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  • 1.
    Fernström, Maria
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Medicine, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Bakkman, Linda
    Department of Medicine, Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Loogna, Peter
    Bariatric Center, Sophiahemmet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rooyackers, Olav
    Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Svensson, Madeleine
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI). Department of Medicine, Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jakobsson, Towe
    Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Brandt, Lena
    Department of Clinical Medicine, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Lagerros, Ylva Trolle
    Department of Medicine, Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Stockholm, Sweden & Department of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes, Karolinska University Hospital, Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Improved Muscle Mitochondrial Capacity Following Gastric Bypass Surgery in Obese Subjects2016In: Obesity Surgery, ISSN 0960-8923, E-ISSN 1708-0428, Vol. 26, no 7, p. 1391-1397Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Weight loss resulting from low-calorie diets is often less than expected. We hypothesized that energy restriction would influence proton leakage and improve mitochondrial efficiency, leading to reduced energy expenditure, partly explaining the difficulties in weight loss maintenance.

    Methods

    Eleven women with a median BMI of 38.5 kg/m2 (q-range 37–40), and referred to gastric bypass surgery participated. Before surgery, and at 6 months of follow-up, muscle biopsies were collected from the vastus lateralis muscle. Mitochondria were isolated and analyzed for coupled (state 3) and uncoupled (state 4) respiration and mitochondrial capacity (P/O ratio).

    Results

    At follow-up, the participants had a median BMI of 29.6 kg/m2 (28.3–32.0). State 3 increased from 20.6 (17.9–28.9) to 34.9 nmol O2/min/U citrate synthase (CS) (27.0–49.0), p = 0.01, while state 4 increased from 2.8 (1.8–4.2) to 4.2 nmol O2/min/U CS (3.1–6.1), although not statistically significant. The P/O ratio increased from 2.7 (2.5–2.8) to 3.2 (3.0–3.4), p = 0.02, indicating improved mitochondrial efficiency.

    Conclusions

    Six months after gastric bypass surgery, the mitochondrial capacity for coupled, i.e., ATP-generating, respiration increased, and the P/O ratio improved. Uncoupled respiration was not enhanced to the same extent. This could partly explain the decreased basal metabolism and the reduced inclination for weight loss during energy restriction. © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

  • 2.
    Hellström, Sandra
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Nyberg, Frida
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Tbc, ett globalt hot: Sjuksköterskans arbete för att främja följsamhet och minska resistensutveckling av mykobakterium tuberkulosis2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Tuberculosis (TB) is an airborne droplet infection caused by mycobacterium tuberculosis. TB is the disease after AIDS that is most deadly, even though curative treatment exists. The treatment is demanding for the TB-infected to undergo and consists of a combination of a number of antibiotics that must be administered for at least six months. A dissenting in anti-tuberculosis treatment might result in mycobacterium tuberculosis strains that are resistant to antibiotics. As adherence to long-term treatment is graded at a low percentage (50 %) the aim of the literature study was from a global perspective to develop a working-strategy for nurses that promote compliance in TB-treatment in order to reduce resistance development of mycobacterium tuberculosis. The study was conducted as a literature study where 12 research articles were reviewed and analyzed. The results describe specific factors that are essential to compliance. These factors comprise patient education, treatment strategies, social influences and support. As knowledge gives the patient a better understanding for the treatment it provokes compliance. The social environment of the TB-infected patient demands increased knowledge in order to reduce stigma. Several studies show that the DOTS strategy is important for increasing compliance in anti-tuberculosis treatment. The literature study results in a proposal for the nursing program to focus more on compliance in taking medication. The nursing program’s attendants need to gain knowledge about prudent antibiotic treatment that leads to a compliance concern.

