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  • 201.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Awuah, Gabriel
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Wictor, Ingemar
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Born global's use of innovative solutions to create sustainable competitive advantages as it expands and grows in different international markets2013In: The 16th Annual McGill International Entrepreneurship Conference: Researching New Frontiers: The Conference Program and Collection of Short Summaries, Montreal, Canada: McGill University , 2013, p. 16-16Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to investigate born global firms’ use of innovative solutions and their networks to create sustainable competitive advantages as they expand and grow in different international markets. Consequently, born globals’ use of their own firm-specific advantages and their access to complementary resources and activities of their network partners are analyzed to aid our understanding of the provision of innovative solutions that lead to growth. For this purpose we use a qualitative case study approach of five born global companies. A focus group  approach with the CEOs in the companies is used to gain deep insight into innovation and internationalization processes that underlie the case companies’ international growth. The study shows that the use of the entrepreneur-CEOs’ personal networks and business networks have been assets that have accorded the firms’ strong position in international markets. It can be concluded that the born global firm has strategies to tap on complementary assets of external network parties.  The Born global firms learn from own experiences and those of others, with whom the firms interact in foreign markets, to create innovative solutions for international growth.

  • 202.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Awuah, Gabriel
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Wictor, Ingemar
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Aagerup, Ulf
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    International growth in born globals – value creation on international markets2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Importance and key contribution

    Research on firm’s that already from inception see the whole world as a market and/or the whole world as a source to access resources, so called born globals (Andersson & Wictor, 2003), have been growing during the last decades (Jones, Coviello and Tang, 2012).  These firms are characterized of innovative business models that are competitive on the global market already from inception (Hennart, 2013). To succeed with a continued international expansion, the born global firms need to adapt their respective business models for a more complex environment; in more institutionally remote markets. The continued growth phase of born globals are scarcely treated in earlier research (Gabrielsson & Gabrielsson, 2013).

    Earlier studies on Born Globals have focused on Born Globals’ development in western, developed countries. Therefore there is a need to examine Born Globals’ activities on emerging markets (Kiss et al, 2012). The attractiveness and growth opportunities in emerging markets are perceived to be higher than what obtains in other conceivable markets of the world (Cavusgil, Knight, and Risenberger, 2012).

    Important in this stage is handle relationship with different stakeholders on a global base. An important tool to handle this relationship is the companies’ branding strategy. Few studies have combined research on born globals’ internationalization and branding (Gabrielsson, 2005) and there is a need to further develop the knowledge about branding and international growth. This study aims to explore how born global companies are using brand management when growing on emerging markets. This study contributes to the international entrepreneurship field by exploring growth on emerging markets, it also contributes by adding knowledge from the brand management field to explore international growth.

    Theoretical base

    In recent studies the “global” part in the BG has been criticized (Lopez, Kundu and Ciravegena, 2009, Rugman and Almodovar, 2011). Some researchers argue that there a very few really Born Global firms with activities in the three economic and political power bases in the world. NAFTA, EU and the largest eight Asia-Pacific economies (Rugman and Almodovar, 2011). Implicit in research on Born Global firms is that distance (geographic, psychic, cultural, and institutional) is no longer an important issue when the international behaviour and international performance in a Born Global is discussed. We argue that the reason for that is a bias in the research treating Born Global firms with focus on companies that both have their origin and target markets in high-developed economies. Peiris, Akoorie and Sinha (2012) showed that most studies on Born Global firm were done on firms originating in developed countries and only a few studies were done on firms from emerging countries. Studies from emerging countries mainly were done on Chinese firms and very few studies has treated firms from Middle east, Africa or South Asia. Another reason why the Born Global research has not focused on institutional differences can partly be explained by the fact that the Born Global studies have looked internally at firm-specific factors (e.g. using resource-based view and knowledge-based view of the firm as a theoretical domain) (Andersson, Evers and Kuivalainen, 2014; Knight and Cavusgil, 2004).

    We argue that institutional differences affect Born Globals’ international behaviour (scope, speed, and entry mode); and to investigate how institutional distances affect Born Global firms, it is important to include nations with a variety of institutional and cultural characteristics. Born Global firms from developed countries entering institutionally distant markets will meet a context that is different from their home markets. Regulations, culture etc. differ and relationships are often fewer and weaker than, the companies’ relationships with western companies.  Born Global companies from developed countries still first focus on other developed countries, followed by emerging markets (e. g China and Brazil). We argue that institutional distance still matters and that firms from developed countries still have more and stronger networks in other developed countries. More research is needed two explore how this influence Born Global firms’ internationalization processes.

    Most studies on born globals have focused on firms in a business-to business context. Also this study is focusing on this sector. Even if most brand management studies have focus on business-to consumer sectors, there is an increasing stream of literature that has shown the importance of brand management also in business-to business settings (Gabrielsson & Gabrielsson, 2005). Brands are used to build relationships with customers. In emerging markets, western companies have fewer and weaker relationships, as the distance is longer (see the discussion above. Research is needed to explore how brand management can be used to create and sustain relationships on emerging markets. The above discussion lead us to the following research questions.

    Research questions

    How do born globals manage the organization’s international growth in in emerging markets?

    Which role has brand management to create and sustain relationships with internal and external stakeholders on emerging markets?

    Method and Findings

    Emprical data will be gathered during the Spring 2015. A case approach is considered as the most appropriate to catch the complexity of value creating process in international network context (Yin, 1994). The case study approach is under-represented in studies about internationalization and has been recommended as a fruitful way to expand the knowledge in this area (e.g Andersson, 2000, Cavusgil, 1980). Eisenhardt (1989) recommends case studies as a fruitful way to give a deeper insight in conflicting literature, as well as sharpening the generalizability of different theoretical standpoints which is an important goal in this study. There is a need to learn more about special types of firms and not only to look for the average firm (Andriani and McKelvey, 2007). The close relationship already established with the firms will make it possible to receive information that is hard to get access to with other methods (Welch et al, 2002).

    The cases will be built built on action research in co-operation with the partner firms, work-shops, personal interviews and observations but complemented with secondary data, such as, annual reports and internal documents. The individuals who have the greatest influence on the internationalization processes will be interviewed. Interviews and observations will lead to the identification of individuals/actors who are central in the international value creating processes. This includes actors outside the focal company, such as customers, suppliers, and co-operation partners. Our long co-operation with the companies has created trustful relationship between the researchers and the company representatives.

    The analysis of the data will include several steps. The information from interviews and other sources will be written down in descriptive narratives. This process allows the researcher to become intimately familiar with each case and allows the unique patterns of each case to emerge before cross-case comparison (Eisenhardt, 1989). The analysis will be carried out together with companies and results will be a base for decisions in each companies as well as part in academic research.

