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  • 1.
    Anstrén, Ludwig
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    The Reliability of Cooper ́s Test in Subjects Between 28-60 Years of Age2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) is a determinant of an individual’s ability to handle oxygen during maximal exercise. To measure VO2max expensive equipment and expertise personnel are required. To make the process of measuring VO2max easier, several submaximal and maximal tests have been created in which an estimation of VO2max could be made. Cooper’s 12-minute run (12MR) was created in 1968 and was tested on 115 military men with a mean age of 22 years. Since then the 12MR test has been re- tested and validated towards maximal treadmill tests on several occasions. When an age of 30 years is reached, VO2max starts to decline with 9-10 percent per decade but can be halted by different forms of exercise. With exercise of moderate to high intensity the decline can be halted by almost 50 percent. Objective: To investigate the reliability of estimated VO2max in a test retest scenario of Cooper ́s 12MR on a mixed healthy population between the ages of 28-60. Method: Nine women and five men, healthy subjects with a mean age of 43 ± 8 participated in the present study. A test retest of Cooper ́s 12MR took place with a minimum of seven days between tests. The subjects had to run as many laps as possible on the track during a 12-minute period. Finished laps were then counted and the fraction of the last lap was measured with a measuring wheel and then added to the total distance. To estimate the subjects’ VO2max Cooper ́s table was used. Results: The single measure Intraclass correlation (ICC) that was found, between the estimated VO2max made from the initial test to the retest on Cooper ́s 12MR, was 0.979. ICC showed a small error variance correlation between the tests and was close to the optimal correlation of 1.0. Conclusion: A standardized protocol for performing Cooper ́s 12MR showed good repeatability for estimating VO2max in two separate tests for a mixed population between 28 to 60 years of age. 

  • 2.
    Dejenfelt, Pontus
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Våtmarksfåglar i Stjärnarp, en inventering av nyanlagd våtmark utanför Halmstad, Halland2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    By doing a transect inventory combined with territory mapping at a recently constructed wetland in the area of Stjärnarp outside of Halmstad, during April-June in 2018, I have investigated species composition, species abundance and reproductive criteria shown by the bird species in the area. A comparison was made with five other wetlands in the county of Halland in matter of species composition and reproductive criteria to overlook if the age or area of the wetlands have an impact. After several visits in Stjärnarp, a total of 55 species of birds were recorded, of which 31 species were using the wetland area for reproduction, foraging or resting. Among all examined wetlands species richness varied more during 2018, when of different ages, compared to when they were about one year old. Overall analysis wasn’t significant for correlations, regressions or differences between the investigated variables of this study, though there were a significant correlation and regression between the amount of possibly reproductive species and the area of wetlands. According to others, characteristics of wetlands can have great impact on the presence of birds, e.g. size and age of wetlands, water depth, maintenance, location, presence of fish and more. According to this study, several reproductive species in particular have indicated attributes in Stjärnarp, e.g. early succession, nutrient rich waters, open meadows and more. Depending on what species or other biodiversity people which to benefit in the future, planning and continuous studies are needed here to find out if and how bird communities change with time, and to what causes.

  • 3.
    Johannesson, Malin
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Prey choice of the snow leopard (Panthera uncia) in the Gobi desert in southern Mongolia.2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To properly plan a conservation strategy for large, elusive carnivores that lives in remote areas, there is a need for correct information about their diet. Problematically, endangered species such as the snow leopard are difficult to obtain information on, due to their camouflage, secretiveness and isolated lives in rugged ecosystems. Global positioning system (GPS) collars can thus provide useful information on snow leopard ecology and behavior. This study took place in the Gobi desert in southern Mongolia, and aimed to investigate the prey choices of the snow leopard. In total there were 19 snow leopards captured between 2008 and 2013 that were fitted with GPS collars. These collars registered a position every fifth to seventh hour. Kill sites were found by visiting clusters of GPS locations. Ibex was the prey most dominated (66 %), followed by goat, sheep (20 %), and argali (8 %). The ibex and argali were sex- and age-classified.  Age and sex ratio of the killed ibex differed from the age and sex ratio of the ibex population. Adult ibex males seemed to be overrepresented among the kills (males <5 years 10 % and males >5 years 35 %), whereas females seemed underrepresented. Also in argali, the category most killed were males (56 %). The results show that snow leopards do not only kill prey larger than themselves, they also seem to select the largest age and sex categories among ibex and argali, although the different categories killed varied between seasons. Possible explanations for the results are discussed. The findings of this study will help to understand the feeding ecology of the snow leopard, and how to address the conservation and management issues in how to conserve this felid and its most important preys.

