Halmstad: Högskolan i Halmstad , 2011, p. 21-35Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Innovation is paramount to success. Over time firms must maintain their ability to innovate in order to maintain their competitive edge. In this paper we explore the role human resource management has in nurturing and enhancing the innovative capability of the firm. To explore HRM activities, functions and processes that enhance or impede innovativeness we conducted a literature review. Following this review, 10 propositions have been made that link HRM to both incremental and radical innovativeness respectively. Our results include suggestions for empirical studies to validate our propositions as well as some managerial implications.

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  • 83.
    Alwén, Fredrik
    et al.
    Halmstad University.
    Mardell, Anton
    Halmstad University.
    The Impacts on Purchasing Processes duringa pandemic: A quantitative study how COVID-19 changed thepurchasing processes2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Throughout the years there have been many pandemics, but none with the same impact and complications of which COVID-19 brought the world at the start of 2020. Previous research on behalf of this issue has been made but not with the specifics of what the authors want to accomplish with this research. The authors want to look at “How has COVID-19 impacted the purchasing process?”. The reasoning behind choosing this research question comes from the problems COVID-19 brought theworld when it came to consumerism. In other words, the purpose was to evaluate how consumers have adapted and changed their ways of making purchases. People got forced, from being in lockdown, to do most/all their shopping through the internet, and for some this was not an easy task. Certain issues were brought to attention with this in mind: Consumers stopped their sporadic purchases and only focused on what was only necessary, at the start of the pandemic consumers started to panic and stocked up on food and household supplies such as toiletries. This research delimits itself from two specific parts: the first one is that the authors wanted to only look at the consumer's perspective and not the retailers. Secondly the issue at hand is a worldwide phenomenon which is considered through the research but with the limitation of having Swedish consumers answering the survey that was sent out to gather information. Marketing philosophy encountered the greatest game changer in our time and foundations of concepts, theories and processes were changed. How the growth of online shopping has increased between chosen groups with the drastic changes within the purchasing processes. From 265 respondents to our survey we analyzed four hypotheses and evaluated how the purchasing process has been affected. We found that consumers agreed with our beliefs that the process has changed. Online shopping has increased since COVID-19 started, but not within a significant change between groups. Consumers were not comfortable purchasing expensive items online which resulted in a problem regarding COVID-19 restrictions. 

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  • 84.
    Amal, Mohamed
    et al.
    FURB, Blumenau, Brazil.
    Awuah, Gabriel
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Raboch, Henrique
    FURB, Blumeanau, Brazil.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Differences and similarities of the internationalization processes of multinational companies from developed and emerging countries2013In: European Business Review, ISSN 0955-534X, E-ISSN 1758-7107, Vol. 25, no 5, p. 411-428Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This paper aims, by a direct comparison, to address the differences and similarities of the internationalization processes of multinational companies both from developed and emerging countries.

    Design/methodology/approach: This study employed qualitative approach, using an integrated model of internationalization process. Multiple case studies, with two companies with significant involvement in foreign markets and originating in countries with different levels of development, were carried out.

    Findings: The results reveal that the case companies show some differences with regards to their use of ownership advantages to facilitate their internationalization. On the other hand, learning and experience of internationalization, coupled with the use of networks, have been factors that have influenced the pace and the pattern of the case companies' internationalization. An integrated model, which includes variables related to networks and learning/experience, may contribute to the understanding of the case of multinational companies from emerging economies.

    Originality/value: Although the research field of emerging multinationals has been growing lately, very few attempts have been made in the sense of directly comparing the internationalization process of firms from both developed and emerging countries. The authors proposed an integrated analytical model that draws on insights from the eclectic paradigm and the Uppsala internationalization model. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