    Patterns will be identified among the cases (Yin, 1994). Earlier theoretical findings will be compared with the international development in the cases. Thereafter, the theory will be revised and the findings examined again. The reasoning is, in other words, not entirely inductive or deductive (Yin 1989). Following Eisenhardt’s (1989) recommendations, the analysis will include several iterations between theory and data.

    Implications

    The study will also give knowledge about pros and cons with different localisation alternatives on emerging markets. It is easy to just follow management trends (everyone should out-source production and buy supplies from China) and “go with the flock” instead of get knowledge of different alternatives. The comparison between the different firms will increase the knowledge about when different alternatives are suitable.

  • 203.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Awuah, Gabriel
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Wictor, Ingemar
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Danilovic, Mike
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Innovation in Internationalization of Born Global firms2012In: 15th McGill International Entrepreneurship Conference, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Globalization and increased liberalization of markets have made it possible for many firms, large or Small and Medium –Sized Firms (SMEs), to be in many foreign markets, especially those in the global industries (Czinkota and Ronkainen, 2007; Doole and Lowe, 2008, 2004). Since trade barriers among markets have fallen dramatically, due to the effects of globalization, intense competition in many markets, and the spread of technological improvements in almost all sectors of any economy, many firms (small or large) seek to establish their presence in many foreign markets (Awuah, et. al., 2011; Doole and Lowe, 2008; Driffield and Love, 2007). Studies abound to shed light on why and how firms internationalize their business activities (Andersson, 2011; Moen, et al., 2004; Knight and Cavusgil, 1996; Johanson and Vahlne, 1990, 1977; Johanson and Wiedersheim-Paul, 1975). Although increased globalization, trade liberalization, and technological improvements do enable many firms (e.g. “Mininationals” or “Born Globals”) to serve several markets (Doole and Lowe, 2008; Czinkota and Ronkainen, 2007), there has emerged an intense competition among firms in all countries (Peng et al., 2008; Czinkota and Ronkainen, 2007; Beamish and Lu, 2004). For many SMEs, a number of factors (e.g. lower trade barriers, increased competition, rapid technological developments, shrinking market opportunities in domestic market, and firm-specific advantages combine to drive their rapid entry into foreign markets (Andersson, 2011; Peng et al., 2008; Moen, et al., 2004). SMEs that have, from the very inception of their establishment, had the drive to internationalize their business activities are termed “Born Global Firms”, in the subsequent sections to be addressed just as born globals (Andersson, 2011; Rialp et al., 2005; Knight and Cavusgil, 1996; Madsen and Servias, 1997). 

    Previous studies about a firm’s internationalization has predominantly concentrated on big multinational firms, where their motives for internationalization, the pace and pattern of their internationalization have been widely studied (Qian and Delios, 2008; Johanson and Vahlne, 1990, 1977; Johanson and Wiedersheim-Paul, 1975; Cavusgil, 1984; Coviello, 2006). In recent times studies have emerged, which have found out that the pace and pattern of the internationalization of big multinational firms are not in line with the pace and pattern, through which born globals, for example, internationalize their business activities (Andersson, 2011; Andersson and Wictor, 2003; Moen, et al., 2004; Rialp, et. al., 2005; Knight and Cavusgil, 1996; Madsen and Servais, 1997).  

    However, extant literature is virtually silent on what it takes for a born global (a small international player with limited resources, for example) to compete with big and resourceful multinational enterprises in many international markets. Our contention is that born globals’ ability to use innovative solutions to create sustainable competitive advantages as they aspire to expand and grow in international markets will be very crucial. The pace and pattern at which born globals internationalize their businesses, in the face of intense competition in almost all markets, in order to provide innovative solutions that enable them to achieve competitive advantages in the marketplace is under-researched. This has been an important reason for the study of the present phenomenon.   As stressed by Doole and Lowe (2008), products and services offered by firms, these days, are becoming ‘commodities’ (i.e. ‘me too’ products/services), if firms are not able to differentiate the core product benefit or service by offering a bundle of benefits for target customers or users in a target market. For Porter (1985), the competitive advantage of a firm grows fundamentally out of the value the firm can create for its customers, irrespective of the markets in which a firm operates.  Operating across borders, though offers opportunities, dealing with new set of macro-environmental factors (e.g. politics, laws, economics, cultures, and societies) and intense competition, will demand that a born global, for example, differentiates its products and services that will help it to meet similar needs and wants of its transnational customers, while it adapts to meet different market-specific requirements and/or needs of customers (e.g. Doole and Lowe, 2008). And for Doyle and Stern (2006), a firm that is good at satisfying customer needs, better than its competitors can do, has the best opportunities to grow and expand. Hence, Born Globals and their growth and expansion narratives are worth studying.

    In view of the above, the purpose of the present study is to investigate a born global’s use of innovative solutions to create sustainable competitive advantages as it expands and grows in different international markets. To be able to achieve the above purpose, we seek to address the following research questions:

    1. Why and how does a born global firm enter any chosen foreign market?
    2. Which strategies does the firm develop and implement in order to provide innovative solutions that will help achieve sustainable competitive advantages as the firm strives to grow and expand in the marketplace?
    3. Does the firm use ‘go-alone’ strategies or does it use strategies that influence and are influenced by other actors and the effect thereof? 
  • 204.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Baffour Awuah, Gabriel
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    International Growth in Born Globals – Continued Growth through Networking on Institutionally Distant Markets2015In: Handbook On International Alliance and Network Research / [ed] Jorma Larimo, Niina Mummela and Tuija Mainela, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2015, p. 139-154Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this chapter is to shed light on how a born global can obtain continued growth internationally, in institutionally distant markets. We are seeking a deeper understanding of international growth for born global enterprises by combining theories of networks and institutional perspective. We discuss how institutional distance affects the internationalization processes in born globals. We seek to highlight why and how a born global firm does enter different markets. In this respect, born globals from developed countries and those from emerging markets are compared, leading us to derive some propositions from our discussions.

    Finally some suggestions for future research are presented. 