  • 4. Johansson, Jessica
    et al.
    Rankinen, Juha
    Inventering av flodpärlmussla i Fylleån norr om Gyltigesjön2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Freshwater environments are threatened worldwide, of which many of the species associatedwith freshwater. In 2014, 243 freshwater mussels were on the international Red List. One ofthem is the freshwater pearl mussel, Margaritifera margaritifera, which because of itscomplex life cycle can be counted as an indicator of whether a stream is worth protecting. It's since the early 1900's in decline throughout their range. Sweden is counted as a core area which is why we have not only a national but an international responsibility to conserve the species. The mussel is covered by the County Administrative Board of Hallands action plans for threatened species. The County Administrative Board has since 2004 made a number of inventories in the county to get an overview of the occurrence of the freshwater pearl mussel. Still, there are some streams that are not fully inventoried. We have inventoried the mainstream Fylleån from outlet to Gyltigesjön to Bygget, as well as tributaries. In the 80's some parts further downstream in Fylleån were inventoried and then no freshwater pearl mussels were found. Per Ingvarsson who is leading the inventories of freshwater pearl mussels in Halland has pointed out the upper part as an interesting area for mussels. This upper part of Fylleån has previously only been inventoried on two locations, therefore, we have now done a complete inventory to examine the presence of mussels.

    Some of the results of our survey:

    • No fresh water pearl mussels were found in the investigated waters.

    • The water in the river was heavily colored which complicated the inventory.

    • The majority of the route consisted of flowing water with a bottom of stone and/or blocks which are suitable habitat for mussels, but there were silt on the bottom.

    • No fish or fish larvae were found.

    • One duck mussel was found in the outlet to Gyltigesjön.

    In closing, we discuss what could be causing our results.

  • 5.
    Karlsson, Pauline
    Halmstad University.
    Anläggande av naturstig: ett sätt att främja intresset för och öka kunskapen om naturen2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    En naturstig utgörs vanligtvis av ett antal skyltar längst med en promenadslinga. Genom attgå stigen och ta del av texter och bilder får besökaren en flexibel form av guidning inaturområdet. Naturstigar är på det sättet ett bra sätt att locka ut människor i naturen. Ennaturstig kan bli forum för bland annat undervisning, rekreation och närturism. Stigarnaerbjuder en mer tillgänglig och tillrättalagd natur, som i vissa sammanhang är mer attraktivän den helt vilda.Som en del av mitt syfte har jag anlagt en naturstig vid Stadsbondgården i Fyllinge utanförHalmstad. I linje med syftet innehåller rapporten även forskning relaterat till ekoturism ochnaturstigar, för att kunna fungera som en metodvägledning för framtida anläggande avnaturstigar.Via mina skyltar ville jag uppmuntra till upptäckarlust, och ge naturstigsbesökaren enbegynnande eller fördjupad relation till naturen. Jag jobbade med en grundtanke om att visapå den rika biologiska mångfalden som även den stadsnära naturen besitter.En utvärdering av den färdiga stigen visade på brister i tydlighet och vägvisning. Innehålletpå skyltarna beskrevs av de flesta som positivt. Naturstigen uppfattades av en majoritet somvacker, lärorik och värd ett återbesök.

  • 6.
    Lindenfors, Patrik
    et al.
    Centre for the Study of Cultural Evolution, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jansson, Fredrik
    Centre for the Study of Cultural Evolution, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sandberg, Mikael
    Halmstad University, School of Education, Humanities and Social Science, Center for Social Analysis (CESAM), Centre for Studies of Political Science, Communication and Media (CPKM).
    The Cultural Evolution of Democracy: Saltational Changes in A Political Regime Landscape2011In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 6, no 11, article id e28270Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transitions to democracy are most often considered the outcome of historical modernization processes. Socio-economic changes, such as increases in per capita GNP, education levels, urbanization and communication, have traditionally been found to be correlates or ‘requisites’ of democratic reform. However, transition times and the number of reform steps have not been studied comprehensively. Here we show that historically, transitions to democracy have mainly occurred through rapid leaps rather than slow and incremental transition steps, with a median time from autocracy to democracy of 2.4 years, and overnight in the reverse direction. Our results show that autocracy and democracy have acted as peaks in an evolutionary landscape of possible modes of institutional arrangements. Only scarcely have there been slow incremental transitions. We discuss our results in relation to the application of phylogenetic comparative methods in cultural evolution and point out that the evolving unit in this system is the institutional arrangement, not the individual country which is instead better regarded as the ‘host’ for the political system.

