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  • 1.
    Ahlebrand, August
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science. 920801117.
    Investigating the effects of pre-exhausting a synergist prior to a compound exercise.: An electromyographic study2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Pre-exhausting a synergist prior to a compound exercise has been shown to alter the firing patterns in the muscles during the exercise. Pre-exhausting a muscle is done by exercising a muscle group to fatigue with a single joint exercise prior to an exercise.

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to further investigate the effects of pre-exhausting the triceps brachii prior to performing a bench press, measuring the EMG activity in pectoralis major, triceps brachii and deltoid anterior.

    Methods: 30 participants, men (n=15) and women (n=15), performed two different protocols (T1 and T2) while the muscle activity was measured with surface EMG. Electrodes were placed on pectoralis major, triceps brachii and deltoid anterior. Maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) was performed prior to performing protocols in order to get reference values.

    Results: Pectoralis major and deltoid anterior activation was significantly higher when preexhausting triceps brachii before bench press compared to no PRE, but no significant increase was seen in triceps brachii (p=0.000, p=.0009 and p=0.405 respectively) MVIC expressed in percentages and mean values ± standard deviation during protocol T1 for pectoralis major 45.3(±12.4), triceps brachii 56.28(±15.9) and deltoid anterior 63.45(±31.4) and during protocol T2 pectoralis major 56.41(±18.4), triceps brachii 58.49(±20.07) and deltoid anterior 71.65(±42.7).

    Conclusion: These results suggest that pre-exhausting a synergist prior to a compound exercise may change the muscle activity in the involved muscles. This can be used in a practical sense to develop weak points in the muscles by changing the activation pattern in the muscles hence being able to target specific muscles better.

  • 2.
    Bernzen, Noel
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Noellator: Vinterrollator2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Idag är det en hög andel av äldre personer, främst kvinnor, som använder rollatorer. De blir allt fler med tiden, då genomsnittsåldern av befolkningen blir allt högre. För att öka livskvalitet för de äldre, är det rekommenderat att promenera utomhus så ofta som möjligt, exempelvis med hjälp av en rollator. Ett problem som uppstår är att ingen rollator är anpassad för användning under vintern. I detta examensarbete har ett rollator-koncept tagits fram, speciellt anpassat för ”fyra årstider”. Detta innebär att konceptet har allt som en vanligt rollator har men även tillbehör som är användarvänliga i vilket väder som helst, såväl vid snö- som isförhållanden. Det innebär en komplettering med specialdesignade tillbehör som är enkla att byta oberoende av väderslag. En årstidsoberoende rollator blir dyrare än en vanligt rollator, men samtidigt skapas ett hjälpmedel som gör det lättare för användaren att vara en del av samhället och förbättra sin hälsa, vilket faktiskt är såväl viktigt som aktuellt

  • 3.
    Ekberg, Niklas
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Muscle activation during the chin-up exercise versus the lat-pulldown exercise using different workloads: An Electromyography study2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Two commonly used strength training exercises are the chin-up- and the lat-pulldown exercise. Both exercises are performed by using similar movement patterns and by using the same primary muscles. Previous research has shown that each exercise can exhibit unique training stimulus and should not be considered interchangeably. However, there is limited research regarding comparison of muscle activation between the exercises. Knowing the amount of muscle activation when performing the exercises, can help strength training participants to choose exercise and relative workload according to the specific muscles they want to target.

    Purpose: This study sought to compare muscle activation (measured as average) in m. latissimus dorsi (LD), m. biceps brachii (BB), middle m. trapezius (TR) and m. rectus abdominis (RA) between performing the chin-up at 100% of participants’ individual bodyweight (BW) with lat-pulldown at 50%-, 65%- and 75% BW.

    Methods: Twenty strength trained male participants (25.0 ± 3.3 yr; 181.0 ± 5.8 cm; 82.0 ± 7.8 kg) were examined during the study. Surface electromyography (SEMG) was collected from LD, BB, TR & RA during the exercises. Average muscle activation was expressed as percentage of maximum voluntary isometric contraction (%MVIC). Exercise execution was as identical as possible for both exercises and was performed using pronated handgrip and a grip width equal to 1.5 times the participants individual biacromial distance.

    Results: Statistically significant (p<0.05) increases in average muscle activation were found in LD, BB and RA during chin-up 100% BW compared to lat-pulldown at 50%-, 65% and 75% BW. However, for TR no significant difference (p=0.145) was found between chin-up 100% BW and lat-pulldown when performed at 75% BW.

