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  • 1.
    Gelzinis, Adas
    et al.
    Kaunas University of Technology, Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Vaiciukynas, Evaldas
    Kaunas University of Technology, Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Kelertas, Edgaras
    Kaunas University of Technology, Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Bacauskiene, Marija
    Kaunas University of Technology, Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Verikas, Antanas
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Uloza, Virgilijus
    Kaunas University of Technology, Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Vegiene, Aurelija
    Kaunas University of Technology, Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Categorizing sequences of laryngeal data for decision support2009In: ECT 2009: Electrical and Control Technologies / [ed] Navickas, A, Kaunas: Kaunas University Technology Press , 2009, p. 99-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is concerned with kernel-based techniques for categorizing laryngeal disorders based on information extracted from sequences of laryngeal colour images. The features used to characterize a laryngeal image are given by the kernel principal components computed using the N-vector of the 3-D colour histogram. The least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM) is designed for categorizing an image sequence into the healthy, nodular and diffuse classes. The kernel function employed by the SVM classifier is defined over a pair of matrices, rather than over a pair of vectors. An encouraging classification performance was obtained when testing the developed tools on data recorded during routine laryngeal videostroboscopy.

  • 2.
    Möller, Bernd
    et al.
    Europa-Universität Flensburg, Flensburg, Germany & Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Wiechers, Eva
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Persson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Grundahl, Lars
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Connolly, David
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Heat Roadmap Europe: Identifying local heat demand and supply areas with a European thermal atlas2018In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 158, p. 281-292Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2016 the first Strategy for Heating and Cooling of the European Union has shown that district heating and cooling networks can integrate renewable energies in an increasingly energy-efficient built environment. At the same time, the heating and cooling sector is probably the most diverse and least mapped component of the European energy system. The aim of the Pan-European Thermal Atlas is to improve the knowledge base for the geographical distribution of heat and cooling demands across Europe. Demand densities of the demanded thermal services themselves, the spatial coherence of these demands, and their location relative to sources of heating greatly affect the economy of district heating schemes compared to individual solutions. The objective is therefore to develop a comprehensive model, which can be used to a) quantify heat demands by density, b) group coherent areas with demands into prospective supply zones, c) produce supply curves for these zones, and d) ultimately calculate local energy mixes on the basis of allocated excess heat as well as renewable energy sources. The developed method spatially disaggregates national demand data to high-resolution geospatial data on urban structures. The resulting atlas allows for an advanced quantitative screening process, which can establish the basis for energy systems analyses relying on geographically explicit information on the heating demand and supply volumes and costs. The present paper presents version 4 of the Pan-European Thermal Atlas, which takes another step towards higher spatial resolution and confidence in comparison to its predecessors, version 1 to 3. For the first time, a 100m resolution heat atlas of Europe is being presented, which may help describing the heating sector in the required spatial resolution. By means of spatial statistical analyses using ordinary least square linear regressions, multiple spatial inputs such as population, degree of built-up and its derivatives are turned into a coherent model of the urban tissue. Plot ratios form the basis of models of heat demand in single and multi-family residential buildings as well as the service sector. Prospective district heating areas have been delineated, and the resulting zoning of heat supply has been linked to a resource-economic analysis, which allows for cost-supply studies in disaggregated form. The present heat atlas version 4 is now available for 14 countries that altogether represent 90% of the heat demand in the 28 European Union member states. First results are being presented with emphasis on the achieved methodological improvements. Moreover, a newly developed online mapping system is being presented, which will assist in mapping the new geography of heating and cooling demands and supplies. © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 3.
    Möller, Bernd
    et al.
    Centre for Sustainable Energy Systems, Europa-Universität Flensburg, Flensburg, Germany & Department of Planning, Aalborg University, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Wiechers, Eva
    Centre for Sustainable Energy Systems, Europa-Universität Flensburg, Flensburg, Germany.
    Persson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Grundahl, Lars
    Department of Planning, Aalborg University, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Søgaard Lund, Rasmus
    Department of Planning, Aalborg University, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Vad Mathiesen, Brian
    Department of Planning, Aalborg University, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Heat Roadmap Europe: Towards EU-Wide, local heat supply strategies2019In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 177, p. 554-564Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present paper describes a quantitative method for preparing local heat supply strategies. Detailed spatial data on heat demand and supply are generated using combined top-down and bottom-up modelling for 14 member states of the European Union, which constitute 91% of its heat demand in buildings. Spatial analysis is used for zoning of heat supply into individual and collective heating. Continuous cost curves are used to model economically feasible district heating shares within prospective supply districts. Excess heat is appraised and allocated to prospective district heating systems by means of a two-stage network allocation process. Access to renewable energy sources such as geothermal, large-scale solar thermal, as well as sustainable biomass, is analysed. The result is a comprehensive and detailed set of heat supply strategies in a spatially discrete manner. The findings indicate that in the 14 European Union member states, up to 71% of building heat demand in urban areas can be met with district heating. Of this, up to 78% can be covered with excess heat, while the remainder can be covered with low enthalpy renewable energy sources. The conclusion shows the possibility of a largely de-carbonised heat sector as part of a smart energy system for Europe.  © 2019 Elsevier Ltd

  • 4.
    Persson, Urban
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Averfalk, Helge
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Accessible urban waste heat: Deliverable 1.42018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents the work performed in Task T1.2 of the ReUseHeat project to assess the accessible EU28 urban excess heat recovery potential from four unconventional excess heat sources: data centres, metro stations, service sector buildings, and waste water treatment plants. The report presents in overview and detail the concepts, data, basic premises, and methods, used to produce the results from this work. In all, excess heat potentials are modelled and spatially mapped for a total of some 26,400 unique activities, but by application of two new concepts: available excess heat and accessible excess heat, by which total potentials are distinguished from practical utilisation potentials, a significantly reduced count of some 6800 unique facilities represent the final cut. Common for these facilities are that they all are located inside or within 2 kilometres of urban district heating areas. For the total count of activities, the full available excess heat potential is assessed at some 1.56 EJ per year. At the restrained conditions, thus representing a conservative estimate, the final available excess heat potential from the four unconventional sources is estimated at 0.82 EJ per year, which here corresponds to a final accessible excess heat potential anticipated at 1.24 EJ annually.

  • 5.
    Persson, Urban
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Wiechers, Eva
    Europa-Universität Flensburg, Flensburg, Germany.
    Möller, Bernd
    Europa-Universität Flensburg, Flensburg, Germany & Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Heat Roadmap Europe: Heat distribution costs2019In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 176, p. 604-622Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This analysis elaborates further the concept of physical and economic suitability for district heating in EU28 by an aggregation regarding key dimensions such as land areas, populations, heat demands, and investment volumes. This aggregation is based on a resolution on hectare level by slicing the total land area into 437 million pieces. Results show that heat demands in buildings are present in 9% of the land area. Because of high concentrations in towns and cities, 78% of the total heat demand in buildings originate from dense urban areas that constitute 1.4% of the total land area and 70% of the population. Due to these high heat densities above 50 MJ/m2 per year, the paper evaluates a setting where district heating is individually expanded in each member state for reaching a common 50% heat market proportion in EU28 at lowest cost. At this saturation rate, the aggregated EU28 district heat deliveries would increase to 5.4 EJ/a at current heat demands and represents an expansion investment volume, starting from current level of 1.3 EJ, of approximately 270 billion euro for heat distribution pipes. Given the current high heat densities in European urban areas, this study principally confirms earlier expectations by quantitative estimations. © 2019 Elsevier Ltd

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