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  • 151.
    Andersson, Oliver
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Hallgren, Malte
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Konkurrensfördelar inom industri 4.0: är hållbarhet hållbart?: En kvalitativ fallstudie för att förstå om företags önskade värde och kunders upplevda värde sammanlänkar2023Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Titel: Konkurrensfördelar inom industri 4.0: är hållbarhet hållbart? - En kvalitativ fallstudie 

    för att förstå om företags önskade värde och kunders upplevda värde sammanlänkar. 

    Författare: Oliver Andersson & Malte Hallgren 

    Handledare: Jean-Charles Languilaire 

    Bakgrund: Industri 4.0 innefattar automatiseringen av industrisektorn och hur maskiner, sensorer och IT-system ansluter samman. Centralt för industri 4.0 är en effektivisering genom smarta och uppkopplade system vilket är en förutsättning för att uppnå konkurrensfördelar samt tillväxt. I samband med att samhället blir mer medvetna och brydda i frågor om vilken påverkan människan har på vår planet, tillkommer både samhälleliga men också lagkrav på hållbarhetsanpassning. Trots att hållbarhet är ett koncept som växer sig starkare även bland företag och organisationer kvarstår en problematik gällande hur hållbarhet definieras samt hur det mäts. Tidigare forskning har separat studerat hållbarhet och industri 4.0, men det finns en kunskapslucka hur ämnena sammankopplas inom en svensk kontext. Utifrån bakgrunden vill författarna att denna studie ska bistå med förståelse om hållbarhet kan skapa konkurrensfördelar inom industri 4.0. 

    Syfte: Syftet med studien är att söka förståelse om konkurrensfördelar kan skapas genom att integrera och implementera hållbarhet i en organisation inom industri 4.0. 

    Problemformulering: Skapar hållbarhetsarbete värde som kan bidra till konkurrensfördel inom industri 4.0? 

    Metodologi & Metod: Studien använder en kvalitativ forskningsmetod där sex semistrukturerade intervjuer samt en dokumentinsamling står för den empiriska insamlingen för forskningsobjektet. Studiens forskningsansats är induktiv och för att kunna samla in material för tolkning har ett företagsfall observerats, detta gör arbetet till en fallstudie. För att kunna söka förståelse för fallet är ontologin subjektiv och epistemologin hermeneutisk. 

    Slutsatser: Studiens slutsatser presenterar vilken förståelse som har skapats kring om hållbarhetsarbete kan skapa konkurrensfördelar inom industri 4.0. Komplicerade värdekedjor genomsyrar industri 4.0 vilket har skapat problematik bland företag som önskar spåra hela sitt klimatavtryck samtidigt som företag får allt mer krav från intressenter att produkter ska framställas så hållbart som möjligt. Ett värdeerbjudande som bidrar till mer hållbara processer än andra alternativ väntas få en större efterfrågan. Sammanlänkningen mellan önskat värde och upplevt värde anses vara bevisad, det vill säga att hållbarhetsinitiativ för en säljande part skapar ett högre värde hos köparen. Slutsatsen kan däremot enbart dras när båda parter har en önskan om hållbara processer och en likvärdig definition av begreppet. 

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  • 152.
    Andersson, Oscar
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Livh, Clara
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Investeringar i energieffektiviseringsåtgärder: En studie om effekten av regionalt energikartläggningsstöd2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Which investments in energy efficiency measures have been done as a result of RegionHallands energy audit checks? In the view of which economical aspects have proposed measures in the energy audits been done? Does the companies experience some kind of barriers regarding the investments and what kind of incentives could possibly stimulate the implementation of energy efficiency measures?

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  • 153.
    Andersson, Philip
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Malinova, Kristiana
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Promotional Products: A quantitative study about which promotional product are thebest to be used in general and specific industries2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title: Promotional Products - A quantitative study about which promotional product are thebest to be used in general and specific industries

    Authors: Philip Andersson and Kristiana Malinova

    Supervisor: Jean-Charles Languilaire

    Examiner: Christine Tidåsen

    End seminar: 2012-06-04

    Level: Bachelor Dissertation in Marketing, 15 Swedish credits, Spring 2012

    Key words: promotional products, promotional items, promotional gifts, product advertising,promotion, promotion methods and swag.

    Question:“Which are the best promotional products to be used by companies in general andin specific industries?”

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to describe and analyze the use and the importance ofpromotional products for companies. What we want to achieve with this study is to find outwhich promotional product is the best in general and in specific industries. We will explorethe power of promotional items and how to achieve the best results when it comes to savingtime and money.

    Theoretical framework: The theoretical framework includes theories regarding whatcompanies need to consider when choosing to use promotional products. The theories whichare used are based to on the four hypotheses which we have chosen to analyze.

    Methodology and Method: This dissertation is a quantitative study with a deductive andextensive approach.

    Empirical framework: The empirical framework present findings and statistics of theresearch.

    Analysis: The four hypotheses are analyzed and critical examined.

    Conclusion: If companies learn how use promotional products they will gain a greatadvantage on the market. The type of the industry is of great importance when it comes tochoosing the right promotional products.

