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  • 1.
    Ivarsson, Johanna
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Solceller för flerbostadshus: En teknisk rapport för HFAB2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This examination paper is about the potential for Solar cells on apartment blocks. The technology with using solar cells for manufacturing electricity, has been on the market for a while, but recently the new installations of solar cells has increased. Solar cells are suited for placements on buildings but are expensive to obtain. The municipal real-estate company is interested in solar cells but wants to know more before they invest in the technology. This report contains an account of the solar cell and a guide to how a connection to the grid is accomplished. The report even contains suggestions of where the solar cells can be located and an estimate of annual production of electricity on a building. The outcome of the report is that there are good prerequisites for solar cells on apartment blocks and it shows the real- estate company as an environmental-thinking corporation.

  • 2.
    Janssen, Sabine
    et al.
    TNO Department of Environment and Health.
    Vos, Henk
    TNO Department of Environment and Health.
    Eisses, Arno R.
    TNO Department of Environment and Health.
    Pedersen, Eja
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Predicting annoyance by wind turbine noise2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While wind turbines have beneficial effects for the environment, they inevitably generate environmental noise. In order to protect residents against unacceptable levels of noise, exposure-response relationships are needed to predict the expected percentage of people annoyed or highly annoyed at a given level of wind turbine noise. Exposure-response relationships for wind turbine noise were derived on the basis of available data, using the same method that was previously used to derive relationships for transportation noise and industrial noise. Data from surveys in Sweden and the Netherlands were used to achieve relationships between Lden and annoyance, both indoors and outdoors at the dwelling. It is shown that a given percentage of annoyance by wind turbine noise is expected at much lower levels of Lden than the same percentage of annoyance by for instance road traffic noise. Results were used to guide new noise regulation for wind turbines in the Netherlands.

  • 3.
    Khan, Imran
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Effects of hydraulic load on nitrate removal in surface-flow constructed wetlands2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Constructed wetlands had been widely used as economical and environment friendly treatment systems for agriculture runoff in southwest Sweden to limit the transport of nutrients to Kattegat, thereby aiding in the effort of abating eutrophication. The extensive use and acceptance of wetlands as treatment systems had been an incentive to develop performance models. Even recent studies showed that first order models are inadequate to guide the design of constructed wetlands, these are still commonly used. The main assumption of such models is tested here, which states that the removal rate of pollutant(s) is proportional to concentration in a constructed wetland. For this purpose experimental wetlands in Plonninge near Halmstad (southwest of Sweden) were selected and divided into two groups (9 each). They were fed with different hydraulic loads achieving 4 and 8 days residence times. The data obtained from the analysis of total nitrogen and nitrate were tested with first order equations and found that these models are sufficient to describe the nitrate removal in nitrate rich experimental wetlands.

    Key words: constructed wetlands, hydraulic load, first order kinetic models, eutrophication, nitrogen removal

  • 4.
    Larsson, Anna
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Bäckström, Angela
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Miljöutredning för Bräcke Diakoni2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The environmental work in Sweden has developed a lot over the past fifty years. Today, most companies have some kind of environmental work. Environmental activities are regulated by the Environmental Code, which applies in parallel with other laws. This report is an environmental review for Bräcke Diakoni. The report aims to find out how much environmental impact Bräcke Diakoni has. The report will also be used as a basis for an environmental diploma.

    Bräcke Diakoni is a foundation that has existed in Gothenburg since 1923 and has its operations in health, care, rehabilitation, psychiatry, children, youth, elder care and hospice. They have an environmental diploma since 2005 and are actively working to reduce their environmental impact.

    Data were collected through interviews, surveys, and Intranet. The environmental review includes eight of Bräcke Diakoni units are located in Bräcke, Gothenburg. The report is general, covering the environmental impact of energy, water, travel, chemicals, waste, recycling and accidents. No indentations are made. The investigation shows that business trips, electricity, district heating, service vehicles and households waste have the highest environmental impact.  Bräcke Diakoni generally has no impact on the environment that needs urgent help. At the end of the report there are suggestions for further environmental work, such as switching energy contracts, reward soft mobility among staff and reduce the missions through the purchase of video conference.

    Bräcke Diakoni has already taken steps to reduce their environmental impact. Among other things, they help to meet environmental quality objective "A non-toxic environment" by taking care of their hazardous waste. The fact that they use district heating contributes to the "Good Built Environment" and "Fresh air".