    Conclusion: These results indicate that performing the lat-pulldown using workload somewhere between 75-100% BW can exhibit the same muscle activation as performing the chin-up at 100% BW.

    Keywords: Strength training, Surface electromyography, Muscle activation, Chin-up exercise, Latpulldown exercise, Different workloads, Randomisation, Cross-over, Observational

  • 4.
    Frennessen, Sebastian
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    A comparison of peak trunk rotational power and club head speed in elite golf players2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Background: Golf is a sport with a growing focus on the physical aspect of the game and its relationship to performance. Studies have determined a correlation between club head speed and performance in golf. Rotational power has proven to be an important factor for the club head speed. By examining the relationship between club head speed and rotational power, researchers has found that rotation power on the golfers dominant side have a moderate to high correlation with club head speed. Previous research has mostly investigated the peak rotational power on the dominant side. Furthermore, additional research is needed to examine the bilateral strength and its relationship to club head speed. Aim: The aim of this study was to examine the correlation between peak trunk rotational power and club head speed in elite golfers, and also to study the impact of bilateral rotational strength on club head speed. Methods: The study included 27 elite golf players (21 males, 6 females) age 19±2 years. The subjects attended two sessions where the first session included a club head speed test and the second session a rotation power test in the Quantum machine. The rotational peak power ratio (dominant/non-dominant side) were ranged from 1-27 (the closer to 1, the higher order) to study a linier relationship with club head speed. Spearman’s nonparametric rank correlations coefficient (rs) was used since the data was not normally distributed. Results: There was a moderate correlation between peak trunk rotational power on the dominant side and club head speed ( rs=0.58, p=0.01). The correlation between the peak trunk rotational powers on the dominant and non- dominant side was high, rs=0.82 (p=0.01). There were no significant correlation found between the ranged rotational peak power ratio and club head speed (rs=0.30, p=0.1). Conclusion: The current study found a slightly lower correlation between peak trunk rotational power and club head speed than found in earlier studies. The golfers in this study had symmetric strength in the trunk, other studies have shown that the rotational strength in golfer´s dominant side were higher than of the non- dominant side. The result of this study indicates that balance between the sides not necessarily has a relationship with how high the golfer’s club head speed is. Future research is needed to analyze the quadratic correlation between ratio and club head speed on a more advanced level. The results of this study can, if validated, be used for further researching and understanding of club head speed and golf performance.

  • 5.
    Jedenheim, Linda
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Teacher Education (LUT).
    Eriksson, Johanna
    Halmstad University, School of Teacher Education (LUT).
    Försök till att lösa degraderingsproblem vid preparation av fotosystem I-subenheten PSI-N genom att använda proteasinhibitorer och olika sorters lysis2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The process where light is converted into chemical energy is called photosyntesis. The reaction takes place in the thylakoid membrane and is driven by two major protein complexes, photosystem II (PSII) and photosystem I (PSI) when energy in form of photons are received. PSI-N, a subunit in PSI, is a smaller protein with a mass of approximately 10 kDa. In some way, which is not yet clarified, PSI-N collaborates with PSI-F and plastocyanin when plastocyanin is docking to PSI. It is therefore important to purify larger amounts of the protein to acquire deeper knowledge of its structure and function. In earlier research the PSI-N protein has been expressed in Escherichia coli (E.coli). The problem has been degradation of the fusion protein after lysis. Our goal with this project is to obtain the purified protein intact using mechanic lysis and protease inhibitors.

