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  • 3051.
    Yngve, Malin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Helgeby, Sandra
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Fastighetsvärdering i koncerner: En analys av verkligt värde i finansiella rapporter2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In 2005, it became mandatory for all listed companies to prepare their consolidated financialstatements in accordance with IFRS. This led to increased comparability between companiesfrom different countries, which has led to accounting harmonization. For those groups withinvestment property holdings, the purpose of which is to generate rental income or increase invalue, this means that the properties must be valued at fair value in accordance with IAS 40.The study aims to examine the principle of fair value regarding investment properties and islimited to Group companies listed on NASDAQ OMX Stockholm. The sample consists of ninecompanies and their financial reports for the financial years 2015-2019, which are examinedthrough a qualitative case study. In order to be able to make an equivalent and comparativeassessment of these, a template containing six questions is used.Valuation at fair value is the main rule in consolidated accounts and the reported company mustassess the market price when valuing fair value. If there are similar assets and liabilities in anactive market, this assessment can be easy to perform, but in markets such as investmentproperties that require many assessments to arrive at a fair value, it is all the more difficult.Actors may have incomplete information that may contribute to different assessments of assetsand their future value.The disclosure requirements in IAS 40 are only principle-based, which gives companies a roomfor interpretation. In addition, companies can use different approaches and a comparisonbetween companies can be difficult for stakeholders. We have experienced this in our study asthe companies have used different approaches in their valuation methods and that they havestated different amounts of information in their financial reports. The study has also shown thatthey have also used various parameters in their consideration for valuation at fair value.Companies that own investment properties are encouraged to use independent valuers, but thisis not a requirement. On the other hand, there is a risk of only performing an internal valuationof the property portfolio with regard to undervaluation or overvaluation. This can then meanthat the property is valued too low to be subsequently sold at a higher price, which means thatthe Group can report a higher result or vice versa. If the valuation is instead performed by an 4external valuer, the reliability may increase. It can therefore be considered advantageous to letindependent valuers make the assessment of the asset's fair value. Not all companies surveyedhave used independent valuers, but sometimes only to a certain extent, while others have usedexternal valuers for the entire property portfolio.The study has shown that companies value in different ways, both in terms of valuation model,calculations and internal and external valuation, from which our first conclusion is drawn. Fairvalue differs between companies that own investment properties because the standards areprinciple-based. As all companies present a valuation to level 3 in IFRS 13's valuationhierarchy, it is concluded that it is not possible to establish with certainty that companies, listedon NASDAQ OMX Stockholm, fully comply with the standards as it should be possible tovalue some of their property holdings through level 2 input.

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  • 3052.
    Yu, Cui
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Zhang, Ting
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    American Fast Food in Chinese Market: A Cross-Culture Perspective: The Case of KFC and McDonald's2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Culture differences play a significant role in the international marketing, which has drawn many researchers‟ attention. This dissertation will focus on how the cross-cultural environments influence the choice of marketing strategies.

    The theoretical framework of this study mainly contains cross-culture theories and 4P marketing strategy. These theories are put together in an analytical model where a connection between the two theories is explained that will be used as a foundation in gathering and analyzing the empirical findings.

    The qualitative research strategy is employed in this dissertation. Utilizing the multiple case studies, we choose two sample companies both from USA. The empirical data was gathered through semi-structured interviews on the telephone. Data was also supplemented with secondary data such as company web pages and scientific articles.

    The conclusion can be drawn from this study is that culture differences influence the 4P marketing strategies in both of the companies in different ways. Language, value and customer behaviors of a national culture are main factors to affect the implementation of marketing strategy in the international markets.

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    American fast food in Chinese market
  • 3053.
    yu, cui
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    zhang, ting
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Internal factors affecting the organizational internationalization process: Evidence from Huawei case study2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The relevance of global economy are being enhanced day by day, organizational internationalization is becoming more and more important nowadays. Many companies have stated their internationalization process, but not all of them are successful. Thus, the main purpose and aim of this study is to research the relationship between the internal management of organization and firm internationalization process, and find out the most important internal factors (entrepreneur, corporate culture, organizational human resource management) which could push organization to identify the internationalization opportunity and to operate the internationalization process. In this paper, authors construct an original theoretical framework, and chooses Huawei Company as a real example to examine the theoretical results which are concluded from the existing studies.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 3054.
    Yu, Hyungmin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Wei, Yuxiang
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    An Exploratory Study: The Main Challenge of Chinese Expatriate Managers Working in Western Companies2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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    Yu&Wei thesis.pdf
  • 3055.
    Yu, Lijing
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Fu, Yun
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Successful Entry Strategies on the Chinese Market: -A Case Study of a Swedish Industrial Company: SKF2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays, the Chinese market is attracting more and more attention from foreign countries, which consider China as a potential partner. Making feasible decisions is the foundation of accessing success in the Chinese markets. Thus, it is important to take the first step as choosing the entry strategies, and then analyzing the variety of social environment and economic circumstance. According to different situations, companies are required to prepare alternative strategies for the changeable markets.

    This is a case study of a Swedish industrial company- SKF, which entered into the Chinese market successfully. The purpose of this study is to analyze the strategies that SKF used during the process of entering the Chinese market, and find out the successful factors as well as the cause of failure. Our case study is aimed to provide an answer to the research questions and generate imitable entry strategies for western industrial companies who want to explore in the Chinese market.

    Our research questions are: Q1: What strategies have adopted by SKF and how these strategies worked out to enter into the Chinese market? Q2: What are the successful factors of industrial companies to enter the Chinese market?

    Two experienced product managers are invited to be the interviewee of our thesis. The collected data provided both Swedish and Chinese perspectives, which reflect the eastern western culture differences and concept differences.

    The results show that SKF made the acquaintance with big customers through distributors, which built up the customers’ network and company’s foundation at the early age of the expansion. However, failing experience of joint venture gave a lesson to SKF and encouraged SKF to work with independent consultant firms, which occurred to be an alternative solution to replace the position of joint venture. Although there are different perspectives from Swedish side and Chinese side, the successful factors have been concluded as unique products, marketing demands, communication and customers.

    The implication of this case study is to provide the strategies that contribute SKF to be the leaders in bearing industry, which is worth to be learned and imitated by other similar industrial companies. 

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    A case study of SKF
  • 3056.
    Yue Wen, Zhao
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Key Success Factors behind Mobile Games: A Business Model for the Chinese mobile game market2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The research question is formulated as “what are the key success factors making a mobile game become a big success in China? ” to view the key success factors behind new launched mobile games and how company’s business model and marketing strategy that bring them into and help them succeed in the China market.

     

    A qualitative method with the deductive approach has been using in this paper to be able to answer and interpret the studied questions. Four in-depth interviews were conducted to collect the primary data, which have been following as the purpose is to do a cross-case analysis to identify the similarities and difference of each company behave their business model and marketing strategy, to contribute game success in China market.

     

    The main factors contributing to the success of mobile game in China market including internally strategic factors and externally tactic factors. Technical skill and resource, R&D ability and market knowledge and experience as the internal key success factors behind mobile game success in China. The mobile game companies use localization, wide distribution channel collaboration and social integration to suit the market needs and requirements.

     

    From the results of the study have been identified to as to how is the business model for the China mobile game market. Through collaborating with abroad local distribution channel can increase their knowledge capacity of the local market to create a better value proposition. In China mobile game market, social integration and cross promotion can be seen as very important and through collaborating firms can work around these factors and create, capture and deliver better value to the customers.

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  • 3057.
    Zachrisson, Carin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Sjöström, Viktor
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Dagligvaruhandelns implementering av e-handel: En studie om hur företag arbetar i en pågående förändringsfas2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background and problem: It is only in recent years that e-commerce of groceries has gained momentum. Between 2014 and 2016, the annual increase in digital food sales was approximately 30% and it is expected to increase sharply in the future. In an article from Svenska Dagbladet, it is found that food giants are making millions of e-commerce losses, but in spite of that, they strive to sell food online.

