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  • 1.
    Aksel Jacobsen, Freja
    et al.
    Novo Nordisk A/S, Bagsværd, Denmark.
    Andersson, Åsa
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Inhibitors of intracellular enzymes for treatment of multiple sclerosis2019In: Atlas of ScienceArticle, review/survey (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 2.
    Aksel Jacobsen, Freja
    et al.
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark & Novo Nordisk A/S, Bagsværd, Denmark.
    Scherer, Alexander N.
    Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA.
    Mouritsen, Jeppe
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark & Novozymes A/S, Bagsværd, Denmark.
    Bragadóttir, Hera
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark & Xelia Pharmaceuticals A/S, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Bäckström, B. Thomas
    Novo Nordisk A/S, Måløv, Denmark & BTB Pharma, Malmö, Sweden.
    Sardar, Samra
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Holmberg, Dan
    Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Koleske, Anthony J.
    Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA.
    Andersson, Åsa
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    A Role for the Non-Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Abl2/Arg in Experimental Neuroinflammation2018In: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology, ISSN 1557-1890, E-ISSN 1557-1904, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 265-276Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multiple sclerosis is a neuroinflammatory degenerative disease, caused by activated immune cells infiltrating the CNS. The disease etiology involves both genetic and environmental factors. The mouse genetic locus, Eae27, linked to disease development in the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model for multiple sclerosis, was studied in order to identify contributing disease susceptibility factors and potential drug targets for multiple sclerosis. Studies of an Eae27 congenic mouse strain, revealed that genetic variation within Eae27 influences EAE development. The Abl2 gene, encoding the non-receptor tyrosine kinase Arg, is located in the 4,1 megabase pair long Eae27 region. The Arg protein plays an important role in cellular regulation and is, in addition, involved in signaling through the B- and T-cell receptors, important for the autoimmune response. The presence of a single nucleotide polymorphism causing an amino acid change in a near actin-interacting domain of Arg, in addition to altered lymphocyte activation in the congenic mice upon immunization with myelin antigen, makes Abl2/Arg a candidate gene for EAE. Here we demonstrate that the non-synonymous SNP does not change Arg’s binding affinity for F-actin but suggest a role for Abl kinases in CNS inflammation pathogenesis by showing that pharmacological inhibition of Abl kinases ameliorates EAE, but not experimental arthritis. © 2018 The Author(s)

  • 3.
    Algotsson, Marcus
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Construct validity and test-retest reliability of a rotational maximum strength test and rotational power test in 1080 Quantum2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Explosive rotational movements are parts of many sports such as golf, tennis and baseball. Rotational strength and power tests exist, but valid and reliable tests to measure standing rotational strength and standing rotational power are lacking. 1080 Quantum is a machine wich can measure, speed, force and power and has several different resistance modes was used for testing rotational power and strength in this study. Aim: The aim was to investigate the validity and reliability of two new standing Quantum rotational tests; one measuring maximal rotational strength (1RM) and one measuring rotational power. Methods: Fifteen subjects, 8 men and 7 women, with at least one year of experience of resistance training participated in the study. The two new tests were: the Quantum power rotational test (PRT) and the Quantum 1RM rotational test (1RMRT). Testing occured during two sessions and during the first session construct validity of the two new rotational tests was assessed with a standing medicine ball throw (MB) and a sitting rotational power test (SRT). During the second session PRT and 1RMRT were tested for test-retest reliability. To study construct validity á priori hypothesis were stated and data were analyzed with Spearman´s correlation coefficent (rs). Intra correaltion coefficient (ICC) was used for test-retest reliability for PRT and 1RMRT. Results: Priori hypotheses were all fullfilled. Correlations found were considered good between PRT and MB (rs=0.80), moderate between PRT and SRT (rs=0.52), excellent between 1RMRT and MB (rs=0.90), moderate between 1RMRT and SRT (rs=0.73) and good between PRT and 1RMRT (rs=0.81). Excellent test-retest reliability was found for PRT (ICC=0.94, 95% CI (0.80-0.99)) and 1RMRT (ICC=0.98, 95% CI (0.92-0.99)) Conclusion: The two new rotational tests performed in 1080 Quantum both assessed construct validity and test-retest reliability. PRT can be used to measure standing rotational power and 1RMRT can be used to measure standing rotational maximum strength.

  • 4.
    Andersson, Patrik
    et al.
    AstraZeneca R&D, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Kenne, Kerstin
    AstraZeneca R&D, Södertälje, Sweden.
    Glinghammar, Björn
    AstraZeneca R&D, Södertälje, Sweden.
    Pointon, Amy V.
    Global Safety Assessment AstraZeneca, Macclesfield, United Kingdom.
    Åkerblad, Peter
    CVGI iMed AstraZeneca, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Lutz, Mareike
    CVGI iMed AstraZeneca, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Hovdal, Daniel
    CVGI iMed AstraZeneca, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Maxvall, Ingela
    CVGI iMed AstraZeneca, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Lindstedt, Eva-Lotte
    CVGI iMed AstraZeneca, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Toxicity with LXR agonists – Problem solving activities for mechanistic understanding2012In: Toxicology Letters, ISSN 0378-4274, E-ISSN 1879-3169, Vol. 211, no Suppl. (S), p. S39-S39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several lines of evidence points toward the potential positive effects of LXR (Liver X Receptor) modulators for effective and safe therapy of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). LXR is a dimeric nuclear hormone receptor that exists as a combination of RXR and one of two subtypes LXR alpha or beta, which act as cholesterol sensors. LXR alpha is highly expressed in the liver, intestine and adipose tissue while LXR beta is ubiquitously expressed. Activation of LXR up-regulates several genes involved in reverse cholesterol transport (RCT), including ABC transporters. This results in increased efflux of cholesterol from macrophages in atherosclerotic vascular lesions to the circulation and further on to other tissues to ultimately be excreted into the faeces. These effects together with systemic and local anti-inflammatory properties of LXR modulation are likely to contribute to decreased atherosclerosis. The positive effects of LXR activation on RCT and cholesterol balance must be obtained without negative lipid effects, since LXR also activates lipogenic genes. Other types of toxicity and approaches to better understand the mechanism(s) behind these will be presented. Copyright © 2012 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  • 5.
    Andersson, Åsa
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Köpenhamns universitet, Köpenhamn, Danmark.
    Abl-tyrosinkinaser och multipel skleros2018In: BestPractice, Vol. 6, no 24, p. 14-16Article, review/survey (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Andersson, Åsa
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Aksel Jacobsen, Freja
    Copenhagen University, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    B-cells and Inflammation in the Absence of the Abelson Related Gene (Arg)2016In: Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology, ISSN 2155-9899, E-ISSN 2155-9899, Vol. 7, no 6, article id 1000470Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Abelson non-receptor tyrosine kinases, c-Abl and Arg, are important regulators of cellular processes in cancer, inflammation, infection, and neuronal dynamics. Recent research on the role for these kinases in processes involving interactions with the cytoskeleton or signaling molecules, may lead to further insight into the pathogenesis of a variety of disorders, including chronic inflammatory diseases. In a mouse model for multiple sclerosis, we recently reported that Arg deficient mice develop T-cell mediated autoimmune neuro-inflammation with the same severity as littermate controls, but display a different B-cell phenotype upon immunization. Here we comment on these results and discuss the role for Arg in B-cell activation and homeostasis.

  • 7.
    Andersson, Åsa
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Department of Drug Design and Pharmacology, Copenhagen University, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Sardar, Samra
    Nordic Bioscience, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    A transcriptional regulator controlling severity in experimental arthritis2019In: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, ISSN 0003-4967, E-ISSN 1468-2060, Vol. 78, no Suppl. 2, p. 667-667, article id FRI0011Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Susceptibility to Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is dependent on complex interactions among genetic and environmental factors. Protein candidates and their role in pathways leading to chronic inflammation of the joints, in addition to their potential as drug targets, can be revealed with the help of experimental models for disease (1). From the results of functional genetic studies, we have recently shown that the T-box gene, TBX3, is a candidate gene in Collagen Induced Arthritis (CIA), an experimental model for RA (2). TBX3 encodes a transcriptional regulator involved in differentiation of several organs, including bone, during embryonic development. It has, in addition, been demonstrated important in oncogenesis (3). Our studies suggest that TBX3 has a role in B-cell activation and is important for the severity of disease in the CIA model (2). Objectives: The objective of this project is to understand the role for the transcriptional regulator TBX3 in development of RA. Methods: Bioinformatics based comparative studies of mouse and human alleles in the regulatory region of TBX3. CRISPR/Cas9-introduced deletions and base modifications in human B-cell lines. Activation of genetically modified B-cells in vitro, followed by analyses of proliferative response and antibody production. Results: Studies of CIA development in mice with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the regulatory region of Tbx3 revealed a significant difference in severity of arthritis. In line with this, the anti-collagen type II antibody titers were shown substantially higher in mice with more severe arthritis, even before onset of disease. In addition, preliminary data shows that the proliferative response to Type II collagen upon re-challenge of lymph node cells in vitro is higher in these mice, suggesting a more active response to the disease-inducing antigen. Because the TBX3 gene is conserved between mouse and human, we are investigating whether similar genetic variations are found in the regulatory region of the human TBX3 gene and whether the putative genetic variation would lead to a distinct B-cell phenotype upon activation in vitro. Conclusion: We suggest that the oncoprotein TBX3 is a novel candidate contributing to disease severity in experimental arthritis. Investigations of genetic variation in the TBX3 gene and its role in the activation of human B-cells will reveal whether this protein is a candidate for influencing also development of RA.