  • 5.
    Paludan, C.
    et al.
    Fyn County, Department of Environmental Protection, Odense SØ, Denmark.
    Alexeyev, F.
    The State Committee for Environ. Protection, Kaliningrad, Russia .
    Drews, H.
    Land for Nature and Environ. in Schleswig-Holstein, Flintbek, Germany .
    Fleischer, Siegfried
    County Adm. Board, Halmstad, Sweden .
    Fuglsang, A.
    Fyn County, Department of Environmental Protection, Odense SØ, Denmark .
    Kindt, T.
    Laholm Municipality, Laholm, Sweden .
    Kowalski, P.
    Regional Board of Water Management, Gdansk, Poland .
    Moos, M.
    Environmental Department of Pärnu County Government, Pärnu, Estonia .
    Radlowki, A.
    Regional Board of Water Management, Gdansk, Poland .
    Strömfors, G.
    Regional Council of Ostrobotnia, Vaasa, Finland .
    Westberg, V.
    West Finland Regional Environmental Centre, Vaasa, Finland .
    Wolter, K.
    Land for Nature and Environ. in Schleswig-Holstein, Flintbek, Germany .
    Wetland management to reduce Baltic Sea eutrophication2002In: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 45, no 9, p. 87-94Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Seven regions with coastal eutrophication problems in the Baltic Sea, including the Kattegat, constitute the BERNET project (Baltic Eutrophication Regional Network). To counteract eutrophication and associated severe biological conditions the countries around this large brackish water body must all cooperate. The regions are characterized by large differences in land use, e.g. agricultural intensity, and losses of retention capacity in the catchments due to wetland reclamation. Initially it has been necessary to identify nutrient sources - especially nitrogen - and technical, economical and even administrative obstacles to initiate eutrophication management measures. Nitrogen retention in different types of wetlands in the Baltic Sea Region has been analysed. The wetlands generally have a positive effect on reduced nitrogen transport to aquatic environments and it is generally accepted that measures leading to decreased losses of nutrients to the aquatic environment must be combined with measures leading to increased retention of nutrients in catchments. Data analysed in the BERNET project show that the potential for such a measure is large. Therefore, conservation and restoration initiatives for wetlands is an essential part of the work in the BERNET project. Wetlands have been drained or totally eliminated due to intensive agriculture in some regions while large scale rehabilitation of wetlands occurs in regions with less intensive agriculture. Based on land use data from the seven regions, the working group for wetland management within the BERNET project has identified the possible use of wetlands as building blocks as a contribution to the management of the Baltic Sea eutrophication. Several recommendations are presented on the wise use of existing and constructed wetlands for water quality management in relation to non-point nutrient pollution.

  • 6.
    Pedersen, Eja
    et al.
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, Göteborg University, Sweden.
    Bouma, Jelte
    Northern Centre for Healthcare Research, University Medical Centre Groningen, PO Box 30001, 9700 RB Groningen, Netherlands.
    Bakker, Roel
    Northern Centre for Healthcare Research, University Medical Centre Groningen, PO Box 30001, 9700 RB Groningen, Netherlands.
    van den Berg, Frits
    University of Groningen - Science & Society Group, Nijenborgh 4, 9747AG Groningen, Netherlands.
    Response to wind turbine noise in the Netherlands2008In: Proceedings of the 7th European conference on noise control, EURONOISE, 2008, p. 4049-4054Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A cross-sectional study with the objective to explore the impact of wind turbine noise on people living in the vicinity of wind farms was carried out in the Netherlands in 2007. A postal questionnaire assessing response to environmental exposures in the living area, including wind turbine noise, was answered by 725 respondents (response rate: 37%). Immission levels of wind turbine noise outside the dwelling of each respondent were calculated in accordance with ISO-9613. The risk for being annoyed by wind turbine noise outdoors increased with increasing sound levels (rs = 0.501, n = 708, p<0.001). The risk for annoyance was decreased for respondents who could not see wind turbines from their dwelling and for respondents who benefited economically from the turbines. No statistically significant correlations between immission levels of wind turbine noise and health or well-being were found. However, noise annoyance due to wind turbine noise was associated with stress symptoms, psychological distress and lowered sleep quality.

  • 7.
    Pentakota, Uday Kumar
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energy Science.
    Cost estimation and procedure to setup 1MW waste-to-energy gasification plant in India2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With an increasing demand for electrical energy, it is certain that the production will also increase,especially in rapid developing countries like India. Rapid industrialization is carving for more electrical energy, investment and suitable space for its infrastructure. But this development has to be sustainable keeping in mind the increasing global temperature due to pollution.

    India is the second largest population in the world and hence produces a lot of waste daily. As of now, most of the waste goes to the landfills and gets burnt there or decomposed, either way releasing greenhouse gases in the process and degrading the environment. The municipal waste management is a challenging process in developing countries because of non-availability of proper infrastructure. There are some methods to manage this waste, such as scientific landfills,Incineration, Biomethanation, Gasification, Pyrolysis and Plasma Arc Gasification.By Gasification the solid waste is converted into synthesis gas which can be used for chemical industries, power generation, transportation and industrial heating etc. This process shrinks the solid waste to slag or ash which can either be used to manufacture eco bricks or can be disposed of on landfill. Thus saving a lot of place from land filling and if used for power generation it does not release any considerable harmful gases into the environment making it a sustainable process and partially renewable source of energy.