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  • 154.
    Andersson, Philip
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Thuresson, Daniel
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Val av revisor i onoterade ägarledda företag: En studie om vilka faktorer som påverkar onoterade ägarledda företags val av revisor2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I den här uppsatsen har vi undersökt hur onoterade ägarledda företag väljer revisor och vad som påverkar valet av revisor i dessa företag. Tidigare forskning har visat att det finns ett forskningsgap inom små bolag och deras val av revisor. Vi har intervjuat sex företag i flera olika branscher. Företagen hade en omsättning på mellan fem och femtio miljoner. I de flesta fall initieras revisorn för företaget med en rekommendation. I nästa steg bokas oftast ett möte med revisorn där främst personkemin mellan företagaren och revisorn bedöms. De studerade företagarna är i majoriteten av fallen nyblivna företagare och vet då inte vad som kan förväntas av revisorn. Valet grundas ofta på rekommendationen tillsammans med utvärderingen av personkemin. Egenskaper som tillgänglighet, proaktivitet och generell kunskap är egenskaper som utvärderas med tiden av företagen. Besitter inte revisorn de efterfrågade egenskaperna finns risken att företagarna väljer att söka efter en ny revisor. Företagarna letar då mer aktivt efter en revisor som besitter egenskaperna. Beroende på interna och externa faktorer kan företagarna även efterfråga oberoende och specifika rådgivningstjänster. Det har identifierats som faktorer som är behovsanpassade till företagen.

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  • 155. Andersson, Pia
    et al.
    Karlström, Klara
    Factors influencing a customer’s loyalty in B2B relationships: A qualitative study of relationship marketing2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title: Factors influencing a customer’s loyalty in B2B relationships: A qualitative study of relationship marketing

    Authors: Klara Karlström & Pia Andersson

    Advisor: Svante Andersson

    Level: Master thesis in marketing (15 Swedish credits). Spring 2014.

    Keywords: Customer loyalty, Behavior, Relationship marketing, B2B

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to get a deeper understanding of which factors that influence a customer’s loyalty in the relationship between a supplier and a customer in B2B and how these factors are achieved?

    Frame of Reference: In the following chapter we present theory from previous research related to our research questions and purpose. First, a conceptualization of relationship marketing is outlined followed by theory regarding customer loyalty. Second, the selected factors of relationship marketing that can indicate customer loyalty are presented one by one.

    Methodology: In this chapter all the method choices to fulfill the thesis’ purpose and to answer the research questions are discussed and motivated. The choices for this study are comprehensive approach, qualitative method, a case study with one case company interviewing three informants.

    Empirical Study: In this chapter we present primary data that is collected for our study. It is collected through personal interviews with three informants at Getinge.

    Conclusion: Our conclusion is that satisfaction is more important that the other nine factors and that shared value and bonding are less important then the other factors. How they are achieved depend on the situation, the employee at Getinge and the customer in specific and there are no clear guidelines on how the should be achieved. Although there are no guidelines there are directions and the achievement of the factors are based on Getinge’s core values. The employees of Getinge are using the core values together with their individual common sense to reach the best result of customer loyalty.

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  • 156.
    Andersson, Sandra
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Wennerström, Anneli
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Skulder – intressenters inställning till förslaget beträffande definition, recognition och derecognition i IASB:s föreställningsram2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    One of the world's main standard-setters in accounting standards is the International Accounting Standards Board. The project to revise the Conceptual Framework is ongoing. The Conceptual Framework sets out the basic concepts for financial reporting. This study will concern proposals regarding the definition, recognition and derecognition of liabilities. Various stakeholders have been given the opportunity to comment on these proposals through Comment Letters (CL) on a previously released Exposure Draft (ED) 2015.

    The purpose of this study is to account for the different interest groups' attitude towards the proposal for the definition, recognition and derecognition of liabilities in the IASBs’ Conceptual Framework. Furthermore, the purpose is to examine the underlying reasons why they have positive or negative attitude to the proposal. Finally, the purpose is to examine whether the need for information differs between the interest groups in terms of definition, recognition and derecognition in the IASBs’ Conceptual Framework.

    The contribution of the study is to contribute to a greater understanding of the subject, as well as to benefit the standard-setters and the future process for standard-setting. This is done by identifying the different stakeholders attitude towards the proposals and why. Since it is important that the interests of stakeholders will be taken into account in order for the Conceptual Framework to be widely accepted, the study's results will be a contribution to the continued development of the Conceptual Framework.

    The study is based on the CL submitted to the International Accounting Standards Board before October 26, 2015, which was the last date to leave a CL on ED 2015. The study has been limited to, include only CL from standard-setters, accounting professionals, banks, companies and academics. The study consists 125 CL. Then a document examination with an inductive approach has been made.

    The result of the study shows that a majority of stakeholders are in favor of the proposals regarding the definition, recognition and derecognition of liabilities. Banks are the only interest group who disagrees with the proposal, which may be because they are worried that the proposal opens up for the opportunity for companies to make an assessment of the accounting method they themselves should choose. However, all stakeholders want more guidance in the Conceptual Framework. Furthermore, it can be concluded that stakeholders wish for a more rule-based Conceptual Framework. Based on the results of the study, it can be noted that the project to revise the Conceptual Framework should continue as there are unclear principles that need clarification.

    This essay is written in Swedish. 

