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Ramos, M. A., Andersson, S. & Aagerup, U. (2024). Rebranding after international acquisitions: challenges of legitimation in emerging and developed countries. International Marketing Review, 41(7), 84-116
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Rebranding after international acquisitions: challenges of legitimation in emerging and developed countries
2024 (English)In: International Marketing Review, ISSN 0265-1335, E-ISSN 1758-6763, Vol. 41, no 7, p. 84-116Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose: This study describes how a multinational enterprise (MNE) gains acceptance after rebranding acquired brands from different countries among its internal and external stakeholders and identifies factors that influence this process.

Design/methodology/approach: The study employed a single case-study approach, including 18 semi-structured in-depth interviews with employees of a firm involved in the rebranding process in six countries. The countries are Sweden, Germany, the United States, Brazil, Colombia and Mexico.

Findings: The findings reveal how the MNE integrated brands it acquired in different international markets into one overarching corporate brand. The study shows that in emerging countries, external legitimation (external implementation process, country profiles and customer buy-in) constitutes the most significant challenge. By contrast, in developed countries, internal legitimation (employee buy-in and internal implementation process) is more challenging.

Research limitations/implications: The study contributes to and extends the rebranding literature by using a legitimation lens to analyze the rebranding process. This lens shows how internal and external stakeholders are both crucial to successful rebranding. The study provides a comprehensive perspective of the process, identifies challenging factors and differentiates between their importance in emerging and developed countries.

Originality/value: To address the dearth of research on how firms legitimize a new brand in different national contexts, the study compares the rebranding process in multiple countries and discusses the factors influencing the rebranding process.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2024
Keywords
International branding, rebranding, acquisitions, legitimation
National Category
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-53921 (URN)10.1108/imr-02-2023-0019 (DOI)
Projects
LNETN project
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 860364Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2024-06-18 Created: 2024-06-18 Last updated: 2024-06-18Bibliographically approved
da Rosa, A. P., Floriani, D. E. & Andersson, S. (2024). The influence of network transitions within the life cycle stages of born global companies. Thunderbird International Business Review, 66(3), 281-299
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The influence of network transitions within the life cycle stages of born global companies
2024 (English)In: Thunderbird International Business Review, ISSN 1096-4762, E-ISSN 1520-6874, Vol. 66, no 3, p. 281-299Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This research had the objective to analyze the influence of network transitions within the life cycle stages of Born Globals (BGs). By developing a framework that consisted of a pre-inception phase, start-up phase, and growth phase, the study proposed to identify which networks were used and which knowledge was acquired within the development of the BGs, in order to analyze the network transitions that influenced its international expansion. By conducting in-depth interviews, the data was collected for the analysis of a comparative case study. Our empirical findings indicate that in the pre-inception phase, technological knowledge from institutional and business networks was pivotal to acquiring internal development making it possible for the companies to progress to the inception phase. Furthermore, international marketing knowledge acquired through business networks contributed to the transition from the inception phase to the growth phase as well as its internationalization. The results imply that high-tech entrepreneurs should consider developing business and institutional networks as an efficient mean for firm development and rapid internationalization. © 2024 Wiley Periodicals LLC.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2024
Keywords
born globals, Brazil, Sweden, internationalization process, life cycle stages, network transitions
National Category
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-53180 (URN)10.1002/tie.22379 (DOI)001187452100001 ()2-s2.0-85188526862 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Sida - Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency
Note

Funding: Linnaeus-Palme exchange programme (Sida)

Available from: 2024-04-12 Created: 2024-04-12 Last updated: 2024-06-26Bibliographically approved
Ramos, M. A. & Andersson, S. (2023). Crossing Borders through Clusters: Internationalisation of SMEs in the Life Sciences Industry. In: : . Paper presented at EIBA 2023, 49th Conference of the European International Business Academy, The Changing Global Power Balance: Challenges for European Firms, Lisbon, Portugal, December 15-17, 2023 .
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Crossing Borders through Clusters: Internationalisation of SMEs in the Life Sciences Industry
2023 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) often face significant barriers during internationalisation. This paper aims to examine how formal industry clusters, defined as groups of similar firms in a specific geographic area, can reduce these barriers and enable successful global expansion for SMEs. It highlights the role of legitimacy within these clusters, a crucial aspect that can directly influence SMEs' ability to attract global partners and investors. The paper focuses on the life sciences industry within the developed contexts of Scotland and Denmark, through a qualitative approach involving interviews with 17 CEOs and founders of SMEs in this industry. The findings offer valuable insights by extending legitimacy theory, highlighting how industry clusters facilitate SMEs' legitimacy, and addressing challenges like resource accessibility, adaptations, and partnerships. It emphasises the dynamic relationship between internationalisation and legitimacy, noting its variability across different internationalisation stages.