    Purpose: The purpose of the study is to describe and explain how companies in the grocery trade are working to secure growth as a result of the e-commerce development of groceries.

    Method: The method is based on a qualitative approach with semistructured interviews as the basis for the primary data collection. The sample of interviewees comprised five respondents from various grocery stores in Halland and Northern Skåne, all offering e-commerce as analternative to the physical store.

    Theory: The theoretical reference framework on which the analysis is based consist of competition strategies, integration of different sales channels and customer loyalty.

    Conclusion: Through the study, we have come to the conclusion that the stores work in asimilar way to ensure future growth. What distinguishes them and which probably affects the degree of e-commerce growth is how well the stores prepared for the implementation of ecommerce in the form of offering a smooth solution for the customer, and how they then work with the range and pick-up efficiency.

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  • 3058.
    Zadayannaya, Liudmila
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    ORGANIZATIONAL MEMORY SYSTEMS AS A SOURCE OF LEARNING FOR NEW EMPLOYEES IN AN INNOVATIVE CONTEXT2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Organizational memory is said to be one of the essential factors of organizational learning, particularly in a part that is concerned with knowledge flowing from an organization to its employees. Often viewed as a system of knowledge repositories, organizational memory is argued to be important in various contexts. The purpose of this study is to explore an impact of the organizational memory in two such contexts, namely in a situation of presence of new employees and organization involved in innovation activity. The importance of organizational memory for the new employees can be explained by the fact that it is through facing it they socialize in the organization. Organizational memory also influences innovative behaviour of employees.

    This researched is performed in a form of a case study; where the object of study finds itself in a combined context – new employees of R&D department learn from different organizational memory systems. The data for this case study were collected through qualitative interviewing of both the newcomers and their supervisor.

    The results show that new employees face a range of memory systems, and this range does not depend on the innovativeness of the work they are involved in. It was found possible to look separately into the systems and methods the newcomers accessed them. The most important access methods in this case turned out to be personal communication and IT-enabled means, however a number of other methods were also found relevant for the case.

    Focusing on how this knowledge can support innovative behaviour of the new employees, this study has found several ways in which both incremental and radical innovations can be enhanced. The memory systems have been found to affect innovative behaviour of the newcomers by demonstrating expectance of this behaviour, by providing “old” knowledge, as well as hints where one can possibly find “old” and “new” knowledge.

    In general, the findings suggest that looking into memory systems separately from the ways to access them might give valuable insights for rethinking how properties of the memory systems have been defined so far.

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  • 3059. Zahar, Timothé
    et al.
    Dupré, Nicolas
    Shock advertising and the French generation Y2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 3060.
    Zahra, Abdulkarim
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Ingenting är gratis!: En undersökande studie av affärsmodellen gratis på internet2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Titel:                                   Ingenting är gratis!                                             - En undersökande studie av affärsmodellen gratis på internet.

    Författare:                         Zahra Abdulkarim

    Handledare:                       Klaus Solberg Soilen

    Examinator:                      Ulf Aagerup

    Nivå:                                  Kandidatuppsats, ekonomi (15hp), VT16

    Nyckelord:                         Gåvor, freemium, treaktörsmarknad, korssubventionering, BMC,                           BMI,  gratis

    Syfte & Frågeställning:    Syftet med studien är att ta reda på vilka förutsättningar som finns                        för affärsmodellen gratis. Detta på grund av att internet med sin                                  stora trafik skapat stor konkurrens.

                                                          

                                                Vilka förutsättningar finns det med affärsmodellen                                                    "gratis/kostnadsfritt"?

                                                Hur kan affärsmodellen etableras i företag som inte arbetar med                            den idag?

     

    Metod:                               En kvalitativ och abduktiv ansats har använts för att undersöka                              studien. Kvaliteten ligger i att informationen från sekundärkällor                                         analyserat snarare än beräknats. Undersökningen består av ett                                        dokumenturval eftersom information inte är framtagen av                                             forskaren.

    Teori:                                 Business model canvas, BMI och SWOT är modeller som använts                         för att analysera de olika beståndsdelarna i affärsmodellen gratis.                                      Vidare har även prissättning och psykologiska aspekter av pris                                         tagits upp.

    Empiri:                              Affärsmodellen gratis har delats in i fyra underkategorier. Studien                         är baserad på tio olika företag som använder gratis som                         affärsmodell. Varje företag får representera något av de fyra                                       typerna av gratis.

    Slutsats:                             För att företag skall kunna implementera affärsmodellen gratis är                           de i behov av att skapa en stor kundkrets. Vidare måste de                                            upprätthålla produktutveckling så att intresset för deras erbjudande                                  inte sjunker. Om det ska vara möjligt att implementera                                             affärsmodellen bör företag se över sin kostnadsstruktur och dra ner                       kostnaderna så lågt att gratis generar vinst av varje användare.                               Hela konceptet med gratis är precis som andra affärsmodeller                                            byggt på ekonomisk vinning.

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  • 3061.
    Zalkat, Ghazal
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Immigrant Entrepreneurship In Sweden: Challenges And Opportunities Related To Business Development2024Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: At a time of continued volatility and uncertainty, there is a growing need to tackle the numerous political-social challenges and embrace the opportunities presented by demographic shifts caused by mass immigration. The migration crisis, which peaked in the European Union during 2015 and 2016, with over a million immigrants, has sparked renewed discussions among scholars, politicians, and the public about the costs and benefits of immigration. Recently, more immigrants have turned to entrepreneurship to overcome exclusion from employment and create upward social mobility and social integration. However, certain groups of immigrants, particularly refugee and female refugees, are not adequately represented and under-researched. Additionally, there is insufficient research on their business development, which remains largely unstudied. The existing literature tends to focus on specific aspects of entrepreneurial business development, disregarding the potential influence of individual and contextual factors when combined. This results in a limited understanding of the phenomenon, which leaves the field with no coherent framework or adequate knowledge outcomes. Moreover, the lack of theoretical research on specific groups of immigrant entrepreneurs is partly due to the limited empirical research and fragmented theories.

    Purpose: This thesis aims to contribute to the development of theory and to enrich the empirical studies regarding this diverse and heterogeneous phenomenon. Specifically, the main purpose of this thesis is to provide a comprehensive understanding of immigrant entrepreneurship, with a special focus on refugee and female entrepreneurs’ perceptions in rural and digital contexts. Ultimately, this thesis develops a conceptual framework that can be applied in future research. This conceptual framework highlights the diversity, multidimensionality, and dynamic of the immigrant entrepreneurship phenomenon.

    Methodology: To fulfill the overall purpose of this thesis, a mixed methods approach integrating qualitative and quantitative research methods is employed to study the immigrant entrepreneurship phenomenon using in-depth interviews and a comparative case study through surveys. This thesis examines how specific groups of immigrant entrepreneurs perceive challenges and opportunities during their business development in specific contexts at three levels. At the micro-individual level, this thesis presents case studies of female refugee entrepreneurs and refugee entrepreneurs. At the meso-business level, this thesis examines challenges and opportunities for immigrant entrepreneurs in specific contexts (e.g., rural areas and the agri-food sector) and emerging technologies (e.g., digitalization). At the macro-environmental level, this thesis presents a comparative case study studying the impact of institutional differences on refugee entrepreneurship in different geographic locations, Sweden and Germany.