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  • 157.
    Andersson, Sara
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Bengtsson, Julia
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Nystartade företag och rådgivning: finns det samband mellan efterfrågan på rådgivning och företagsledarens kunskaper, intressenter och bransch?2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 240 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Nystartade företag är viktiga för Sveriges ekonomiska tillväxt. I tidigare studier diskuteras att företagsledare i nystartade och små företag ofta saknar kunskap om redovisning och behöver rätt verktyg för att lyckas. Fram till november 2010 fanns revisionsplikt för alla bolag i Sverige där en revisor granskar ett bolags räkenskaper för att kvalitetssäkra att redovisningen inte innehåller några väsentliga fel. Sedan revisionspliktens avskaffande är det fler företag som väljer bort revisorn vilket har skapat möjligheter för yrkesgruppen redovisningskonsulter i Sverige. En redovisningskonsult kan anlitas för upprättandet av de finansiella rapporterna och har större möjligheter att ge företag rådgivning inom en mängd områden. Med redovisningskonsultens växande roll tillsammans med nystartade företags viktiga bidrag syftar denna studie till att kartlägga vilka rådgivningstjänster ett nystartat företag efterfrågar från sin redovisningskonsult. Vidare syftar studien även till att analysera om det föreligger samband mellan den rådgivning ett nystartat företag efterfrågar från sin redovisningskonsult och företagsledarens kunskaper, intressenter och bransch. I den enkätundersökning som genomförts med nystartade företag kunde resultatet inte påvisa några statistiskt säkerställda samband. Däremot kunde en sammanställning av de vanligaste rådgivningstjänsterna för nystartade företag tas fram. Detta bidrar till att redovisningskonsulter kan fokusera på dessa områden i kontakten med nystartade företag och således ge dem större möjlighet till att lyckas och därmed bidra till ökad ekonomisk tillväxt i Sverige.  

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  • 158.
    Andersson, Sara
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Carlsson, Nora
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Riskhantering vid kreditbedömning för kommersiella fastigheter: En studie inom banksktorn2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A bank loan is the primary source to meet the capital needs to finance an investment for a company. A credit is always associated with a risk and banks main risks are associated to their credit. In recent years, credit losses have increased for some of the Swedish banks. According to “Finansinspektionen” (Swedish financial inspection), a large part of the credit losses consists of loans for commercial real estate. There are three types of risks associated with granting loans: credit risk, liquidity risk and market risk. It is important that creditors identify the risks associated to the credit in order for the bank to avoid credit losses in the future.

    The purpose of our study is to find out how Sweden's major banks are working with risk management when credit rating a customer and revaluating risk during the operating credit period. We also examined how banks appraise a property to be mortgaged. This study is based on a qualitative methodology where we have used a semi-structured interview when interviewing representatives from each of the four major banks in Sweden; Handelsbanken, Nordea, SEB and Swedbank.

    The results shows that banks identify and manage the risks and uncertainties associated with granting loans by working on the basis of guidelines and policies. However, there are no guidelines for how the soft factors must be analysed when credit rating, even though they are very important to the banks. When appraising commercial real estate in connection to credit rating the banks use multiple valuation methods to ensure the value of the property. The study also shows that banks are working similar because of the fact that they are highly regulated and supervised.

    Keywords: appraising real estate, credit loss, credit grant, risk management.

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  • 159.
    Andersson, Sebastian
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Kokot, Bojan
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Radic, Aleksandar
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Fastighetsbranschen bygger på ledarskap: Den coachande ledarstilens effekt på self-efficacy2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

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  • 160. Andersson, Sofia
    et al.
    Lidén, Magdalena
    Verksamhetsförändringar inom kundservice: en studie genomförd i banksektorn2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 161.
    Andersson, Stefan
    et al.
    Halmstad University.
    Norlander, Jonas
    Halmstad University.
    DIVISIONEN – FÖR EN FARLIGARE ARMÉ: En studie om möjligheter och utmaningar med att återinföra divisionsnivån ur ett arméperspektiv.2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish army prepares for growth in accordance with the Swedish Defence Commission´s report Defensive Power (Värnkraft) and the Swedish Armed Forces' budget calculations. The growth includes a reintroduction of a command level between the brigades and the army staff - the division level. The army has calculated the command level to be established in stages starting about 2025 and beyond 2030, beginning with a command capacity and embryos for a logistics unit and an engineering unit. The enabler units that are part of the continued development beyond 2030 have not yet been fully defined. This study aims to explore opportunities and possible challenges, primarily from a tactical perspective, entailing the introduction of the divisional level in the army. The study was conducted as a qualitative interview study with an explorative design. The respondent group has been made up of commanders at a higher tactical level and within the army's development organization. The empirical data collected has been compared to existing knowledge in three identified key concepts; organization, complexity and flexibility.

    The study concludes that the introduction of the command level is justified and contributes to a potentially more dangerous army, even if there is uncertainty concerning how complete the divisional capacity can be developed from an enabler perspective, but that the anchoring of the introduction is inadequate in the Armed Forces. Furthermore, it is concluded that the division should be regarded as a maneuver unit capable of coordinating in a real-time perspective, in order to be able to flexibly manage a dynamic situation development. The division should be organized to be able to act as a hub and continuously receive additional troop contributions. A cadre organization should be established and maintained to ensure the unit´s ability of flexibility over time. The study recommends that such a cadre staff to be allowed influence in the areas that directly affect the unit, and the staff to be allowed to practice over a large part of the conflict scale. Furthermore, an internal anchoring the introduction within the Swedish Armed Forces is recommended.