  • 85.
    Amal, Mohamed
    et al.
    Blumenau Regional University, Santa Catarina, Brazil.
    Raboch, Henrique
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science. Blumenau Regional University, Santa Catarina, Brazil.
    Tomio, Bruno Thiago
    Blumenau Regional University, Santa Catarina, Brazil.
    Strategies and determinants of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) from developing countries: Case study of Latin America2009In: Latin American Business Review, ISSN 1097-8526, Vol. 10, no 2-3, p. 73-94Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to assess the importance of economic and institutional factors for outward Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) from Multinational Enterprises (MNEs) originating in the developing countries. The estimate drawn up through a panel data model for three countries in Latin America shows that these outflows are directly influenced by economic factors, such as gross-domestic product (GDP) growth and rising foreign exchange rates. Moreover, FDI is positively correlated with institutional variables such as globalization and education as well as with inward FDI stocks in their respective countries of origin. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  • 86.
    Amara, Yasmina
    et al.
    Blekinge Inst Technol, Dept Management, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Solberg Søilen, Klaus
    Blekinge Inst Technol, Dept Management, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Jenster, Per
    Nijmegen School of Management, Netherlands.
    Vriens, Dirk
    Nijmegen School of Management, Netherlands.
    Evaluating Business Intelligence Software: Testing the SSAV Model2009In: ECIS 2009: Third European Competitive Intelligence Symposium / [ed] Hoppe, M, Solberg-Soilen, K, Hamrefors, S, Västerås/Eskilstuna: Mälardalens Universitet , 2009, p. 238-251Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Choosing the right Business Intelligence (BI) software is critical to increasing productivity and effectiveness in organizations today. At the same time it is a very elaborating and complex process to choose the right software due to the fact that a large number of BI products exist on the market, which are quite different and updated frequently. The objective of this study is to develop and test a model for the evaluation of BI Software. The findings of the study revealed that it is difficult to declare what is the most competitive BI software as what is good for one user might not be good for another depending on their different business needs. Having said that the study initiated a new classification of BI Software vendors depending on the degree to which they comply with the functions in the Competitive Intelligence (CI) cycle. The software tested was divided into five categories: Fully complete, Complete, Semi Complete, Incomplete and Insubstantial. We conclude that the SSAV (Solberg Soilen, Amara, Vriens) Model Together with some proposed non technological variables and a classification developed can be used as a user's selection tool for deciding which BI Software to purchase.

  • 87. Amara, Yasmina
    et al.
    Solberg Søilen, Klaus
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Vriens, Dirk
    Radboud University Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    Using the SSAV model to evaluate Business Intelligence Software2012In: Journal of Intelligence Studies in Business, ISSN 2001-015X, E-ISSN 2001-015X, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 29-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Choosing the right Business Intelligence (BI) software is critical to increasing productivity and effectiveness in organizations today. At the same time it is a very elaborating and complex process to choose the right software due to the fact that a large number of BI products exist on the market, which are quite different and updated frequently. The objective of this study is to develop and test a model for the evaluation of BI Software. The findings of the study revealed that it is difficult to declare what is the most competitive BI software as what is good for one user might not be good for another depending on their different business needs. Having said that the study initiated a new classification of BI Software vendors depending on the degree to which they comply with the functions in the Competitive Intelligence (CI) cycle. The software tested was divided into five categories: Fully complete, Complete, Semi Complete, Incomplete and Insubstantial. We conclude that the SSAV (Solberg Søilen, Amara, Vriens) Model Together with some proposed non technological variables and a classification developed can be used as a user's selection tool for deciding which BI Software to purchase.

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  • 88.
    Amezeane, Nohayla
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Qaderi, Amina
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    En ledares väg mot en hållbar utveckling i byggbranschen: En studie om potentialen hos etiskt och hållbart ledarskap i förhållande till en grönare byggbransch2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title: A leader's path towards sustainable development in the construction industry: A study on the potential of ethical and sustainable leadership in relation to a greener construction industry. 

    Subject: Business Administration, Bachelor's thesis 15 credits Author: Nohayla Amezeane & Amina Qaderi 

    Keywords: Sustainability, ecological sustainability, ethical leadership, sustainable leadership, construction industry 

    Problem statement: How does a leader work sustainably and ethically towards sustainable goals in the construction industry? 

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the way a leader works towards the sustainable goals in the construction industry. Through the collected empirical material, we develop a framework. This includes the importance of ethical leadership and sustainable leadership for sustainable development. In this study, we want to clarify what the combination of these can contribute to the construction industry in order to more effectively realize the vision of achieving sustainable goals. 

    Methods: The study was mostly inspired by and used an inductive research approach but also related to an abductive research approach. Furthermore, in this study we have chosen to conduct a qualitative study where six respondents from different companies have been interviewed. All respondents represent managers with human resources responsibilities from the construction industry who have been working with sustainability for at least 2 years. A literature review has been conducted by collecting theories from previous research studies from the databases Halmstad University Library and Google Scholar. 