    This project will estimate the capital requirement and procedure to setup a 1 MW gasification plant in Indian state of Telangana. In the study, the generation, composition, treatment and energy potential of solid waste have been studied. The technologies for waste-to-energy conversion have also been studied and the feasibility comparison of two leading technologies has been done.

  • 8.
    Persson, Urban
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energy Science.
    Münster, Marie
    DTU Management Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark.
    Current and future prospects for heat recovery from waste in European district heating systems: a literature and data review2016In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 110, p. 116-128Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Municipal solid waste has seen increasing annual volumes for many decades in contemporary Europe and constitutes, if not properly managed, an environmental problem due to local pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. From an energy perspective, waste is also an alternative fuel for power and heat generation; energy recovery from waste represents an effective measure to reduce landfilling and avoid disposal emissions while simultaneously reducing the equivalent demand for primary energy supply. A key factor for obtaining the full synergetic benefits of this energy recovery is the presence of local heat distribution infrastructures, without which no large-scale recovery and utilisation of excess heat is possible. In this paper, which aims to estimate municipal solid waste volumes available for heat recovery in European district heating systems in 2030, a literature and data review is performed to establish and assess current and future EU (European Union) waste generation and management. Main conclusions are that more heat can be recovered from current Waste-to-Energy facilities operating at low average heat recovery efficiencies, that efficient incineration capacity is geographically concentrated, and that waste available for heat recovery in 2030 is equally determined by total generation volumes by this year as by future EU deployment levels of district heating. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 9.
    Schulz, Ralf
    et al.
    Department of Zoology, University of Stellenbosch, South Africa.
    Thiere, Geraldine
    Department of Zoology, University of Stellenbosch, South Africa.
    Dabrowski, James M.
    Department of Zoology, University of Stellenbosch, South Africa.
    A combined microcosm and field approach to evaluate the aquatic toxicity of azinphos-methyl to stream communities2002In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 21, no 10, p. 2172-2178Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We evaluated the potential effects of the organophosphate insecticide azinphosmethyl (AZP) in a combined microcosm and field approach. The upper regions of the Lourens River, South Africa, are free of contamination (control site), whereas the subsequent stretches flowing through a 400-ha orchard area receive transient insecticide pollution (e.g., 0.82 μg/L AZP, 344 μg/kg chlorpyrifos) following spray drift and runoff (contaminated site). Stones taken from the control site were transferred to outdoor microcosms (1.5 × 0.2 × 0.2 m), providing 12 core species and approximately 350 individuals per microcosm. Microcosms were contaminated for 1 h with AZP (control, 0.2, 1, 5, and 20 μg/L; three replicates each), and acute effects on survival were evaluated 6 d following exposure. The two strongest treatments (measured concentrations: 19.2 ± 1.0 and 4.9 ± 0.3 μg/L, respectively) resulted in a significantly (analysis of variance) reduced invertebrate density, attributed mainly to various insect taxa, such as Demoreptus sp., Castanophlebia sp., Simuliidae, and Chironomidae. In contrast, Aeshna sp., Dugesia sp., Ceratopogonidae, and Cheumatopsyche sp. were unaffected. In parallel, we conducted a quantitative macroinvertebrate survey at the control site and the contaminated site of the Lourens River after the seasonal pesticide application period. The two sites contained a similar number of species but differed considerably in their species composition and abundances. Five of the eight species that were affected by AZP in the microcosm study occurred in the field at significantly lower densities at the contaminated than at the control site or were absent at the contaminated site. All of the four species that were unaffected in the microcosm occurred at significantly higher densities at the contaminated field site. Only 3 of the 12 species reacted differently in the microcosm and the field study. We conclude that microcosm studies employing a field-relevant design could be linked successfully to field studies and our results suggest that transient pesticide contamination affects the aquatic communities of the Lourens River.

  • 10.
    Selamis, Henrik
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Jämförande livscykelinventering2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 11.
    Thiere, Geraldine
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Environmental Science, Wetland Research Centre.
    Schulz, Ralf
    Department of Zoology, University of Stellenbosch, South Africa .
    Runoff-related agricultural impact in relation to macroinvertebrate communities of the Lourens River, South Africa2004In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 38, no 13, p. 3092-3102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A field study at the Lourens River, South Africa, was undertaken during the pesticide application period between November 2001 and January 2002 in order to investigate the potential relation of agricultural pollution to the aquatic macroinvertebrate fauna. The upper regions of the Lourens River were free of contamination (LR1), whereas subsequent stretches flowing through a 400-ha orchard area (LR2) received transient insecticide peaks. Continuously operating suspended-particle samplers as well as flood samplers operating during runoff events were used to measure pesticide contamination. In addition, various physicochemical and morphological parameters were examined. A survey of the macroinvertebrate communities associated with the rocky substrates was carried out every three weeks. Community indices were calculated using the South African Scoring System (SASS 5) for bioassessment of water quality in rivers.