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  • 162.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    A Network Approach to Marketing Management2002In: Journal of Enterprising Culture, ISSN 0218-4958, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 209-223Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article is an argument in favour of the importance of having different perspectives for different situations in marketing. Since the 1990s, relationship marketing has become an accepted stream in marketing research. However, this type of marketing consists of many different perspectives. Here, the network approach is covered. Its origin and its divergence from the mainstream marketing mix approach are discussed. It is concluded that Swedish culture and context influenced the development of the network approach. However, the network view is not pertinent to all marketing situations in Sweden and the approach is also useful outside of the Swedish context. Finally, it is argued that marketing research should benefit from many different perspectives and approaches that could be applicable to different marketing situations.

  • 163.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Born Globals – Early Internationalizing Firms2006In: Marketing: Broadening the Horizons / [ed] Stefan Lagrosen & Göran Svensson, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2006, p. 235-254Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this book is to provide a wider perspective of the marketing field, particularly at a time when the field of marketing is expanding and developing in new and different directions. Unlike the more traditional literature, this book affords a deeper insight into the new marketing avenues of services marketing, business-to-business marketing and relationship marketing. Several other relevant marketing-related areas are also presented.

    An international team of distinguished authors contribute their expertise, which provides a comprehensive overview of recent marketing developments. (Från förlaget)

  • 164.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Decision-making in born globals - effectuation or causation?2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The purpose of this study is to enhance the understanding of a born global firm’s early internationalization process and the entrepreneur’s decisions regarding internationalization by using effectuation theory.

    Design/methodology/approach

    An explorative case study is used to explore if effectuation theory is a fruitful alternative perspective compared with the dominant paradigm (causation), which is primarily used in earlier studies on born globals.

    Findings

    The study shows how a born global company could enter many markets in short time, by co-operating with local network partners. The founders’ prior knowledge and networks were important to understand the rapid international expansion. Effectuation theory focuses on the entrepreneurs’ ability to create opportunities together with network partners and is a useful tool to understand the development in the born global firm.

    Research limitations/implications

    The study shows that effectuation theory holds promise for developing the international entrepreneurship area. Future research is recommended to focus not only on the entrepreneur’s competencies but also on the entrepreneur’s behaviour, including during the time before they started the firm.

    Practical implications

    Decision-makers in the early development of born global firms are recommended to use his/her own and his/her company’s resources and network. Also advantage should be taken of opportunities when they are recognized or created, instead of focusing on traditional planning activities.

    Originality/value

    There are few studies which have used effectuation theory as a basis for understanding the early development of a born global firm.

  • 165.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Det växande företaget2001Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Vad utmärker det växande företaget? Vilken betydelse har entreprenören för det växande företaget? Dessa och många andra frågor besvaras i denna bok.

    Vad utmärker det växande företaget? Varför växer vissa företag medan andra stagnerar eller rent av minskar i storlek? Vilken betydelse har entreprenören för det växande företaget? Agerar växande företag på ett sätt som skiljer dem från andra företag? Använder växande företag speciella strategier och organisationsformer? I vilka miljöer växer företag? Ovanstående frågor – och många andra – besvaras i den här boken.

    Den vänder sig till studenter, praktiker och beslutsfattare som är intresserade av att fördjupa sina kunskaper om växande företag och hur de fungerar. Boken bygger på författarens forskning om svenska snabbväxande företag, och de teoretiska diskussionerna illustreras med exempel från svenska företag.

  • 166.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Early Internationalizing Firms and the Decision to Internationalize: Causation or effectuation2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 167.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Entrepreneurs’ influence on firms’ international behavior2007In: The global enterprise: Entrepreneurship and value creation, New York: International Business Press, cop. , 2007, p. 109-136Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 168.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    High-growth firms in the Swedish ERP industry2003In: Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, ISSN 1462-6004, E-ISSN 1758-7840, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 180-193Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyses growth patterns in three high-growth Swedish firms (Intentia, IBS, and in the enterprise resource planning (ERP) industry. A multi-theoretical framework is developed and used to analyse the firms' growth. It is concluded that growth is a complex phenomenon that has to be viewed from different theoretical angles to be understood. It is shown that entrepreneurs' intentions, international growth strategies, organic organisations, industry structure and networks, and national cultures are all factors that influence firms' growth.

  • 169.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    How do entrepreneurs create international new ventures – cognition and action2014In: Abstract proceedings: 17th MIE conference @ Research Center for International Competitiveness UAI, Santiago, Chile, September 2-5, 2014, 2014, p. 16-16Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper continues with a discussion on earlier research on entrepreneurs in international new ventures. It can be concluded that research that has shown that the entrepreneur is an important factor to understand the inception and development of INVs. It can also be concluded that the research, so far, has came up to somewhat different conclusions and focused on different aspects on how entrepreneurs influence firm’s international behaviour. Following the above discussion earlier research on entrepreneurs and firm’s international development is discussed next in this paper. It is concluded that the entrepreneur’s cognition and action is instrumental to understand firm’s international development. To build international ventures the entrepreneurs need to adapt to different context and build an organization that can continue to grow internationally. A global mind-set is important to see and act on international opportunities. The paper concludes with some practical implications.

  • 170.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    International Entrepreneurship and the Theory of Effectuation2010In: Entrepreneurship and the creation of small firms: empirical studies of new ventures / [ed] Carin Holmquist and Johan Wiklund, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2010, p. 179-196Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 171.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    International entrepreneurship, born globals and the theory of effectuation2011In: Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, ISSN 1462-6004, E-ISSN 1758-7840, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 627-643Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    – The purpose of this study is to enhance the understanding of a born global firm’s early

    internationalization process and the entrepreneur’s decisions regarding internationalization by using

    effectuation theory.