  • 8.
    Atteia, A.
    et al.
    Depto. de Genética Molecular, Inst. de Fisiología Celular, Univ. Nacl. Auton. de Mex., Mexico.
    van Lis, R.
    Depto. de Genética Molecular, Inst. de Fisiología Celular, Univ. Nacl. Auton. de Mex., Mexico.
    Wetterskog, Daniel
    Department of Plant Physiology, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Gutiérrez-Cirlos, E.-B.
    Department of Biochemistry, Dartmouth Medical School, Hanover, United States.
    Ongay-Larios, L.
    Unidad de Biología Molecular, Inst. de Fisiología Celular, Univ. Nacl. Auton. de Mex., Mexico.
    Franzén, Lars-Gunnar
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Plant Cell Biology: Energy transduction in plant cells.
    González-Halphen, D.
    Depto. de Genética Molecular, Inst. de Fisiología Celular, Univ. Nacl. Auton. de Mex., Mexico.
    Structure, organization and expression of the genes encoding mitochondrial cytochrome c1 and the Rieske iron-sulfur protein in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii2003In: Molecular Genetics and Genomics, ISSN 1617-4615, E-ISSN 1617-4623, Vol. 268, no 5, p. 637-644Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The sequence and organization of the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii genes encoding cytochrome c 1 ( Cyc1) and the Rieske-type iron-sulfur protein ( Isp), two key nucleus-encoded subunits of the mitochondrial cytochrome bc 1 complex, are presented. Southern hybridization analysis indicates that both Cyc1 and Isp are present as single-copy genes in C. reinhardtii. The Cyc1 gene spans 6404 bp and contains six introns, ranging from 178 to 1134 bp in size. The Isp gene spans 1238 bp and contains four smaller introns, ranging in length from 83 to 167 bp. In both genes, the intron/exon junctions follow the GT/AG rule. Internal conserved sequences were identified in only some of the introns in the Cyc1 gene. The levels of expression of Isp and Cyc1 genes are comparable in wild-type C. reinhardtii cells and in a mutant strain carrying a deletion in the mitochondrial gene for cytochrome b (dum-1). Nevertheless, no accumulation of the nucleus-encoded cytochrome c 1 or of core proteins I and II was observed in the membranes of the respiratory mutant. These data show that, in the green alga C. reinhardtii, the subunits of the cytochrome bc1 complex fail to assemble properly in the absence of cytochrome b.

  • 9.
    Bengtsson, Charlotte
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Magnusson, Petra
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Överbeläggning: Konsekvenser för patienten2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Health care units are frequently and repeatedly working with overcrowding situations. This can pose consequences to patient safety. A literature review was done with the review of nine articles with the aim to illuminate the consequences for patients with overcrowding wards at inpatient care units. Main consequences for patients with overcrowding wards were identified as lack of information at handoff situations regarding to the care of the patients and the consequences of the relocation of patients. Relocated patients implies increased loads on several levels for nursing staff , mainly due to differences in skills and insufficient experience to meet the care needs of patients. Lack of communication was shown to be a contributing factor to adverse events. Deficiencies in basic nursing care can lead to increased suffering, prolonged hospital stay and complications. Continued research is important, since there are several interesting aspects that need to be elucidated.

  • 10.
    Bergenblad, Jonas
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Validation study of a portable accelerometer to measure muscular power output: Correlation between the Beast Sensor and the linear encoder MuscleLab2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Background: The ability to produce a high power output can be the deciding factor in determining which athlete wins or loses in a sporting event. Power output can be measured in an exercise like the squat or bench press. The use of a force plate, or a force plate paired with a linear position transducer is considered the gold standard when measuring power output in an exercise like the squat or bench press. Linear position transducers or linear encoders have also been considered valid methods. Power output can also be measured by accelerometers.

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to test the concurrent validity of the accelerometer Beast Sensor by measuring average power in explosive squatting and bench pressing at 40 % and 80 % of one repetition maximum (1RM). The linear encoder MuscleLab was used as criterion.

    Methods: 17 test subjects, five women and 12 men (average age 28 years) were recruited. Fifteen of the subjects completed two test sessions. The first session determined their 1RM. The second session took place 7-14 days later and measured average power output during two sets of three repetitions at 40 % and 80 % of the subjects 1RM in explosive squats and bench presses. The average power output of the repetitions was measured simultaneously by Beast Sensor and MuscleLab. For the Beast Sensor to be considered valid, a correlation coefficient of 0.9 or higher needed to be reached.

    Results: Beast Sensor demonstrated high or very high correlations with MuscleLab for average power output of explosive squats at 40 % of 1RM (rs = 0.91), and for explosive bench presses at 40 % (rs = 0.86) and 80 % of 1RM (rs = 0.74). However, for explosive squats at 80 % of 1RM, the correlation was low (rs = 0.42). All correlations were statistically significant with p-values of < 0.01. Beast Sensor was considered valid for squats at 40 % of 1RM, but neither at 80 % of 1RM in squats, nor at 40 % or 80 % of 1RM in bench presses.

    Conclusion: Beast Sensor showed high or very high correlations with the criterion MuscleLab in three of the four assessed data variables. Only the correlation for average power output of the explosive squats at 40 % of the subject’s 1RM reached the required correlation coefficient of 0.9 or higher for the Beast Sensor to be considered valid. Except for at 40 % of 1RM in squats, Beast Sensor missed a substantial amount of repetitions. Further studies examining the reliability of the Beast Sensor are therefore needed. 

  • 11.
    Bergman, Lina
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Algotsson, Marcus
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Effekten av 6 veckor unilaterala knäböj, med eller utan isokinetiskt motstånd, på power och sprinttid på is hos manliga ishockeyspelare2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Ice-hockey are physically demanding. To be able to perform during a game it is required thatthe players have a high maximum leg strength and power. A bilateral squat is a valid and widespread exercise for improving muscle strength and power in the legs. Even more specific forice-hockey is the unilateral squat. During an isokinetic movement the velocity is pre-set andtherefore constant, while the force can be altered during the movement. Most isokineticsystems have been designed for unilateral training, but in terms of isokinetic multi-jointexercises, such as the squat, there seems to be no research until this day.The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of six weeks unilateral strength training(squat), either through traditional or isokinetic training, on power-output and 17.3 m sprinttime on ice among male junior ice-hockey players.20 elite male ice-hockey players, 18-19 years of age, was randomly divided in two differenttraining groups. One group (QG) did isokinetic unilateral squats in 1080 Quantum, with anangle of 110o degrees in the knee joint. The other group (SG) did traditional unilateral squatsin a Smith-machine, also with an angle of 110o degrees in the knee joint. The period oftraining was set to six weeks. Both groups participated in pre- and post-tests consisting ofsprint on ice and peak power in unilateral and bilateral jump squats.A significant improvement was seen with QG in peak power performed on both legs(p=0,004). SG had a significant improvement in unilateral squat performed on the right leg(p=0,018). A tendency to significant improvement was seen with QG in the ice-sprint(p=0,059).Isokinetic unilateral squat in a Smith-machine with a concentric velocity set to 0,2m/sec andan eccentric velocity set to 4,0m/sec with a maximum force is an effective exercise toimprove power-output on two legs, perhaps also to improve sprint ability on ice, among icehockeyplayers. It is difficult to draw conclusion about the results from this study whetherisokinetic unilateral squats is an effective method to improve the power compared totraditional unilateral squats in a Smith-machine with maximum speed.

  • 12.
    Bergqvist, Mathias
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Comparison of ground reaction force and knee angle between parkour precision landing and traditional landing2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Parkour is a sport which has developed its own landing technique, precision landing (PL), which has shown to reduce vertical ground reaction forces (vGRF) in comparison to a more traditional landing (TL). However previous studies lacks control for intra group knee flexion between the TL and PL techniques. Aim. The aim of this study was to analyse the biomechanical differences between a parkour precision landing with a traditional landing in four knee flexion groups (Stiff landing (SL), 25-50o, 50-75o and 75-100o), comparing vGRF, time to peak force and average rate of force development (avgRFD) between both landing techniques within each group as well as between the groups. Method. 42 participants were recruited to participate in a single session of a randomized, experimental study. Participants were randomly placed into one of four groups and performed a practice session of the two different landing techniques at the knee flexion angle given. All participants performed 5 approved landings with a TL technique and thereafter 5 approved landing using PL. Results. A significant increase of vGRF was found with TL compared to PL within all groups (p ≤ 0.05). Reduced time to peak force and increased avgRFD was found in TL compared to PL across all groups (p = 0.01) with the exception of 25-50o (p = 0.27 for time to peak force and p = 0.73 for avgRFD). Conclusion. The results of current study shows that PL reduces vGRF, time to peak force and avgRFD compared to TL in recreationally trained individuals. The results varied when compared between knee flexion groups, however results shows that 50-75o seems to be the more optimal range of knee flexion in terms of reducing ground reaction forces.

  • 13.
    Bergqvist, Mathias
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Hip strength in Swedish soldiers: A correlation study between gluteus medius muscle strength and development of valgus during 2000 meter run with external load2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 14.
    Björk, Julia
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    The effect of a weight lifting belt and the use of valsalva maneuver on power output and velocity in a squat2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: A squat is a common exercise that is used in many areas of strength training and for different purposes and the literature is inconclusive when it comes to whether the weight lifting belt (WB) affects performance and/or is injury-preventing. The use of breathing techniques is common during heavy lifting and therefore the practice of the breathing teqnice; valsalva maneuver (VM) may be of interest to study and if this along with the WB can provide some advantages in power output and velocity. Aim: The specific aim of the study was to evaluate whether the velocity in the eccentric and the concentric phase of the squat, and the peak velocity in the concentric phases are affected in power output through the use of the VM when the subjects use or did not use a WB. Method: Fifteen subjects (10 men and 5 women) volunteered freely to participate and did a total of 12 squats divided in four different sets with three repetitions each on 75% of their self-reported one repetition maximum (1RM). The first two sets were either with or without WB and the third and fourth sets were either with or without the practice of the VM. The three conditions (with WB, with WB + VM and VA only) were compared to each other and to the control group (without any instructions and no WB) in terms of power output and velocity in the eccentric, concentric and peak velocity in the concentric phase of the squat. Result: There was no significant difference in power output when comparing the four different test conditions. The velocity in the eccentric, concentric and peak velocity in the concentric phase did not have a significant difference between the different test conditions. Conclusions: This study shows a different output compared to previous literature. The WB and the practice of VM did not affect the power output and velocity in a squat, alone or together. 

