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Towards trustworthy intelligent vehicle technology development
Halmstad University, School of Information Technology.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-7274-6002
2023 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis addresses the unresolved issues of responsibility and accountability in autonomous vehicle (AV) development, advocating for human-centred approaches to enhance trustworthiness. While AVs hold the potential for improved safety, mobility, and environmental impact, poorly designed algorithms pose risks, leading to public distrust. Trust research focuses on technology-related aspects but overlooks trust within broader social and cultural contexts. Efforts are underway to understand algorithm design practices, acknowledging their potential unintended consequences. For example, Baumer (2017) advocates human-centred algorithm design (HCAD) to align with user perspectives and reduce risks. HCAD incorporates theoretical, participatory, and speculative approaches, emphasising user and stakeholder engagement. This aligns with broader calls for prioritising societal considerations in technology development (Stilgoe, 2013). The research in this thesis responds to these calls by integrating theories on trust and trustworthiness, autonomous vehicle development, and human-centred approaches in empirical investigations guided by the following research question: “How can human-centred approaches support the development of trustworthy intelligent vehicle technology?” This thesis approaches the question through design ethnography to ground the explorations in people’s real-life routines, practices and anticipations and demonstrate how design ethnographic techniques can infuse AV development with human-centred understandings of people’s trust in AVs. The studies reported in this thesis include a) interviews and participatory observations of algorithm designers, b) interviews and probing with residents, and c) staging collaborative, reflective practice through the design ethnographic materials and co-creation with citizens, city, academic and industry stakeholders, including AV algorithm designers. 

Through these empirical explorations, this thesis suggests an answer to the research question by coining a novel and timely framework for intelligent vehicle development: trustworthy algorithm design (TAD). TAD demonstrates trustworthiness as an ongoing process, not just a measurable outcome from human-technology interactions. It calls to consider autonomous vehicle algorithms as construed through a network of stakeholders, practices, and technologies and, therefore, defines trustworthy algorithm design as a continuous collaborative learning and evolvement process of different disciplines and sectors. Furthermore, the TAD framework suggests that for autonomous vehicle algorithm design to be trustworthy, it must be responsive, interventional, intentional and transdisciplinary. 

The TAD framework integrates ideas and strategies from different well-known trajectories of research in the field of responsible and human-centred technology development: Human-Centred Algorithm Design (Baumer, 2017), algorithms as culture (Seaver, 2017) and Responsible Innovation (Stilgoe et al., 2013). The thesis contributes to this field by empirically investigating how this integrated framework helps expand existing understandings of interactional trust in intelligent technologies and include the relevance of participatory processes of trustworthiness and how these processes are nurtured through cross-sector co-learning and design ethnographic materials.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Halmstad: Halmstad University Press, 2023. , p. 94
Series
Halmstad University Dissertations ; 103
Keywords [en]
Trustworthy Algorithm Design, Trust, Design Ethnography, Autonomous Vehicles
National Category
Human Computer Interaction Information Studies Information Systems, Social aspects
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-51930ISBN: 978-91-89587-20-5 (print)ISBN: 978-91-89587-19-9 (electronic)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hh-51930DiVA, id: diva2:1810653
Public defence
2023-12-08, S1020, Kristian IV:s väg 3, Halmstad, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Projects
2017-03058_Vinnova / Trust in Intelligent Cars (TIC)
Part of project
Co-designing future smart urban mobility services - A Human Approach (AHA), VinnovaDesign Ethnographic Living Labs for Future Urban Mobility - A Human Approach, Vinnova
Funder
Vinnova, 2019-04786Vinnova, 2018-02088Vinnova, 2017-03058Available from: 2023-11-10 Created: 2023-11-08 Last updated: 2023-12-01Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Trusting autonomous vehicles: An interdisciplinary approach
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Trusting autonomous vehicles: An interdisciplinary approach
2020 (English)In: Transport Research Interdisciplinary Perspectives, ISSN 2590-1982, Vol. 7, article id 100201Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The theoretical concept of trust has been identified as highly important to the successful design of intelligent technologies such as autonomous vehicles (AVs). In human-centred transport research this has resulted in a focus on trust in the technical design of future AVs and has raised the question of how the conditions that form trust change as technologies become more intelligent. In this article we discuss the first stage of an interdisciplinary project that brought together ethnographic and experimental user studies into trust in intelligent cars. This stage focused on the development of an interdisciplinary methodological framework for the user studies, through a review of 258 empirical HCI research articles on trust in automation and AVs. The review investigated the following research questions: a) what are the key themes in HCI methodologies used to research trust in automation and AVs; b) how do they account for trust in AVs as part of wider contexts; and c) how can these methodologies be developed to include more than momentary and individual human-machine interactions. We found that while theoretical understandings of trust in automated technologies acknowledge the relevance of the wider context in which the interaction occurs, existing methodologies predominantly involve experimental studies in simulated environments with a focus on reliance related aspects of trust. We identified that ethnographic user studies can potentially contribute to new connections between theoretical understandings and conventional experimental methods. Therefore, we propose a framework for an interdisciplinary approach that combines experimental and ethnographic methodologies to investigate trust in AVs. © 2020 The Authors