Keywords
Internationalisation, SMEs, Formal Industry Clusters, Life Science Industry, Legitimacy
National Category
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-52390 (URN)
Conference
EIBA 2023, 49th Conference of the European International Business Academy, The Changing Global Power Balance: Challenges for European Firms, Lisbon, Portugal, December 15-17, 2023 
Projects
LNETN - Legitimation of newness for change
Available from: 2024-01-11 Created: 2024-01-11 Last updated: 2024-06-05Bibliographically approved
Andersson, S. & Ghannad, N. (2023). Entrepreneurs’ imprinting history influences on international new venture creation. In: : . Paper presented at The 27th McGill International Entrepreneurship Conference - Resilience of International Entrepreneurship in times of turbulence, Kalmar, Sweden, August 31 – September 1, 2023.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Entrepreneurs’ imprinting history influences on international new venture creation
2023 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Keywords
International new ventures, Internationalization, Entrepreneur, Imprinting
National Category
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-51551 (URN)
Conference
The 27th McGill International Entrepreneurship Conference - Resilience of International Entrepreneurship in times of turbulence, Kalmar, Sweden, August 31 – September 1, 2023
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2023-08-31 Created: 2023-08-31 Last updated: 2023-12-13Bibliographically approved
Yang, M., Gabrielsson, P. & Andersson, S. (2023). Entrepreneurs’ Social Ties and International Digital Entrepreneurial Marketing in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprise Internationalization. Journal of International Marketing, 31(4), 1-22
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Entrepreneurs’ Social Ties and International Digital Entrepreneurial Marketing in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprise Internationalization
2023 (English)In: Journal of International Marketing, ISSN 1069-031X, E-ISSN 1547-7215, Vol. 31, no 4, p. 1-22Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Digitalization has enabled entrepreneurs to adopt digital tools to create opportunities and reach customers in international markets. Yet, the understanding of international digital entrepreneurial marketing in the global marketplace is limited. Drawing on social network theory, the authors investigate how entrepreneurs’ social ties and firms’ international digital entrepreneurial marketing influence small and medium-sized enterprise (SME) internationalization. Based on multiple case study methodology, the results suggest that entrepreneurs’ bonding and bridging ties facilitate different dimensions of international digital entrepreneurial marketing. That further enhances the intensity and geographic scope of SME internationalization. SME internationalization also reinforces entrepreneurs’ accumulation of social ties. This study contributes to international marketing research by developing the dimensions of the international digital entrepreneurial marketing concept and exploring its important role in SME internationalization. © The Author(s) 2023.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 2023
Keywords
international digital entrepreneurial marketing, SME internationalization, entrepreneurs, social ties, qualitative case study
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Health Innovation
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-51884 (URN)10.1177/1069031x231178220 (DOI)001037152000001 ()2-s2.0-85165872924 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Knowledge FoundationMarcus Wallenbergs Foundation for International Scientific Collaboration
Note

Funding: This work was supported by the Knowledge Foundation, the Foundation for Economic Education, Business Finland, and the Marcus Wallenberg Foundation.

Available from: 2023-10-31 Created: 2023-10-31 Last updated: 2023-11-17Bibliographically approved
Ramos, M. A. & Andersson, S. (2023). Formal industry clusters and internationalisation of SMEs in the Life Science Industry: A multiple case study. In: : . Paper presented at 27th McGill International Entrepreneurship Conference, Kalmar, Sweden, August 30 – September 1, 2023.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Formal industry clusters and internationalisation of SMEs in the Life Science Industry: A multiple case study
2023 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are considered the foundation of economic and social development and provide a platform for industrial growth. For many SMEs, conducting the internationalisation process successfully is difficult due to limited resources and capabilities. Moreover, the process is hindered by the unfavourable institutional environment. To assist during this process, formal industry cluster's role can be considered an intermediary organisation helping SMEs expand globally. 