    Design/methodology/approach

    – An explorative case study is used to explore whether

    effectuation theory is a fruitful alternative perspective compared with the dominant paradigm

    (causation), which is primarily used in earlier studies on born globals.

    Findings

    – The study shows how a born global company could enter many markets in a short time,

    by co-operating with local network partners. The founders’ prior knowledge and networks were

    important to understand the rapid international expansion. Effectuation theory focuses on the

    entrepreneurs’ ability to create opportunities together with network partners and is a useful tool to

    understand the development in the born global firm.

    Research limitations/implications

    – The study shows that effectuation theory holds promise for

    developing the international entrepreneurship area. Future research is recommended to focus not only

    on the entrepreneur’s competencies, but also on the entrepreneur’s behavior, including during the time

    before they started the firm.

    Practical implications

    – Decision-makers in the early development of born global firms are

    recommended to use his/her own and his/her company’s resources and network. Also advantage

    should be taken of opportunities when they are recognized or created, instead of focusing on

    traditional planning activities.

    Originality/value

    – There are few studies that have used effectuation theory as a basis for

    understanding the early development of a born global firm.

     

  • 172.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    International Growth Strategies in Consumer and Business-to-Business Markets in Manufacturing and Service Sectors2006In: Journal of Euromarketing, ISSN 1049-6483, E-ISSN 1528-6967, Vol. 15, no 4, p. 35-56Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Internationalization of the firm traditionally has been examined using theoretical frameworks that do not focus on the firm's marketing context. In this paper, it is argued that international growth strategies are different for firms in different marketing contexts. Different international growth strategies for manufacturing and service companies in consumer and business-to-business market are studied. Using case studies, the study identifies different barriers in different marketing contexts and identifies different international growth strategies. The study shows that various internationalization theories are appropriate in different marketing contexts.

  • 173.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    International growth strategies in different marketing contexts2011In: International Growth of Small and Medium Enterprises / [ed] Niina Nummela, New York: Routledge, 2011, p. 97-114Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 174.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    International Strategies in firms dominated by marketing and technical entrepreneurs2003In: Proceedings of the 1st Conference on International Entrepreneurship in a European Context, Madrid: Instituto de Empresa , 2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 175.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Internationalisering av snabbväxande företag2001In: Tillväxtföretagen i Sverige / [ed] Per Davidsson, Frédéric Delmar, Johan Wiklund, Stockholm: SNS förlag, 2001, p. 294-330Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 176.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Internationalization in consumer and business to business markets in manufacturing and service sectors2005In: CIMAR 2005, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 177.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Internationalization in different marketing contexts2005In: Book of Abstracts and Program: ANZMAC 2005 Conference / [ed] Sharon Purchase, ANZMAC , 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 178.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Internationalization in Mature and High Growing Industries2000Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Principal Topic

    Why firms choose to establish themselves in certain markets is a question that has been discussed by different researchers. One of the most used concepts when discussing this question is psychic distance. In this article the concept is compared with other researchers’ views of market choice. Moreover, various theories are used to analyze the market choice of different Swedish firms. The international developments of some Swedish firms are shown in case studies, where market choice in mature and high growing industries is discussed. Is psychic distance still relevant to understand firms’ market choice? If not, which other theories can be useful to understand firms’ market choice?

    Method

    Cases from the rubber product industry is chosen to illustrate internationalization in a mature industry and cases from the ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) industry are chosen to illustrate internationalization in a high growing industry. The cases was chosen because their international development illustrated various situation where theories could be compared with the firms’ actual behavior.The case studies are built on secondary data, such as business magazines, annual reports and internal documents, but mainly on personal interviews. I interviewed the individuals that personally took part in the decisions and implementation of the companies’ different establishments abroad, such as chairmen of the boards, presidents, export directors, area managers, export salesmen, presidents of subsidiaries, etc. More than 50 individuals were interviewed. The individuals who had the greatest influence on the internationalization processes were interviewed several times. Former interviews led to the identification of individuals who were central in the internationalization process. The interviewees have had the opportunity to read and comment on the drafts of the different cases.

    Implications

    The conclusion is drawn that different theories are relevant in various situations. Psychic distance is identified as a partial model and different theories are appropriate dependent of the firms’ degree of internationalization and if the industry is mature or growing. Decision-makers are recommended to careful analyze their own situation and use different models in various situations.

  • 179.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Internationalization of the Firm from an entrepreneurial perspective2009In: Entrepreneurship and Globalization / [ed] Rob B. McNaughton and Jim D. Bell, London: Sage Publications, 2009, p. 105-131Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 180.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    "Internationell satsning skapar jobb i Sverige"2019In: Ny Teknik, E-ISSN 1402-4845, no 4 feb., p. 1Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    DEBATT. Generellt stöd till företag att nå ut internationellt är oftast meningslöst. Identifiera och satsa istället på ”born globals” som tidigt har siktet inställt på den globala marknaden - de skapar både tillväxt och arbetstillfällen i Sverige, skriver ekonomiprofessorn Svante Andersson.