    Findings: The findings emphasize that immigrant entrepreneurs are heterogeneous groups who perceive opportunities and challenges differently at different levels during business development based on their intersectional identities. Refugee entrepreneurs strategically leverage specific contexts, such as the agri-food industry, rural areas, or the digital landscape, to start their businesses, yet these contexts pose unique challenges. Additionally, this thesis offers an understanding of the start-up, growth, and exit phases. For instance, the exit phase, often overlooked, reveals crucial insights into reasons behind exiting the business, ranging from market unfamiliarity to the desire for industry switches after gaining valuable entrepreneurial experience. Moreover, digital technologies have emerged as a valuable tool, offering semi-anonymity advantages to female immigrant entrepreneurs. Notably, differences between refugee entrepreneurs in Sweden and Germany are uncovered, with varied motivations influenced by distinct market structures, educational offerings, and government policies. This thesis concludes by proposing an integrative multilevel conceptual framework that considers immigrant entrepreneurs' perspectives within particular contexts.

    Implications: This thesis enriches the theoretical, empirical, and methodological foundation of immigrant entrepreneurship research by presenting an integrative, multilevel framework that combines mixed embeddedness with intersectionality. The proposed conceptual framework contributes to a better understanding of the heterogeneous nature of the immigrant entrepreneurship phenomenon via the integration of the various dimensions. In particular, the integration of intersectionality helps address the gender gap and migratory status, which is often overlooked in mixed embeddedness approaches. The conceptual framework also has practical implications for multiple stakeholders, including immigrants and host countries. It suggests policies and guidelines tailored to the intersectional identities of immigrant entrepreneurs, thereby fostering socioeconomic integration and combating exclusion, particularly among refugee and female entrepreneurs.

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    Ghazal Zalkat-Doctoral thesis
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  • 3062.
    Zalkat, Ghazal
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Towards digital entrepreneurship: Opportunities and challenges for female refugee entrepreneurs in Sweden2024In: Refugee Entrepreneurship: A Research Companion / [ed] Nadeera Ranabahu; Huibert P. de Vries; Robert T. Hamilton, London: Routledge, 2024Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Digital developments such as social media and the internet have created opportunities and challenges for entrepreneurship. Taking a mixed embeddedness approach, combined with intersectionality, this chapter presents an investigation of digital entrepreneurship among female refugees in Sweden. This chapter analyses the opportunities and challenges for female refugee entrepreneurs as they digitise their businesses. The data from in-depth interviews show that female refugees’ use of digital tools promotes their integration with the host country’s market, increases their market access, and supports their ability to provide customer services. However, the increased business digitalisation can also create work challenges such as the stress from work-life imbalance and unethical online behaviours. This chapter has implications for policymakers who wish to support female refugee entrepreneurs as they use digital tools to create, market, and distribute their products and services

  • 3063.
    Zattoni, Alessandro
    et al.
    LUISS University and Business School, Rome, Italy.
    Witt, Michael A.
    INSEAD, Singapore, Singapore.
    Judge, William Q.
    Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA, USA.
    Talaulicar, Till
    University of Erfurt, Erfurt, Germany.
    Chen, Jean Jinghan
    Xian Jiaotong-Liverpool University, Suzhou, China & Nankai University, Tianjin, China.
    Lewellyn, Krista
    University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY, USA.
    Hu, Helen Wei
    University of Melbourne, VIC, Australia.
    Gabrielsson, Jonas
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Luis Rivas, José
    ITAM School of Business, Mexico DF, Mexico.
    Puffer, Sheila
    D’Amore-McKim School of Business, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA.
    Shukla, Dhirendra
    University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, Canada.
    Lopez, Felix
    University of Valladolid, Valladolid, Spain.
    Adegbite, Emmanuel
    Leicester Business School, De Montfort University, Leicester, United Kingdom.
    Fassin, Yves
    Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.
    Yamak, Sibel
    University of Wolverhampton, Wolverhampton, United Kingdom.
    Fainshmidt, Stav
    Florida International University, Miami, FL, USA.
    van Ees, Hans
    University of Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands.
    Does board independence influence financial performance in IPO firms?: The moderating role of the national business system2017In: Journal of world business (Print), ISSN 1090-9516, E-ISSN 1878-5573, Vol. 52, no 5, p. 628-639Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prior evidence suggests that board independence may enhance financial performance, but this relationship has been tested almost exclusively for Anglo-American countries. To explore the boundary conditions of this prominent governance mechanism, we examine the impact of the formal and information institutions of 18 national business systems on the board independence-financial performance relationship. Our results show that while the direct effect of independence is weak, national-level institutions significantly moderate the independence-performance relationship. Our findings suggest that the efficacy of board structures is likely to be contingent on the specific national context, but the type of legal system is insignificant. © 2017 Elsevier Inc.

  • 3064.
    Zeebari, Zangin
    et al.
    Jönköping International Business School, Jonkoping, Sweden; Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Månsson, Kristofer
    Jönköping International Business School, Jonkoping, Sweden.
    Sjölander, Pär
    Jönköping International Business School, Jonkoping, Sweden.
    Söderberg, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability. Ratio Institute, Stockholm, Sweden; Griffith University, Brisbane, Australia.
    Regularized conditional estimators of unit inefficiency in stochastic frontier analysis, with application to electricity distribution market2022In: Journal of Productivity Analysis, ISSN 0895-562X, E-ISSN 1573-0441, Vol. 59, no 1, p. 79-97Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In stochastic frontier analysis, the conventional estimation of unit inefficiency is based on the mean/mode of the inefficiency, conditioned on the composite error. It is known that the conditional mean of inefficiency shrinks towards the mean rather than towards the unit inefficiency. In this paper, we analytically prove that the conditional mode cannot accurately estimate unit inefficiency, either. We propose regularized estimators of unit inefficiency that restrict the unit inefficiency estimators to satisfy some a priori assumptions, and derive the closed form regularized conditional mode estimators for the three most commonly used inefficiency densities. Extensive simulations show that, under common empirical situations, e.g., regarding sample size and signal-to-noise ratio, the regularized estimators outperform the conventional (unregularized) estimators when the inefficiency is greater than its mean/mode. Based on real data from the electricity distribution sector in Sweden, we demonstrate that the conventional conditional estimators and our regularized conditional estimators provide substantially different results for highly inefficient companies. © 2022, The Author(s).

  • 3065.
    ZENG, LE
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    CHEN, SIYUAN
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Green marketing strategies for international firms in China: A case study of Emerson Electric Co., Ltd2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 3066.
    Zeqiri, Gjenis
    et al.
    Halmstad University.
    Huskanovic, Aldin
    Halmstad University.
    Beslutsprocessen vid fastighetsinvesteringar i allmännyttiga bostadsbolag: En studie om bostadsbristen i kommuner med en tydlig befolkningstillväxt2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Problem formulation: What does the decision-making process look like for municipal public housing companies with the most apparent population growth? How do the public housing companies work to counteract the housing shortage? What factors influence the decision-making process in new production?

    Purpose: The purpose of the study is to describe how public housing companies work with the decision-making process in municipalities with a clear population growth to counteract the housing shortage

    Method: To accomplish the purpose of the study, the writers carried out qualitative research together with a deductive research approach. The writers have collected empirical data through qualitative interviews with five public housing companies from the five municipalities with the most apparent population growth in the last eleven years

    Conclusion: The conclusion describes how housing companies work with investments, why they face difficulties, and various factors that affect the process of new production

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  • 3067.
    Zhang, Dongdong
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Challenges in Marketing Strategy of Online Travel Booking Industry in China: -A case study of Ctrip.com and Qunar.com2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Information technology plays an important role in the hospitality and tourismindustry. The internet has reshaped the distribution channels and thus suppliers andconsumers can contact directly. It also changes consumers searching and bookingbehaviors. So information technology brings online travel agents some challenges inthe marketing strategy.Literature Review includes the theoretical background of online travel bookingindustry and summaries the previous researches in the field of hospitality and tourismindustry. The analytical framework of this study mainly includes the impact ofinformation technology on the Porter’s five forces model which was used forgathering and analyzing the empirical data and the PEST model. Nowadays,intelligent travel is highly efficient and trendy.In conducting this study, I adopted a qualitative approach to analyze challengesfaced by online travel agents. I chose two sample companies Ctrip.com andQunar.com from China. The empirical data were mainly collected from twosemi-structured interviews and secondary data such as the official website andtravel-related information.The conclusion is that the information technology has a great impact on thetourism enterprises. The competition is fierce and consumers are more demanding.Through cooperating and integrating travel-related information resources, the tourismenterprises can provide better products and professional services to consumers andimprove their travel experiences.