    The two sites differed in pesticide pollution as well as in average turbidity levels (LR1 5.5 mg/L; LR2 64.3 mg/L), but were similar in bottom substrate composition and most other abiotic factors. At the downstream site (LR2), pesticide values of 0.05 μg/L azinphos-methyl in water as well as 49 μg/kg azinphos-methyl, 94 μg/kg chlorpyrifos and 122 μg/kg total endosulfan in suspended particles were found during runoff conditions. The macroinvertebrate communities of the two sampling sites were similar in terms of number of total individuals, but differed significantly (ANOVA) in average number of taxa (LR1 11.7, LR2 8.9). Seven out of 17 investigated taxa occurred in significantly reduced numbers or were even absent at the downstream site LR2. The community characteristics determined by SASS 5 showed a significantly less sensitive community structure at the downstream site (TS 41; ASPT 4.6), indicating continuously lower water quality compared to site LR1 (TS 80; ASPT 6.9). It is concluded that the Lourens River macroinvertebrate communities are affected by agricultural pollution, with pesticides and increased turbidity as the most important stressors.

  • 12.
    van den Berg, Frits
    et al.
    University of Groningen, The Netherlands.
    Pedersen, Eja
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, Göteborg University, Sweden.
    Bakker, Roel
    Northern Centre for Healthcare Research, University Medical Centre Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands.
    Bouma, Jelte
    Northern Centre for Healthcare Research, University Medical Centre Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands.
    Wind farm aural and visual impact in the Netherlands2008In: Proceedings of the 7th European conference on noise control, EURONOISE, 2008Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The WINDFARMperception project, carried out in 2007/08 in the Netherlands, aimed to explore the impact of wind turbines on people living close to wind farms. The study group was selected in three types of area (countryside, countryside with major road, built up area) by means of a Geographic Information System (GIS). Each selected address was sithin 2.5 km of a wind turbine of at least 500 kW electric power and a similar turbine within 500 m of the first. Aural impact was calculated according to three different sound propagation models: the international ISO-9613 standard, the model legally required in the Netherlands, and a simplified model as in the New Zealand Standard NZS-6808. Visual impact was quantified in two ways: the vertical angle determined by the height of the apparently tallest turbine, and the solid angle determined by all turbines where each turbine was replaced by a vertical rectangle just enclosing the turbine. Immission sound levels from the wind farms at 1948 receiver locations varied from 21 to 54 dB(A), relative size from 0.01% to 30% of the total field of view. Results show that all impact measures are highly correlated with distance to the nearest wind turbine.

  • 13.
    van den Berg, Frits
    et al.
    Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Groningen, Netherlands.
    Pedersen, Eja
    Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Göteborg University, Sweden.
    Bouma, Jelte
    Science Shop for Medicine & Public Health, University Medical Centre Groningen, Netherlands.
    Bakker, Roel
    Northern Centre for Health Care Research, University Medical Centre Groningen, Netherlands.
    Visual and acoustic impact of wind turbine farms on residents: Final report.2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report gives the results of the EU financed study WINDFARMpertception on how residents perceive a wind farm in their living environment as far as sound and sight are concerned. The study includes a postal survey among Dutch residents (n = 725, response rate: 37%) and an assessment of their aural and visual exposure due to wind farms in their vicinity.

  • 14.
    Waara, Sylvia
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Wetland Research Centre.
    Dagvattnets sammansättning i Västerås stad - En kunskapssammanställning2010Report (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Waara, Sylvia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Wetland Research Centre.
    Khokhotva, Oleksandr
    National Technical University of Ukraine, Kyiv Polytechnic Institute, Kyiv, Ukraine.
    The effect of environmental conditions on the stability of heavy meltal-filter material complex as assessed by the leaching of adsorbed metal ions2011In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 159, p. 146-1463Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study the influence of environmental conditions, most likely prevailing in filter beds used for intermittently discharged pollutant streams such as landfill leachate and storm water, on the stability of the heavy metalefilter complex was investigated for 2 filter materials; non-treated and urea treated pine bark, using leaching experiments. The metalefilter complex stability was higher for urea treated than for non-treated pine bark and dependent on the metal adsorbed. The type of environmental condition applied was of less importance for the extent of leaching.

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