    Conclusion: The results of the study show that a leader can work sustainably and ethically towards sustainability by having respect towards his/her employees, supporting them, demonstrating assertiveness, communicating, giving rewards and recognition for good actions. We would also like to point out that the study does not exclude all characteristics that fall outside the grey zone, as the analysis also demonstrated that some situations require a single characteristic from each leadership theory. 

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  • 89.
    Amilon, Mia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Nguyen, Stephanie
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    An active chain process of self-leadership: Dynamically practising self-leading strategies for sustainability2022Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title: An active chain process of self-leadership: Dynamically practising self-leading strategies for sustainability.

    Keywords: Active and dynamic, Chain process of self-leadership, Self-leadership strategies

    Background: Sustainability is important and of current interest, requiring all organisations to be well-functioning, committed to sustainability and create strategic decisions for their long-term sustainability. Organisations thence benefit from training the employees into self-leaders, as it results in beneficial outcomes that lead to greatness within organisations, and hence society at large.

    Research question: Why do individuals succeed in maintaining and practising an active chain process of self-leadership?

    Purpose: This study aims to understand why individuals sustain maintaining an active chain process of self-leadership by dynamically practising self-leadership strategies, where they continue to be self-aware, manage and lead themselves, practice self-leadership strategies, attain self-efficacy and achieve beneficial outputs that in extension contribute to a more efficient and long-term sustainable society. To better understand what activates the chain process of self-leadership and creates the dynamic, the authors have developed a summarising model (see model 5.1 in chapter 5).

    Method: The study is of qualitative character with an abductive research approach, where the empirical data have been collected through semi-structured interviews and a collective case study design with ten informants who practise self-leadership, and then analysed by the Gioia method.

    Findings: The chain process of self-leadership is holistic and what maintains it active are feelings of well-being, competence, and efficacy, as well as succeeding, contributing to a greater good and seeing things in a greater context. Of significance is to be reminded and followed up regularly.

    Paper type: Master thesis

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  • 90.
    AMIMEUR, Rachel
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    NOCERAS MULET, Caterina
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Consumer's behavior and trust in E-commerce2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title: Consumer’s behavior and trust in E-commerce.

    Authors: AMIMEUR Rachel and NOCERAS MULET Caterina

    Supervisor: LJUNGQUIST Urban

    Level: Bachelor Thesis in Business and Administration, Marketing

    Key words: E-commerce, consumer’s behavior, buying behavior, Trust, pure players…

    Purpose: The purpose is to explore how people working in E-commerce can encourage customers purchase decision on internet by improving customer trust during the purchase.

    Frame of references: First of all, we give a definition of consumer behavior following by characteristics affecting it and a description of different king of buying behavior. Then, we describe the buyer decision making process for a known product or an innovation. We bring some knowledge about trust in E-commerce. Finally, we present our conceptual framework.

    Method: First, we explain the methodological approach and then the research design. After this, we explain which research method we took and why. Finally, we explain the writing of our survey.

    Conclusion: Trust in E-commerce can be brought through for elements: product quality, payment security system, E-customer relation management, website quality and time of delivery.

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  • 91.
    Aminzadeh, Pamela
    et al.
    Halmstad University.
    Melo, Kayla
    Halmstad University.
    Kommunikationsstrategier som används av sportklädesföretag för att skapa kundvärde: En kvalitativ studie om digital marknadsföring riktat motmillennials2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 92.
    Amirzadeh, Fujan
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Boström, Mattias
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Challenges of implementing social and environmental sustainability in Small and Medium Enterprises2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The term sustainability is a topic that has been increasingly acknowledged in the modern business world. This has raised awareness and increased understanding of the different dimensions and how paying attention to sustainability can help to improve different aspects of the organization. The financial dimension is well established in most companies since it has a clear connection to the wellbeing of the organization. The Social and environmental dimensions are however more modern and are not present to such a wide extent. External forces such as governmental influence, organizational competitiveness, and customer expectations gradually push companies towards an increased presence of sustainable activities and many companies to struggle with sustainability implementation while failing to see the potential added value. These struggles are present to a wider degree within small and medium enterprises (SMEs) since they have access to less financial resources than that of established companies. For that reason, this paper is dedicated to investigating and highlight the present challenges that SMEs face in the implementation process of social and environmental sustainability. To answer the research question, five interviews were conducted with managers and employees of four SMEs that currently possess some level of social or environmental sustainability. Also, one interview was conducted with an expert in the field of sustainability implementation. Secondary data was collected in the literature review section that highlights and explains both the social and environmental dimensions as well as appropriate tools that exist to help with sustainability implementation into existing business models.