  • 7.
    Lundén, Eric
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Mossfloran vid vattenkvarnar i sydöstra Sverige2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Bryophytes play an important role in ecosystems in running waters and are common growing on structures in and around watermills. These watermill habitats differ from other parts of the watercourse in terms of microclimate and disturbance regime, and in providing more suitable and variable substrates. Bryophytes were sampled in and around five watermills and five reference sites 300 meters up or downstream from the watermill in the province Småland, in south-eastern Sweden. Species richness was compared between the sites and differences in community structure were analysed by a Discriminant Analysis. In 90% of the cases, the species composition was found to be specific for watermills and reference sites, and the mean species number was 57% higher at watermills than at the reference sites. Rocks and boulders in a wide range of sizes, concrete and mortar structures with pH-levels higher than that of the underlying bedrock, and stronger currents were identified as some of the causes of the higher diversity at the watermills. Restauration projects in rivers, including dam removal, constitute a potential threat to the bryophyte flora of watermills since the structures they grow on may either be removed or destroyed. Changes in microclimate and disturbance regime are other potential threats to species in these habitats.

  • 8.
    Sandberg, Mikael
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Education, Humanities and Social Science, Center for Social Analysis (CESAM).
    Lundberg, Per
    Lunds universitet, Lund, Sweden.
    Political Institutions and Their Historical Dynamics2012In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, no 10, article id e45838Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditionally, political scientists define political institutions deductively. This approach may prevent from discovery of existing institutions beyond the definitions. Here, a principal component analysis was used for an inductive extraction of dimensions in Polity IV data on the political institutions of all nations in the world the last two centuries. Three dimensions of institutions were revealed: core institutions of democracy, oligarchy, and despotism. We show that, historically and on a world scale, the dominance of the core institutions of despotism has first been replaced by a dominance of the core institutions of oligarchy, which in turn is now being followed by an increasing dominance by the core institutions of democracy. Nations do not take steps from despotic, to oligarchic and then to democratic institutions, however. Rather, nations hosting the core democracy institutions have succeeded in historically avoiding both the core institutions of despotism and those of oligarchy. On the other hand, some nations have not been influenced by any of these dimensions, while new institutional combinations are increasingly influencing others. We show that the extracted institutional dimensions do not correspond to the Polity scores for autocracy, “anocracy” and democracy, suggesting that changes in regime types occur at one level, while institutional dynamics work on another. Political regime types in that sense seem “canalized”, i.e., underlying institutional architectures can and do vary, but to a considerable extent independently of regime types and their transitions. The inductive approach adds to the deductive regime type studies in that it produces results in line with modern studies of cultural evolution and memetic institutionalism in which institutions are the units of observation, not the nations that acts as host for them.