  • 15.
    Björk, Julia
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Upper- & lower body strength and its correlation to performance in swimming2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: To learn how to swim with proper technique takes fairly large amount of time and practice to learn and anelite swimmer spends 6-7 days training for improving aerobic capacity, anaerobic capacity and strength training for energy saving technique. Freestyle is the fastest swimming style and is performed in many different distances, 50m is classified as a sprint and the 400m as a middle-distance. The research is inconclusive if there is a correlation in the lower body and the time in 50m and 400m and mostly in the middle distance which gives this study the importance reducing these uncertainties. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the strength of the correlation between the upper- and lower body muscle strengthwith time in 50m and 400m freestyle and to analyze which of the variables of height, sex, upper- and lower body strength contribute to velocity in sprint and middle distance in competitive swimmers. Method:A total of 14 participants (3 men and 11 women) participated in the study. The participants were tested at three occasions. The first was to determine their three-repetition maximum (3RM) in the squat and lat-pulldown. The second occasion was the collection the time in 50m freestyle and the third was to collect the time in 400m freestyle. Relative strength (kg/kg BW; %) and absolute strength (kg) in 1RM was calculated and correlated with the time in 50m and 400m freestyle. Analysis was done to see which variables of height, sex, relative strength in the squat and lat-pulldown contribute the most to the time in freestyle. Result: The result show that there was a high correlation between the absolute strength in the squat and the time in 50m (r=-0.769) a moderate correlation in the absolute strength in lat-pulldown and the 50m freestyle sprint (r=-0.513). There was also a moderate correlation for the relative strength in the lat-pulldown and 50m freestyle (r=-0.599). The 400m correlate with the relative strength in both lat-pulldown(r=-0.563) and the squat (r=-0.555). The lat-pulldown contributed most to the time in 50m freestyle as well as the male sex. Conclusions: The absolute strength in the squat had a high correlation to the time in 50m freestyle swim. The 400m there was a moderate correlation to the relative strength in the squat and lat-pulldown showing that for the overall performance in middle-distance the relative strength has the advantage over absolute strength. The relative and absolute strength in upper body correlated to both 50m and 400m freestyle and could therefore strengthen the importance of upper body strength in sprint and middle distance as previous researchers has stated. The upper body strength is the best predictor of time in 50m.

  • 16.
    Blom, Mathias Carl
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Ashfaq, Awais
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research. Halland Hospital, Region Halland, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Pinheiro Sant'Anna, Anita
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Anderson, Philip D.
    Department of Emergency Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA & Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
    Lingman, Markus
    Halland Hospital, Region Halland, Sweden & Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine/Cardiology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Training machine learning models to predict 30-day mortality in patients discharged from the emergency department: a retrospective, population based registry study2019In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 9, no 8, article id e028015Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Aggressive treatment at end-of-life (EOL) can be traumatic to patients and may not add clinical benefit. Absent an accurate prognosis of death, individual level biases may prevent timely discussions about the scope of EOL care and patients are at risk of being subject to care against their desire. The aim of this work is to develop predictive algorithms for identifying patients at EOL, with clinically meaningful discriminatory power.

    Methods: Retrospective, population-based study of patients utilizing emergency departments (EDs) in Sweden, Europe. Electronic health records (EHRs) were used to train supervised learning algorithms to predict all-cause mortality within 30 days following ED discharge. Algorithm performance was validated out of sample on EHRs from a separate hospital, to which the algorithms were previously unexposed.

    Results: Of 65,776 visits in the development set, 136 (0.21%) experienced the outcome. The algorithm with highest discrimination attained ROC-AUC 0.945 (95% CI 0.933 - 0.956), with sensitivity 0.869 (95% CI 0.802, 0.931) and specificity 0.858 (0.855, 0.860) on the validation set.

    Conclusions: Multiple algorithms displayed excellent discrimination and outperformed available indexes for short-term mortality prediction. The practical utility of the algorithms increases as the required data were captured electronically and did not require de novo data collection.

    Trial registration number: Not applicable.

  • 17.
    Boon, Hanneke
    et al.
    Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Section for Integrative Physiology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sjögren, Rasmus J.O.
    Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Section for Integrative Physiology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Massart, Julie
    Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Section for Integrative Physiology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Egan, Brendan
    Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Section for Integrative Physiology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kostovski, Emil
    Section for Spinal Cord Injury, Sunnaas Rehabilitation Hospital, Nesoddtangen, Norway; Department of Nutrition, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway & Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Iversen, Per Ole
    Department of Nutrition, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway & Department of Hematology, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.
    Hjeltnes, Nils
    Section for Spinal Cord Injury, Sunnaas Rehabilitation Hospital, Nesoddtangen, Norway.
    Chibalin, Alexander V
    Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Section for Integrative Physiology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Widegren, Ulrika
    Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Section for Integrative Physiology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Zierath, Juleen R.
    Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Section for Integrative Physiology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    MicroRNA-208b progressively declines after spinal cord injury in humans and is inversely related to myostatin expression2015In: Physiological Reports, E-ISSN 2051-817X, Vol. 3, no 11, article id e12622Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of long‐term physical inactivity on the expression of microRNAs involved in the regulation of skeletal muscle mass in humans are largely unknown. MicroRNAs are short, noncoding RNAs that fine‐tune target expression through mRNA degradation or by inhibiting protein translation. Intronic to the slow, type I, muscle fiber type genes MYH7 and MYH7b, microRNA‐208b and microRNA‐499‐5p are thought to fine‐tune the expression of genes important for muscle growth, such as myostatin. Spinal cord injured humans are characterized by both skeletal muscle atrophy and transformation toward fast‐twitch, type II fibers. We determined the expression of microRNA‐208b, microRNA‐499‐5p, and myostatin in human skeletal muscle after complete cervical spinal cord injury. We also determined whether these microRNAs altered myostatin expression in rodent skeletal muscle. A progressive decline in skeletal muscle microRNA‐208b and microRNA‐499‐5p expression occurred in humans during the first year after spinal cord injury and with long‐standing spinal cord injury. Expression of myostatin was inversely correlated with microRNA‐208b and microRNA‐499‐5p in human skeletal muscle after spinal cord injury. Overexpression of microRNA‐208b in intact mouse skeletal muscle decreased myostatin expression, whereas microRNA‐499‐5p was without effect. In conclusion, we provide evidence for an inverse relationship between expression of microRNA‐208b and its previously validated target myostatin in humans with severe skeletal muscle atrophy. Moreover, we provide direct evidence that microRNA‐208b overexpression decreases myostatin gene expression in intact rodent muscle. Our results implicate that microRNA‐208b modulates myostatin expression and this may play a role in the regulation of skeletal muscle mass following spinal cord injury. © 2015 The Authors

  • 18.
    Brorsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Olsson, M Charlotte
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Bengtsson, Oscar
    Petersson, Johan
    Maximal strength in one leg squat correlates with acceleration capacity and agility2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: In many intermittent team sports capacities such as speed, agility and explosiveness are important for performance and are evaluated by sprint-, agility- and strength tests. Earlier studies have shown strong correlations between strength in the two leg squat exercise and sprint performance in various distances but not in sprint performance in agility. Studies evaluating squat strength predominantly perform tests on two legs even when they test athletes involved in intermittent sports where sprinting and agility are common features. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between maximal strength in a one leg squat (Bulgarian split squat) and acceleration capacity in various sprint distances and agility.

    METHODS: The test group consisted of 19 men (mean age 24 ± 2 years ) with experience in intermittent team sports. Acceleration capacity was assessed by sprint tests at 5, 10 and 20 meters and agility was evaluated using the zigzag agility test. The timing was made using photocells (Muscle lab,Ergotest Technology,Norway). The Bulgarian split squat was performed in a smith machine with the barbell on the shoulders to a depth of 110 degrees between tibia and femur.

    RESULTS: The results show significant correlation between maximal strength in the Bulgarian split squat and sprint capacity in the 5 and 10 meter sprint test (Rp= -0,56; p<0.01) as well as the agility test. Maximal strength relative to bodyweight showed significant correlation with the 5 and 20 meter sprint (Rp=-0,62; p< 0,01) as well as the agility test. The zigzag agility test also showed significant correlation between all distances in the sprint tests (p<0.01).

    CONCLUSION: The results from this study show that there maximal strength in one leg correlate significantly with both acceleration capacity and agility. Implementing one leg exercises in the strength and conditioning routine can be useful for athletes in intermittent sports wanting to improve agility and short sprinting capacity. Further implications is that the Bulgarian split squat could be a more functional test for agility performance than the squat on two legs which  predominantly is being used today.

  • 19.
    Brorsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Olsson, M Charlotte
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Westerberg, Martin
    Maximal multiple repetitions in free weight strength training with different bar sizes2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: An individual’s grip strength is vital for performance of physical demanding tasks such as give some other example here? As well as strength training with free weights. Performing strength training with a thicker grip around the bar may enhance the strength of the grip in the athlete without other special routines for grip strength development. The purpose of this study was a) to examine the difference in performance in multiple repetitions in two strength training exercises using two different sizes on the bar, b) to investigate correlations between hand grip strength and the amount of repetitions performed with two different sizes of the  bar and c) to correlate hand size with the amount of performed repetitions with two different bar sizes.

    METHODS: Fifteen male participants (24 ± 4 years) with at least one year of strength training experience performed bench press and a prone lying rowing exercise with two different bar sizes (normal Olympic lifting bar with and with out Fat Gripz™). The participants performed test of maximal number of repetitions at a level of 80% of one repetition maximum (1RM), hand size was measured as well as maximum grip strength (using JAMAR).

    RESULTS: The use of a thicker diameter bar resulted in 22 % (p<0.01) reduction of weight performance in number of performed repetitions in the bench press compared to the normal diameter of the bar.  When performing lying bench row a 66 % (p<0.01) reduction in number of performed repetitions was seen with the thicker diameter of the bar. There was no significant correlation between hand size and the submaximal strength test (rp = 0,33 ; p = 0,23) or grip strength and submaximal strength test (rp = 0,31 ; p = 0,27).

    CONCLUSION: The results from this study indicated that the size of the bar diameter influences the performance in maximal number of repetitions in a prone lying rowing exercise and bench press.  Further studies have to be done to analyses the effect of strength training with thicker bar.