    The method section will investigate the different methods taken to fully answer the research question. The findings section will highlight the new insights about the present challenge separately by reviewing the firsthand data while using secondary data to fill existing information gaps.

    Seven challenges are identified in this study, successful supply chain management, lack of financial resources, insufficient practical sustainability implementation, lack of knowledge about sustainability, absence of social and green thinking attitude, simultaneous management in all dimensions of sustainability and governmental and municipalities influence. After identifying the challenges each of the challenges was categorized in the relevant stage of the implementation process which are exploration, installation, initial implementation, and full implementation.

    These challenges are however heavily dependent on a certain SME characteristic which creates a need for more tailored research towards a specific industry. This has led the researchers to take on a broader approach to create a general overview that lays the foundation for future in-depth studies more tailored to individual companies.

    Although treated as separate challenges, the correlation between existing challenges is highlighted and discussed in the findings section based on the collected data from the interviews. This will again be present in the conclusion part followed up by the current limitations and suggestions for further research.

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  • 93.
    Amoi, David
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Ekery, Sofie
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Byrårotationens påverkan på förhandlingen och relationen: En kvalitativ studie om hur byrårotationen påverkar revisorns agerande2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 240 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sedan 2000-talet har det skett ett antal redovisningsskandaler vilket fortsätter ske runt om i världen, även Sverige har drabbats i en mindre utsträckning. Det har medfört att revisorns oberoende och revisionskvalitén stundtals ifrågasatts. Genom åren har det därför debatterats om att förbättra revisionskvalitén genom att öka revisorns oberoende för att ge ett bättre skydd för intressenterna. Som en följd av detta utvecklade EU kommissionen revisionspaketet 2014 som är ett förslag för bolag. Detta för att öka oberoendet samt revisionskvalitén och för att återställa förtroendet för revisionen. Sverige accepterade direktivet 2016 och revisionspaketet trädde då ikraft. Revisionspaketet har olika krav bland annat att bolag av allmänt intresse bara får ha en revisionsbyrå i tio år med en möjlighet till ytterligare tio år om vissa krav uppfylls. Detta har bidragit till följande uppsats som har till syfte att skapa förståelse om hur revisorerna kommer agera när det tionde året inträffar och när revisorerna är medvetna om att klienten kommer lämna byrån. Uppsatsen har till syfte att beskriva och analysera hur förhandlingar sker samt skapa förståelse kring hur relationen utvecklas och bibehålls genom utbytesteorin. Därför har uppsatsen som avsikt att besvara forskningsfrågan: Hur kan det obligatoriska byrårotationskravet påverka förhandlingen och relationen mellan revisorn och klienten?  För att besvara forskningsfrågan och uppfylla uppsatsens syfte är studien baserad på en kvalitativ forskningsmetod. Den insamling av data som gjorts består av 12 intervjuer, som både varit besöksintervjuer och telefonintervjuer med revisorer som arbetar med bolag av allmänt intresse samt den sekundärdata som finns tillgänglig från tidigare studier. Studien visar att bolag av allmänt intresse inte kommer påverkas av den obligatoriska byrårotationen när det gäller förhandlingen mellan revisorn och klienten. Vidare visar studien att den obligatoriska byrårotationen inte heller kommer ha någon påverkan på relationen.