Industry clusters are groups of firms located in the same geographical area operating in the same industry with formal governance structures or formal membership of firms and other institutions. These formal industry clusters help overcome the hinders of internationalisation, by, for example, geographically concentrating a network of multiple firms to facilitate sharing networks and knowledge. Formal industry clusters can contribute to SMEs expanding their global reach and international opportunities. Furthermore, the legitimacy of SMEs within these clusters has an essential role during this global expansion since their perceived legitimacy can impact their ability to attract investors and partners, both locally and globally. 

There are multiple empirical studies on the topic in different countries and industries. However, little is known in developed countries from the life science industry perspective, particularly when examining multiple case studies. Despite the importance of this sector, which deals with improving human health and developing new medicines and medical technologies, focusing on the internationalisation of SMEs is extremely important. Moreover, considering different institutional environments, more research is needed for comparative studies.

Due to this context, this study addresses two research questions. First, what internationalisation hinders companies face in formal industrial clusters? And, how do formal industry clusters increase SMEs legitimation to facilitate international growth? To answer these questions, a qualitative approach was adopted with data collected through interviews with 14 owners and/or key executives from SMEs in the life science industry in Scotland. Additionally, three interviews were conducted with individuals responsible for organisations supporting these SMEs. 

Scotland was specifically chosen since the life science industry is significant for the country, with firms growing from £4.5 billion in 2014 to £6.6bn in 2018, and employment in the sector steadily increasing to 40,000 people. The selection of firms was based on multiple criteria, including firms from the same cluster and industry, size and age of the firms, and finally the international presence of the firms, in different stages.

This study offers insights into the patterns and hinders of the internationalisation process faced by firms in formal industrial clusters and their implications for international entrepreneurship. Moreover, it explores the hinders firms face in establishing legitimacy in international markets, and how they can overcome these hinders by joining formal industry clusters. Hindrances include market focus and adaptation to different ecosystems, political and regulatory uncertainties, global challenges and local context, intellectual property protection and partnerships, and collaboration of healthcare systems. Additionally, the study emphasises how formal industry clusters increase SMEs' legitimation for international growth by providing access to funding, expertise and industry connections, support for regulatory compliance and market approval, among others.

The findings of this paper have implications for international entrepreneurship, as they provide an understanding of the hindrances that SMEs face during the internationalisation process. By examining the life science industry in Scotland, this research provides valuable insights into the obstacles SMEs face in a specific context. Moreover, this paper has practical implications for policymakers, industry practitioners, and SME entrepreneurs, guiding overcoming hindrances and leveraging formal industry clusters to facilitate international growth.

Keywords
legitimation, industry clusters, SMEs, Life Science Industry
National Category
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-53446 (URN)
Conference
27th McGill International Entrepreneurship Conference, Kalmar, Sweden, August 30 – September 1, 2023
Projects
LNETN project
Available from: 2024-05-30 Created: 2024-05-30 Last updated: 2024-07-09Bibliographically approved
Żukowicka-Surma, A., Holmén, M., Johansson, J. & Andersson, S. (2023). Healthcare ecosystems and business models reconfiguration: Decoupling and resilience in the context of data-driven technologies: A Systematic Literature Review (1ed.). In: Svetla T. Marinova; Marin A. Marinov (Ed.), Reconfiguration of Business Models and Ecosystems: Decoupling and Resilience (pp. 204-235). New York: Routledge
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Healthcare ecosystems and business models reconfiguration: Decoupling and resilience in the context of data-driven technologies: A Systematic Literature Review
2023 (English)In: Reconfiguration of Business Models and Ecosystems: Decoupling and Resilience / [ed] Svetla T. Marinova; Marin A. Marinov, New York: Routledge, 2023, 1, p. 204-235Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This chapter researches the reconfiguration of business models and ecosystems in relation to decoupling and resilience in the context of data-driven technologies via conducting a systematic literature review (SLR). New data-driven technologies have been largely introduced to different sectors. Digitalisation may lead to disruptive changes in any industry, including creating or entering new business models, lowering or changing entry barriers into markets and enabling the breakup of sectorial silos. Although the COVID-19 pandemic accelerated significantly the digitalisation of the healthcare sector, innovation adoption in the sector proceeds slower than in most other industries. This chapter reviews systematically the existing literature on this area and develops a research agenda aiming at answering the pre-set research question: To address the research question, an SLR methodology has been applied to provide insights, critical reflections, managerial implications and research road maps for future research. The chapter identifies the potential benefits of the use of data-driven technology in healthcare at organisational, institutional, ethical and macro-level dimensions. It discusses the adoption of digitalisation and healthcare management practices to enhance data-driven outcomes. Based on the conducted literature review and the bibliometric analysis of articles included in the chapter, an integrative conceptual framework for digital healthcare is suggested. © 2023 selection and editorial matter, Svetla T. Marinova and Marin A. Marinov; individual chapters, the contributors