     

  • 20.
    Cato, Hampus
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Correlation Between 3000-meter Running Performance, Yo-Yo IR1 & Submaximal Treadmill Jogging Test2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Physiologic functional capacity through maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2max) can be measured in many different ways depending on sport and qualities needed to be assessed.In handball a demanding 3000 meter (m) running test is used to evaluate V̇O2max. If this test is sport specific or if it could be replaced by a less strenuous test is unknown. Aim: The aim ofthis study was to compare performance on 3000-meter running with predicted V̇O2max from a submaximal treadmill jogging test (SMTJ) and performance of the Yo-Yo intermittentrecovery test 1 (IR1). Methods: Male handball players (n = 12) performed the 3000 m running test, the Submaximal Treadmill Jogging test and the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery test level 1. Measurements in seconds (s), ml ∙ kg-1 ∙ min-1 and meters where collected and correlated using Pearson r, interclass correlation. Results: A strong significant linear correlation (p < 0.01) was found between performance in 3000 m running (s) and Yo-Yo IR1 performance (m), r = - 0.724 (r2 = 0.524). A weak, not significant linear correlation (p > 0.05)was found between performance in 3000 m running (s) and predicted V̇O2max from submaximal treadmill test (ml ∙ kg-1 ∙ min-1), r = - 0.309 (r2 = 0.095). Conclusion: According to this study the 3000 m running test could be replaced by the Yo-Yo IR1 test or vice versa in adolescent male handball players. The submaximal treadmill test used in this study had several potential errors in estimating V̇O2max, this is probably the reason why only a weak correlation was found between the SMTJ and the 3000 m running test.

  • 21.
    Desbans, Coraline
    et al.
    KaLy-Cell, Plobsheim, France.
    Hilgendorf, Constanze
    UCB Pharma S.A, Braine-l'Alleud, Belgium.
    Lutz, Mareike
    Halmstad University.
    Bachellier, P
    Centre de Chirurgie Viscérale et de Transplantation, Hôpital de Hautepierre, Strasbourg, France.
    Zacharias, T
    Service de Chirurgie Viscérale et Digestive, Centre Hospitalier Emile Muller-Moenchsberg, Mulhouse, France.
    Weber, JC
    Clinique de l'Orangerie, Strasbourg, France.
    Dolgos, Hugues
    UCB Pharma S.A, Braine-l'Alleud, Belgium.
    Richert, Lysiane
    KaLy-Cell, Plobsheim, France.
    Ungell, Anna-Lena
    UCB Pharma S.A, Braine-l'Alleud, Belgium.
    Prediction of fraction metabolized via CYP3A in humans utilizing cryopreserved human hepatocytes from a set of 12 single donors2014In: Xenobiotica, ISSN 0049-8254, E-ISSN 1366-5928, Vol. 44, no 1, p. 17-27Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Engberg, Amanda
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    The effect of load carriage on aerobic capacity and ventilatory threshold in Swedish soldiers2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Working within the military as a ground combat solider is very physically demanding. Soldiers are required to handle situations ranging from peacekeeping to counterinsurgency and combat, while faced with the task of load carriage either in form of the military gear or other additional loads. Therefore, a good aerobic and anaerobic fitness is necessary. The aerobic and anaerobic fitness can be assessed with a wide range is methods such as measuring the peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), ventilator threshold, blood lactate concentration and heart rate. However research is rather spares regarding the effects of load carriage on the aerobic capacity.

    Aim: The aim of the current study was to investigate if military gear affects VO2peak, ventilatory threshold, blood lactate concentration and heart rate in ground combat soldiers.

    Methods: A total of eight soldiers (seven men and one woman) participated in the current study. All participants completed two biological calibrations and VO2max tests (one without and one with military gear) using a modified Bruce protocol, where VO2 (L/min), absolute and relative VO2peck (L/min and ml/kg/min respectively), heart rate (beats/min) and blood lactate concentration (mM/L) were assessed. After the completion of the tests, the soldier’s individual ventilatory threshold (VT) was visually located using the V-slope method. The Wilcoxon test was used for the not normally distributed variables (blood lactate concentration and stage when VT occurred) and the paired sample t-test for the others. The significance level was set to 0.05.

    Results: The results showed that the soldier had 10.6 % lower absolute VO2peak and 23.7 % lower relative VO2peak while wearing military gear compared to without (p=0.002 and p=0.001 respectively). The soldiers also had 11.8 % higher VO2 at VT with military gear (p=0.003) and reached a higher percentage of the VO2peak (p=0.023) at VT. The blood lactate concentration was significantly higher when marching at 5.4 km/h and a trend of a higher blood lactate concentration while standing was observed without military gear compared to with military gear.

    Conclusion: The findings from the present study shows that performing load carriage in form of the military gear significantly decreased the VO2peak. Wearing a military gear also increased the VO2 at the individual VT and made the soldier reach a higher percentage of the VO2peak at VT. These results can act as guidance when recruiting and training soldiers, along with providing important information to other professions and sports that involve load carriage. 

  • 23.
    Engberg, Amanda
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    The weight lifting belt’s impact on power output, velocity and range of motion in a squat2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Background: Using a weight lifting belt when performing a variety of resistance exercises is becoming more and more common. The purpose of using a weight lifting belt is its supposed ability to reduce compressive forces on the lumbar spine and enhancement of athletic performance. Although the weight lifting belt has been proven to increase the intra abdominal pressure that helps reduces the shear forces during a squat, little is known about the weight lifting belts effect on the performance.

    Studies have suggested that wearing a weight lifting belt during a squat can increase the vertical velocity and range of motion. Few studies have focused on the power output, but improvements have been seen while wearing a weight lifting belt when performing a deadlift. Variables such as power, velocity and range of motion are of importance for an athlete when making individual training plans as well as measuring the progress. Therefore more research is needed to identify the actual influence of the weight lifting belt on the performance.

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to examine if weight lifting belts have an impact on an athletes ability to develop power, velocity or improve range of motion in a squat.

    Methods: Fifteen healthy men and women familiar with the squat exercise participated in the study. During the study they performed six repetitions of the squat divided into two sets, one set without a weight lifting belt and one with a weight lifting belt. Power and velocity were measured during every squat with a linear encoder and videotapes were made to later calculate the angles in the hip- and knee joints at the lowest position of the exercise.

    Results: No significant differences were found in power (p = 0.25) or concentric and eccentric velocity (p = 0.61, p = 0.16) with or without a weight lifting belt. Range of motion in the knee joint was greater when not wearing a weight lifting belt (p = 0.03), but no differences in the hip angles were found (p = 0.70).

    Conclusion: The result from the current study shows that when performing a squat the weight lifting belt has little to no effect on power, velocity or range of motion. Although a noticeable change in range of motion of the knee joint were observed, further studies on larger populations are needed to determine if it is of clinical value. 

  • 24.
    Eriksson, K.M.
    et al.
    Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Clarke, A.K.
    Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Franzén, Lars-Gunnar
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Plant Cell Biology: Energy transduction in plant cells.
    Kuylenstierna, M.
    Department of Marine Ecology, University of Gothenburg, Sven Lovén Centre for Marine Sciences Kristineberg, Fiskebäckskil, Sweden.
    Martinez, K.
    Spanish National Research Council—IIQAB-CSIC, Department of Ecotechnology, Josep Pascual Vila, Barcelona, Spain .
    Blanck, H.
    Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Community-Level Analysis of psbA Gene Sequences and Irgarol Tolerance in Marine Periphyton2009In: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 0099-2240, E-ISSN 1098-5336, Vol. 75, no 4, p. 897-906Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyzes psbA gene sequences, predicted D1 protein sequences, species relative abundance, and pollution-induced community tolerance in marine periphyton communities exposed to the antifouling compound Irgarol 1051. The mechanism of action of Irgarol is the inhibition of photosynthetic electron transport at photosystem II by binding to the D1 protein. The metagenome of the communities was used to produce clone libraries containing fragments of the psbA gene encoding the D1 protein. Community tolerance was quantified with a short-term test for the inhibition of photosynthesis. The communities were established in a continuous flow of natural seawater through microcosms with or without added Irgarol. The selection pressure from Irgarol resulted in an altered species composition and an inducted community tolerance to Irgarol. Moreover, there was a very high diversity in the psbA gene sequences in the periphyton, and the composition of psbA and D1 fragments within the communities was dramatically altered by increased Irgarol exposure. Even though tolerance to this type of compound in land plants often depends on a single amino acid substitution (Ser(264)-> Gly) in the D1 protein, this was not the case for marine periphyton species. Instead, the tolerance mechanism likely involves increased degradation of D1. When we compared sequences from low and high Irgarol exposure, differences in nonconserved amino acids were found only in the so-called PEST region of D1, which is involved in regulating its degradation. Our results suggest that environmental contamination with Irgarol has led to selection for high-turnover D1 proteins in marine periphyton communities at the west coast of Sweden.

  • 25.
    Fernström, Maria
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Medicine, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Bakkman, Linda
    Department of Medicine, Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Loogna, Peter
    Bariatric Center, Sophiahemmet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rooyackers, Olav
    Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Svensson, Madeleine
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI). Department of Medicine, Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jakobsson, Towe
    Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Brandt, Lena
    Department of Clinical Medicine, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Lagerros, Ylva Trolle
    Department of Medicine, Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Stockholm, Sweden & Department of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes, Karolinska University Hospital, Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Improved Muscle Mitochondrial Capacity Following Gastric Bypass Surgery in Obese Subjects2016In: Obesity Surgery, ISSN 0960-8923, E-ISSN 1708-0428, Vol. 26, no 7, p. 1391-1397Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Weight loss resulting from low-calorie diets is often less than expected. We hypothesized that energy restriction would influence proton leakage and improve mitochondrial efficiency, leading to reduced energy expenditure, partly explaining the difficulties in weight loss maintenance.

    Methods

    Eleven women with a median BMI of 38.5 kg/m2 (q-range 37–40), and referred to gastric bypass surgery participated. Before surgery, and at 6 months of follow-up, muscle biopsies were collected from the vastus lateralis muscle. Mitochondria were isolated and analyzed for coupled (state 3) and uncoupled (state 4) respiration and mitochondrial capacity (P/O ratio).

    Results

    At follow-up, the participants had a median BMI of 29.6 kg/m2 (28.3–32.0). State 3 increased from 20.6 (17.9–28.9) to 34.9 nmol O2/min/U citrate synthase (CS) (27.0–49.0), p = 0.01, while state 4 increased from 2.8 (1.8–4.2) to 4.2 nmol O2/min/U CS (3.1–6.1), although not statistically significant. The P/O ratio increased from 2.7 (2.5–2.8) to 3.2 (3.0–3.4), p = 0.02, indicating improved mitochondrial efficiency.