  • 205.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Bengtsson, Linnea
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Svensson, Åsa
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Mega-sport football events’ influence on destination images: A study of the 2016 UEFA European Football Championship in France, the 2018 FIFA World Cup in Russia, and the 2022 FIFA World Cup in Qatar2021In: Journal of Destination Marketing & Management, ISSN 2212-571X, E-ISSN 2212-5752, Vol. 19, article id 100536Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to examine whether mega-sport events influence visitors' destination images and to explore which factors influence their perceptions of and intentions to attend a mega-sport event in certain destinations. We examine visitors' perceptions of the 2016 UEFA European Football Championship in France, the 2018 FIFA World Cup in Russia, and the upcoming 2022 FIFA World Cup in Qatar through a structured questionnaire published on the Facebook group Camp Sweden, a community of Swedish football supporters. We find differences among supporters’ destination image after they attended the mega-sport football events. The study also shows that positive destination images after visits were based on whether the destinations were able to satisfy important factors for supporters when visiting the destination. Qatar will be challenged to improve its destination image, as supporters do not connect factors important for visiting destinations with their current perceptions of Qatar. © 2020 Elsevier Ltd

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  • 206.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Berggren, Eva
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Born Global or Local? Factors influencing the Internationalization of University Spin-Offs - The Case of Halmstad University2016In: Journal of International Entrepreneurship, ISSN 1570-7385, E-ISSN 1573-7349, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 296-322Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A wealth of research in the past decades has examined born globals or international new ventures, which are firms that from inception view the whole world as a market and as a source to access resources. Many of these firms build their competitive advantage on high-tech knowledge. However, although many studies have shown how born globals can achieve success if they access resources through their relationships from actors in their networks, few studies have explored the relationship between born globals and universities. Universities are important actors in creating new technology knowledge, and many studies have shown how new firms, or so-called university spin-offs (USOs), are formed around universities. The current study explores why some USOs are successful in their international growth strategy and discusses the factors that influence and facilitate the internationalization process. The study investigates 10 USOs around the newly established Halmstad University in Sweden and finds that universities have a positive effect on firm creation and initial international growth. The regional competence base increases from the establishment of a local university, primarily by strengthening the regional human capital and by increasing university research. This study shows that researcher entrepreneurs’ ventures start as born globals, but that these firms do not continue to grow. Born global business models, per se, do not lead to competitive advantage and successful internationalization. Instead, a strategy built on customer focus and an ability to adapt to different customer demands lead to growth, and the location of growth is dependent on the size of the home market. This study also shows that student entrepreneurship can be a successful growth strategy for USOs focusing on both international and local markets. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New York

  • 207.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Berggren, Eva
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Knowledge Entrepreneurship and Enterprise Research (KEEN).
    Born Globals and Born Locals originating from University Spin-Offs2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on firm’s that already from inception see the whole world as a market and/or the whole world as a source to access resources, so called born globals. Many of these firms, build their competitive advantage on high-tech knowledge. Universities have shown to be an important actor, to create technology knowledge, and numerous studies have shown how new firms are created around universities, so called University Spin-offs (USOs). Earlier research has shown that some USOs are successful with their international growth strategies. This study aims to explore why some USOs are successful in their international growth strategy and some are not. 10 USO around the newly established Halmstad University in Sweden is investigated. Both USOs founded be students and researchers are included in the sample. This study shows the positive influence of a university for firm creation and international growth. The regional competence base has increased by the establishment of a local university, primarily by strengthening the regional human capital, but lately also by an increased amount of university research. This study has showed student entrepreneurs more successful in growth and international development than researcher entrepreneurs, which imply that further development of support for student entrepreneurship is fruitful to create international growing firms.

  • 208.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Danilovic, Mike
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Business Model Innovation (BMI). Shanghai Dianji University, Shanghai, China.
    Hanjun, Huang
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Success Factors in Western and Chinese Born Global Companies2015In: iBusiness, ISSN 2150-4075, E-ISSN 2150-4083, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 25-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Born Global firms are becoming increasingly more important in terms of internationalization, innovation, ability to grow and providing employment. Most of the previous research about BornGlobals is done in North America, Europe or Australia, all these being developed industrialized countries but not developing countries or emerging markets. However, the emerging markets in general, and the Chinese in particular, have become very important for the world economy. Our aim is to investigate the differences between Western literature and literature from emerging markets, regarding internationalization process of Born Global firms. We also aim to discuss the various success factors, which underlie Born Globals’ internationalization process, particularly focusing on Born Globals firms in the China. Our methodology in this research has been literature review and interviews with Chinese CEOs of Born Global firms. However, this paper is only based on the litterateur part of our research. Our analysis shows that most of the Chinese Born Globals publications about the internationalization success factors are based on the Western literature and use them as the theoretical platform in the design of their own research strategy and research questions design. The consequence of this observation is important as it indicates that Chinese researchers are reproducing research under different contextual and situational conditions that might lead to unclear conclusions or maybe even wrong conclusions. Furthermore, compared to most Western Born Global companies, which treat innovation as core competence, the innovation culture becomes one of the biggest weaknesses of Chinese manufacturing Born Globals’ internationalization. China has special economic environment. Chinese manufacturing Born Globals not only need to follow the market but also the government policies, since the government greatly influences the industries and the whole economy. To foreign investors who want to exploit Chinese market, they also should take Chinese economic background and government policies into consideration. One important aspect of Chinese born Globals, neglected in previous research on Born Globals, that has been identified in our research, is the critical success factor of Chinese manufacturing Born Globals—the political and economic background and the role of the Chinese Government in the transformation process of Chinese business life, and the Guanxi network.

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  • 209.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Eriksson, Martin
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Lundmark, Linda
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Internationalisation in Malaysian furniture firms: gradual or rapid internationalisation?2006In: International Journal of Globalisation and Small Business, ISSN 1479-3059, E-ISSN 1479-3067, Vol. 1, no 3, p. 220-243Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study of the initial steps in a firm's international development has traditionally been dominated by various forms of the 'stage theory', but these theories have been challenged more recently by evidence that rapid internationalisation can take place in certain firms contradicting the notion of gradual development that was an essential aspect of the stage-model perspective. Moreover, earlier studies and models have been developed in industrialised countries. The present study examines the internationalisation of Malaysian furniture firms and concludes that the traditional stage models are not suited to understanding the development of these firms. The firms did not expand in a gradual manner, and did not choose markets that were 'psychically close' to Malaysia. The emerging literature on 'born globals' was a better tool for understanding the development of these firms. However, this literature must be complemented with country-specific and industry-specific factors, if full understanding of the international expansion of firms in developing countries, such as Malaysia, is to be achieved.

  • 210.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Evangelista, Felicitas
    School of Marketing and International Business, University of Western Sydney, Sydney, Australia.
    The entrepreneur in the Born Global firm in Australia and Sweden2006In: Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, ISSN 1462-6004, E-ISSN 1758-7840, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 642-659Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this research is to identify and analyse the common characteristics and behaviour of entrepreneurs that affect the establishment of Born Global firms. The differences between the Australian and Swedish contexts will be scrutinized.

    Design/methodology/approach – This study was designed to be qualitative in nature so that rich insights can be obtained directly from the entrepreneurs themselves. The sample consists of three Born Global firms each from Australia and Sweden.

    Findings – This study shows the importance of entrepreneurs for the rapid internationalization of firms in Australia and Sweden. Different types of entrepreneurs were identified and small but important differences were identified between the two countries and different industries.

