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  • 1.
    Manasa, Justen
    et al.
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA.
    Varghese, Vici
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA.
    Kosakovsky Pond, Sergei
    Department of Biology, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
    Rhee, Soo-Yon
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA.
    Tzou, Philip
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA.
    Fessel, Jeffrey
    Department of Internal Medicine, Kaiser Permanente Northern California, San Francisco Medical Center, San Francisco, CA, USA.
    Jang, Karen
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA.
    White, Elizabeth
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA.
    Rögnvaldsson, Thorsteinn
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Katzenstein, David A.
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA.
    Shafer, Robert A.
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA.
    Evolution of gag and gp41 in Patients Receiving Ritonavir-Boosted Protease Inhibitors2017In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, no 1, article id 11559Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several groups have proposed that genotypic determinants in gag and the gp41 cytoplasmic domain (gp41-CD) reduce protease inhibitor (PI) susceptibility without PI-resistance mutations in protease. However, no gag and gp41-CD mutations definitively responsible for reduced PI susceptibility have been identified in individuals with virological failure (VF) while receiving a boosted PI (PI/r)-containing regimen. To identify gag and gp41 mutations under selective PI pressure, we sequenced gag and/or gp41 in 61 individuals with VF on a PI/r (n = 40) or NNRTI (n = 20) containing regimen. We quantified nonsynonymous and synonymous changes in both genes and identified sites exhibiting signal for directional or diversifying selection. We also used published gag and gp41 polymorphism data to highlight mutations displaying a high selection index, defined as changing from a conserved to an uncommon amino acid. Many amino acid mutations developed in gag and in gp41-CD in both the PI- and NNRTI-treated groups. However, in neither gene, were there discernable differences between the two groups in overall numbers of mutations, mutations displaying evidence of diversifying or directional selection, or mutations with a high selection index. If gag and/or gp41 encode PI-resistance mutations, they may not be confined to consistent mutations at a few sites. © 2017 The Author(s).

  • 2.
    Nielsen, Isabell
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Werner, Hanna
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Patientens upplevelse av ett cancerbesked2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Every year, over 50 000 individuals in Sweden are diagnosed with cancer. The disclosure of the cancer diagnosis arouses emotions and is often associated with suffering and death. Receiving bad news may lead to changes in life and can also be seen as the beginning of a long and difficult journey. A scientific study based on 15 original articles was carried out with the purpose to identify the patient’s experience of receiving a cancer diagnosis and therefore increase the nurse’s understanding for the patient’s situation and deepen the knowledge of the subject. When examining the articles three themes were identified: information, emotional reactions and psychosocial support. The patient experience that it is important that the information is given in an open and honest manner. Patients also find it important that their emotional reaction is being observed as receiving the diagnosis. As the disclosure of the cancer diagnosis affects the patient’s further perception of the disease the nurse has an important role providing psychosocial support in various situations that may arise in connection with the disclosure. Continued research is needed to compare how guidelines for giving bad news to a patient correspond with the patient’s own experiences and preferences.

  • 3.
    Sällström, Benjamin
    et al.
    Halmstad University. Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Kareliussén, Tobias
    Halmstad University. Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Hur påverkas muskelaktiviteten vid styrketräning med en tjock stång i jämförelse med en standardolympisk stång?: En EMG- studie2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Many everyday tasks and also many sports require good grip and forearm strength. Everything from carrying boxes and lifting a child to grab the arms and legs in various martial arts, or holding a tennis racket involving the hand and forearm muscles in various ways. It is therefore important to train these muscles to prevent injuries and congestion and to perform well in sport. A well known way to train functional strength in the hand and forearm muscles is weight training with thick handles. The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences in muscle activity in the upper arm and forearm muscles as well as the deltoids between two bars of different diameter (28mm and 57mm) in two different weight training exercises using electromyography (EMG). The weight training exercises consisted of a pulling exercise in the form of a bench row and a pressing exercise in the form of close-grip bench press. The study also examines whether there is a connection between hand strength and muscle activity, and if there is any connection between hand size and muscle activity. Results show that muscle activity between the thick bars remained unchanged in the close-grip bench press. In the bench row exercise, however, significant increases were seen in the forearm flexors and m. biceps brachii while lifting the thicker bar. The forearm extensors showed an indication of muscle activity increases while lifting the thicker bar. However, there was no connection between hand strength and muscle activity and no correlation between hand size and muscle activity. The conclusion is that the pulling exercise with the thicker bar results in higher muscle activity in comparison to a standard Olympic bar in several muscles involved, not just those directly affected by the thicker bar.

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