    Conclusions

    Six months after gastric bypass surgery, the mitochondrial capacity for coupled, i.e., ATP-generating, respiration increased, and the P/O ratio improved. Uncoupled respiration was not enhanced to the same extent. This could partly explain the decreased basal metabolism and the reduced inclination for weight loss during energy restriction. © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

  • 26.
    Forsström, Jonas
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Svensson, Robert
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Periodisk fasta i kombination med styrketräning ökar muskelmassa och minskar fettvikt hos yngre vuxna2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Background: Today's sedentary lifestyle with increased intake of energy giving substances results in a constant anabolic hormonal onset. This leads to increased obesity and other lifestyle diseases. It is recommended that individuals adhere to a high meal frequency at regular intervals throughout the day. This has been questioned with competing alternatives involving a former lifestyle as long as 10 000 years ago, when the meal frequency could not be planned in the same way as today.

    Objective: To investigate the effects of two 24 - hour periodic total restriction of consumption of energy giving substances, with the implementation of physical strength training and its effect on lean body mass (LBM) and fat mass in young individuals.

    Method: Two 24 hour periods of intermittent fasting in combination to three separate weight training sessions took place weekly for seven weeks. Body measurements involving body fat percentage, fat mass in kilograms (kg), body perimeters in centimeters (cm), LBM and total body weight in kg was measured before and after the study. Seven participants completed the study. The group included two men and five women (n = 7).

    Results: All participants increased their LBM, the mean increase was 1.3 kg. The largest increase was 2.6 kg, and was found among two of the participants. All participants reduced their body fat percentage. The highest reduction was 4.8 %, the lowest reduction was 1 %. The average decrease in fat weight was 2 kg. The largest reduction in fat weight was 4.2 kg, and the lowest reduction was 0.64 kg.

    Conclusion: Intermittent fasting during two separate 24-hour periods per week can serve as a tool in reducing body fat / fat mass while increasing muscle mass if done in combination with weight training three times during the same week. This finding questions the earlier research and claims about the importance of maintaining a consistently high meal frequency.

  • 27.
    Hansen, Kirstine M.
    et al.
    Dept. of Drug Design and Pharmacology, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Jäger, Anna K.
    Dept. of Drug Design and Pharmacology, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Andersson, Åsa
    Dept. of Drug Design and Pharmacology, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Mo-clay for treatment of psoriasis2016In: Planta Medica, Stuttgart: Georg Thieme Verlag KG, 2016, Vol. 82 (S 01), article id P550Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mo-clay was used by German doctors to treat injured soldiers' wounds during the First World War. Today, there are anecdotal cases of mo-clay being beneficial for patients suffering from psoriasis, a chronic, inflammatory disease. There are several histological features in the psoriatic skin, including acanthosis, hyperkeratosis, pararkeratosis and a loss of granular layer. Mo-clay is a unique marine deposit, an Eocene clayed diatomite. It was formed 54 million years ago from deposits of single-celled algae along with clay minerals and volcanic ash. The major elements are silicon, aluminium and iron. It is found in Denmark and Germany. As mo-clay had been used to treat wounds, it was tested for antibacterial activity. Mo-clay did not show any anti-bacterial activity against a battery of Gram-positive and -negative bacteria. Mo-clay showed stimulation of cell proliferation at concentrations 39 – 78 µg/ml in splenic mouse lymphocytes, and at 156 µg/ml in HaCat cells, whereas an inhibition of proliferation was observed at 313 µg/ml. Mo-clay was tested for anti-psoriatic activity in vivo using the mouse tail test [1]. This model can be used to investigate agents for effect on psoriasis, since the adult mouse tail has regions of both orthokeratosis and parakeratosis. Mo-clay induced orthokeratosis and showed a significant increase in epidermis thickness. The results suggest that mo-clay may have anti-psoriatic effects.

  • 28.
    Hedin, Dennis
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Relationships of pain experience and aerobic capacity in individuals with chronic pain2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Chronic pain is defined as pain for at least 3 months and is highly prevalent in society (10-30%). Individuals with chronic pain are more sensitive to pressure pain and have a disturbed pain perception. Physical activity (PA) has been shown to be a helpful method to treat and decrease disability in these individuals, but the knowledge about the relationship between chronic pain, PA and aerobic capacity is less understood. The aim of this study was to investigate if pain experience is associated with aerobic capacity and physical activity in a population with chronic pain in comparison to a pain free reference group.

    Method: 146 men and women between 40 and 70 years old participated. Pressure pain sensitivity was measured with an Algometer on eight points and aerobic capacity was measured with Ekblom-Bak submaximal test on a bicycle ergometer. A questionnaire was used to gather information about self-reported PA, pain regions and fear-avoidance.

    Result: Individuals with chronic pain had significantly lower pain thresholds (p=0.028) and higher fear-avoidance score (p=0.001), but no difference in aerobic capacity compared to pain-free individuals (p=0.344). Women had lower thresholds compared to men in both chronic pain and pain-free group (p<0.001 and p=0.008). There were no association between aerobic capacity and self-reported moderate PA (r=0.001) or in vigorous PA (r=0.173). Low VO2max has more pain regions (p=0.017) and lower pain thresholds (p=0.001) compared with high VO2max, but no difference in fear-avoidance score (p=0.234).

    Conclusion: Individuals with chronic pain had a higher sensitivity to pressure pain and a higher fear-avoidance compared to pain-free individuals, but no difference in aerobic capacity. There were no associations between self-reported PA and aerobic capacity, and individuals with low VO2max had more pain regions and lower pain thresholds compared with individuals with high VO2max, but no differences in fear-avoidance was found.

  • 29.
    Hellström, Sandra
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Nyberg, Frida
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Tbc, ett globalt hot: Sjuksköterskans arbete för att främja följsamhet och minska resistensutveckling av mykobakterium tuberkulosis2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Tuberculosis (TB) is an airborne droplet infection caused by mycobacterium tuberculosis. TB is the disease after AIDS that is most deadly, even though curative treatment exists. The treatment is demanding for the TB-infected to undergo and consists of a combination of a number of antibiotics that must be administered for at least six months. A dissenting in anti-tuberculosis treatment might result in mycobacterium tuberculosis strains that are resistant to antibiotics. As adherence to long-term treatment is graded at a low percentage (50 %) the aim of the literature study was from a global perspective to develop a working-strategy for nurses that promote compliance in TB-treatment in order to reduce resistance development of mycobacterium tuberculosis. The study was conducted as a literature study where 12 research articles were reviewed and analyzed. The results describe specific factors that are essential to compliance. These factors comprise patient education, treatment strategies, social influences and support. As knowledge gives the patient a better understanding for the treatment it provokes compliance. The social environment of the TB-infected patient demands increased knowledge in order to reduce stigma. Several studies show that the DOTS strategy is important for increasing compliance in anti-tuberculosis treatment. The literature study results in a proposal for the nursing program to focus more on compliance in taking medication. The nursing program’s attendants need to gain knowledge about prudent antibiotic treatment that leads to a compliance concern.

  • 30.
    Horwath, Oscar
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Paulsen, Gøran
    The Norwegian Olympic and Paralympic Committee and Confederation of Sports, Oslo, Norway & Department of Physical Performance, Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway.
    Esping, Tobias
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Seynnes, Olivier
    Department of Physical Performance, Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway.
    Olsson, M. Charlotte
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Isokinetic resistance training combined with eccentric overload improves athletic performance and induces muscle hypertrophy in young ice hockey players.2019In: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, ISSN 1440-2440, E-ISSN 1878-1861, Vol. 22, no 7, p. 821-826Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the combined effects of slow isokinetic resistance training and eccentric overload and compare it to traditional resistance training on strength, power, body composition and muscle hypertrophy in young ice hockey players.

    DESIGN: Experimental, randomized trial.

    METHODS: Twenty-two resistance-trained ice hockey players (18±1year) were assigned to either isokinetic resistance training and eccentric overload (ISO/ECC; n=11) or traditional resistance training (TRAD; n=11). Participants underwent supervised progressive resistance training for 8 weeks (2-3 sessions/week) involving lower body multiple-joint exercises (heavy squats and explosive jump squats). The ISO/ECC group performed their training using a computerized robotic engine system (1080 Quantum synchro, Sweden), whereas the TRAD group performed the same resistance exercises with isotonic loading. Before and after the intervention, participants were evaluated in 1RM back squat, loaded jump squats, sprint- and jump performance, body composition and muscle thickness using ultrasound measurement.

    RESULTS: Similar moderate increases in 1RM back squat and power output in the jump squats were found in both the ISO/ECC and TRAD groups (11-17%, P<0.01), whereas only the ISO/ECC group showed improvements in drop jump performance (9.8%, P=0.01). Moreover, similar trivial changes in body composition were observed in both groups, while only the ISO/ECC training group increased muscle thickness in the vastus intermedius (P=0.01) and rectus femoris muscles (P=0.03).

    CONCLUSIONS: Both modalities effectively increased maximal strength and power output, whereas isokinetic resistance training, combined with eccentric overload, improved drop jump performance and induced greater muscle hypertrophy than traditional training in young ice hockey players. © 2019 Sports Medicine Australia

  • 31.
    Häggblom, Jenny
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Do Compression Garment Maintain Muscular Power from a Strenuous Exercise Session?: A randomized controlled trial2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background Compression garments have gained interest over the past ten years, especially when investigating the recovery from a strenuous strength session. Since compression garments have increased in popularity over the past years, scientific results regarding possible benefits are still lacking. 

     

    Aim The aim of the current study was to investigate the recovery from an eccentric exercise session with regards to physiological performance and perceived feelings of muscle soreness, fatigue and recovery in recreational athletes after wearing customized compression garments for 24-hours.