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  • 3068.
    Zhang, Pingying
    et al.
    Department of Management, Coggin College of Business, University of North Florida, FL, USA.
    Voordeckers, Wim
    KIZOK Research Center, Hasselt University, Belgium.
    Gabrielsson, Jonas
    CIRCLE, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Huse, Morten
    eDepartment of Innovation and Economic Organisation, Norwegian School of Management BI, Norway.
    From boards as value assemblers to value creators: Integrating static and dynamic perspectives on board information2009In: Contemporary Issues in International Corporate Governance / [ed] Suzanne Young, Prahran, Vic.: Tilde University Press , 2009, p. 43-57Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 3069.
    Zhegrova, Arlinda
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Olsson, Olof
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Motivation och stress inom fastighetsförmedlingsbranschen: En studie om hur motivation och stress påverkas utifrån ett flexibelt arbetsklimat som används inom fastighetsförmedlingsbranschen2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Titel: Motivation och stress inom fastighetsförmedlingsbranschen

    Bakgrund: Konsekvenserna som kan följa ett yrke där ett stort ansvarsområde och även ett nästintill krav på att man flexibelt anpassar sin vardag utifrån sitt arbete finner vi intressant att analysera. Vara tillgängliga många timmar på dygnet kan bli påfrestande för bland annat stress och motivationsnivån enligt oss. Det finns tidigare forskning om både negativa och positiva konsekvenser av ett flexibelt arbetsklimat. Dock finner vi ingen forskning som är specifikt riktat på olika konsekvenser av ett flexibelt arbetsklimat inom fastighetsförmedlingsbranschen. Där finner vi alltså vår forskningslucka.

    Syfte: Syftet med denna studie är att beskriva hur motivation och stress påverkas utifrån ett flexibelt arbetsklimat som används hos fastighetsförmedlingar.

    Metod: I detta arbete kommer en kvalitativ datainsamling att användas med en abduktiv forskningsansats för att uppnå ett bra resultat och finna svar på vår valda forskningslucka. Den kvalitativa metoden är gjord utifrån intervjuer med fem fastighetsmäklare och en intervju med en expert. Intervjuerna är gjorda genom semistrukturerade intervjuer utifrån ett bekvämlighetsurval med undantag för en intervju som klassas som strukturerad intervju då denna genomfördes vi mejl. Mäklarna är anonymiserade i arbetet med fiktiva namn. I denna rapport har en abduktiv forskningsansats används då nya frågetecken kom upp under intervjuerna vilket ledde till att mer teoretiskt data blev nödvändigt att samla in.

    Empirisk Analys: I denna rapport har frågeställningarna analyserats oberoende av varandra. Detta har gjort för att kunna gräva djupare samtidigt minska risken för att omedvetet vinkla något. Analysen utgår från intervjuerna med de mäklare som vi fått tillgång att intervjua och experten i samband med den teoretiska data som är insamlat.

    Slutsats: I vår slutsats presenteras olika slutsatser som är dragna utifrån den empiriska analysen. Vi svarar på frågeställningarna separat för att sedan hitta svar på vårt syfte och fylla forskningsluckan som var utgångspunkten för detta arbete.

  • 3070.
    Zhou, Qijun
    et al.
    University of the West of England, Bristol, United Kingdom.
    Yu, Honglan
    University of Huddersfield, Huddersfield, United Kingdom.
    Adams, Kweku
    University of Bradford, Bradford, United Kingdom.
    Attah-Boakye, Rexford
    University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom.
    Johansson, Jeaneth
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability. Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    The impacts and outcomes of sustainable servitisation: A systematic literature review2024In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 447, article id 141334Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable servitisation for organisations, as an indispensable part of their sustainable development, has increasingly come to the attention of both academics and practitioners. Whilst the servitisation literature is diverse and growing, our understanding of what sustainable servitisation is and a holistic view of how it is developed and implemented is limited. To address these gaps, we provide a systematic literature review enabled by an active machine-learning tool using 66 journal articles on sustainable servitisation. We have redefined the term sustainable servitisation based on an in-depth literature analysis. From the purview of sustainable servitisation as a mechanism for organisational change, we also synthesised what is known about sustainable servitisation into a holistic framework. Notably, rather than focusing on how sustainable servitisation can be better designed, as most existing studies have done, we argue that a dynamic and processual view of sustainable servitisation is required to advance theoretical and practical knowledge. © 2024

  • 3071.
    Zhu, Yuqi
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Zhang, Yunbu
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    A Comparative Case Study on Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) between SMEs and MNCs2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to describe the behaviors that multinational corporations(MNCs) and small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are taking for carrying outcorporate social responsibility (CSR) under the context of sustainable development.Besides, the factors which drive and influence the performance are further exploredand discussed.The thesis is to be analyzed by means of a literature review, qualitative case study,semi-structured interviews, within case study and cross case study.By adopting these methods, the thesis shows that both MNCs and SMEs are aware ofand actively shouldering CSR in spite of different contents and approaches. MNCs areable to integrate economic, environment and social values into CSR strategy whileSMEs focus more on economic values. Competitive pressures, social expectations andinternal governance system are the main drivers of MNCs. By contrast, owners’ desiregives rise to the performance of carrying out CSR strategy by SMEs.It is suggested that a new domain of CSR namely, political social responsibility isfound through the study. It demonstrates that MNCs with the state-owned nature haveparticular missions and responsibilities to serve the country and society, which is notcommon but exists in the world.

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  • 3072.
    Zhubi, Adrian
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Zhubi, Albert
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    K2 eller K3: Motiv till att redovisa enligt K32016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title: K2 or K3 : Reasons to account according to K3 

    Authors: Adrian Zhubi and Albert Zhubi 

    Published: Spring 2016 

    Tutor: Eva Berggren 

    Background: Since 2004 BFN has given accounting standards, which started the K-project that divides companies into four different categories based on company size. The K-project's most common regulations are the main regulation principles-based K3 and the alternative regulation rules-based K2. Since 2015 it became mandatory for all joint-stock companies and economic associations to apply one of these two regulations. Companies should therefore reflect on its business and stakeholders when making a choice of regulation. This requires that the annual report should be relevant to the stakeholders. With the study we therefore want to examine the main differences that explains why companies choose K3 instead of K2 from accounting advisors’ perspective. 

    Aim: The aim of the study is to describe why companies prefer K3 instead of K2 according to accounting advisors. 

    Formulation of the problem: What do accounting advisors consider explains the companies’ choice of K3 instead of K2? 

    Methodology: The study is based on a qualitative approach. The empirical data contains a total of five interviews, one of those is a pilot interview. The study's respondents are three auditors, an accounting expert and an accounting specialist. The respondents have different experiences and are from different accounting firms.

    Results: The study shows that accounting advisors consider differences in tangible, intangible and financial assets between K2 and K3 makes companies prefer K3. Factors as depositions, deferred taxes and stakeholders also affects the choice. According to the study’s respondents, K2 is easier to apply because the regulation contains robust rules for accounting. K3 require greater knowledge at professional judgement, because the regulation includes companies with a complex business with many stakeholders.