  • 181.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Job creation in Swedish born globals2018In: European born globals: Job creation in young international businesses / [ed] Irene Mandl & Valentina Patrini, London: Routledge, 2018, p. 41-62Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter deals with how Swedish born globals have contributed to economic growth and job creation in Sweden. The chapter starts with an overview of the Swedish economy and international trade. Thereafter follows a description of born globals in Sweden, including information on their sector, number of employees, and willingness and expectation to grow. This is illustrated by two examples of Swedish born globals that have experienced a continued international growth and have created jobs in Sweden. These examples are from the manufacturing and med-tech sectors, which are over-represented when it comes to born globals. After that, the creative sector is presented as a new growing sector in Sweden. The creative sector has been identified as one of the key sectors, with many born global firms, which can help Europe remain competitive in the changing global market driving economic growth and job creation (Collins et al., 2014). Subsequently, this chapter discusses how born globals in Sweden have influenced economic growth and job creation in different sectors and finishes with reflections on implications for policy and managers. © 2018 selection and editorial matter, Irene Mandl and Valentina Patrini.

  • 182.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Market Choice in Various Situations2000Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 183.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Suppliers' international strategies2002In: European Journal of Marketing, ISSN 0309-0566, E-ISSN 1758-7123, Vol. 36, no 1-2, p. 86-110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A longitudinal study of the international behaviour of Swedish suppliers is presented. Three different types of supplier are identified: simple suppliers, advanced suppliers, and own product suppliers. Factors influencing the internationalisation of these suppliers are discussed. It is concluded that the firms' offer and the customers' buying strategies influence the firms' international behaviour. However, these factors do not determine the international strategies completely. Various entrepreneurs will choose various strategies. Three different types of entrepreneurs are identified: the marketing, technical, and structural entrepreneurs. The type of entrepreneur influences the firms' international strategies in different directions.

  • 184.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    The Entrepreneur and Firm’s International Strategies1999In: Images of Entrepreneurship and Small Business: Emergent Swedish Contributions to Academic Research / [ed] Bengt Johannisson, Hans Landström, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 1999, p. 241-265Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 185.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    The Entrepreneur and Firm's International Strategies1998Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 186.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    The entrepreneur and the internationalization of the firm2003In: 7th Vaasa conference on International Business, 2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 187.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    The Entrepreneur's influence on firm's international Strategy2003In: ANZMAC2003, 2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 188.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    The Establishment Sequence of Foreign Subsidiaries1995Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 189.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    The international entrepreneur – From experience to action2014In: The Routledge Companion to International Entrepreneurship / [ed] Stephanie A. Fernhaber; Shameen Prashantham, Abingdon, Oxon & New York, NY: Routledge, 2014, p. 70-83Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 190.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    The Internationalization of the Born Global Firm from an Entrepreneurial Perspective2004In: EIBA Conference, 2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 191.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    The internationalization of the firm from an entrepreneurial perspective2000In: International Studies of Management and Organization, ISSN 0020-8825, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 63-92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are 2 dominant views in international business research: the economic and the process view. In this study it is shown that these views give some insight into the complex phenomenon of the internationalization of the firm. However, the understanding of various international behaviors in the firm's first international ventures as well as of radical strategic changes is enhanced by an analysis focusing on entrepreneurs.

  • 192.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    The Network Perspective: Its origin and differences to the Marketing Management approach1998In: Australia and New Zealand Marketing Academy conference; Marketing connections / [ed] Brendan J. Gray; Kenneth R. Deans, Otago: Department of Marketing, University of Otago , 1998, p. 62-72Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Relationship marketing during the nineties has become an accepted approach in marketing research. This type of marketing, however, consists of many different perspectives. Here, the network approach is covered. This perspective’s origin and its differences to the marketing management approach are discussed. It is concluded that the development of the network perspective was influenced by its Swedish context, however the network view is not pertinent on all marketing situations in Sweden. Finally it is argued that research in marketing should prosper with many different perspectives that could be applicable for different marketing situations.

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  • 193.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Aagerup, Ulf
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Awuah, Gabriel Baffour
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Wictor, Ingemar
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Building Brand Personality in a Business-to-Business Context – the Case of Born Globals2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Branding has for a long time been in focus in strategic decision making for firms in a business-to-consumer context. Brands has been used as a tool to differentiate products and position firms’ offers towards competitors. In a business-to business context branding has not been in focus in the same way. Strategic decisions have more dealt with technology innovation and market expansions. In recent times, a greater interest for brand building in a business to business (B2B) context has emerged, both in practice and academia, especially for globally active B2B firms that strive to create a unified look of their products and firms. The hard global competition has made it difficult to compete on product quality alone, services around the product and intangible features has been important parts of B2B firms’ offers. The B2B firms’ more complex offers can be incorporated under a common brand that differentiates the firms’ offer from competitors. Although that the practical importance of B2B branding has been acknowledge lately, research dealing with B2B branding is still relatively limited. Most studies on B2B branding attempt to describe what brands are, how they affect companies, or vice versa. Research on the process of B2B brand building is however scarce. Also, when B2B brands are in focus of a study, it is usually their tangible characteristics that are examined. In B2C brand literature, intangible aspects and, the metaphor to see the brand as a person is widely discussed (Aaker, 1997). However, there is very little research on brand as a person element in the B2B context. Brand personality is normally defined as the human characteristics associated with a brand, More research into the brand personality building processes in a B2B context are therefore needed. Following the above discussion this study’s aim is to investigate how brand personality is built in B2B companies.