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford: Elsevier, 2020
Keywords
Human-computer interaction trust research, intelligent automation, autonomous vehicles, emerging technologies
National Category
Human Aspects of ICT
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-43009 (URN)10.1016/j.trip.2020.100201 (DOI)2-s2.0-85089915395 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Vinnova, 2017-03058
Available from: 2020-08-28 Created: 2020-08-28 Last updated: 2023-11-10Bibliographically approved
2. Trust in autonomous vehicles: Insights from a Swedish suburb
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Trust in autonomous vehicles: Insights from a Swedish suburb
(English)In: Journal of Responsible Innovation, ISSN 2329-9460, E-ISSN 2329-9037Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
Abstract [en]

This paper investigates elements of trust in autonomous vehicles (AVs). We contex- tualised autonomous vehicles as part of a socio-technical system to extend previous understandings of trust and explore trust in autonomous vehicles in concrete social contexts. We conducted online co-creation workshops with 22 participants, using design probes to explore trust and AVs in relation to people’s everyday lives. Us- ing a systemic perspective, we show how trust and acceptance depend not only on the underlying AV technology but also - if not more so - on human-to-human rela- tionships and real-life social circumstances. We argue that when investigating issues of trust and automation, the scope of analysis needs to be broadened to include a more complex socio-technical set of (human and non-human) agents, to extend from momentary human-computer interactions to a wider timescale, and be situated in concrete spaces, social networks, and situations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Philadelphia: Routledge
Keywords
Socio-technical perspective, trust, design ethnography, responsible innovation, autonomous vehicles
National Category
Information Systems, Social aspects Human Aspects of ICT
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-51947 (URN)
Funder
Vinnova, 2019-04786
Available from: 2023-11-09 Created: 2023-11-09 Last updated: 2023-11-10
3. Algorithm developers’ strategies for human-centredness when developing algorithms for autonomous vehicles: the role of organisational context
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Algorithm developers’ strategies for human-centredness when developing algorithms for autonomous vehicles: the role of organisational context
2024 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Keywords
Human-Centred Algorithm Design; Algorithm Development; Human-Centred Design; Autonomous Vehicles Development
National Category
Human Aspects of ICT Information Systems, Social aspects
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-51946 (URN)
Conference
European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS 2024), Paphos, Cyprus, 13-19 June, 2024
Funder
Vinnova, 2019-04786
Available from: 2023-11-09 Created: 2023-11-09 Last updated: 2023-11-23
4. Tailoring Co-creation for Responsible Innovation: A Design Ethnographic Approach
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tailoring Co-creation for Responsible Innovation: A Design Ethnographic Approach
2023 (English)In: 14th Scandinavian Conference On Information Systems: The proceedings of the 14th Scandinavian Conference on Information Systems (SCIS) held in Porvoo, Finland, 2023 / [ed] Esko Penttinen; Sampsa Suvivuo; Virpi Kristiina Tuunainen; Matti Rossi; Hadi Ghanbari, 2023, article id 15Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

It is hard to predict the impact of technology on society before it is developed enough. For example, the issue can be attributed to the need for more cross-sectoral collaboration in the design process. However, a solution for anticipating such outcomes has been proposed through the quadruple helix innovation model, which states that the involvement of government, academia, industry, and the public is essential in innovation systems. The question of how this collaboration can successfully be staged to foresee possible impacts is an empirical endeavour. This paper presents an iterative case study of how ethnographic material can be used to ongoingly tailor speculative co-creation to facilitate responsible innovation (RI) principles. The result is reflected through two lenses; the tools developed in the project to facilitate co-creation activities and the stakeholder reflections evoked through these tools.

Keywords
tailoring, co-creation, responsible innovation, design ethnography, speculative design
National Category
Economics and Business
Research subject
Smart Cities and Communities
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-51455 (URN)978-952-64-9639-9 (ISBN)
Conference
Fourteenth Scandinavian Conference on Information Systems (SCIS2023), Porvoo, Finland, August 13-16 Augusti, 2023 
Funder
Vinnova, 2018-02088
Available from: 2023-08-17 Created: 2023-08-17 Last updated: 2023-12-06Bibliographically approved
5. Advancing Human-Centred Algorithm Design Through Reflective Practice
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Advancing Human-Centred Algorithm Design Through Reflective Practice
2024 (English)In: Proceedings of the 57th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 2024Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Autonomous vehicle (AV) algorithms tend to be designed with a techno-solutionism mindset, causing algorithms to fail in real-world applications. This can be attributed to algorithm developers’ lack of routines and knowledge to consider the environments and circumstances AVs are intended to partake in. This paper argues for shifting towards a more responsible human-centred algorithm design (HCAD). It addresses this by demonstrating the different reflective practice qualities obtained by engaging algorithm designers from four companies with ethnographic materials. The study shows that Design Ethnographic (DE) approach allowed developers to consider the value of AVs from sociotechnical perspectives and facilitated collaborative learning and debating about what problems truly need solving to bring societal value. This demonstrates how ethnographically infused HCAD helps expand algorithm developers’ opportunities to participate responsibly in value co-creation for society.

Keywords
Reflective practice, autonomous vehicles, human-centred algorithm design, design ethnography
National Category
Human Aspects of ICT Information Systems, Social aspects
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-51945 (URN)978-0-9981331-7-1 (ISBN)
Conference
Hawaii International Conference of System Sciences (HICSS), Hawaiian Village, Waikiki, Hawaii, USA, 3-6 Jan, 2024
Funder
Vinnova, 2019-04786
Available from: 2023-11-09 Created: 2023-11-09 Last updated: 2024-01-12

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