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York: Routledge, 2023 Edition: 1
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-50020 (URN)2-s2.0-85147936678 (Scopus ID)978-1-032-35402-6 (ISBN)978-1-003-32673-1 (ISBN)
Available from: 2023-02-24 Created: 2023-02-24 Last updated: 2023-02-24Bibliographically approved
Aagerup, U., Andersson, S. & Ramos, M. A. (2023). How image and awareness relates to internal and external stakeholders' acceptance of B2B rebranding. In: : . Paper presented at 27th McGill International Entrepreneurship Conference, Kalmar, Sweden, August 30 – September 1, 2023.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>How image and awareness relates to internal and external stakeholders' acceptance of B2B rebranding
2023 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The acquisitions of brands by companies have become more frequent, representing a significant and effective way for firms to reach international new markets. This recent trend has led to a rise in rebranding, particularly in the business-to-business (B2B) sector. Since marketing literature primarily focuses on B2C brand strategies, literature on the field constantly overlooks B2B characteristics. This is sorely needed, because, despite massive investments, many acquisitions fail, especially international acquisitions where one faces cross-country differences. This is unsurprising because most companies' M&A considerations do not place much weight on brand strategy, and brand equity is typically not handled very well but is often treated as an after-thought compared to more pressing financial matters (e.g. how rebranding affects stock returns) and operational matters (e.g. descriptions of enablers and barriers to the rebranding process). Previous studies in this field emphasise how to do rebranding. However, they treat the brand itself as a black box —it is only how you execute the B2B rebranding process that is investigated, not which dimensions of the customer's brand knowledge should be prioritised. This is unfortunate, because rebranding an acquired brand without an idea of the desired end result is like navigating without a destination —even if you execute well, you will most likely not end up where you need to be. This paper addresses this gap by providing insights into the significant factors that drive B2B rebranding strategies, focusing on the transfer of brand equity from the acquired B2B brand to the acquiring company's brand.This study was conducted in one B2B firm going through rebranding process in the life science sector. Getinge was founded in 1904 in Sweden and is a global medical technology firm. The company provides equipment and systems in the healthcare and life sciences sector and has become a global leader in the field of Surgical Workflow. The international growth has been possible through incorporating new innovative offerings. These have been both internally developed, but also acquired internationally. A significant number of international acquisitions have been made throughout the years. In 2021 the company employed over 10,000 people worldwide, with products marketed in over 135 countries.Besides being one of the most valued companies in the sector, Getinge was chosen since the firm has initiated a rebranding process after a long-time international growth strategy, including acquisitions of many different international brands. Moreover, since B2B companies commonly rely on corporate, rather than product branding. Getinge is an appropriate choice since this study, therefore, focuses on a company that uses the same name for its company and its products.By examining an in-depth single case study of a multinational B2B company in the life sciences industry, this paper contributes to the research in international rebranding by validating that brand equity is a relevant consideration for B2B rebranding processes. Specifically, it argues that brand awareness transfer plays an essential role during the rebranding process, especially when it comes to external branding. Customers generally accept the new brand if the value proposition remains unchanged. However, they need to be made aware of the change to avoid confusion. Internally by contrast, the most significant challenge seems to be the transfer of brand image. Awareness is easy; during a rebranding process employees immediately become aware of the change. They however exhibit strong opinions for or against rebranding depending on their emotional connections to the old brand.These results extend the theory on international rebranding after M&As by demonstrating that the B2B context requires different prioritizations than consumer goods rebranding. The study shows how various stakeholders respond throughout the rebranding process. Firms can plan their rebranding process in mind that both brand image and brand awareness are important for brand equity during the rebranding process. However, firms need to prioritise one over the other depending on their specific audience (internal and external). Moreover, the realisation that awareness is a crucial success factor in B2B rebranding might help companies leverage brand equity in international M&As.