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  • 3073.
    Zidan, Hussain
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Otálvaro Herrera, Nasly Andrea
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    How does leadership develop contextual ambidexterity in project – basedorganizations?2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Statistics show that a large number of companies struggle for their survival.About 20 % of the EU companies in all the different industries that were born in 2015 couldnot survive till 2016. More specifically, only less than half of the companies that were born in2011 are still active in 2016 (Eurostat, 2018). Moreover, corporate bankruptcies in Swedenincreased by 20 % in the years 2017 to 2018 compared to 2016 (Tillvaxtanalys, 2019 ).Therefore, the main challenge for managers is to consolidate short-term and long-termthinking, encourage visions while remaining focused on execution within employees.

    Problem background: While the current literature acknowledges both the importance oforganizational ambidexterity for companies’ survival, and the role played by managers todevelop ambidexterity, research on how to achieve such ambidexterity is still narrow.Moreover, the influence of the different leadership styles on contextual ambidexterity and itseffects on individuals have hardly been attended in the literature.

    Purpose: The purpose of this thesis is to develop an understanding on how leaders, throughambidextrous leadership styles, create a context that enables individuals to achieve contextualambidexterity. More specifically, this master’s thesis aims to define a conceptual frameworkthat shows the influence of the leadership styles on contextual ambidexterity

    Methodology: In order to answer our research question, a qualitative research was conductedwith a deductive approach. Eight Interviews, four managers and four employees, wereconducted in four project-based organizations within the software industry in Sweden.

    Findings: The key findings are that transformational leadership style was found to foster “trustand support” in social support, and “stretch” in performance management, while thetransactional leadership style was only found in discipline in the organizational context.

    Conclusions: This study shows how developing adaptability in an organization requiresmanagers to apply transformational leadership style to the social support dimensions of theorganizational context. On the other hand, developing alignment in an organization requiresmanagers to apply both transformation and transactional styles rather than transactional. Mangers also need to balance the intensity of their leadership styles as both styles need to be emphasized equally well.

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  • 3074.
    Ziegert, Kristina
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Opportunities with integrated Cancer blog - a Swedish Pilot Project on Cancer Rehabilitation Process2013In: eHealth and Nursing: Innovation for the Future / [ed] Sheerin, F, Sermeus, W and Ehrenberg, A, 2013, p. 330-332Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3075.
    Zuckermann Hirsch, Jørgen
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    How does a company Go green?: Important steps towards a sustainable business strategy2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    The results of the supposed man-made climate change have lead to a concern for the environment that is affecting how businesses operate. Businesses are facing greater pressure from stakeholders and government regulations to take more responsibility and care for the environment. Thus companies are facing a wide spectrum of new problems, but also new opportunities. In facing these problems companies must react to how the world is changing and to integrate environmental concerns into the vision and company strategy to become a more environmentally friendly and thus greener company. An issue pressing is how to maintain sustainability for the environment as well as pursuing to be a sustainable company facing the threats of today and the future to come due to climate change. Important aspects a company must take into consideration in order to go green are: sustainability, company strategy, government regulations, internal processes and policies, corporate social responsibility and how to form a corporate culture as these are all parts of how a company changes into focusing on becoming greener and thus more environmentally friendly.

     

    This study brings forth the actions and reactions of three companies perceived as pioneers towards becoming greener in their respective industries. During the course of mapping out how a company goes green, an analytical model has been created with the help of already existing and accepted theoretical frameworks. The purpose of the model is to create structure and consistency to map out what important steps the company has taken to become greener. A qualitative method of research has been applied. Three respondents active in various fields, all with environmental connections, from Wilhelm Wilhelmsen (WW), Statkraft and Statoil has been interviewed with questions concerning their work towards sustainability and a green vision within the company. The analysis is based on relevant theories combined with the empirical data collected. What stands out in the conclusions is that the companies researched have taken different important steps when becoming greener and working to achieve sustainability. The differences can be illustrated in the own-developed model. The model is applied to crystallize what dimensions in the companies that are affected. Factors such as government regulations and how internal processes and policies are changed are standing out as examples of how a company’s dimensions are affected differently depending on the respective company’s strategy and business model. 

     

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  • 3076.
    Åberg, Marcus
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Sönne, Johan
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Styrning och venture capital: En studie om styrningen förändras av venture capital i svenska företag2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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    Styrning och venture capital - En studie om styrningen förändras av venture capital i svenska företag
  • 3077.
    Åkerblad, Felicia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Tyledal, Alexandra
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Byggföretagens implementering och integrering av kvalitet och miljöledningssystem2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 3078. Åkerfelt, Camilla
    et al.
    Svensson, Frida
    Styrningssystem kopplat till CSR-arbete: En kvalitativ studie om verksamhetsstyrning i små och medelstora fastighetsbolag.2024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 3079.
    Åkerlund, Viktor
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Torstensson, Victor
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Att skapa känslan av sammanhang genom relationer på distans Ur ett ledarskapsperspektiv: En studie om ledarskap, känsla av sammanhang och distansarbete2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The writers have examined how leaders relate to leadership at a distance and throughrelationships with their employees create a sense of coherence. Leaders refer to people whocurrently work in a leading role such as employer, manager or who have tasks whereleadership is a central part. The study was conducted using a qualitative method where eightleaders were respondents. The empirics collected through the interviews were later analyzedwith a qualitative data analysis where the empirics were categorized and then compared withthe other empirics. The empiric was then presented in the form of quotes from the respondents.The subsequent step was that the empirics were analyzed with previous research on LMX,KASAM, the employees' mood and performance. Furthermore, the quotations were alsoanalyzed with the help of the theoretical framework that consisted of the leadership theories,LMX and KASAM. The results showed that leaders experience that it is difficult to relate toleadership at a distance and this is partly due to the lack of body language and other signalsthat can be perceived in physical presence. The study's conclusion shows that the leader hasneeded to use more communication to satisfy the sense of coherence in the relationship withthe employees.

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  • 3080.
    Åkesson, Andreas
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Karlsson, Ludwig
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    BeeFarm: Innovativ hållbarhetstjänst för ökad matproduktion genom pollinering2022Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The ideas for BeeFarm got started in the spring of 2020 with the ambition to solve one of the greatest challenges in the world. The challenge we are facing is the fact that pollinating insects like bees are rapidly declining, threatening the world's food production of the future, especially since over 75 % of all food produced is dependent on insect pollination. 

    Through several iterations in the search for a business solution that could increase pollination, problems for farmers, beekeepers and business were identified. The project team have during the last year carried out over 25 extensive interviews with farmers, beekeepers, companies, scientists and experts to validate the problems. The problem for farmers is that they are pressured by low economic margins and need to increase their harvests. Beekeepers that operate their beekeeping as a business want to scale up their operations but struggle to find profitability. At the same time sustainability driven companies are trying to find clear and measurable projects to strengthen their work with sustainability. 

    The solution that has been developed to solve the problems for all the included parties is a new project-based sustainability service. BeeFarm coordinates measurable pollination projects that companies can use and communicate as part of their sustainability efforts. To test the solution and the business model a first pollination project has been launched with paying customers. The pilot project includes a beekeeping company that is placing beehives on one farmer's rapeseed field outside of Halmstad. The project is a first practical attempt in collaboration with experts and scientists to measure the impact by placing beehives for pollination of the rapeseed.  

    The pilot project is the first project in BeeFarms sustainability service and is a good foundation to continue the building of a fast growing company. By creating value for farmers, beekeepers, companies and the society, BeeFarm will increase the food production through pollination. It will result in better opportunities to continue feeding our and future generations with healthy food. 

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  • 3081.
    Åkesson, Nellie
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Röricksson, Sofie
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    SEO:s påverkan hos små företag: En kvalitativ studie om hur små företag kan växa på den digitala marknaden genom att använda sig av SEO från en SEO-byrås perspektiv.2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: I dagens digitala era har marknadsföring genom digitala kanaler revolutionerat sättet som marknadsförare kommunicerar med konsumenterna. Genom digital marknadsföring kan nya och befintliga produkter eller tjänster nå kunder mer effektivt på grund av ökad dataanvändning och förbättrad anslutning. En viktig del av digital marknadsföring är Search Engine Optimization (SEO), som syftar till att optimera en webbplats för att rankas högre på sökmotorernas resultatsidor. Det är av avgörande betydelse för företag att ha hög sökmotorranking och en innehållsrik webbplats för att skapa attraktiv närvaro online. Små företag har ofta begränsade budgetar för digital marknadsföring, även om SEO i sig är gratis, kan det fortfarande vara kostsamt då det kräver tid och kunskap.