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  • 94.
    Amos, Gideon Jojo
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Corporate social and environmental reporting in the mining sector: seeking pragmatic and moral forms of legitimacy?2023In: Journal of Accounting in Emerging Economies, ISSN 2042-1168, E-ISSN 2042-1176Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The study examines the social and environmental responsibility indicators disclosed by three International Council on Mining and Metals (ICMM) corporate mining members in their social and environmental reporting (SER) from 2006 to 2014. To achieve this aim, the author limits the data two years before (i.e. from 2006 to 2007) and six years after (i.e. from 2009 to 2014) the implementation of the Sustainable Development Framework in the mining sector in 2008. Design/methodology/approach: Using the techniques of content analysis and interpretive textual analysis, this study examines 27 social and environmental responsibility reports published between 2006 and 2014 by three ICMM corporate mining members. The study develops a disclosure index based on the earlier work of Hackston and Milne (1996), together with other disclosure items suggested in the extant literature and considered appropriate for this work. The disclosure index for this study comprised six disclosure categories (“employee”, “environment”, “community involvement”, “energy”, “governance” and “general”). In each of the six disclosure categories, only 10 disclosure items were chosen and that results in 60 disclosure items. Findings: A total of 830 out of a maximum of 1,620 social and environmental responsibility indicators, representing 51% (168 employees, 151 environmental, 145 community involvement, 128 energy, 127 governance and 111 general) were identified and examined in company SER. The study showed that the sample companies relied on multiple strategies for managing pragmatic legitimacy and moral legitimacy via disclosures. Such practices raise questions regarding company-specific disclosure policies and their possible links to the quality/quantity of their disclosures. The findings suggest that managers of mining companies may opt for “cherry-picking” and/or capitalise on events for reporting purposes as well as refocus on company-specific issues of priority in their disclosures. While such practices may appear appropriate and/or timely to meet stakeholders’ needs and interests, they may work against the development of comprehensive reports due to the multiple strategies adopted to manage pragmatic and moral legitimacy. Research limitations/implications: A limitation of this research is that the author relied on self-reported corporate disclosures, as opposed to verifying the activities associated with the claims by the sample mining companies. Practical implications: The findings from this research will help future social and environmental accounting researchers to operationalise Suchman’s typology of legitimacy in other contexts. Social implications: With growing large-scale mining activity, potential social and environmental footprints are obviously far from being socially acceptable. Powerful and legitimacy-conferring stakeholders are likely to disapprove such mining activity and reconsider their support, which may threaten the survival of the mining company and also create a legitimacy threat for the whole mining industry. Originality/value: This study innovates by focusing on Suchman’s (1995) typology of legitimacy framework to interpret SER in an industry characterised by potential social and environmental footprints – the mining industry. © 2023, Gideon Jojo Amos.

  • 95.
    Amos, Gideon Jojo
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Corporate social responsibility in the mining industry: an exploration of host-communities' perceptions and expectations in a developing-country2018In: Corporate Governance : The International Journal of Effective Board Performance, ISSN 1472-0701, E-ISSN 1758-6054, Vol. 18, no 6, p. 1177-1195Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The purpose of this paper is to explore how and what drives corporate social responsibility (CSR) in host communities of mining companies in developing countries.

    Design/methodology/approach

    To address this knowledge gap, this paper used Ghana as a test case and conducted 24 in-depth interviews with participants drawn from mining host communities.

    Findings

    The paper discovered that while CSR is broadly understood and encompasses six thematic categories in the mining host communities, there are emphases on philanthropic and environmental responsibilities. Contrary to the evidence found in other studies, this paper discovered that CSR rhetoric plays a more positive/significant role than so far explored in CSR research, as it incentivizes the host communities to push for the fulfilment of their CSR expectations and/or CSR initiatives proposed by mining companies.

    Research limitations/implications

    Quantitative studies are needed to strengthen the findings from the present paper.

    Practical implications

    Because developing countries share similar socio-economic and geo-political realities, the findings of this paper may be applicable not only for CSR advocates, but also for policy-makers in developing countries.

    Originality/value

    The paper provides new inputs from a developing country perspective to the current debate about the CSR performance of the extractive industry. © 2018, Emerald Publishing Limited.

  • 96.
    Amos, Gideon Jojo
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Corporate Social Responsibility, Innovation and Leadership: Exploring the Compatible Territories2017In: Journal of Developing Country Studies, ISSN 2224-607X, E-ISSN 2225-0565, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 149-160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The objective of this study is to provide insights into the role of leadership in promoting creativity and innovation at the level of the firm, and how these may translate into improving firms’ own context of competitiveness in their respective markets through CSR initiatives.