     

    Method Thirteen recreational athletes (age 24.7±4.0 years (mean ± SD), length 171.3±7.0 cm, weight 70.8±9.4 kg), participated in this randomized crossover designed study. After a familiarization trial, participants completed two rounds of testing and exercise in both a control (CON) and a compression condition (CG). Garments were worn for 24-hours post exercise in the compression condition whereas regular clothing were used in the control condition. Performance variables of Wingate Anaerobic cycle Test, agility t-test and broad jump were assessed as well as subjective feelings of muscle soreness, both at baseline and 24-hours post a lower body eccentric exercise session.

     

    Results Muscle soreness was significantly higher 24 hours post recovery (p=0.02) compared to baseline but no difference was seen between groups (p>0.05). There was a significant difference in perceived recovery (increased in CG, p=0.012) and fatigue (increased in CON, p=0.04) between conditions 24-hours post recovery. Physiological performance measured with Wingate, agility t-test and broad jumps were not different among either group or time (p>0.05). Perceived sleep quality was not different from pre-workout or between groups (p>0.05).

     

    Conclusion Based on our findings in the current study, there seems to be no physiological benefit in performance 24-hours after wearing customized compression garments compared to a control condition. However, there seems to be a psychological benefit from wearing the garments with a reduced feeling of fatigue and an improved recovery

  • 32.
    Ivarsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Helgesson, Fredrik
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Stein, Tobias
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Fotbollsskador hos manliga amatörspelare i Halland säsongen 2009: En jämförelse mellan division två, tre och fyra2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Fotboll är en intressant idrott att utforska ur skadeperspektiv då det är en av de mest skadedrabbade idrotterna. Fotbollsskador uppkommer antingen akut eller över tid och åtskiljs beroende om de inträffar under träning eller match. Tidigare studier av elitspelare visar att skador främst inträffar under match i form av akuta skador. De visar också att överbelastningsskador är mer träningsrelaterade och att flertalet av dem inträffar under försäsongen. Skadeincidensen beskrivs i antalet skador per 1000 tränings- respektive matchtimmar. Elitnivå har högre incidens än amatörnivå, framförallt under match. Sextio till nittio procent av alla skador drabbar nedre extremitet. Studier visar att de mest skadedrabbade kroppsdelarna är knän, lår och fotleder men även att ljumsk- och vadskador ofta förekommer.

    Syftet med studien var att jämföra olika divisioner inom den manliga amatörfotbollen, för att se hur spelnivån kan inverka på skadebilden. Undersökningen avsåg säsongen 2009 och genomfördes i Halland med spelare från division två, tre och fyra involverade. En enkät användes för att samla in information om spelarnas skadehistorik. Totalt inkluderades 79 spelare i undersökningen och av dessa var 39 skadade och tillsammans hade de 49 skador. Vid beräkning av konfidensintervall för samtliga enkätsvar framkom inga signifikanta skillnader mellan divisionerna. Sextioen procent av skadorna var akuta och 39 % överbelastningsskador. De akuta skadorna var vanligast i division två och tre medan överbelastningsskador var vanligast i division fyra. Den totala skadeincidensen var 7,92 per 1000 matchtimmar och 2,92 per 1000 träningstimmar. Division tre hade högst skadeincidens för match med 10,63 skador och division fyra hade högst skadeincidens för träning med 4,09 skador. Av alla skador resulterade 30,6 % i en frånvaro mellan 1-7 dagar, 32,7 % mellan 8-28 dagar och 36,7 % mer än 28 dagar. Skadorna var främst lokaliserade till knä, lår och fot. Mittfältare var mest skadedrabbade följt av försvarare, anfallare och målvakter. I division två och fyra inträffade skadorna främst under för- och vårsäsongen medan det i division tre var vanligast med skador under höstsäsongen.

  • 33.
    Jacobsen, Freja A.
    et al.
    Dept. of Drug Design and Pharmacology, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark & Novo Nordisk A/S, Gentofte, Denmark.
    Hulst, Camilla
    Dept. of Drug Design and Pharmacology, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark & Novo Nordisk A/S, Gentofte, Denmark.
    Bäckström, Thomas
    Novo Nordisk A/S, Måløv, Denmark & BTB Pharma, Malmö, Sweden.
    Koleske, Anthony J.
    Department of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, USA.
    Andersson, Åsa
    Dept. of Drug Design and Pharmacology, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Arg Deficiency Does not Influence the Course of Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein (MOG35-55)-induced Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis2016In: Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology, ISSN 2155-9899, E-ISSN 2155-9899, Vol. 7, no 3, article id 1000420Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Inhibition of Abl kinases has an ameliorating effect on the rodent model for multiple sclerosis, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, and arrests lymphocyte activation. The family of Abl kinases consists of the Abl1/Abl and Abl2/Arg tyrosine kinases. While the Abl kinase has been extensively studied in immune activation, roles for Arg are incompletely characterized. To investigate the role for Arg in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, we studied disease development in Arg-/- mice.

    Methods: Arg-/- and Arg+/+ mice were generated from breeding of Arg+/- mice on the C57BL/6 background. Mice were immunized with the myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)35-55 peptide and disease development recorded. Lymphocyte phenotypes of wild type Arg+/+ and Arg-/- mice were studied by in vitro stimulation assays and flow cytometry.

    Results: The breeding of Arg+/+ and Arg-/- mice showed skewing in the frequency of born Arg-/- mice. Loss of Arg function did not affect development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, but reduced the number of splenic B-cells in Arg-/- mice following immunization with MOG peptide.

    Conclusions: Development of MOG-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis is not dependent on Arg, but Arg plays a role for the number of B cells in immunized mice. This might suggest a novel role for the Arg kinase in B-cell trafficking or regulation. Furthermore, the results suggest that Arg is important for normal embryonic development. © 2016 Jacobsen FA, et al.

  • 34.
    Johannesson, Petra
    et al.
    Cardiovascular & Metabolic Diseases Innovative Medicines Unit, AstraZeneca R&D Mölndal, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Bratt, Emma
    Cardiovascular & Metabolic Diseases Innovative Medicines Unit, AstraZeneca R&D Mölndal, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Broo, Anders
    Cardiovascular & Metabolic Diseases Innovative Medicines Unit, AstraZeneca R&D Mölndal, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Evertsson, Emma
    Cardiovascular & Metabolic Diseases Innovative Medicines Unit, AstraZeneca R&D Mölndal, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Judkins, Robert
    Cardiovascular & Metabolic Diseases Innovative Medicines Unit, AstraZeneca R&D Mölndal, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Leandersson, Carina
    Cardiovascular & Metabolic Diseases Innovative Medicines Unit, AstraZeneca R&D Mölndal, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Lutz, Mareike
    Cardiovascular & Metabolic Diseases Innovative Medicines Unit, AstraZeneca R&D Mölndal, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Pemberton, Nils
    Cardiovascular & Metabolic Diseases Innovative Medicines Unit, AstraZeneca R&D Mölndal, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Swanson, Marianne
    Cardiovascular & Metabolic Diseases Innovative Medicines Unit, AstraZeneca R&D Mölndal, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Westerlund, Kristina
    Cardiovascular & Metabolic Diseases Innovative Medicines Unit, AstraZeneca R&D Mölndal, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Åkerblad, Peter
    Cardiovascular & Metabolic Diseases Innovative Medicines Unit, AstraZeneca R&D Mölndal, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Lindstedt, Eva-Lotte
    Cardiovascular & Metabolic Diseases Innovative Medicines Unit, AstraZeneca R&D Mölndal, Mölndal, Sweden.
    SAR and optimization of trioxoisothiazole-based liver receptor X (LXR) agonists leading to the clinical candidate AZD39712014In: Division of Medicinal Chemistry: Scientific Abstracts for the 248th National Meeting and Exposition: August 10-14, 2014: San Francisco, CA, 2014, Vol. 248, p. 247-247Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The liver X receptors (LXRα and LXRβ) are members of the nuclear receptor family of transcription factors. The activation of LXR induces genes involved in reverse cholesterol transport (RCT), which is believed to be the main effect of LXR agonists in the prevention or treatment of atherosclerosis. However LXR agonists have also been shown to cause hepatic steatosis and hypertriglyceridaemia. The ability to separate beneficial effects from negative effects has been a challenge that so far has hampered the development of LXR agonists for human use. We herein describe the SAR and optimization of a series of trioxoisothiazole-based LXR agonists leading to compounds with nanomolar potencies and a separation of beneficial versus negative effects in vivo. This work ultimately led to the nomination of AZD3971 as a candidate for the treatment of atherosclerosis.

  • 35.
    Johansson, Jeanette
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Särnbäck, Marie
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Polyfarmaci hos äldre:  – ett världsomfattande hälsoproblem   2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The elderly population is increasing all over the world. Aging is associated with diseases resulting in increased medical consumption. Elderly over 80 years consume in average 5,8 different drugs. Nursing home residents consume ten drugs which represents an increase of 60 % within the last two decades. This development is based on the increasing progress within the field medical treatment. Polypharmacy and inappropriate prescribing in elderly over 65 years, according to Beer´s criteria (annex I), results in a growing and worldwide health problem. Polypharmacy comprises use of multiple drugs (mostly five or more per day). Polypharmacy is associated with increased age and is most common in women and low educated individuals. Multiple medications increase the risk of adverse drug reactions and drug-drug interactions especially in old and frail persons with comorbidity. The aim of the study was to elucidate the prevalence and the consequences of polypharmacy and inappropriate prescribing in elderly. The study was based on a literature study in which 17 articles were analyzed. The result shows that one third of the elderly patients consume inappropriate medications, according to Beer´s criteria, which are associated with unnecessary suffering and increased hospital admission. It´s important that health care personnel gains understanding about the pharmacological consequences of body composition changes in older adults. Nurses and physicians should also improve their cooperation with pharmacists to increase knowledge leading to better patient safety.