    Research limitations/implications – This study shows that analysis on an individual level enhances the understanding of internationalisation in new firms. By using the concept marketing and technical entrepreneur in different industrial contexts a more detailed understanding of different internationalization patterns can be obtained. This study is limited to two countries and six case studies. The findings may be limited to the chosen firms and studies across more countries and industries are needed.

    Practical implications – This study shows that the entrepreneur should be in focus when analysing new firms' possibilities to expand abroad. Entrepreneurs can use their international experience, visions, ambitions and networks as crucial competencies in an international expansion. Different types of entrepreneurs can use different international strategies.

    Originality/value – The focus and detailed analysis on the individual level across different countries make this study original.

  • 211.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Evangelista, Felicitas
    School of Marketing and International Business University of Western Sydney, Sydney, Australia.
    The entrepreneur in the Born global Firm in Australia and Sweden2004Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The most common denominator in Born Global research is probably the importance of the entrepreneur. Following these results this article will go deeper into how the entrepreneur influences the development of a born global firm. Studies have been carried out in many countries. To be able to draw conclusions on how the national context influences the Born Global phenomenon, this study compares findings from both Australia and Sweden.

    Although there are many studies that have identified the impact of entrepreneurs and management on firms’ internationalisation, there is still a need for more research to enhance the understanding of born global firms’ international behaviour. This study aims to go one step further and try to do a more fine-grained analysis. How do entrepreneurs influence the development of Born Global firms in Australia and Sweden? Through a literature review the following points were identified:

    • Number of people in the top management team
    • International experience and industry experience
    • Marketing/Technical entrepreneur and active/reactive internationalization strategy
    • Global mindset
    • Personal network

    Method

    A case approach was considered as the most appropriate to catch the complexity of the Born Global phenomenon. The case studies are mainly built on personal interviews but complemented with secondary data, such as business magazines, annual reports and internal documents. We interviewed the entrepreneurs that were involved in the founding of the Born Global companies.

    The analysis of the data included several steps. The information from interviews and other sources were written down in descriptive narratives. This process allows the researcher to become intimately familiar with each case and allows the unique patterns of each case to emerge before cross-case comparison. To find common patterns, the cases were compared in terms of the issues identified in the literature review. Earlier theoretical findings were compared with the international development in the Australian and Swedish born global firms. Differences and similarities were discussed.

    Conclusions

    In this study we have shown the importance of entrepreneurs and entrepreneurial teams for the rapid internationalization of firms in Australia and Sweden. We can conclude that there were no big differences between the developments of the Born Global firms in the two countries. However one interesting difference turned up. In Australia the country image was negative for selling high-tech products within Australia. The country image has an impact on the company for go abroad. In this case it seemed like the country image was more negative within Australia than overseas. In Sweden, the country image was not a problem for the types of product studied. However, in the Swedish medical II case the company had problem to sell their product within Sweden. It has been very hard to get the product financed by the national health care system in Sweden, as the product cannot be classified as medicine or as a mean for disabled. In Germany this was not a problem. This shows that national differences still exists and it is important to deal with them to succeed. The entrepreneurs in the Born Global firms do not see these problems on the home market as discouraging but go on to fin markets overseas.

    In this study we have focused on the entrepreneurs and found two different types. One common type of Born Global entrepreneur is the experienced employee, who works in a large organization and has ambitions and ideas that he found that he cannot fulfill in the large organisation. He is keen on starting a new business on his own or together with others who share his ideas and ambitions. The other is the younger, not so experienced, but ambitious with new ideas. He/she doesn’t want to be a part of a large organization, but want to fulfill his ideas in an own organisation. Both these types of entrepreneurs have a global mindset that they have acquired in different ways.

    There is also a difference between marketing and technical entrepreneurs. Even if Born Global entrepreneurs have interests and skills in both these areas they are often most interested in one of these areas. In High-tech industries a fast internationalization can be possible without an active internationalization, as the high-tech product often is very specialized and the home market is too small in countries as Sweden and Australia. Internationalization does not have to be an issue in the founding process in a Born Global firm. In a more mature industry, however, an active internationalization is necessary to expand abroad.

    The personal networks were very important for the entrepreneurs in the Born Global firms. The entrepreneurs with industry experience could use their contacts to expand their own business. Personal networks were also important to secure finance and to find partners in other areas. When the Born Global firms are created they are small with few financial resources. To be able to expand abroad they must cooperate with many others and these partners are found in personal networks

  • 212.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Evers, Natasha
    J.E. Cairnes School of Business and Economics, NUI Galway, Galway, Ireland.
    International opportunity recognition in international new ventures—a dynamic managerial capabilities perspective2015In: Journal of International Entrepreneurship, ISSN 1570-7385, E-ISSN 1573-7349, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 260-276Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article aims to advance theoretical knowledge of the international opportunity recognition in international new ventures (INVs) from a dynamic capabilities perspective with particular focus on the emergent perspective of dynamic managerial capabilities. Building the extant literature on international opportunity recognition, dynamic capabilities theory, this paper presents a conceptual framework explaining how dynamic capabilities of the firm can be created and enacted through the entrepreneur’s dynamic managerial capabilities and actions for international opportunity identification for international firm growth. Drawing on the dynamic capabilities theory and more recent dynamic managerial capabilities perspective, this article enriches understanding of how opportunities are identified for the venture’s international development and growth. The article concludes with theoretical and research implications. © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media New York

  • 213.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Evers, Natasha
    J.E. Cairnes School of Business and Economics, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland.
    The development of dynamic managerial capabilities and their influence of rapid international growth2013In: The 16th Annual McGill International Entrepreneurship Conference: Researching New Frontiers, 2013, p. 17-17Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article aims to advance theoretical knowledge of the development of dynamic managerial capabilities in international growing firms by reviewing and synthesizing available research into a conceptual framework. The framework explains how dynamic managerial capabilities, through international entrepreneurial actions, affect international growth. By including concepts from managerial dynamic capabilities theory, this article enriches understanding of a firm’s international development and growth.

    This article’s findings contribute to the emerging field of capability development (Ambrosini et al., 2009; Gavetti, 2005) and to the international entrepreneurship area (Jones et al., 2011). This study advances the resource-based and dynamic capability research agenda by paying greater attention to the role of managers in strategic and organizational change. In particular, this study focuses on managerial capability development at the individual level. The focus on development over time provides a richer understanding of the interplay among managerial social capital, managerial human capital, and managerial cognition. This study also develops a model that shows how dynamic managerial capabilities through international entrepreneurial actions affect international growth. That is, contributions are given to provide understanding of why firms are able to grow rapidly internationally. 