    Method/approach – This paper employs literature study, which is descriptive in nature, to explore the relationships between leadership, creativity/innovation, and CSR. We sought to describe the relationships between the three concepts: leadership, creativity/innovation, and CSR, as practically as possible. In employing exploratory research strategy, we draw insights from extant literature, drawn from the management sciences to describe leadership, creativity/innovation and CSR in organizations. In doing so, we explore, by arguing, how leadership can stimulate creativity/innovation in employees and how firm-level innovation-directed activities can connect to CSR activities.

    Findings - The model suggests that leaders can stimulate employees’ creativity/innovative behaviour and this in turn may influence the rate at which innovation manifest in the products and processes of the organization. These, in turn, may be closely related to the CSR initiatives that the organization pursues. The study has argued that for creativity/innovation to be embedded in the organization’s product and processes, leadership of organization remains a key factor in terms of either enabling or inhibiting individual employees’ innovative behaviour. Leadership of organizations and individual employees’ innovative behaviour appear to influence the nature of CSR initiatives that is undertaken and may contribute in defining organization’s own competitiveness. Organization’s CSR initiatives can connect with efforts at improving its own competitiveness through, leadership of organization and stakeholder partnerships.

    © www.iiste.org

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  • 97.
    Amos, Gideon Jojo
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    (Investigating) MNCs' CSR-related behaviour and impacts in institutionally and culturally distant markets: African developing-countries in focus2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall purpose of this thesis is to explore why and how institutional distance and contextual differences influence MNCs’ CSR-related behavior in African developing-countries. In order to achieve the purpose stated above, the thesis seeks to answer the overarching research question: How do institutional distance and contextual differences influence MNCs’ CSR-related behavior in African developing countries? To answer the research question this thesis employed an interpretive methodological approach in order to increase my understanding of the CSR phenomenon in a specific contextual environment characterized by different institutional distance through different theoretical and empirical perspectives (Guba and Lincoln, 1994; Lincoln and Guba, 2000). The thesis consists of two qualitative case studies, a systematic literature review, a conceptual paper focused on analyzing distance and MNC foreign subsidiaries’ CSR-related behaviour, and a longitudinal content analysis of annual CSR reports.

    The thesis found that the most prevalent CSR themes addressed in journal articles focused on developing-countries have been social issues, followed by environmental issues as a distant second, with ethics-related issues receiving the least attention. The findings further indicate that CSR rhetoric plays a more positive and significant role than so far explored in CSR research, as it incentivises the host-communities to push for the fulfilment of their CSR expectations or CSR initiatives proposed by the mining companies. Soft’ regulations to which members of industry associations voluntarily adhere mitigate the absence of enforcement of more stringent hard regulations by the state for companies. In doing business in distant or different institutional contexts, institutional duality of MNC subsidiaries renders business activities complex and even conflicting when it comes to seeking internal and external legitimacy. This finding and the proposed model extend Hillman and Wan’s (2005) argument of the existence of ‘institutional duality’ of MNC subsidiaries. The 60-item disclosure index is in itself a contribution to research as it provides a measure of ‘disclosure quality’ in relation to the disclosures of CSR-related performance information and CSR-related governance information.

    The main theoretical contribution of the thesis is that CSR expectations in developing-countries are distinct and may be more important to know how these empirical realities are taken into account when firms with their origin in developed-countries internationalize and enter markets in developing-countries. Second, an extended model is proposed which illustrates the roles of organizational fields, institutional pressures, legitimating environments, and legitimating strategies for MNC subsidiaries’ voluntary disclosure of CSR performance information. The overall contribution of the thesis is that it deepens our understanding of the CSR phenomenon, and of the role of host-communities and MNC subsidiaries’ managers from the context of developing-countries.