  • 3.
    Teneberg, Susanne
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology. Institute of Medical Biochemistry, Göteborg University, P. O. Box 440, SE 405 30 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Leonardsson, I.
    Department of Clinical Microbiology and Immunology, Örebro Medical Centre Hospital, SE 701 85 Örebro, Sweden.
    Karlsson, H.
    Department of General Surgery, Örebro Medical Centre Hospital, SE 701 85 Örebro, Sweden.
    Jovall, P.-A.
    Department of Medical Microbiology, Dermatology, and Infection, University of Lund, SE 223 62 Lund, Sweden.
    Ångström, J.
    Institute of Medical Biochemistry, Göteborg University, P. O. Box 440, SE 405 30 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Danielsson, D.
    Institute of Medical Biochemistry, Göteborg University, P. O. Box 440, SE 405 30 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Näslund, I.
    Institute of Medical Biochemistry, Göteborg University, P. O. Box 440, SE 405 30 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Ljungh, A.
    Institute of Medical Biochemistry, Göteborg University, P. O. Box 440, SE 405 30 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Wadström, T.
    Institute of Medical Biochemistry, Göteborg University, P. O. Box 440, SE 405 30 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Karlsson, K.-A
    Institute of Medical Biochemistry, Göteborg University, P. O. Box 440, SE 405 30 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Lactotetraosylceramide, a novel glycosphingolipid receptor for Helicobacter pylori, present in human gastric epithelium2002In: Journal of Biological Chemistry, ISSN 0021-9258, E-ISSN 1083-351X, Vol. 277, no 22, p. 19709-19719Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The binding of Helicobacterpylori to glycosphingolipids was examined by binding of 35S-labeled bacteria to glycosphingolipids on thin-layer chromatograms. In addition to previously reported binding specificities, a selective binding to a non-acid tetraglycosylceramide of human meconium was found. This H. pylori binding glycosphingolipid was isolated and, on the basis of mass spectrometry, proton NMR spectroscopy, and degradation studies, were identified as Galβ3GlcNAcβ3-Galβ4Glcβ1Cer (lactotetraosylceramide). When using non-acid glycosphingolipid preparations from human gastric epithelial cells, an identical binding of H. pylori to the tetraglycosylceramide interval was obtained in one of seven samples. Evidence for the presence of lactotetraosylceramide in the binding-active interval was obtained by proton NMR spectroscopy of intact glycosphingolipids and by gas chromatography-electron ionization mass spectrometry of permethylated tetrasaccharides obtained by ceramide glycanase hydrolysis. The lactotetraosylceramide binding property was detected in 65 of 74 H. pylori isolates (88%) Binding of H. pylori to lactotetraosylceramide on thin-layer chromatograms was inhibited by preincubation with lactotetraose but not with lactose. Removal of the terminal galactose of lactotetraosylceramide by galactosidase hydrolysis abolished the binding as did hydrazinolysis of the acetamido group of the N-acetylglucosamine. Therefore, Galβ3GlcNAc is an essential part of the binding epitope.

  • 4.
    Urrutia-Cordero, Pablo
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science. Univ Autonoma Madrid, Dept Biol, Madrid 28049, Spain..
    Agha, Ramsy
    Univ Autonoma Madrid, Dept Biol, Madrid 28049, Spain..
    Cires, Samuel
    Univ Autonoma Madrid, Dept Biol, Madrid 28049, Spain..
    Angeles Lezcano, Maria
    Univ Autonoma Madrid, Dept Biol, Madrid 28049, Spain..
    Sanchez-Contreras, Maria
    Univ Autonoma Madrid, Dept Biol, Madrid 28049, Spain..
    Waara, Karl-Otto
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Utkilen, Hans
    Norwegian Inst Publ Hlth, Dept Water Hyg, N-0403 Oslo, Norway..
    Quesada, Antonio
    Univ Autonoma Madrid, Dept Biol, Madrid 28049, Spain..
    Effects of harmful cyanobacteria on the freshwater pathogenic free-living amoeba Acanthamoeba castellanii2013In: Aquatic Toxicology, ISSN 0166-445X, E-ISSN 1879-1514, Vol. 130, p. 9-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Grazing is a major regulating factor in cyanobacterial population dynamics and, subsequently, considerable effort has been spent on investigating the effects of cyanotoxins on major metazoan grazers. However, protozoan grazers such as free-living amoebae can also feed efficiently on cyanobacteria, while simultaneously posing a major threat for public health as parasites of humans and potential reservoirs of opportunistic pathogens. In this study, we conducted several experiments in which the freshwater amoeba Acanthamoeba castellanii was exposed to pure microcystin-LR (MC-LR) and six cyanobacterial strains, three MC-producing strains (MC-LR, MC-RR, MC-YR, MC-WR, [Dha7] MC-RR) and three strains containing other oligopeptides such as anabaenopeptins and cyanopeptolins. Although the exposure to high concentrations of pure MC-LR yielded no effects on amoeba, all MC-producing strains inflicted high mortality rates on amoeba populations, suggesting that toxic effects must be mediated through the ingestion of toxic cells. Interestingly, an anabaenopeptin-producing strain caused the greatest inhibition of amoeba growth, indicating that toxic bioactive compounds other than MCs are of great importance for amoebae grazers. Confocal scanning microscopy revealed different alterations in amoeba cytoskeleton integrity and as such, the observed declines in amoeba densities could have indeed been caused via a cascade of cellular events primarily triggered by oligopeptides with protein-phosphatase inhibition capabilities such as MCs or anabaenopeptins. Moreover, inducible-defense mechanisms such as the egestion of toxic, MC-producing cyanobacterial cells and the increase of resting stages (encystation) in amoebae co-cultivated with all cyanobacterial strains were observed in our experiments. Consequently, cyanobacterial strains showed different susceptibilities to amoeba grazing which were possibly influenced by the potentiality of their toxic secondary metabolites. Hence, this study shows the importance of cyanobacterial toxicity against amoeba grazing and, that cyanobacteria may contain a wide range of chemical compounds capable of negatively affect free-living, herbivorous amoebae. Moreover, this is of high importance for understanding the interactions and population dynamics of such organisms in aquatic ecosystems. (c) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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