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  • 1.
    Mokonya, Ngomba Henry
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Diversity of vascular plants in Swedish forests.: Comparison among and within forest, partially cut down and clear cut forest communities.2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish forests are mostly used for timber harvesting and 96 % of this harvesting is made by clear cutting while only 4 % is effected through other methods such as single tree harvesting. All species are not affected by forestry to same magnitude. Some specifically generalists are not affected at all. Hence, this study, had its aim to find out vascular plant species that persist, disappear or colonize other species as a result of anthropogenic disturbances in different production forests, so as to determine not only if canopy openness affects the species distribution but also the magnitude of the effects. I examined 10 different forest localities during May and June 2008. Three of these localities were made up of clear cut forest plots, 3 with partially cut down forest plots and 4 with undisturbed production forest plots. Species composition and diversity were then compared between these plots. A total of 34 different species were found. Statistical Analysis was made on how well the species in the partially cut down forest plots fitted into the undisturbed forest group as well as comparing this results with results of how counterpart species in the clear cut forest plots fitted into the undisturbed forest groups. These results showed that there was no significant difference, ANOVA values of P = 0.839, 0.602 and 0.564 respectively among the species composition between the forest, partially cut down and clear cut forest groups between the forest, partially cut down and clear cut forest plots. However, among the 54 species found in all study plots, 11 were common between the forest and partially logged sites whereas only Carex sp in the clear cut forest was common to those in the forest plots implying that canopy openness did not affect the total species number but had an effect in species composition. Clear cutting seems to kill off everything but trees and generalists. Hence, resiliency of vegetation should be increased by management practices that ensure the maintenance of prior species.

  • 2.
    Viebke, Jakob
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Gustav, Eriksson
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Hylobius Safegurad2011Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this report you will get an insight into one of the most promising ideas. The problem that we have solved is caused by an insect called the pine weevil (Hylobius Abetis) that are barely larger than a fingernail. The Pine weevil causes problems for the forest industry corresponding 1.5 billion SEK every year and this only on the Swedish market.  The problem is worldwide and are found throughout Scandinavia, Russia, Asia and to some extent also in North America. There are a plethora of different attempts at solutions to this problem. All have their weaknesses when compared to the strict requirements that exist for these devices.  We have the solution to the problem of the pine weevil. The advantage of our protection is that we have taken into account all the steps that the protection undergoes during its product lifecycle such as, manufacture, application, planting and environmental asspects.  The potential of this product is very large. Much thanks to the EU directive that will ban insecticides at the end of 2014. Today, the insecticides are the most common security measure to prevent pine weevil attacks. There is therefore a very great and urgent need for a new and environmentally friendly alternative. At this writing, a patent application started has begun and the market has shown great interest in the protection.  Sweden alone is planting an annual of 400 million spruce seedlings, at least half of those needing protection. Our product cost 1.15 SEK each to end customer. We then have a profit of 0.10 SEK per product. The initial costs for manufacturing and machinery stands at 2 million SEK. We then need to take 5% of the Swedish market to achieve break-even. If only Södra Odlarna apply our product to all its needs, it would generate a profit of 2 million SEK in the first year and this is after investment costs are paid of. This is in a market that has no good solution to the pine weevil issue. We must also remember that this is a global problem. 

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