  • 6.
    Kaminska, Hanna
    et al.
    Wroclaw University of Technology.
    Rögnvaldsson, Thorsteinn
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Intelligent Systems´ laboratory.
    Assessment of the new scoring function for protein identification by PMF2010In: Acta Biochimica Polonica, Supplement 1, 2010, Warszawa, Poland: Polish Biochemical Society , 2010, p. 34-34Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Kamińska, Hanna
    et al.
    Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Instrumentation, Wroclaw University of Technology, Wroclaw, Poland.
    Rögnvaldsson, Thorsteinn
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Intelligent systems (IS-lab).
    Evaluation of a new probabilistic approach to scoring algorithms in protein identification by Peptide Mass Fingerprinting (PMF)2011In: Nutraceutics, biomedical remedies and physiotherapeutic methods for prevention of civilization-related diseases / [ed] Halina Podbielska, Tadeusz Trziszka, Wroclaw, Poland: Indygo Zahir Media , 2011, p. 171-180Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The protein identification performs a crucial role in the contemporary medicine. Proteins may act as the potential biomarkers for investigating many diseases, e.g. the civilization-related ones.  Peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF) is a widely used protein identification method basing on mass spectrometry data. Economical reasons and time savings are of great importance in the identification experiments. Thereby, innovative ideas, which have the potential to improve the PMF identification, are still desired. A novel probability-based scoring scheme, which constitutes the last part of the PMF identification procedure, was developed. Presented scoring scheme incorporates an innovative idea, which assumes a different approach to modelling the distribution of proteins derived from the database, on the basis of which the score is computed. In the paper we assess a performance of the proposed scoring method against popular scoring scheme, i.e. Mascot (http://www.matrixscience.com/). The comparison of the methods includes scoring results obtained for the simulated data. Different levels of proteins samples contamination and different coverage of peptides sequences were considered in the empirical study.

  • 8.
    Linderoth, Frida
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Foam rolling compared to dynamic stretch and 20 meter sprint time performance2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Foam rolling (FR) is, compared to dynamic stretch (DS), a relatively new method used in warm-up routines prior athletic performances in for example, sprinting and soccer. The research on the subject is limited and further investigation is needed to better understand about the possible effects of foam rolling on performance. By comparing FR to DS this study focused on how foam rolling may affect sprint time on 20 meter.

     

    Aim: The aim of this study was to compare FR to DS included in warm-up routines prior 20 meter sprint performance. The study was done on young male soccer players.

     

    Method: Fifteen subjects participated in the study aged 16-17 years. A randomized cross over design was used over two test sessions with one week apart. Half group began with FR included in the warm-up routine and half began with DS included in the routine. The fastest sprint times in 20 meter were analyzed in a dependent t-test to investigate possible different effects between the two warm-up routines.

     

    Results: The result showed no statistical significant difference between the two warm-up routines on sprint time (p=0.54). Mean sprint time was 3.05 for FR and 3.05 for DS. Standard deviation (SD) was 0.14 for FR and 0.16 for DS.

     

    Conclusion: This study showed no difference on 20 meter sprinting performance when FR was compared to DS. That indicates that FR as well as DS can be included in warm-up routine prior short sprints without differences in performance. However, studies with larger sample size are needed to investigate the possible affects of foam rolling on physical impact and sprint performance.