    A qualitative approach has been adopted to enable us to investigate, in-depth, an under-researched area (Ghauri and Gronhaug, 2010; and Yin, 1989) The key factor underpinning the selection of the two cases was conceptual relevance rather than representative grounds, so we used theoretical sampling (Miles and Huberman 1994). We combined secondary data research and field interviews and workshops with the CEOs in the case firms. The researchers constructed an interview-guide based on earlier literature and discussion in a workshop. Our aim and research question served as the basic structure for data analysis.  The study contributes to the literature by integrating theory on brand building from the marketing fields with the research dealing with the born global phenomenon discussed in the international entrepreneurship field.

  • 194.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Ahokangas, Petri
    Oulu University, Oulu, Finland.
    Business Model Creation and International New Ventures2022In: Business Models and Firm Internationalization / [ed] Christian Nielsen, Svetla T. Marinova, Marin A. Marinov, New York: Routledge, 2022, p. 78-94Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The business model literature has increased dramatically during the last decades. However, most business model literature does not deal with the international location dimension of business. That is, in which countries value-creating, delivering, and capturing activities are carried out or localised. Localisation decisions are of significant importance for international new ventures as these firms have to deal with liabilities of newness, smallness, and foreignness. This chapter contributes by merging literature on business models with international new venture literature and discussing how business models in new international ventures are created and developed and how the international context influences these firms' business models, especially from the localisation perspective.

  • 195.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Awuah, Gabriel
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Born Globals' international growth through networking on institutional distant markets2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to shed light on how a born global can obtain continued growth internationally, in institutionally distant markets. We are seeking a deeper understanding of international growth for born global enterprises by combining theories of networks and institutional perspective. We discuss how institutional distance affects the internationalization processes in born globals. We seek to highlight why and how a born global firm does enter different markets. In this respect, born globals from developed countries and those from emerging markets are compared, leading us to derive some propositions from our discussions. Finally some suggestions for future research are presented.

  • 196.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Awuah, Gabriel Baffour
    International growth in born globals - continued growth through networking on institutionally distant markets2015In: Handbook on International Alliance and Network Research / [ed] Jorma Larimo; Niina Nummela; Tuija Mainela, Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2015, p. 139-154Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this chapter is to shed light on how a born global can obtain continued growth internationally, in institutionally distant markets. We are seeking a deeper understanding of international growth for born global enterprises by combining theories of networks and institutional perspective. We discuss how institutional distance affects the internationalization processes in born globals. We seek to highlight why and how a born global firm enters different markets. In this respect, born globals from developed countries and those from emerging markets are compared, leading us to derive some propositions from our discussions. Finally some suggestions for future research are presented. © Jorma Larimo, Niina Nummela and Tuija Mainela 2015.

  • 197.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Awuah, Gabriel Baffour
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Aagerup, Ulf
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Wictor, Ingemar
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Customer Value Creation in Mature Born Globals2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION

    Research on firms that already from their inception see the whole world as a market and/or the whole world as a source to access resources, so called born globals (Andersson & Wictor, 2003, Knight & Cavusgil, 2004; Cavusgil & Knight, 2015), has been growing during the last decades  (Servantie, 2016). Born globals are an especially interesting group of firms to study, in regard of value creation, as they have been able to create competitive offers fulfilling the needs of customers on global markets.

     The distinguishing feature of born globals is their international behaviour at birth and soon thereafter. The firms’ behaviour is initiated by the entrepreneurs’ and management’s global mindset and the commitment of resources leading to international growth (Andersson, 2000; Knight & Causgil, 2004). Born globals is, by definition, a born global firm “forever”, as has been characterized by their early years.  We argue that the early years make these firms a special type of firms that will influence their further international development. Firms with a long-term focus on the domestic market must unlearn routines rooted in the domestic context before new, internationally oriented routines can be learned. An early entrance to international markets forces born globals to adopt to new contexts and create new knowledge that leads to new routines and creates a culture in the firms to adapt to new international opportunities (Andersson & Evers, 2015; Autio et al ., 2000, Cavusgil & Knight, 2004).

    There has been extensive research on born globals’ internationalization dealing with which markets, and market channels firms should choose to grow internationally. There has also been extensive research dealing with antecedents and factors influencing these choices. The focus on born global research has also been on the very early stages in the internationalization process. Few studies have captured the long-term behaviour and growth of born globals (2008; Gabrielsson and Gabrielsson, 2013, Melen Hånell, Nordman and Sharma, 2014). A question that has been very little addressed is: what happens to born global firms when they grow up (Cavusgil & Knight, 2015)? In this study we define this grown up born global firms as mature born globals (c. f. Hagen & Zuchella, 2014, maturing born global firms). To succeed with a continued international expansion, the born global firms need to increase sales on international markets. The underlying reason for success on international markets and continuous growth is that the mature born global firms have an offer that gives higher value to the customer than their competitors. However customer value is not explicitly treated in internationalization theories (Axinn & Matthyssen, 2002). To our knowledge there has not been any research that has, in- depth, explored how mature born globals create value for customers to create international growth. In line with the above discussion, the aim of this study is to investigate how mature born global firms create value for customers to create international growth.