  • 214.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Evers, Natasha
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER). National University of Ireland (NUI), Galway, Ireland.
    Chen, Xuelin
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Zhang, Yini
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Business and Social Networking for Rapid SME Market Entry and Development in China2017In: / [ed] Natasha Evers, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores how the firm’s business and social relationships influence how adolescent Swedish born globals and Born Again Globals develop their customer base following post market entry into China. Using the network perspective and extant research on Chinese Guanxi, this study shows how Swedish manufacturing exporters leverage their network relationships in different phases the internationalisation process, in term of the extension, penetration and integration upon entry and post-market entry into China. A qualitative case study approach of three Swedish manufacturing adolescent born global and born again firms, on the Chinese market is employed. A framework developed from a network perspective is used to analyze the data. The study demonstrates the importance, and the degrees of impact, of business and social networks in market and post market entry into China. Business networks emerge as most important in the first part of the market entry process and when networks were integrated between China and other markets. However, social relationships had greater impact in facilitating the firm’s commitment of resources and its market penetration into China. The study also shows that business and social networks were interpreted as synonymous in the Chinese business context, in that social relationships (Guanxi) were considered just as important as business relationships from the Chinese perspective. Hence managing social dimensions of the relationship (Guanxi) were just as important as the business dimensions when conducting relationships with their Chinese customer and business partners.

  • 215.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Evers, Natasha
    The Marketing Discipline, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland.
    Gliga, Gabriela
    The Marketing Discipline, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland.
    Entrepreneurial marketing and born global internationalisation in China2018In: Qualitative Market Research, ISSN 1352-2752, E-ISSN 1758-7646, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 202-231Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This study aims to explore the entrepreneurial marketing (EM) behaviour of Swedish born globals entering the Chinese market through their international networks. Drawing from the network theory of small firm internationalisation, this study is positioned in the domain of EM, and thus captures the relevance of EM behaviour to explain how born globals internationalise through their networks.

    Design/methodology/approach: A qualitative case study approach of two Swedish born global companies active in the Chinese market is used. The network theory helps analyse the data in the three phases of firm internationalisation processes.

    Findings: The study shows the importance of networks for the enactment of EM for born globals. The study traces the evolution of network development in the market entry process of born globals and highlights the importance of aligning network leverage with contextual factors for market performance.

    Research limitations/implications: The generalisation of the findings is limited due to the exploratory nature of the study and the size of the research sample.

    Practical implications: Management of different types of networks is essential in the entry process and further growth of born globals in the Chinese market. In addition, born globals operating in psychically distant and complex institutionally contexts can especially gain support from intermediary networks.

    Originality/value: This study extends knowledge of international entrepreneurship by demonstrating that born global managers can enact EM behaviour by leveraging networks to gain rapid entry into the Chinese market. It further highlights the role of firms’ networks in the EM activities in their internationalisation. The conceptual underpinnings of EM and network theory provide greater understanding of how born globals enter and grow their psychically distant markets.

     © 2018, Emerald Publishing Limited.

  • 216.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Evers, Natasha
    National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland.
    Griot, Clemence
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Local and Global Networks in Small Firm Internationalisation – Cases from the Rhone-Alp Medical Technology Cluster2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although networks have been shown in many studies to be critical for the international development of firms, surprisingly few studies have focused on the influence of local networks and global networks in the internationalisation of firms operating in industrial clusters. This study explores the internationalisation processes of small and medium sized firms operating in the medical technology cluster in the Rhone-Alp region in France. Firstly, we find that local and global networks influence the internationalisation processes of the case firms but in different ways. The influence of such networks were determined by the regional location, industry dynamics and the life-cycle of firms in the cluster. Second, internationalising firms found were Born Globals, led by entrepreneurs globally market-orientated from inception and Born Again Globals, late but rapid internationalisers. The internationalisation of Born Again Globals was triggered by a critical event that redirected the firm rapidly on to global markets late in their life-cycle. Thirdly, local networks were important for initiating internationalisation for the Born Global firm yet held limited importance for the Born Again Globals in the cluster. Local networks in the cluster were however, important for both Born Global and Born Again Globals for developing and internationalising their innovations.

  • 217.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Evers, Natasha
    Marketing Discipline, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland.
    Griot, Clémence
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2). La Redoute Sverige AB, Borås, Sweden.
    Local and international networks in small firm internationalization: Cases from the Rhône-Alpes medical technology regional cluster2013In: Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, ISSN 0898-5626, E-ISSN 1464-5114, Vol. 25, no 9-10, p. 867-888Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores the internationalization processes of small firms operating in the medical technology cluster in the Rhône-Alpes region in France. The study demonstrates that both the location and the sectoral type of industry cluster influence the internationalization and network dynamics in the cluster. In addition, both local and international networks influence firm internationalization processes in different ways. First, the firm life-cycle, industry and locational cluster dynamics determine the extent of network influence on firms' internationalization processes. Second, two types of internationalizing firms emerge in this study: born global firms, led by proactive entrepreneurs and globally market-orientated firms from inception, and born-again globals, which engage in late but rapid internationalization as a result of new management or foreign acquisition. Third, local networks in the cluster are important for influencing the internationalization of the born global firm at inception. In contrast, international networks serve as the main impetus for re-launching internationalization for the born-again globals. Fourth, the local research institutions and their connections abroad help both born globals and born-again global firms develop and internationalize their innovations rapidly in the global marketplace.

  • 218.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Evers, Natasha
    National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland.
    Kuivalainen, Olli
    Lappeenranta University of Technology, Lappeenranta, Finland.
    International new ventures – rapid internationalization across different industry contexts2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The nature of the industry, or the environment in which the firm operates, can have a significant impact on the internationalization of the new venture. The impact of industry factors has received limited attention in the context of international entrepreneurship, however. The goals of this conceptual paper are the following: First, we present some insights into the industry idiosyncrasies and INVs and present a conceptual framework identifying key industry variables to aid further examination of the role industry factors on new venture internationalization processes and strategies, and hence, this paper can be seen as an early version of the conceptual review. Second, we build up propositions how industry affects the internationalization process of the INVs. In this we provide a platform for further studies in the domain of international entrepreneurship.