  • 36.
    Kadi, Fawzi
    et al.
    Department of Physical Education and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Camilla
    Institute of Physiology and Pharmacology, Department of Physiology, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Larsson, Britt
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Jennie
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Larval, Maria
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Billig, Håkan
    Institute of Physiology and Pharmacology, Department of Physiology, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Jonsdottir, Ingibjörg H.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET). Institute of Physiology and Pharmacology, Department of Physiology, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    The effects of physical activity and estrogen treatment on rat fast and slow skeletal muscles following ovariectomy2002In: Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility, ISSN 0142-4319, E-ISSN 1573-2657, Vol. 23, no 4, p. 335-339Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Decreased estrogen production is associated with changes in the skeletal, cardiovascular and muscular systems. At the level of skeletal muscles, it has been shown that a reduction in force production occurs at menopause but the underlying mechanisms are still unknown. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of ovariectomy on myosin heavy chain (MyHC) composition. Additionally, we studied the effects of physical activity and the combined effects of physical activity and estrogen treatment on MyHC content in ovariectomised (OX) animals. Twenty-five rats were randomly assigned to five different groups: controls, runners, OX, ovariectomised runners and ovariectomised runners receiving estrogen. Exercise consisted of voluntary running for 5 weeks. Two muscles were analysed: m. extensor digitorum longus, EDL, (fast muscle) and m. soleus (slow muscle). MyHC content was analysed on 8% gel electrophoresis. The level of running activity is reduced in OX animals and estrogen administration is associated with the normalisation of the level of physical activity. Ovariectomy induces a shift from fast to slow MyHC isoforms in both the soleus and EDL. When OX animals are allowed to run, alterations in MyHC isoforms are still observed in the EDL but not in the soleus. When physical activity is combined with estrogen treatment no alterations are observed in both muscles. In conclusion, this study shows that ovariectomy induces alterations in the contractile properties of skeletal muscles and that physical activity in combination with estrogen treatment are associated with the maintenance of slow and fast muscle characteristics.

  • 37.
    Kowalik, Raph
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    A review of surface Electromyography used to determine sincerity of effort in Functional Capacity Evaluations2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 38.
    Kroos, G.
    et al.
    Dept. of Exercise and Sport Sciences, Univ. of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Hansen, A
    Dept. of Exercise and Sport Sciences, Univ. of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Hanskov, D J A
    Dept. of Exercise and Sport Sciences, Univ. of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Olsson, M Charlotte
    Dept. of Exercise and Sport Sciences, Univ. of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Olsen, K.
    Dept. of Exercise and Sport Sciences, Univ. of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Hellsten, Y.
    Dept. of Exercise and Sport Sciences, Univ. of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Gene expression of angiogenic factors in muscle tissue during age-related development of hypertension in spontaneously hypertensive rats2008In: Abstracts 25th Conference of the European Society for Microcirculation: Integrating Vascular Biology and Medicine: Basic and Clinical Science / [ed] Akos Koller, Basel: S. Karger, 2008, Vol. 45, p. 120-120Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Essential hypertension has been associated with capillary rarefaction but little is known about the cellular mechanisms underlying this process. We examined the gene expression of angiogenic factors during age-related development of hypertension in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Wild-type Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats served as controls. White gastrocnemius muscle was obtained and blood pressure was monitored at 5, 10 and 15 weeks of age. In the SHR group, systolic blood pressure increased from 5 to 10 and 15 weeks of age and the levels were higher than in the WKY group at 10 and 15 weeks (~70%; P<0.05). The mRNA content for MMP-2 was overall lower (P<0.05) in SHR compared to WKY. VEGFmRNA increased (p<0.05) from 5 to 10 weeks in SHR and there was a general increase (P<0.05) in the VEGF receptor flt-1. There was a trend for a lower content of eNOS and CYP 2C11 in the SHR than in WKY group. There were no alterations in the mRNA content of KDR, AMP 5'- nucleotidase, or Cytochrome P450 4A. The results show that the age-related development of hypertension from 5 to 15 weeks in SHR rats is not associated with major changes in mRNA content of the herein included angiogenic factors.

  • 39.
    Larsson, Jonas
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Lund University, Lund, Sweden & Swedish Armed Forces, Eksjö, Sweden.
    Olsson, M. Charlotte
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Denker, Magnus
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Bremander, Ann
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Department of Clinical Sciences, Section of Rheumatology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden .
    Self-rated physical work demands for ground combat soldiers2018In: PES 2018: 3rd International Conference on Physical Employment Standards, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Manasa, Justen
    et al.
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA.
    Varghese, Vici
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA.
    Kosakovsky Pond, Sergei
    Department of Biology, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
    Rhee, Soo-Yon
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA.
    Tzou, Philip
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA.
    Fessel, Jeffrey
    Department of Internal Medicine, Kaiser Permanente Northern California, San Francisco Medical Center, San Francisco, CA, USA.
    Jang, Karen
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA.
    White, Elizabeth
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA.
    Rögnvaldsson, Thorsteinn
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Katzenstein, David A.
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA.
    Shafer, Robert A.
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA.
    Evolution of gag and gp41 in Patients Receiving Ritonavir-Boosted Protease Inhibitors2017In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, no 1, article id 11559Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several groups have proposed that genotypic determinants in gag and the gp41 cytoplasmic domain (gp41-CD) reduce protease inhibitor (PI) susceptibility without PI-resistance mutations in protease. However, no gag and gp41-CD mutations definitively responsible for reduced PI susceptibility have been identified in individuals with virological failure (VF) while receiving a boosted PI (PI/r)-containing regimen. To identify gag and gp41 mutations under selective PI pressure, we sequenced gag and/or gp41 in 61 individuals with VF on a PI/r (n = 40) or NNRTI (n = 20) containing regimen. We quantified nonsynonymous and synonymous changes in both genes and identified sites exhibiting signal for directional or diversifying selection. We also used published gag and gp41 polymorphism data to highlight mutations displaying a high selection index, defined as changing from a conserved to an uncommon amino acid. Many amino acid mutations developed in gag and in gp41-CD in both the PI- and NNRTI-treated groups. However, in neither gene, were there discernable differences between the two groups in overall numbers of mutations, mutations displaying evidence of diversifying or directional selection, or mutations with a high selection index. If gag and/or gp41 encode PI-resistance mutations, they may not be confined to consistent mutations at a few sites. © 2017 The Author(s).

  • 41.
    Marx, James O
    et al.
    Department of Biology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, United States.
    Olsson, M Charlotte
    Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, Uppsala University Hospital, 751 85 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Larsson, Lars
    Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, Uppsala University Hospital, 751 85, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Scaling of skeletal muscle shortening velocity in mammals representing a 100,000-fold difference in body size2006In: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology, ISSN 0031-6768, E-ISSN 1432-2013, Vol. 452, no 2, p. 222-230Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To fully understand the effect of scaling on skeletal muscle shortening velocity (V 0), it is important to know which phenotypic characteristics drive the changes between species. The purpose of the current investigation was to compare the effects of body mass and femur length, as an estimate of total limb length, on V 0 in species that cover a 100,000-fold range of body masses. Using the slack test procedure, V 0 was determined for fibers expressing types I and IIa myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms in the mouse, rat, dog, human, horse, and rhinoceros under identical experimental conditions. A significant scaling effect on V 0 was detected when compared to body mass (type I fibers, r=0.95, p<0.01; type IIa fibers, r=0.83, p<0.05). However, the horse's V 0 for both fiber types was faster than the human's, despite having a 5-fold greater body mass than the human. When V 0 was scaled vs limb length, the strength of the relationships improved in fibers expressing both types I and IIa MyHC (r=0.98, p<0.001, and r=0.89, p<0.05, respectively) and scaled with the expected relationship, with the species with the shorter femur, the horse, having the faster V 0. A similar effect can be seen with stride frequency scaling more closely with limb length than body mass. These results suggest that limb length, not body mass, is a more relevant factor driving the scaling effect on skeletal muscle shortening velocity.

  • 42.
    Möller, Malin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Sander, Erik
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Effekt av olika stretchmetoder på agility och rörlighet hos elitinnebandyspelare2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In many sports such as floor ball static stretching (SS) is commonly used as part of the warm up to increase performance even though SS has shown to have a negative impact on activities involving strength, power, sprint and agility.

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate if different stretching methods SS, dynamic stretching (DS) and no stretching (IS) as a part of the warm up affected agility and/or flexibility (ROM) of the hamstring in male elite floor ball players and if the possible effect lasted up to 10 minutes in the test occasion.

    Methods: At three different days the different stretching methods (SS, DS and IS) were tested after warm up. The three stretching methods were performed at every test occasion in a randomized order on three different test groups. Agility and flexibility were tested with T-test (s) and passive straight leg raise (o) at 0 min, 5 min and 10 min after warm up. A total of 9 subjects completed the study.

    Results: At both 0 min and 5 min after completed stretching the best time on T-test (s) was performed after DS (10,20 ± 0,98 and 9,92 ± 0,49). At 10 min the best time was performed after IS (9,68 ± 0,16). No significant difference between the different stretching methods and T-test was found at neither 0 min (p = 0,93), 5 min (p = 0,90) nor 10 min (p = 0,29). At both 0 min and 5 min after completed stretching the highest values on ROM (o) was measured after SS (73,56 ± 5,79 and 71,67 ± 7,12). At 10 min highest value was measured after DS (73,44 ± 8,75 ). No significant difference between the different stretching methods and ROM was found at neither 0 min 0 min (p = 0,92), 5 min (p = 0,94) nor 10 min (p = 0,71).

    Conclusion: The results of this study lack significance but show a weak trend that SS possibly could impair agility but increase flexibility in hamstring and that the performance impairment gradually stagnates. However both DS and IS gave equal or better results on T-test in comparison to SS and with that in mind SS should be performed at a separate occasion or adjacent to the end of the activity.

  • 43.
    Nielsen, Isabell
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Werner, Hanna
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Patientens upplevelse av ett cancerbesked2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Every year, over 50 000 individuals in Sweden are diagnosed with cancer. The disclosure of the cancer diagnosis arouses emotions and is often associated with suffering and death. Receiving bad news may lead to changes in life and can also be seen as the beginning of a long and difficult journey. A scientific study based on 15 original articles was carried out with the purpose to identify the patient’s experience of receiving a cancer diagnosis and therefore increase the nurse’s understanding for the patient’s situation and deepen the knowledge of the subject. When examining the articles three themes were identified: information, emotional reactions and psychosocial support. The patient experience that it is important that the information is given in an open and honest manner. Patients also find it important that their emotional reaction is being observed as receiving the diagnosis. As the disclosure of the cancer diagnosis affects the patient’s further perception of the disease the nurse has an important role providing psychosocial support in various situations that may arise in connection with the disclosure. Continued research is needed to compare how guidelines for giving bad news to a patient correspond with the patient’s own experiences and preferences.