    © Gideon Jojo Amos

  • 98.
    Amos, Gideon Jojo
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL). University of Education, Winneba, Ghana.
    Multinational Enterprises and Distance: Exploring Opportunities and Challenges involved in Practicing CSR in Host-Countries2017In: Journal of Developing Country Studies, ISSN 2224-607X, E-ISSN 2225-0565, Vol. 7, no 4, p. 80-97Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores how multinational enterprises (MNEs) should implement corporate social responsibility (CSR) to build external legitimacy, especially in subsidiaries operating in host-countries, where the effects of distance is felt most by MNE foreign subsidiaries. For long, international business (IB) research has analysed the effects of distance on MNEs’ expansion to host-countries, while a parallel strand of work in economic geography investigates the dimensions of proximity and how they influence firms’ knowledge development, especially in the varying host-countries they operate. Despite the noticeable relatedness and complementarities, these two bodies of literature have so far poorly interacted. Moreover, despite increased strategic motivation for corporate social responsibility (CSR) practices, we still lack understanding of the effects of distance on MNEs’ CSR behaviour in host-countries. The present study addresses this limitation by analysing and integrating the extant literature on how MNEs can, through their CSR behaviour in host-countries, cope with and mitigate the effects of distance. It provides perspectives on what may constitute appropriate CSR strategies in varying host-countries’ institutional environments (i.e., what CSR strategies might be appropriate for MNEs to adopt in a more proximate/less distant and less proximate/more distant institutional contexts and their implications for the effects of distance). Based on an analysis of the extant literature, the present study discusses patterns of complementarities across distance and proximity, and draws attention to avenues for future research that, in a more effective way, interact the two strands of literature, thereby setting the ground for empirical testing of a conceptual framework proposed by this study.

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  • 99.
    Amos, Gideon Jojo
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Social Responsibility in the Context of Multinational Enterprises: Exploring Perceptions and Expectations of Local Employees of Subsidiaries in a Developing-Country2017In: Journal of Developing Country Studies, ISSN 2224-607X, E-ISSN 2225-0565, Vol. 7, no 5, p. 96-109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This paper seeks to explore perceptions of local employees regarding MNE subsidiaries’ attitudes in relation to local customs, values, and belief systems prevalent in the settings in which they operate. Design/methodology/approach: A qualitative research design was used as the methodological grounding for the study. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted in Ghana with a total of 20 participants (16 males and 4 females). Interviews were audio-taped, with permission of the participants. A convenience sampling method was used, and all 20 participants were recruited via initial personal visits by the researcher and subsequent follow-up visits and phone call. Interviews were transcribed via thematic analysis. The views of participants were organized into four major themes: relevance of CSR (business ethics) to local employees; local employees’ attitude towards firms’ (un)ethical behaviour; educating managers and employees of foreign-owned companies; and attractiveness of company and ability to draw resources. Findings: Our interpretive research in the Ghanaian context suggests that most of the participants appreciate the salient role of cooperation between companies and traditional authorities in identifying and resolving potential tension that could evolve out of non-compliance with local socio-cultural values and belief systems. In respect to this, the findings from the present study reinforce the insights of Kjonstad and Willmott (1995) that reliance on rule-based approaches to business ethics is deficient, as it has been found to be ineffective or at best, less ‘empowering’ when it comes to influencing organizations in their ethical behaviour. The findings further suggest that inadequate information about local customs, values and belief systems, partly explains the seeming ‘irresponsible’ posture of foreign-owned companies towards aspects of local socio-cultural values and belief systems. Thus, as scanty information is available to the companies and their managers, few are able to either integrate them into their core CSR practices and/or encourage employees to uphold them in their processes. Research limitations/implications: Findings are based on a single-country investigation. This limitation, combined with a relatively small sample size (20 participants, across firms that belong to 6 industry-groupings), may have implications that the results might not be readily generalizable. Moreover, as the present study employed an interpretive methodological approach, the findings could have been impacted by self-evaluation (i.e., self-narratives from participants), resulting in socio-cultural preferences and response biases, on the part of the participants. Practical implications: Although results of this study is based on single-country (Ghana) study, given similarities in socio-cultural characteristics across developing-countries, this study is likely to have wider relevance and applicability in developing-countries, as a whole. Originality/value: The present study explored relatively unexplored ground by investigating the perceptions of local employees regarding MNE subsidiaries’ attitudes in relation to local customs, values, and belief systems, prevalent in the settings in which companies operate. Most importantly, these initial attempts at exploring the perceptions of local employees regarding MNE subsidiaries’ attitudes in relation to local customs, values, and belief systems, can hopefully be further explored and validated through future research directed at this topic. © www.iiste.org

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    Amos, Gideon Jojo
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Awuah, Gabriel
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    In search of competitiveness through innovation-driven corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives in Multinational Enterprises (MNEs) subsidiaries2014Conference paper (Refereed)
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