     

    Syfte: Syftet med studien är att undersöka hur små företag kan använda SEO och digital marknadsföring på bästa sätt, för att förbli relevanta på marknaden och öka sin tillväxt och försäljning. Syftet är vidare att skapa förståelse för hur små företag kan ta hjälp av SEO-byråer i arbetet med digital marknadsföring och vinklas från en SEO-byrås perspektiv.

     

    Metod: Genom en kvalitativ metod samlades empiriska data in i form av fyra intervjuer. Respondenterna arbetade alla på något sätt med SEO i olika roller inom deras företag.

     

    Slutsats: I studien har vi kommit fram till att företag i alla storlekar kan dra nytta av SEO genom att använda rätt strategier och kompetenser. Små företag kan också dra nytta av SEO genom att anställa en SEO-byrå, men det kan ta längre tid att uppnå önskade resultat på grund av budget, kompetens och arbetsprocessen.

  • 3082.
    Åsell, Julian
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Amoi, David
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Leasing - en studie om skillnader mellan K3 och IFRS: En komparativ studie mellan K3 och IFRS gällande redovisning av leasing ur ett intressentperspektiv2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Accounting intends to provide support and information to society. Therefore, it is important that the accounting reflects reality. The current lease standard IAS 17 for European international level has been criticized because it has its purpose in a classification between financial or operational leases. Companies in Sweden applying K3 chapter 20 treat leases in the same way through a classification. This has created opportunities for companies to invent an account where major values in terms of assets and liabilities are off-balance-sheet through operational lease agreements. Hence, there has been an international discussion between the IASB and the FASB for a long time if leases classified as operational really reflect a fair view of companies applying IFRS standards. This debate is about an increase in transparency in accounting and corporate financial reporting is constantly present in these debates. Because this financial information is often the only information which stakeholder has at its disposal as a basis for decision making. Due to these problems and to develop a more consistent reporting, the IASB has chosen to create a new lease agreement - IFRS 16 Leases.

    IFRS 16 has another approach to lease agreements as it is based on a right of use. This entails significant changes for lessees, as they, based on the right of use, need to report leases as assets and liabilities in their balance sheets. The IASB has already implemented IFRS 16, but it is not required to comply with the standard until 1 January 2019 when IFRS 16 enters into force.

    The purpose of the study is to describe and analyze the differences between companies applying K3 chapter 20 and the forthcoming standard IFRS 16 regarding lease agreements. Furthermore, the purpose of the study is to investigate and illustrate, by typical cases, differences in financial reports and relevant key ratios and how these effects may affect the company's stakeholders.

    Through a qualitative research method, fictional typical cases have been designed to draw conclusions that answer the purpose and research question of this paper. The study addresses what differences exist in the treatment of classification, valuation and definition of lease agreements. Thus, it can be established and demonstrate that, in application of the forthcoming leasing standard IFRS 16, an increase in assets and liabilities in the companies balance sheet is made. This implies significant changes as they must account for a lease agreements right of use and obligations. These changes have a significant impact on key ratios such as returnability, equity, debt ratio and leverage formula. Furthermore, the conclusion can show that stakeholders are affected in a significant way as changes in financial reports affect their analyzes and ultimately decision-making.

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  • 3083.
    Åström, Andreas
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Pejic, Boris
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Vad anges om framtida ekonomiska förpliktelser?: En studie av bostadrättsföreningars årsredovisningar2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Prices on tenant owned apartments have been risingdramatically for the past 20 years. The price development of tenant ownedapartments during the period can be compared and matched with thedevelopment of the stock exchange during the same period. Even though theincrease in housing prices goes hand in hand with the stock market, therequirements for listed companies' annual reports are stricter. The purchaseof a home can be one of the biggest purchases a consumer makes during hislifetime, perhaps not only sentimentally but also in monetary terms. Whenbuying an accommodation, the prospective apartment owner becomes partof the tenant owners’ association and ends up in a financial community withthe other members of the association. The economic community poses risksto the private economy. Approximately 30 tenant owners’ associations inSweden go bankrupt every year, which means that the annual report of anassociation should be seen as an important factor in the home buyingprocess, as the annual report shows the association's current financial status.In turn, the annual report has to reproduce relevant information for tenantowner speculators so that an adequate analysis can be made of theassociation's current financial position and how it may develop.

    Purpose: The purpose of the study is to investigate what can be deducedfrom tenant-owner associations' annual reports regarding the association'sfuture financial obligations and how this affects the assessment of the risk offuture increases in the fee.

    Method: This study has been conducted through a qualitative documentanalysis. Existing theories have been applied to read out future financialobligations from associations’ annual reports and compare it with what theassociations themselves state about their future financial commitments. Wehave applied a deductive research approach, which differs from currentpractice for qualitative research methods.

    Conclusion: The study indicates that there are regular shortcomings intenant owner associations' annual reports when it comes to making ananalysis about associations' future financial obligations. The study showsthat information in annual reports according to current regulations gives thereader an opportunity to create a basic picture of the association's financialposition. To enable better analyzes of future financial commitments, moreinformation needs to be provided. Comments regarding plannedmaintenance, the association's loan and any ground rent are somesuggestions for additional information that improves the conditions forassessing future needs for fee increases. This in combination withrequirements for standardized key figures would provide an even betterinsight into the association's finances.

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  • 3084.
    Öberg, Maria
    et al.
    Halmstad University.
    Nilsson Carlström, Ida
    Digitalisering av Facility Management i allmännyttiga hyresfastighetsbolag: Hur allmännyttiga hyresfastighetsbolag kan arbeta med digitala verktyg inom FM som kan leda till kostnadsbesparingar2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The company’s survival is dependent on digitalization. This I because they need to adapt to the customer value, keep their market shares and this will contribute to the company’s growth. One industry that is behind everyone else in the digitalization work is the real estate industry. There are a lot of digital tools that can be used, but despite this, not many of this are used today. If the real estate company’s start to digitalize their work, there are possibilities to increase earnings and cost savings. The purpose of this study is therefor to gain a better understanding for how public housing companies can work with digital tools in facility management that can lead to cost-savings. 

    In this Study an abductive research approach has been used. Furthermore, a qualities study has been implemented where the authors have interviewed nine different companies that are a public housing company. By gathering theories from earlier research studies, the theoretical framework was created. 

    Based on the results from the collected empirical data and the theoretical framework it is a fact that the real estate industry is behind the digitalization work compared to other industries. This because they are not exposed to competition and therefor, they do not have the incentive to change. The will is there but a lot of company’s do not see the economical win and consider the investments costly. 

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  • 3085.
    Öberg, Mikaela
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Stenberg, Anneli
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Smoothers och icke-smoothers: en kartläggning och probleminventering av income smoothing hos svenska börsnoterade företag2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 3086.
    Öberg, Theodor
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Oldby, Marcus
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Interactive Marketing: E-mail - Tomorrow´s Tool for Online Purchases2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis aims to gain a better understanding of how customers behave with email

    and spontaneous online shopping and in which degree prospects or customer would be

    affected by functions in interactive e-mails.

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  • 3087.
    Ölander, Patrik
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Cannon, Niklas
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Facebook som marknadsföring: En kvantitativ studie om hur marknadsföring på Facebook påverkar privata bostadsköpare inom Halmstadregionen.2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Problemformulering: Hur kan marknadsföring via Facebook påverka privata bostadsköpare? På vilket vis kan Facebook vara ett gynnsamt, alternativt onödigt verktyg vid marknadsföring för en fastighetsmäklare? Hur kan trenden med marknadsföring via Facebook komma att utvecklas?