Keywords
International growth, B2B Rebranding, Brand Acquisition, Customer-Based Brand Equity, Brand Awareness
National Category
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-53447 (URN)
Conference
27th McGill International Entrepreneurship Conference, Kalmar, Sweden, August 30 – September 1, 2023
Available from: 2024-05-30 Created: 2024-05-30 Last updated: 2024-07-09Bibliographically approved
Ramos, M. A., Wanjiku, J. & Andersson, S. (2023). Launching in Uncertainty: Legitimation and Country-Specific Barriers to Launch New Products in Emerging Markets. In: : . Paper presented at The 39th EGOS Colloquium 2023, Organizing for the Good Life: Between Legacy and Imagination, Cagliari, Italien, July 6-8, 2023.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Launching in Uncertainty: Legitimation and Country-Specific Barriers to Launch New Products in Emerging Markets
2023 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The life science industry is rapidly growing, witnessing a substantial transformation with new products, regulations, and policies emerging. This dynamic environment, together with global competition, challenges firms to introduce new products efficiently. During this process, the legitimacy of these new products also emerges as a crucial issue, since their acceptance by different stakeholders and the following impact on the organisation is a critical concern. The success of launching new products is intensified during uncertain times and within uncertain regions, where economic fluctuations, global crises, or unanticipated factors can hinder the process. Since emerging economies face issues, such as weak infrastructure, changing institutions, and substantial resource constraints, they are a proper context for studying new product launches under uncertainty. The interconnected dynamics between new product launches, organisational change and uncertainty create numerous questions regarding what strategies and changes organisations must create to succeed in this environment. To address these questions, this research aims to investigate the main barriers faced during product launches in times of uncertainty and how new practices adopted by firms facilitate the legitimisation of their products in emerging markets. Using a case study method and legitimacy theory lens, we investigate the factors related to the launch and acceptance of these new products in different regions and countries such as Russia, Latin America, Africa and the Middle East. Our findings highlight the importance of organisational change in overcoming regional barriers and show that strategies like employing familiar cues and managing resource constraints effectively enable product legitimisation. 

Keywords
Legitimacy, Product Launch, Life Science Industry, Uncertainty
National Category
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-51249 (URN)
Conference
The 39th EGOS Colloquium 2023, Organizing for the Good Life: Between Legacy and Imagination, Cagliari, Italien, July 6-8, 2023
Projects
LNETN project
Available from: 2023-07-10 Created: 2023-07-10 Last updated: 2023-12-21Bibliographically approved
Ramos, M. A., Wanjiku, J. & Andersson, S. (2023). Life Sciences Product Launch: Strategies for Legitimizing Across Countries. In: : . Paper presented at LNETN: Legitimation of Newness and EU Agenda for Change Conference, Aalborg University, Copenhagen, Denmark, June 22-24, 2023.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Life Sciences Product Launch: Strategies for Legitimizing Across Countries
2023 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Launching new products is a critical process for firms, especially in the life sciences sector, where different institutional environments must be considered. Despite the importance of the health sector, there is a lack of research on the new product launch process in the life sciences and the impact of national contexts on this process. This study used a case study approach to explore the launch process of a multinational enterprise across multiple countries. Thematic analysis of interviews with key employees from over 20 countries provided a framework for the challenges and legitimating strategies used in new product launches worldwide. We argue that new product launches are shaped by different factors across countries, with some patterns rising from emerging and developed countries. This study offers valuable insights for both theoretical and practical perspectives, as it contributes to the literature on new product launches by examining how different institutional settings influence the process. Additionally, this study includes institutional and legitimation theory, which provides useful theoretical angles for understanding international new product launches in the life science industry. Finally, the paper provides empirical evidence for the diffusion theory on the factors influencing the launch process of new products in the life science industry.

Keywords
New product launches, Legitimation strategies, Life science sector
National Category
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-51067 (URN)
Conference
LNETN: Legitimation of Newness and EU Agenda for Change Conference, Aalborg University, Copenhagen, Denmark, June 22-24, 2023
Projects
LNETN project
Available from: 2023-06-27 Created: 2023-06-27 Last updated: 2023-07-13Bibliographically approved
Projects
International growth in the healthcare technology sector - The importance of entrepreneurial teams and local and global networks [2009-02666_VR]; Halmstad University
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-8194-2053

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