  • 9.
    Lundin, Anton
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Johansson, Frida
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    OutDoor Office: Ett alternativ till konventionella mötesplatser2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 10.
    Maddison, Ralph
    et al.
    Institute for Physical Activity and Nutrition, School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University, Burwood, Australia & National Institute for Health Innovation, School of Population Health, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.
    Gemming, Luke
    National Institute for Health Innovation, School of Population Health, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.
    Monedero, Javier
    School of Health & Human Performance, Dublin City University, Dublin, Ireland.
    Bolger, Linda
    School of Health & Human Performance, Dublin City University, Dublin, Ireland.
    Belton, Sarahjane
    School of Health & Human Performance, Dublin City University, Dublin, Ireland.
    Issartel, Johann
    School of Health & Human Performance, Dublin City University, Dublin, Ireland.
    Marsh, Samantha
    National Institute for Health Innovation, School of Population Health, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.
    Direito, Artur
    National Institute for Health Innovation, School of Population Health, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.
    Solenhill, Madeleine
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Zhao, Jinfeng
    Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Population Health, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.
    Exeter, Daniel John
    Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Population Health, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.
    Vathsangam, Harshvardhan
    Robotic Embedded Systems Laboratory, Robotics and Autonomous Systems Center, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, United States.
    Rawstorn, Jonathan Charles
    Institute for Physical Activity and Nutrition, School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University, Burwood, Australia & National Institute for Health Innovation, School of Population Health, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.
    Quantifying Human Movement Using the Movn Smartphone App: Validation and Field Study2017In: JMIR mhealth and uhealth, E-ISSN 2291-5222, Vol. 5, no 8, article id e122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The use of embedded smartphone sensors offers opportunities to measure physical activity (PA) and human movement. Big data-which includes billions of digital traces-offers scientists a new lens to examine PA in fine-grained detail and allows us to track people's geocoded movement patterns to determine their interaction with the environment. Objective: The objective of this study was to examine the validity of the Movn smartphone app (Moving Analytics) for collecting PA and human movement data. Methods: The criterion and convergent validity of the Movn smartphone app for estimating energy expenditure (EE) were assessed in both laboratory and free-living settings, compared with indirect calorimetry (criterion reference) and a stand-alone accelerometer that is commonly used in PA research (GT1m, ActiGraph Corp, convergent reference). A supporting cross-validation study assessed the consistency of activity data when collected across different smartphone devices. Global positioning system (GPS) and accelerometer data were integrated with geographical information software to demonstrate the feasibility of geospatial analysis of human movement. Results: A total of 21 participants contributed to linear regression analysis to estimate EE from Movn activity counts (standard error of estimation [SEE]=1.94 kcal/min). The equation was cross-validated in an independent sample (N=42, SEE=1.10 kcal/min). During laboratory-based treadmill exercise, EE from Movn was comparable to calorimetry (bias=0.36 [-0.07 to 0.78] kcal/min, t82=1.66, P=.10) but overestimated as compared with the ActiGraph accelerometer (bias=0.93 [0.58-1.29] kcal/min, t89=5.27, P<.001). The absolute magnitude of criterion biases increased as a function of locomotive speed (F1,4=7.54, P<.001) but was relatively consistent for the convergent comparison (F1,4=1.26, P<.29). Furthermore, 95% limits of agreement were consistent for criterion and convergent biases, and EE from Movn was strongly correlated with both reference measures (criterion r=.91, convergent r=.92, both P<.001). Movn overestimated EE during free-living activities (bias=1.00 [0.98-1.02] kcal/min, t(6123)=101.49, P<.001), and biases were larger during high-intensity activities (F-3,F-6120=1550.51, P<.001). In addition, 95% limits of agreement for convergent biases were heterogeneous across free-living activity intensity levels, but Movn and ActiGraph measures were strongly correlated (r=.87, P<.001). Integration of GPS and accelerometer data within a geographic information system (GIS) enabled creation of individual temporospatial maps. Conclusions: The Movn smartphone app can provide valid passive measurement of EE and can enrich these data with contextualizing temporospatial information. Although enhanced understanding of geographic and temporal variation in human movement patterns could inform intervention development, it also presents challenges for data processing and analytics.

  • 11.
    Stasiunas, Antanas
    et al.
    Department of Applied Electronics, Kaunas University of Technology, LT-3031 Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Verikas, Antanas
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Bacauskiene, Marija
    Department of Applied Electronics, Kaunas University of Technology, LT-3031 Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Miliauskas, Rimvydas
    Department of Physiology, Kaunas University of Medicine, LT-3000 Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Stasiuniene, Natalija
    Department of Biochemistry, Kaunas University of Medicine, LT-3000 Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Malmqvist, Kerstin
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Intelligent systems (IS-lab).
    Compression, adaptation and efferent control in a revised outer hair cell functional model2005In: Medical Engineering and Physics, ISSN 1350-4533, E-ISSN 1873-4030, Vol. 27, no 9, p. 780-789Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the cochlea of the inner ear, outer hair cells (OHC) together with the local passive structures of the tectorial and basilar membranes comprise non-linear resonance circuits with the local and central (afferent–efferent) feedback. The characteristics of these circuits and their control possibilities depend on the mechanomotility of the OHC. The main element of our functional model of the OHC is the mechanomotility circuit with the general transfer characteristic y = k tanh(x − a). The parameter k of this characteristic reflects the axial stiffness of the OHC, and the parameter a working position of the hair bundle. The efferent synaptic signals act on the parameter k directly and on the parameter a indirectly through changes in the membrane potential. The dependences of the sensitivity and selectivity on changes in the parameters a and k are obtained by the computer simulation. Functioning of the model at low-level input signals is linear. Due to the non-linearity of the transfer characteristic of the mechanomotility circuit the high-level signals are compressed. For the adaptation and efferent control, however, the transfer characteristic with respect to the initial operating point should be asymmetrical (a > 0). The asymmetry relies on the deflection of the hair bundle from the axis of the OHC.