    Syfte: Syftet med denna studie är att förklara hur en fastighetsmäklares marknadsföring via sociala medier kan ha påverkan på privatpersoner vid köp av privata bostäder.

    Metod: Denna studie är utförd genom ett kvantitativt metodval och med en abduktiv forskningsansats. Forskningen har utförts genom empiriska studier som analyserats med teorier. Analysen har följaktligen legat till grund för en problemdiskussion och sedan skapat slutsatser och bidrag till vidare forskning.

    Slutsats: I studiens slutsats framkommer det att marknadsföring via Facebook kan ha en positiv eller negativ påverkan på privata bostadsköpare. Genom tid, resurser och engagemang kan det leda till en försäljning. Under en fem veckors period samlades data in från åtta mäklarbyråer där de frågade köparna vid kontraktsskrivning om hur de kom i kontakt med objektet för första gången. Det visade sig att tre utav åtta mäklarbyråer anlitat en extern firma för att sköta deras marknadsföring via Facebook. Dessa tre företag hade tillsammans 33 sålda bostäder varav tio försäljningar härleddes från Facebook. De fem som skötte marknadsföringen via Facebook själva hade tillsammans 29 sålda bostäder varav en härletts från Facebook. Resultatet ur studien visar på att marknadsföring via Facebook är något som bör användas av mäklarbyråer men det kräver engagemang och rätt resurshantering, annars finns det risk för slöseri av resurser.

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  • 3088.
    Örnstedt, Adam
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Ejesson, Johanna
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    The survival story of a newsprint mill.: A single case study of an industrial transformation at Hylte Mill.2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The pulp and paper industry (PPI) and its products is one of Sweden's largest export goods, with newsprint as one of its major sources of income. The historically stable context had led to innovation inertia something that became clear when a sudden decrease for newsprint occurred. Hence, Stora Enso Hylte Mill, which is one of the largest producers of newsprint in Sweden realized that they needed to do something in order to secure their future. Therefore, the company started to investigate the possibility of moving into a new market, biocomposite.

    Problem discussion: Ambidexterity is a requirement for a firm to be successful over time (Birkinshaw & Gibson, 2004). In uncertain environments organizational ambidexterity appears to be positively linked to increased firm innovation, better financial performance, andhigher survival rates (O’Reilly & Tushman 2013). Hylte Mill has historically had a stablemarket, thus exploitive activities have been their main concern. As the conditions change, explorative activities are needed which creates uncertainty for the firm. How does a firm in a historically stable context that has worked with exploitation for many years organize for exploration? What changes needs to be done in the organization?

    Purpose: This master thesis will systematically go through and analyze how firms within previously stable market organize for ambidexterity and exploration. This is going to be done through three phases of an industrial transformation within the PPI. The purpose for this thesis is to increase the understanding of how organizations, operating in historically stable context, deals with radical innovation when the external environment demands it.

    Methodology: This study has been an inductive single case study. The data has been collected through five semi-structured interviews with key individuals from period of industrial turbulence.

    Findings: The barriers to innovation varies over time, when one barrier is solved another one occurs. By using ambidexterity, the firm can be better suited to handle these changes. The inertia in large established firms do not only depend on events occurring within the firm but can also be affected by external events.

    Conclusion: Ambidexterity has a positive impact on innovation in uncertain environments that creates a sense of urgency. By initially applying structural ambidexterity to provide slack, and later expand the desired culture by contextual ambidexterity, large established firms can overcome innovation inertia. Slack showed positive impact on radical innovation on both mill- level and group-level. Also, external help proved to be crucial for the radical innovation capability.

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  • 3089.
    Örtenblad, Anders
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    A typology of the idea of learning organization2002In: Management Learning, ISSN 1350-5076, E-ISSN 1461-7307, Vol. 33, no 2, p. 213-230Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A typology of the idea of 'learning organization' is developed and presented. The typology is inductively created and based on how the term 'learning organization' is used in the literature and by practitioners. Four distinct hypes of understanding were found: 'organizational learning, 'learning at work, 'learning climate' and 'learning structure'. The same types of understanding seem to appear both in the literature and in accounts made by practitioners. Thus the term 'learning organization' is probably not unduly confusing to the practitioners. Instead, the different versions of the idea in the literature seem to give companies the opportunity to choose a version suitable for their specific situation.

  • 3090.
    Örtenblad, Anders
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Are the right persons involved in the creation of the learning organization?2005In: Human Resource Development Quarterly, ISSN 1044-8004, E-ISSN 1532-1096, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 281-284Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A conventional explanation of the short notice that many management ideas get is that they are only fashions. This article presents a complementary explanation. Based on Jung's personality types and my own experiences, I suggest that mostly only people with a certain type of personality become interested in ideas such as the learning organization. I further argue that all four of Jung's personality types must join in the sculpting of learning organizations if organizations are to succeed in becoming such organizations and continue being it, and, accordingly, if the idea is to survive in the long run.

  • 3091.
    Örtenblad, Anders
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Educating everyone in humanities for both post-bureaucracy and bureaucracy: a response to John Hendry2006In: Management Learning, ISSN 1350-5076, E-ISSN 1461-7307, Vol. 37, no 3, p. 291-294Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Comments on an article by John Hendry. In the main, the commentator agree with Hendry in his description of the 'intellectual tyranny of the economic mindset' and in his concern for other values and goals in business society. Management education definitely needs other than economic goals, as Hendry argues. The commentators arguments for the humanities are slightly different, though, from Hendry's, and he do not think that managers are the only group that needs education in the humanities. Finally, the commentator would like to add a few subjects and methods to those that Hendry suggests should be involved in humanities education for business students. In addition to history and literature, which Hendry suggests, the commentator also recommend education in ethics.

  • 3092.
    Örtenblad, Anders
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Of course organizations can learn!2005In: Learning Organization, ISSN 0969-6474, E-ISSN 1758-7905, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 213-218Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This is a comment for all those writers who claim that organizations cannot learn. The author consistently rejects this notion. Rather the author contends that organizations can learn, in at least two different ways. The author reviews some of the common arguments against organizational learning, and tries to answer the opponents. The main argument against the critics is that they are too busy to look for evidence that organizations are not like individuals and that organizations therefore cannot learn. Instead, the author argues that it is a question of level of analysis. The author also suggests that theories as well as knowledge in general are metaphoric, implying that organizations as such of course are able to learn. The organizational learning perspectives can, of course, be used by employers and managers in order to avoid efforts that help the individuals to learn. But they can also be appropriate perspectives of learning that help in avoiding large investments on organizational learning efforts that might be unnecessary.

  • 3093.
    Örtenblad, Anders
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    On differences between organizational learning and learning organization2001In: Learning Organization, ISSN 0969-6474, E-ISSN 1758-7905, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 125-133Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This conceptual paper looks at and discusses differences between the concepts of organizational learning and (the) learning organization. Since there still seems to be confusion regarding the meaning of the two concepts, aims to clarify the two main existing distinctions, that organizational learning is existing processes while learning organization is an ideal form of organization. Also distinguishes between a traditional and a social perspective of organizational learning, which the existing distinctions have not ‚ at least not explicitly. Thus, distinctions are made between three concepts. In addition to the improvement of the existing distinctions, suggests two complementary ones ‚ entities of learning and knowledge location. These two distinctions might make it easier to distinguish also between the two perspectives of organizational learning.