  • 219.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Evers, Natasha
    National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland.
    Kuivalainen, Olli
    Lappeenranta University of Technology, Lappeenranta, Finland.
    International new ventures: rapid internationalization across different industry contexts2014In: European Business Review, ISSN 0955-534X, E-ISSN 1758-7107, Vol. 26, no 5, p. 390-405Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this article is to, first, offer insights into the relationship between industry idiosyncrasies and international new ventures (INVs), and then present a research conceptual framework that identifies the role of industry factors in new venture internationalization processes and strategies. Second, the authors introduce the content of this special issue. Design/methodology/approach – This conceptual article builds on extant studies on INVs operating in different industrial contexts. Particular attention is given to the role of industry influences in the processes of new venture internationalization, in terms of speed, geographical scope and entry strategy. Such factors are discussed to formulate a conceptual framework as a basis for further research. Findings – The conceptual framework identifies key industry factors as well as emergent factors that influence the new venture internationalization process, in terms of speed, geographical scope and entry strategy. Such key influencing factors are competition and structure, industry life cycle, industry concentration, knowledge intensity, local cluster internationalization and global industry integration. Emergent factors are identified as new business models, technology and industry network dynamics. Research limitations/implications – This article is conceptual in nature, and thus empirical research is recommended in diverse contexts. Practical implications – Further analysis of industry factors is a valid research avenue for understanding INVs. Originality/value – This special issue offers new insights into how industry factors influence INVs’ internationalization processes in terms of speed, scope and entry strategy.

  • 220.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Florén, Henrik
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Differences in managerial behavior between small international and non-international firms2011In: Journal of International Entrepreneurship, ISSN 1570-7385, E-ISSN 1573-7349, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 233-258Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main question raised in this article is whether there are any differences between the work activities of managers in small firms primarily operating on an international market and those managing firms doing business on a domestic market. If so, what are these differences, and what do they tell us about the internationalization of small firms? The comparative method used here is based on multiple approaches including interviews, diary studies, and direct observations. The conclusions indicate that managers in small international firms are more proactive in their networking behavior, delegate operative activities and devote more time to planned strategic activities connected with their international expansion than managers in other small firms. 

  • 221.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Florén, Henrik
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Exploring managerial behavior in small international firms2008In: Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, ISSN 1462-6004, E-ISSN 1758-7840, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 31-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss the research on internationalization in small firms and research on managerial behavior, and it aims to develop new research questions that can enhance the understanding of the interface between these two areas.

    Design/methodology/approach: A literature review of internationalization of small firms is carried out. It is concluded that understanding of managerial behavior in small international firms is in need of improvement. Therefore, the literature on managerial behavior is described, scrutinized and deployed in the context of small firms' internationalization.

    Findings: No previous research has combined the research on small-business internationalization and managerial behavior. Hypotheses that can be empirically tested and new research questions that can yield a better understanding of the internationalization processes in small firms are developed.

    Research limitations/implications: The hypotheses developed in this study have not yet been tested empirically. Further research is suggested to confirm and elaborate these propositions.

    Practical implications: As the propositions in this study are not tested their practical implications are limited at present. However, earlier research has shown that there is a link between managerial behavior and firm behavior. Managers may be inspired by the study to reflect upon this link and adjust their behavior in ways that can improve their firms' international development.

    Originality/value: In this paper the research on internationalization in small firms is merged with the research on managerial behavior. By adding knowledge from the latter research tradition, the understanding of small-firm internationalization should be advanced through raising novel issues and applying new methodological tools.

  • 222.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Florén, Henrik
    What do managers in small international firms really do?2006In: McGill Conference on International Entrepreneurship, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 223.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Florén, Henrik
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Tell, Joakim
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Managerial behavior and small firm's internationalization2005In: McGill Conference on international entrepreneurship, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 224.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Gabrielsson, Jonas
    CIRCLE, Lunds universitet.
    Wictor, Ingemar
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Born Globals' foreign market channel strategies2006In: International Journal of Globalisation and Small Business, ISSN 1479-3059, E-ISSN 1479-3067, Vol. 1, no 4, p. 356-373Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Foreign entry mode choices are decisions of paramount importance for the long-term survival and growth of companies that are in a process of rapid international expansion. In this paper we seek to understand the foreign market channel strategies of Born Globals. We examine whether these companies develop a similar strategy regarding foreign entry mode choices and whether their market channel strategies differ from contemporary theories treating this problem. A comparative case study conducted on four companies meeting the criteria of Born Globals suggests that they do not show a common foreign entry mode. Instead, the companies seem to have very different market channel strategies even if they all have internationalised very rapidly. These findings are discussed against the current range of theoretical models that seek to explain the companies' foreign entry mode choice. We conclude the paper with some implications and suggestions for future research.

  • 225.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Gabrielsson, Jonas
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Wictor, Ingemar
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Born Globals' market channel strategies2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 226.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Gabrielsson, Jonas
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Wictor, Ingemar
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    International activities in small firms: Examining factors influencing the internationalization and export growth of small firms2004In: Canadian Journal of the Administrative Sciences, ISSN 0825-0383, E-ISSN 1936-4490, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 22-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we explore internationalization and export growth over time in a sample of 135 small manufacturing firms. By using concepts and arguments from literature on international business and small firms, the paper identifies six situational, or contingency, factors that are expected to influence the international activities of small firms. Our results show that a dynamic and fast-changing environment may push small firms to go abroad, while it seems to be the experiences built up in the organization and a younger generation of CEOs that can explain why some small firms continue to expand their international activities. The findings suggest that the factors influencing small firms to go abroad and become international differ from the factors that influence them to continue and grow once they are on the international marketplace. The paper ends with a discussion of the findings, together with suggestions for further research.

  • 227.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Gabrielsson, Jonas
    Wictor, Ingemar
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    International activities in small firms: Examining factors influencing the internationalization and export growth of SMEs2002In: McGill Conference on International Entrepreneurship, 2002Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 228.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Gabrielsson, Jonas
    Wictor, Ingemar
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    International activities in small firms: Examining factors influencing the internationalization and export growth of SMEs2009In: Entrepreneurship and Globalization / [ed] Rob B. McNaughton and Jim Bell, London: Sage Publications, 2009, p. 288-306Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 229.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Ghannad, Navid
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Entrepreneurs’ imprinting history influences on international new venture creation2023Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 230.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Ghannad, Navid
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    The role of entrepreneurs’ imprinting in the creation of born global firms2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study shows how imprinting episodes in entrepreneurs’ childhood and prior life story influence their mind-sets, which influence the entrepreneur’s venture creation and their firms international behaviour. Depending on the imprinting experiences, entrepreneurs develop skills and mind-sets with preferences and especially desires that will affect the total behaviour of their future organization.  The study also shows how firms’ international growth can be an important part of a firm’s strategy, but also a consequence of strategy that not per se include internationalization.