  • 9.
    Selck, Henriette
    et al.
    Roskilde University, Roskilde, Denmark.
    Adamsen, Peter B.
    Ramboll Environ, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Backhaus, Thomas
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Banta, Gary T.
    Roskilde University, Roskilde, Denmark.
    Bruce, Peter K.H.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Burton Jr., G. Allen
    University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA.
    Butts, Michael B.
    DHI Group, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Boegh, Eva
    Roskilde University, Roskilde, Denmark.
    Clague, John J.
    Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada.
    Dinh, Khuong V.
    Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark.
    Doorn, Neelke
    Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands.
    Gunnarsson, Jonas S.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik
    Roskilde University, Roskilde, Denmark.
    Hazlerigg, Charles
    Enviresearch, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
    Hunka, Agnieszka D.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Jensen, John
    Aarhus University, Silkeborg, Denmark.
    Lin, Yan
    Norwegian Institute for Water Research, Oslo, Norway.
    Loureiro, Susana
    Department of Biology & CESAM, University of Aveiro, Aveiro, Portugal.
    Miraglia, Simona
    Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark.
    Munns Jr., Wayne R.
    US Environmental Protection Agency, Narragansett, Rhode Island, USA.
    Nadim, Farrokh
    Norwegian Geotechnical Institute, Oslo, Norway.
    Palmqvist, Annemette
    Roskilde University, Roskilde, Denmark.
    Rämö, Robert A.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Seaby, Lauren P.
    Roskilde University, Roskilde, Denmark.
    Syberg, Kristian
    Roskilde University, Roskilde, Denmark.
    Tangaa, Stine R.
    Roskilde University, Roskilde, Denmark.
    Thit, Amalie
    Roskilde University, Roskilde, Denmark.
    Windfeld, Ronja
    Roskilde University, Roskilde, Denmark.
    Zalewski, Maciej
    European Regional Centre for Ecohydrology (Polish Academy of Sciences), Lodz, Poland.
    Chapman, Peter M.
    Chapema Environmental Strategies, North Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.
    Assessing and managing multiple risks in a changing world – The Roskilde recommendations2017In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 7-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Roskilde University (Denmark) hosted a November 2015 workshop, Environmental Risk—Assessing and Managing Multiple Risks in a Changing World. This Focus article presents the consensus recommendations of 30 attendees from 9 countries regarding implementation of a common currency (ecosystem services) for holistic environmental risk assessment and management; improvements to risk assessment and management in a complex, human-modified, and changing world; appropriate development of protection goals in a 2-stage process; dealing with societal issues; risk-management information needs; conducting risk assessment of risk management; and development of adaptive and flexible regulatory systems. The authors encourage both cross-disciplinary and interdisciplinary approaches to address their 10 recommendations: 1) adopt ecosystem services as a common currency for risk assessment and management; 2) consider cumulative stressors (chemical and nonchemical) and determine which dominate to best manage and restore ecosystem services; 3) fully integrate risk managers and communities of interest into the risk-assessment process; 4) fully integrate risk assessors and communities of interest into the risk-management process; 5) consider socioeconomics and increased transparency in both risk assessment and risk management; 6) recognize the ethical rights of humans and ecosystems to an adequate level of protection; 7) determine relevant reference conditions and the proper ecological context for assessments in human-modified systems; 8) assess risks and benefits to humans and the ecosystem and consider unintended consequences of management actions; 9) avoid excessive conservatism or possible underprotection resulting from sole reliance on binary, numerical benchmarks; and 10) develop adaptive risk-management and regulatory goals based on ranges of uncertainty. © 2016 SETAC

  • 10.
    Thulin, Charlotta
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Education, Humanities and Social Science.
    Taman, Nadia
    Halmstad University, School of Education, Humanities and Social Science.
    Utomhusundervisning i ämnet biologi: Utomhusmiljöns hinder och möjligheter i relation till elevers lärande i grundskolan2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 11.
    Åsedahl, Linnea
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Lindmark, Alexandra
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Identifiering av riskzoner för större vilt inom Halmstad kommuns vägnät2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    An increased infrastructure is one of today’s biggest reasons for the fragmentation ofhabitats, making it harder for wildlife to move without risks when crossing roads. To see inwhich extent larger mammals crosses roads greenways were identified in the urban parts ofHalmstad municipality, after which a study was made on the presence of wildlife duringwinter 2015/2016. Ten areas were chosen along road 600 (Tylösandsvägen), road 610(Kustvägen), trunk road 15, trunk road 25 and trunk road 26 where inventories were carriedout for a period of seven days distributed over a period of two months. Wildlife abundanceof moose, roe deer, fallow deer, red deer, hare, wild boar, badger, red fox, wolf and lynxwere investigated by identification of track stamps in order to find out if any of the tenplaces constitutes a danger zone for wildlife-vehicle accidents and if there are anydifferences in wildlife abundance close to and further from the road as well as in woodlandand open land. The result of the study along with wildlife accident statistics show that someof the investigated areas form danger zones for larger animals; two adjacent areas alongtrunk road 26 and one area along trunk road 15. There were no significant difference inwildlife abundance on different distances from the road which means that wildlife followsthe greenways and do not see the road as an obstacle, thus more likely to crossover. Therewere also no significant difference in wildlife abundance in woodland and open land,meaning wildlife-vehicle accidents are not more likely to occur in one type of land over theother.

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