  • 3094.
    Örtenblad, Anders
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Organizational learning: a radical perspective2002In: International journal of management reviews (Print), ISSN 1460-8545, E-ISSN 1468-2370, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 87-100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reviews the organizational learning literature. For many years, organizational learning theory has been based on a functionalistic paradigm, but an interpretive paradigm now seems to be attaining dominance. However, neither of these perspectives of organizational learning is truly radical in the sense of challenging conditions of power and control in organizations. There are some critical texts on organizational learning (and the learning organization), but they go no further than criticism. Therefore, this paper tries to illustrate what we can call a radical perspective of organizational learning, based on themes in the critical works. The radical perspective of organizational learning implies an organization where the individuals learn as free actors. However, there are norms or rules to guarantee freedom. The learning space in the organization guarantees the occurrence of different opinions, and allows everyone to reflect upon their actions and learning. Working time and employee commitment are restricted so that work does not interfere too much with other undertakings. All employees are guaranteed permanent appointments. Finally, in the radical perspective of organizational learning, organizations die to make place for others when their missions are accomplished. After presenting the radical perspective of organizational learning, I outline some questions for future research and indicate the necessity of further development of such a perspective.

  • 3095.
    Örtenblad, Anders
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Senge’s many faces: problem or opportunity?2007In: Learning Organization, ISSN 0969-6474, E-ISSN 1758-7905, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 108-122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to discuss both possibilities and problems with Senge’s (1990) many faces in The Fifth Discipline, i.e. the fact that different authors refer to different excerpts from his book as his version of the learning organization. Design/methodology/approach - The paper shows that the authors’ understandings of Senge, in which a literature review resulted, are seen in the light of theories of travelling of management ideas, particularly the "translation model". Findings - The paper finds that both possibilities and problems with Senge’s many faces were found. A fatal problem is that the many faces jeopardize the confidence in the concept and eventually its existence. But the strong connections to Senge’s book, that the authors have, reduces the problems, and Senge’s many faces might not cause that much trouble after all. Research limitations/implications - The paper shows that anyone who wishes to can, for different reasons, refer to Senge, and his version of the learning organization, and thereby gain legitimacy. One does not have to be very accurate; as it seems, almost anything goes. Practical implications - In the paper the "translation model" is divided into two sub-models, which probably will sharpen future translation research. Originality/value - The paper is a study in which it is shown how authors understand other authors. This is an example that is rarely seen. Both possibilities and problems are discussed with vagueness to Senge’s many faces. This is not very common. A special case of the translation model is developed (the "smorgasbord model"), better suited to deal with the type of idea that focuses on copying of excerpts from a specific book than the traditional translation model (the "whispering game model").

  • 3096.
    Örtenblad, Anders
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    The learning organization: towards an integrated model2004In: Learning Organization, ISSN 0969-6474, E-ISSN 1758-7905, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 129-144Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents an integrated model of the learning organization. It is based on empirical research of the learning organization literature, as well as on practitioners' understandings of the concept where learning organizations were often described in terms of four distinct individual aspects, no more and no less. This article argues these aspects cannot be treated as separate, and that the four aspects have to be combined in order to create a true learning organization. The four aspects are: learning at work; organizational learning; developing a learning climate; and creating learning structures. The article suggests that only those organizations that have implemented all of the aspects should be called ‚"learning organizations", and those organizations that have implemented only one aspect should be called "partial learning organizations"

  • 3097.
    Örtenblad, Anders
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Toward a contingency model of how to choose the right type of learning organization2004In: Human Resource Development Quarterly, ISSN 1044-8004, E-ISSN 1532-1096, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 347-350Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The learning organization is in itself a vague idea, and many argue that the idea must be adapted to each single organization and its particular needs before it can be implemented. There is very little guidance, though, on how to adapt the (vague) idea. This forum piece therefore tentatively suggests a contextual model of how to choose the right type of learning organization, among four types. It also suggests some areas where research is needed in order to develop the model further.

  • 3098.
    Örtenblad, Anders
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Vague and Attractive: Five Explanations of the Use of Ambiguous Management Ideas2005In: Philosophy of Management, ISSN 1740-3812, E-ISSN 2052-9597, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 45-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reviews the literature on the diffusion and popularity of vague management ideas. Is it the vagueness in itself that makes them so popular, or are there other explanations? Five possible explanations for the attraction of ambiguous management ideas are suggested: (i) concretising; (ii) symbolic legitimisation; (iii) seduction; (iv) unknown use; and (v) challenge. Some of the explanations are explicitly suggested in the literature, whereas others are explanations offered by the present author on the basis of a review of the literature. The five explanations are categorised according to the level of consciousness of the use of vague ideas among the users, and according to whether the ideas are implemented in actual practice or used only in talk. The present paper also discusses what management researchers could do to help those who use vague management ideas. © 2005, Springer International Publishing AG.

  • 3099.
    Örtengren, Sofia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Gidlund, Alexander
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Riskhantering i infrastrukturprojektet Varbergstunneln2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose is to describe and analyze the risk management of project risks and financial risks in the infrastructure project Varberg tunnel during the planning phase, in which two players have been studied, the Swedish Transport Administration and the Varberg municipal operations, and their perspective on risk management and how these actors' perspectives differ in order to get an understanding of how different types of risks and stakeholder risk manage from their perspective in an infrastructure project.

    Background and problem: The Swedish Transport Administration task is to ensure that trains arrive on time, transport is done as safely as possible and with the least possible environmental impact. Together with other stakeholders they will ensure that the best possible social utility is created for the money. On 21 March 2013, the government's admissibility decision of subprojects through Varberg to extend the railway from single track to double track. This is one of the biggest challenges in Varberg municipality, where the municipal and state planning must go hand in hand. There are considerable risks associated with infrastructure projects but there are also great opportunities for socio-economic profitability. To identify risks requires a general approach because the individuals do not possess all the information necessary to know where all the various risks are within the activity. The problem with risk assessment is that the knowledge of the risks affecting the tunnel project are scarce and therefore entails difficulty in valuing them. Businesses need to manage risks, and businesses that ignore the risk, consider the risk as their enemy or plan for just one future are more vulnerable.

    Research issue: How is risk management of project risks and financial risks in the infrastructure project Varberg tunnel during the planning phase?

    Methodology: This thesis is a qualitative study that uses an inductive approach. The empirical data is collected from three different interviews linked to the Varberg tunnel.

    Result: The main difference between the stakeholders is the scope of risk management. The Swedish Transport Administration is implementing a much larger risk management than the municipality of Varberg. Risk identification is more similar between the stakeholders, the difference is how they methodically work. Risk assessment is qualitative at the Swedish Transport Administration and quantitative at Varberg municipality. Management of risk is carried out not in any methodical way at Varberg municipality, the only manage interest rate risks while the Transport Administration manages all risks and implement this in a methodical way.

    Conclusions: Risk management is carried out in different ways depending on the perspective of the stakeholder and the type of risk that is risk managed. Risk management can be either methodological or non-methodical. Our view is that this is due to the stakeholder’s responsibility and the complexity of risk management for the stakeholder. Which perspective stakeholders have, we believe, affect if the stakeholder have a long term or short term perspective. The Swedish Transport Administration will only be done with projecting of the tunnel while the municipality of Varberg has to live with it in generations to come.

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  • 3100.
    Żukowicka-Surma, Anna
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Fritzsche, Albrecht
    International University Of Rabat, Sale, Morocco.
    Organisational support for healthcare innovation in hospitals: Towards a commitment framework2022In: Journal of General Management, ISSN 0306-3070, E-ISSN 1759-6106, Vol. 48, no 4, SI, p. 337-395Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article investigates organisational drivers and restrainers of innovation in hospitals on the background of different institutional logics. It presents evidence from a multiple case study in Polish hospitals, which reveals different dynamics on the micro-, meso- and macro-level of organisations in enabling and implementing new procedures and technologies. In particular, the study documents an ambiguous influence of medical professionalism as a specific logic in the healthcare sector, which can affect innovation positively as well as negatively. The article therefore proposes a managerial framework based in innovation action commitment to control the effects of professionalism in healthcare. © The Author(s) 2022.

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