  • 231.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Hedelin, Anna
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Nilsson, Anna
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Welander, Charlotte
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Violent advertising in fashion marketing2004In: Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management, ISSN 1361-2026, E-ISSN 1758-7433, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 96-112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, violent advertising is discussed. An empirical study, using picture analysis, is carried out. The intent of the advertisers' message is compared with the interpretation of a male and a female consumer group. It is concluded that the consumers' interpretations not are the ones that the advertisers had intended. The violence was interpreted in a much more negative way than expected. It is also concluded that there are differences in interpretations between men and women. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

  • 232.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Servais, Per
    Department of Marketing and Management, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    Combining industrial buyer and seller strategies for international supply and marketing management2010In: European Business Review, ISSN 0955-534X, E-ISSN 1758-7107, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 64-81Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to review international industrial purchasing and marketing literature with a focus on portfolio models, to develop portfolio models for buyers' and sellers' international strategies, and to combine the models so that both the buyer and seller perspectives are dealt with simultaneously. Design/methodology/approach: Literature on international industrial purchasing and marketing is discussed. Dimensions that are important for the buyers' and sellers' strategies are identified. Portfolio models for buyers and sellers are developed and the two perspectives are matched together. Findings: The paper contributes a specification of features that are important for industrial buyers' and sellers' international purchasing and marketing strategies. These dimensions are used to develop a model of supplier relationship management and a marketing management model for supplier strategies. The consequences for the firm's international activities are discussed. A model combining industrial buyers' and sellers' international supply and marketing management strategies is developed. Research limitations/implications: This paper provides a deeper understanding of international exchange processes by combining literature on international industrial purchasing and international marketing. Situations are identified where different areas of theory are applicable. The paper also contributes to the discussion on what should be the conceptual domain of international business. Here, it is argued that international exchange is the product of joint decisions made by two or more actors based in different countries. Earlier academic literature reveals a striking imbalance: while one side of the coin - the exporter side - has been extensively studied, the importer side has largely been neglected. In this paper, it is tried to present a balanced view of both sides. Practical implications: This paper introduces portfolio management models that can be used for both industrial purchasing and marketing management. The paper stresses the importance of finding a fit between the marketing and purchasing strategies within a relationship. If both parties have positioned the relationship in a similar way, there are much greater possibilities for the relationship to create value for both parties. Originality/value: The paper combines international industrial purchasing and international marketing perspectives as few studies have done before. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

  • 233.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Servais, Per
    Combining Industrial Buyer's and Sellers International Strategies2005In: EIBA Conference, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 234.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Servais, Per
    Linneus University, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Different types of International New Ventures Based on Different Commercialization Processes in a Business-to-Business Context2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An emerging topic in the field of International Entrepreneurship (IE) is currently focused on international new ventures (INVs) and/or born-globals (Oviatt and McDougall, 1997; Madsen and Servais, 1997; Knight and Cavusgil, 1996) which are, by theoretic definition, start-ups that become international at inception or very shortly thereafter. More concretely, INVs have been previously defined as “a business organization that, from inception, seeks to derive significant competitive advantage from the use of resources and the sale of outputs in multiple countries” (Oviatt and McDougall, 1994: 49; McDougall et al., 1994:470). Quite similarly, Knight and Cavusgil (1996:11) conceptualise the born-global firm as ““small, [usually] technology-oriented companies that operate in international markets from the earliest days of their establishment”.

    Even if the born global research has grown rapidly during the last decades, most studies have focused on entrepreneurs, resources and networks and only a few researchers are observant about the context in which the born global firms are established and thrives. Literature reviews in international entrepreneurship has shown that most research in this area is based on business to business firms (Jones et al, 2012). However, we have not found any studies which go deeper in the different customer-supplier relationships that exist in a B2B context.

    Adaptation on B2B markets is important to make a relationship more productive, according to Hagberg-Anderson (2006).  There are structural factors, in the relationship between sellers and buyers which make different internationalization strategies more likely to succeed (Andersson, 2000).In this article we thoroughly discuss and review scientific articles that highlights the variation, differentiation and typology of international new venture. We complement this review with literature dealing with buyer-seller relationship in a B2B context. Based on these two strands on literature we develop a framework of different types of international new ventures in a business to business context. The framework gives theoretical contributions to the area of international entrepreneurship research but also managerial implication, showing how different types of relationships with customers make different internationalization strategies more or less likely to succeed.

  • 235.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Sundermeier, Janina
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Firms’ use of networks to get access to resources for internationalization2013In: The 16th Annual McGill International Entrepreneurship Conference: Researching New Frontiers: The Conference Program and Collection of Short Summaries, 2013, p. 18-18Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To get access to resources for internationalization many studies have acknowledged the importance of different types of networks. Therefore, this study intends to explore how different types of networks are beneficial for firms’ international growth. Three types of networks are identified in this study: Self established business networks, business networks established by a third party and social networks. A web-based survey is conducted among companies operating in the health technology industry in order to gain additional insights related to the accessibility of resources through different types of networks. The participating companies consists of members of the non-profit organization Health Technology Alliance (HTA) located in Southwest Sweden as well as several companies that are closely related to and take part in the activities of the HTA. Questionnaires have been sent out to 89 respondents of which 13 returned because of ambiguous or non-existing email addresses. Of the 76 firms that have received the questionnaire, 21 participated in the survey what equals a response rate of 36%. The findings reveal which resources are accessed through different types of networks. It is found that self-established business networks offer most access to resources whereas third-party founded business networks and social networks provide only limited access. Financial resources are not provided through any of the discussed networks. 

  • 236.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Sundermeier, Janina
    Department of Information Systems, Digital Entrepreneurship Hub, Freie Universität Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
    Firms' use of organizational, personal, and intermediary networks to gain access to resources for internationalization2019In: Thunderbird International Business Review, ISSN 1096-4762, E-ISSN 1520-6874, Vol. 61, no 4, p. 609-621Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores which networks are beneficial for gaining resources for firms' internationalization. Little is known about firms' use of organizational, personal, and intermediary networks to gain access to resources for internationalization. Firms are seeking resources through their organization's relationships (organizational networks) and individuals' personal contacts (personal networks). Governmental and industry actors are implementing networks to promote international growth and act as an intermediary between business actors (intermediary networks). We conduct in-depth interviews with firms and representatives for intermediary networks complemented with a survey. The findings reveal which resources are accessed through the different networks. We find organizational networks provide considerable access to most resources (except financial resources) that are beneficial for internationalization, whereas intermediary networks provide access to reputational, human, and market resources. Personal networks primarily provide access to human resources. This study contributes to theory by giving a more fine-grained understanding of how different types of networks give access to different resources valuable for internationalization. © 2019 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. 