  • 44.
    Nygren, Jens Martin
    et al.
    Hematopoietic Stem Cell Laboratory, Lund Strategic Research Center for Stem Cell Biology and Cell Therapy, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Bryder, David
    Hematopoietic Stem Cell Laboratory, Lund Strategic Research Center for Stem Cell Biology and Cell Therapy, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Jacobsen, Sten Eirik W
    Hematopoietic Stem Cell Laboratory, Lund Strategic Research Center for Stem Cell Biology and Cell Therapy, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Prolonged cell cycle transit is a defining and developmentally conserved hemopoietic stem cell property2006In: Journal of Immunology, ISSN 0022-1767, E-ISSN 1550-6606, Vol. 177, no 1, p. 201-208Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adult mouse hemopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are typically quiescent and enter and progress through the cell cycle rarely in steady-state bone marrow, but their rate of proliferation can be dramatically enhanced on demand. We have studied the cell cycle kinetics of HSCs in the developing fetal liver at a stage when they expand extensively. Despite that 100% of fetal liver HSCs divide within a 48-h period, their average cell cycle transit time (10.6 h) is twice that of their downstream progenitors, translating into a prolonged G(1) transit and a period of relative quiescence (G(0)). In agreement with their prolonged G(1) transit when compared with hemopoietic progenitors, competitive transplantation experiments demonstrate that fetal HSCs are highly enriched in G(1) but also functional in S-G(2)-M. This observation combined with experimental data demonstrating that adult HSCs forced to expand ex vivo also sustain a uniquely prolonged cell cycle and G(1) transit, demonstrate at least in part why purified HSCs at any state of development or condition are highly enriched in the G(0)-G(1) phases of the cell cycle. We propose that a uniquely prolonged cell cycle transit is a defining stem cell property, likely to be critical for their maintenance and self-renewal throughout development.

  • 45.
    Nyman, Kim
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Effekten av styrketräning och energiunderskott på viktminskning hos nybörjarmotionärer2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Effekten av styrketräning och energiunderskott på viktminskning hos nybörjarmotionärer.

    Till dagens datum råder ingen strategi för hur fettförlusten kan maximeras och muskelförlusten minimeras (Katzeff et al, 1995). Lockwood (2008) visar att 50 % av individer som endast använder kostrestriktioner återfår sin ursprungliga vikt igen. Kraemer & Ratamess (2008) visar att regelbunden träning som involverar stora som små muskelgrupper i samma pass frigör mest anabola hormoner. Muskler offras av kroppen eftersom de tar energi och de kan ge energi via glukoneogenes för att ex. jaga byten. I dagens samhälle signalerar stressen ett konstant frigörande av kortisol vilket har en negativ påverkan på bl.a. muskler. Detta hormonpåslag har förstärkts i samband med energiunderskott.

    Är det möjligt att öka styrka med energiunderskott hos nybörjarmotionärer om protein tillförs för optimal kompenseringseffekt efter träningspass?

     4 av 6 överviktiga nybörjarmotionärer genomgick 8 veckor lång träningsperiod med betoning på hypertrofi, energiunderskott och mattiming i denna pilotstudie. 1RM tester har utförts på benpress i maskin, bröstmaskin samt sittande rodd med smalt grepp. Vilopuls har även tagits manuellt på morgonen av varje deltagare vid två tillfällen, före och efter träningsperioden. Testledare har tagit kroppsmått över byst, midja, rumpa samt vardera låren som utvärdering från energiunderskottet. Energiunderskottet har uppskattats till 500 kcal mindre än bibehållandet av ursprunglig vikt.

    Alla deltagare har ökat sina styrkeresultat och minskat alla kroppsmått. En person har någon extra centimeter kring låren, men kan tyda på hypertrofi. Inga signifikans test har utförts.

    BMI har minskat på alla deltagare medan kcalvärde har ökat för varje deltagare enligt BIA våg.

    Ett mål har varit att öka den basala metabolismen i vila via större muskler. Det är främst en ökad fettförbränning som är fördelaktigt för målgruppen, vilket kan uppnås genom en ökad muskelmassa och kolhydratrestriktioner. Trots att pilotstudien har behandlat fysiskt inaktiva nybörjarmotionärer har hypertrofi uppnåtts även efter 4 veckors teknikträning för ökat antal aktiva motorenheter. Inga konkreta slutsatser kan ringas in på en pilotstudie, men positiva resultat har framkommit.

  • 46.
    Olsson, Charlotte M.
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Fälth, Jenny
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Ahlebrand, August
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Bremander, Ann
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Sex-Differences In Bench Press Muscle Activation With Pre-Exhaustion Of Triceps Brachii2018In: Conference Abstracts, 2018, p. 67-68Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Pre-exhaustion is a resistance training method which activates a stronger single-joint muscle to momentary exhaustion directly before a multi-joint exercise including the pre-exhausted muscle. This results in greater recruitment of muscles in the multi-joint exercise to further increase muscle strength. The pre-exhaustion method in bench press has mainly been studied in men and it is uncertain if sex-differences exists. Men are stronger than women in absolute strength, especially in the upper body but if this holds true for upper body relative strength is debated. The purpose was to investigate muscle activity by surface electromyography (EMG) between women and men in bench press with and without pre-exhaustion of triceps brachii (TB) and to compare relative strength in 10RM bench press between the sexes.

    Methods: 15 women and 15 men in their 20s with weight lifting experience were recruited to the study. During the first session body composition and 10 repetition maximum (10RM) bench press were determined Participants performed both protocol A and B in a cross-over design on separate days. Protocol A began with 10 RM bench press, five minutes recovery, pre-exhaustion exercise (triceps extensions to failure) immediately followed by a second round of bench press with the same 10RM load as before pre-exhaustion. Protocol B started with triceps extensions to failure immediately before bench press at their before established 10RM, five minutes of recovery then they performed 10RM bench press again. IN both protocols, EMG electrodes were attached to TB), pectoralis major (PM) and deltoideus anterior (DA). EMG values were normalized to maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) and expressed as % MVIC.

    Results: Bench press only EMG activity in %MVIC was similar between women and men, but analysis of variance (TB interaction p=0.02) showed that women had higher %MVIC in TB after pre-exhaustion whereas muscle activity decreased in men compared to bench press without pre-exhaustion. Yet, the number of repetitions completed in bench press after pre-exhaustion of TB were the same (women 4.3 ± 2.6 vs men 3.8 ± 2.2; p=0.55). As expected, in 10RM weight men (64.0 ± 7.1 kg) were stronger than women (37.1 ± 6.5 kg; p<0.01), however when related to fat free mass no difference was evident in relative strength between women and men.

    Conclusion: Men and women have similar muscle activation patterns during a 10RM bench press, but TB pre-exhaustion followed by a bench press appears to have a greater effect on TB activation in women compared to men. Absolute strength was greater in men, but normalized to fat free mass women and men had similar upper body relative strength.

  • 47.
    Olsson, M. Charlotte
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Fälth, Jenny
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Ahlebrand, August
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Bremander, Ann
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Sex-Differences In Bench Press Muscle Activation With Pre-Exhaustion Of Triceps Brachii2018In: Conference Abstracts, 2018, p. 67-68Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 48.
    Olsson, M Charlotte
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Department of Neuroscience, Clinical Neurophysiology, Ing 85 3 tr., 751 85 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Krüger, Martina
    University of Münster, Physiology and Biophysics Unit, Schlossplatz 5, D-48149 Münster, Germany .
    Meyer, Lars-Henrik
    University of Münster, Physiology and Biophysics Unit, Schlossplatz 5, D-48149 Münster, Germany .
    Ahnlund, Lena
    Rehabilitation Medicine, 75185 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Gransberg, Lennart
    Uppsala University, Department of Neuroscience, Clinical Neurophysiology, Ing 85 3 tr., 751 85 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Linke, Wolfgang A
    University of Münster, Physiology and Biophysics Unit, Schlossplatz 5, D-48149 Münster, Germany.
    Larsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Department of Neuroscience, Clinical Neurophysiology, Ing 85 3 tr., 751 85 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Fibre type-specific increase in passive muscle tension in spinal cord-injured subjects with spasticity2006In: Journal of Physiology, ISSN 0022-3751, E-ISSN 1469-7793, Vol. 577, no 1, p. 339-352Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 49.
    Olsson, M Charlotte
    et al.
    Department of Integrative Physiology, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, United States.
    Palmer, B M
    Department of Integrative Physiology, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, United States.
    Stauffer, B L
    Dept. Molec., Cell.,/Devmtl. Biol., University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, United States.
    Leinwand, L A
    Dept. Molec., Cell.,/Devmtl. Biol., University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, United States.
    Moore, R L
    Department of Integrative Physiology, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, United States.
    Morphological and functional alterations in ventricular myocytes from male transgenic mice with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy2004In: Circulation Research, ISSN 0009-7330, E-ISSN 1524-4571, Vol. 94, no 2, p. 201-207Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 50.
    Olsson, M Charlotte
    et al.
    Department of Physiology, Univ. Wisconsin Cardiovasc. Res. C., Univ. of Wisconsin Medical School, Madison, WI 53706, United States.
    Patel, J R
    Department of Physiology, Univ. Wisconsin Cardiovasc. Res. C., Univ. of Wisconsin Medical School, Madison, WI 53706, United States.
    Fitzsimons, D P
    Department of Physiology, Univ. Wisconsin Cardiovasc. Res. C., Univ. of Wisconsin Medical School, Madison, WI 53706, United States.
    Walker, J W
    Department of Physiology, Univ. Wisconsin Cardiovasc. Res. C., Univ. of Wisconsin Medical School, Madison, WI 53706, United States.
    Moss, R L
    Department of Physiology, Univ. Wisconsin Cardiovasc. Res. C., Univ. of Wisconsin Medical School, Madison, WI 53706, United States.
    Basal myosin light chain phosphorylation is a determinant of Ca2+ sensitivity of force and activation dependence of the kinetics of myocardial force development2004In: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology, ISSN 0363-6135, E-ISSN 1522-1539, Vol. 287, no 6, p. H2712-H2718Article in journal (Refereed)
12 1 - 50 of 69
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