  • 12.
    Stasiunas, Antanas
    et al.
    Department of Applied Electronics, Kaunas University of Technology, LT-3031, Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Verikas, Antanas
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Kemesis, Povilas
    Department of Applied Electronics, Kaunas University of Technology, LT-3031, Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Bacauskiene, Marija
    Department of Applied Electronics, Kaunas University of Technology, LT-3031, Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Miliauskas, Rimvydas
    Laboratory of Neurophysiology, Kaunas University of Medicine, LT-3000, Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Stasiuniene, Natalija
    Department of Biochemistry, Kaunas University of Medicine, LT-3000, Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Malmqvist, Kerstin
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Intelligent systems (IS-lab).
    A non-linear circuit for simulating OHC of the cochlea2003In: Medical Engineering and Physics, ISSN 1350-4533, E-ISSN 1873-4030, Vol. 25, no 7, p. 591-601Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present paper, referring to known characteristics of the outer hair cells functioning in the cochlea of the inner ear, a functional model of the outer hair cells is constructed. It consists of a linear feed-forward circuit and a non-linear positive feedback circuit. The feed-forward circuit reflects the contribution of local basilar and tectorial membrane areas and passive outer hair cells’ physical parameters to the forming of low-selectivity resonance characteristics. The non-linear positive feedback circuit reflects the non-linear outer hair cell signal transduction processes and the active role of efferents from the medial superior olive in altering circuit sensitivity and selectivity.

    Referring to an analytical description of the circuit model and computer simulation results, an explanation is given over the biological meaning of the outer hair cells’ non-linearities in signal transduction processes and the role of the non-linearities in achieving the following: signal compression, the dependency of circuit sensitivity and frequency selectivity upon the input signal amplitude, the compatibility of high-frequency selectivity and short transient response of the biological filtering circuits.

  • 13.
    Stasiunas, Antanas
    et al.
    a Department of Applied Electronics, Kaunas University of Technology, Lithuania .
    Verikas, Antanas
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Miliauskas, Rimvydas
    Department of Physiology, Kaunas University of Medicine, Lithuania.
    Stasiuniene, Natalija
    Department of Biochemistry, Kaunas University of Medicine, Lithuania.
    An adaptive model simulating the somatic motility and the active hair bundle motion of the OHC2009In: Computers in Biology and Medicine, ISSN 0010-4825, E-ISSN 1879-0534, Vol. 39, no 9, p. 800-809Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The outer hair cells (OHC) of the mammalian inner ear change the sensitivity and frequency selectivity of the filtering system of the cochlea using two kinds of mechanical activity: the somatic motility and the active hair bundle motion. We designed a non-linear adaptive model of the OHC employing both mechanisms of the mechanical activity. The modeling results show that the high sensitivity and frequency selectivity of the filtering system of the cochlea depend on the somatic motility of the OHC. However, both mechanisms of mechanical activity are involved in the adaptation to sound intensity and efferent-synaptic influence. The fast (alternating) component (AC) of the mechanical–electrical transduction signal controls the motor protein prestin and fast changes in axial length of the cell. The slow (direct) component (DC) appearing at high signal intensity affects the axial stiffness, the cell length and the position of the hair bundle. The efferent influence is realized by the same mechanism.

  • 14.
    Stevens, DR
    et al.
    Department of Biology, University College London, UK.
    Atteia, A
    Department of Plant Physiology, Botanical Institute, Göteborg University, Sweden.
    Franzén, Lars-Gunnar
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Plant Cell Biology: Energy transduction in plant cells.
    Purton, S
    Department of Biology, University College London, UK.
    Cycloheximide resistance conferred by novel mutations in ribosomal protein L41 of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii2001In: Molecular General Genetics, ISSN 0026-8925, E-ISSN 1432-1874, Vol. 264, no 6, p. 790-795Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although most eukaryotic cells are sensitive to the 80S ribosome inhibitor cycloheximide (CYH), naturally occurring CYH resistance is widespread amongst yeast species. The primary determinant of resistance appears to be a single residue within ribosomal protein L41; resistance is acquired by the substitution of a conserved proline (P-56) by a glutamate residue. We have isolated the L41 gene (RPL41) from the green alga Chlamydomonas and investigated the molecular basis of CYH resistance in various mutant strains. In both the wild-type strain and the mutant act-1, a proline is found at the key position in L41.; However, analysis of six independently isolated act-2 mutants reveals that all have point mutations that replace the proline with either leucine or serine. Of the two changes, the leucine mutation confers significantly higher levels of CYH resistance. This work identifies the ACT-2 locus as RPL41 and provides a possible dominant marker for nuclear transformation of C. reinhardtii.

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