  • 237.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Svensson, Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    A Glocal marketing model2009In: Glocal Marketing: think globally and act locally / [ed] Svante Andersson & Göran Svensson, Lund, 2009, 1, p. 391-396Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 238.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Svensson, Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Anti-climate Change Management in Marketing2009In: Glocal Marketing: think globally and act locally / [ed] Svante Andersson & Göran Svensson, Lund, 2009, 1, p. 373-390Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 239.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Svensson, Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Early Internationalizing Firms2009In: Glocal marketing: think globally and act locally / [ed] Svante Andersson & Göran Svensson, Lund, 2009, 1, p. 45-64Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 240.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Svensson, Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Global versus Glocal strategy and Marketing Think2009In: Glocal marketing: think globally and act locally / [ed] Svante Andersson & Göran Svensson, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2009, 1, p. 27-44Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 241.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Svensson, GöranHalmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Glocal Marketing: think globally and act locally2009Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 242.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Svensson, Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    The International Entrepreneur2009In: Glocal Marketing: think globally and act locally / [ed] Svante Andersson & Göran Svensson, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2009, 1, p. 257-276Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 243.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Svensson, Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Think Globally and Act Locally2009In: Glocal Marketing: think globally and act locally / [ed] Svante Andersson and Göran Svensson, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2009, 1, p. 13-26Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 244.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Svensson, Göran
    Kristiania University College, Oslo, Norway.
    Molina-Castillo, Francisco Jose
    Universidad De Murcia, Murcia, Spain.
    Otero-Neira, Carmen
    University Of Vigo, Vigo, Spain.
    Lindgren, John
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Karlsson, Niklas P.E.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Laurell, Hélène
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Sustainable development—Direct and indirect effects between economic, social, and environmental dimensions in business practices2022In: Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, ISSN 1535-3958, E-ISSN 1535-3966, Vol. 29, no 5, p. 1158-1172Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the direct and indirect effects between economic, social and environmental dimensions of triple bottom line (TBL), based on a questionnaire survey and cross-industrial sample in Sweden. The analyses apply partial least squares structural equation models. The study tests the direct and indirect effects between economic, social, and environmental dimensions of TBL and offers additional validity and reliability to establish the measurement and structural properties between the dimensions of TBL. The study extends earlier findings by explicitly discussing how the three TBL goals relate to each other and shows how the dynamic capability view can be a fruitful lens to investigate business sustainability. Some differences in sustainability business practices caused by differences in national cultures are identified. Sustainability reporting in a strong uncertainty avoidance (UA) country happens in accordance with regulations and laws. Conversely, for weak UA cultures, reporting and compliance with regulations are ways to build trust with stakeholders. That is, reporting is more transparent and widespread in weak UA countries. The study also provides a foundation to guide companies' actions of business sustainability. The model shows companies how to establish the order of actions undertaken across economic, social, and environmental dimensions. In addition, it clarifies that the economic dimension exerts an effect on the social and environmental dimensions. The model also grasps long-term economic performance by including competitiveness and brand value, while earlier research mainly has focused on more short-term measurements as return on assets. © 2022 The Authors. Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management published by ERP Environment and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  • 245.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Svensson, Göran
    Kristiania University College, Oslo, Norway.
    Otero-Neira, Carmen
    University Of Vigo, Vigo, Spain.
    Laurell, Hélène
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Lindgren, John
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Karlsson, Niklas P. E.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Sustainable development considerations in supply chains: Firms' relationships with stakeholders in their business sustainability practices—A triangular comparison2022In: Business Strategy and the Environment, ISSN 0964-4733, E-ISSN 1099-0836, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 1885-1899Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to investigate focal firms' business sustainability relationships in connection with their stakeholders in supply chain networks. A questionnaire survey was sent to a sample consisting of large Swedish firms, with 107 usable questionnaires returned. The results reveal which stakeholders are of interest for firms in sustainability efforts. The results are compared with earlier findings from Norway and Spain in a triangular approach. The former is a similar country, while the latter is different to Sweden in several ways. In addition, the study uncovers which stakeholders in the supply chain network should be considered. The study also demonstrates how firms can implement business sustainability in their supply chain networks and shows the extent to which different stakeholders are considered in sustainability efforts. The study contributes to sustainability research and stakeholder theory in supply chain networks. Opposite to earlier findings, this study showed only minor influences from national culture and institutions on firms' sustainable business practices in supply chain networks. © 2022 The Authors. Business Strategy and The Environment published by ERP Environment and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  • 246.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Svensson, Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Wood, Greg
    Deakin University, Australia .
    International Corporate and Business Ethics2009In: Glocal Marketing: think globally and act locally / [ed] Svante Andersson, Göran Svensson, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2009, p. 319-338Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 247.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Tell, Joakim
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    The relationship between the manager and growth in small firms2009In: Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, ISSN 1462-6004, E-ISSN 1758-7840, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 586-598Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The purpose of this paper is to improve the understanding of the relationship between the manager and growth in small firms, through a review of earlier research.

    Design/methodology/approach

    A review of articles published during the last 25 years is carried out in order to answer the question: How does the top manager influence growth in small firms?

    Findings

    Three key relationships are identified: between growth and, respectively, managerial traits and characteristics, managerial intentions, and managerial behavior or roles. The diverse findings in the literature are contradictory and give a paradoxical picture of the impact of the manager. A deeper analysis of the results from the review, supplemented with leadership theory, yields a better understanding of small-firm growth with a special focus on the behavior of the manager.

    Research limitations/implications

    This paper problematizes the complexity in managing small-firm growth, and can be further empirically validated by using multiple methods including qualitative ones such as observational studies.

    Practical implications

    The findings have a bearing on education and policy implications. If a behavior can be identified that promotes small firms' growth, education and policy implications can be developed in line with these results.

    Originality/value

    In small firms there seems to be a general consensus that managers do influence the performance of small firms, but so far there has not been a systematic review of earlier empirical research, that is done in this paper. From this review, a more complete picture of how managers influence growth in small firms is presented.

  • 248.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Wictor, Ingemar
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Innovative international strategies in new firms - born globals2001Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 249.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Wictor, Ingemar
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Innovative International Strategies in new firms: Born Globals - the Swedish case2001In: 4th McGill Conference on International Entrepreneurship : researching new frontiers : 21-23 September 2001, Strathclyde International Business Unit, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, Scotland / [ed] Dimitratos, P. and Jones, M.V., eds., 2001, p. 39-63Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 250.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Wictor, Ingemar
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Innovative Internationalisation in New firms: Born Globals–the Swedish Case2003In: Journal of International Entrepreneurship, ISSN 1570-7385, E-ISSN 1573-7349, Vol. 1, no 3, p. 249-275Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the past few years, the phenomenon of Born Globals has been highlighted in many studies. Such firms adopt a global approach right from their inception or very shortly thereafter. This behaviour challenges the traditional internationalisation models of slow and gradual development with respect to geographical markets and market entry modes. In this paper a conceptual framework is developed from earlier research and includes the factors: globalisation, entrepreneurs, networks, and industry. A survey showed that Born Globals were still very uncommon in Sweden. However, four Born Global firms were identified and analysed with the framework. It was concluded that the ongoing globalisation has made it easier to conduct Born Global strategies. However, active entrepreneurs, who recognised the global opportunities, were crucial for the implementation of these strategies, in which personal networks were used as tools.

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