    METHOD

    A qualitative approach has been adopted to enable us to investigate, in-depth, an under-researched area (Ghauri and Gronhaug, 2010; and Yin, 1989) “how born global firms create value for customers to create international growth”. In all, the study was conducted with five companies. The key factor underpinning the selection of the five cases was conceptual relevance rather than representative grounds, so we used theoretical sampling (Miles and Huberman 1994). We conducted a review of annual reports, other secondary documentation, and the websites of the case firms. We combined secondary data research and field interviews and workshops with the CEOs in the case firms. The researchers constructed an interview-guide based on earlier literature and discussion on a works-shop. Interviews were carried out with the five CEOs and transcribed. Data analysis included several steps. The information from the interviews, and other sources served as descriptive narratives, which helped us process the large volume of data (Mintzberg and McHugh 1985). This process enabled the unique patterns of each case to emerge before cross-case comparison (Eisenhardt 1989; Yin 1994) was undertaken. Our aim and research question served as the basic structure for data analysis.

    CONCLUSIONS

    We conclude that a strong focus on customer value creation was in focus. To create customer value a combination of proactive and reactive market orientation was implemented built on a competitive offer that was hard to replicate. Depending on the characteristics of the buyer-seller relationship different tools were used to build relationship value. The revenue earned is invested in further international growth, by investing in market driving activities, and entrepreneurial alertness to act on upcoming opportunities was crucial. This study contributes to the international entrepreneurship field by explicitly including marketing literature and empirically investigating how value is created to achieve international growth in born globals. This study also contributes to the industrial marketing field by developing a model that shows how born global firms create value for international customers to generate international growth in a B2B context.

  • 198.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Awuah, Gabriel Baffour
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Aagerup, Ulf
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Wictor, Ingemar
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    How do mature born globals create customer value to achieve international growth?2020In: International Marketing Review, ISSN 0265-1335, E-ISSN 1758-6763, Vol. 37, no 2, p. 185-211Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – This study aims to investigate how mature born global firms create value for customers to achieve continued international growth.

    Design/methodology/approach – The study employs a case study approach to investigate the underresearched area of how mature born globals create value for customers and, by doing so, contribute to their continued international growth. This in-depth examination of how three born globals developed over time uses interviews, observation and secondary data.

    Findings – The findings indicate that the entrepreneurs of born global firms, that continued to grow, created a culture in the early stages that supported value creation for foreign customers. These firms have built a competitive position by developing international niche products. They have also implemented a combination of proactive and reactive market orientation to facilitate the creation and delivery of value to customers. To maintain growth, they further invest the revenues earned on additional international marketing activities and continuously enhance their focal products.

    Research limitations/implications – The study relies on three cases. We therefore recommend that future studies extend the scope of the research to several companies in various industries and countries, in which the theoretical arguments can be applied. In addition, further studies that test the propositions developed in this study, in different contexts, are highly recommended.

    Practical implications – To gain international growth, managers should create an organizational culture that facilitates satisfying international customer needs. Firms should continuously invest in sales and market development (e.g. social media marketing, personal selling) and undertake technology development of niche rather than new products. To achieve international growth, managers need to standardize part of the offer to achieve economies of scale and adapt the other part to international customers’ needs.

    Originality/value – Research on born globals has focused on the early stages of their internationalization processes, while largely neglecting the later stages (mature born globals) or the factors that lead to continued international growth. To address this gap, this study explores what happens when born globals ‘grow up’. This study contributes to the literature by capturing the factors and processes underlying how mature born globals create value for customers, for international growth. In particular, the study shows that the culture and strategies developed in the born globals’ early stages also lead to international growth in later stages. The mature born globals have also invested in niche products, brand building, and effective market channels and adopted a combination of proactive and reactive market orientations. © 2019 Emerald Publishing Limited

  • 199.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Awuah, Gabriel
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Wictor, Ingemar
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Analyzing Capabilities which Born Global Firms Develop and Implement for their International Growth2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to investigate how born global firms co-operate with local and international network actors to provide innovations for international growth, Consequently, born globals’ use of their own innovation capabilities, stemming from firm-specific advantages, and their access to complementary resources and activities of their network partners, termed here as network capabilities, are analyzed to aid our understanding of the provision of innovative solutions that lead to firms’ international growth. The paper opted for an exploratory study, using a qualitative case study approach of five born global companies. Focus groups, work-shops and interviews with the entrepreneur-CEOs in the companies are used to gain deep insight into innovation and internationalization processes that underlie the case companies’ international growth. The study shows that the entrepreneur-CEOs’ networking and innovation capabilities, have been crucial for the born global firms international growth. A high responsiveness to changes in the environment and incremental rather than radical innovation characterize the firms’ growth. A fruitful relationship between the Born Globals and other actors is crucial for them to be able to get access to resources, which can complement their own to create innovative solutions that will lead to growth. 

  • 200.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Awuah, Gabriel
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Wictor, Ingemar
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Born Global's Use Of Innovative Solutions To Create Sustainable Competitive Advantages As It Expands And Grows In Different International Markets2013In: / [ed] Helen Lawton Smith, Klaus Nielsen & Carlo Milana, London: Centre for Innovation and Management Research , 2013, p. 1-35Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to investigate born global firms’ use of innovative solutions and their networks to create sustainable competitive advantages as they expand and grow in different international markets. Consequently, born globals’ use of their own firm-specific advantages and their access to complementary resources and activities of their network partners are analyzed to aid our understanding of the provision of innovative solutions that lead to growth. We use a qualitative case study approach of five born global companies. A focus group interview with the CEOs in the companies is used to gain deep insight into innovation and internationalization processes that underlie the case companies’ international growth. The study shows that the use of the entrepreneur-CEOs’ personal networks and business networks have been assets that have accorded the firms’ strong position in international markets. It can be concluded that the born global firm has strategies to tap on complementary assets of external network parties. 

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