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  • 1.
    Andersen, Emelie
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Nilsson, Bertil
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), MPE-lab.
    Sahlén, Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Survival possibilities of the dragonfly Aeshna viridis (Insecta, Odonata) in southern Sweden predicted from dispersal possibilities2016In: Journal of Insect Conservation, ISSN 1366-638X, E-ISSN 1572-9753, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 179-188Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We use public records from 1980 to 2014 to analyse survival of the EU Annex IV species Aeshna viridis in Sweden, a dragonfly strongly associated with the plant Stratiotes aloides. We clustered localities with S. aloides based on assumed dispersal abilities of A. viridis, using a dispersing radius of 2–100 km, calculating the proportion of sites with S. aloides that A. viridis is able to reach. If mean dispersal capability is high (40 km or above) 92.6 % or more of the localities are connected. For a good disperser, the probability of long-time survival is good. We further analysed the species richness of other Odonata and aquatic plants at 98 localities from the dataset. A. viridis co-occurred with more Odonata in the presence of S. aloides and running water but not in lakes. S. aloides sites had a higher number of other aquatic plants. Area had no impact on the occurrence of the species. For the present situation we surveyed 32 localities with known occurrence of the species. Only half of the sites for S. aloides contained any specimens while A. viridis occurred in the same number of sites. The species co-occurred in only 8 of 32 sites. In four sites A. viridis larvae appeared among Menyanthes trifoliata, Phragmites australis, Potamogeton natans and Sphagnum spp., indicating that at high latitudes A. viridis breeds among other species. Indirect monitoring based only on S. aloides would underestimate the number of populations of the dragonfly. © 2016 Springer International Publishing Switzerland

  • 2.
    Andersson, Julia
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Does clearcutting as a method for forestry impact the aquatic life in lakes nearby?2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Clearcutting is the most common method for forestry in Sweden. However research shows that this type of intense management can have a negative impact on biological biodiversity as it interferes with an area’s natural characteristics. Previous studies have mainly focused on biological effects on land. In this study dragonflies were used as biological indicators to investigate the impact of clearcutting in aquatic environments. The result from this study indicate that the use of clearcutting as a method for forestry can, with a certain postponement in time, negatively affect the species diversity of Odonata, and thus also the aquatic biodiversity in lakes in the immediate surroundings of a clearcut area, although it is still unclear exactly how and by which mechanisms. It is also uncertain if the effects are only temporarily, or long-term. If Sweden is to reach the environmental goal of Flourishing Lakes and Streams, it is essential to adopt further safety measures when conducting clearcutting near waters to avoid negative impact on the aquatic biological diversity.

  • 3.
    Bonnot, N. C.
    et al.
    Grimsö Wildlife Research Station, Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Riddarhyttan, 730 91, Sweden.
    Bergvall, U. A.
    Grimsö Wildlife Research Station, Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Riddarhyttan, 730 91, Sweden.
    Jarnemo, Anders
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Kjellander, P.
    Grimsö Wildlife Research Station, Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Riddarhyttan, 730 91, Sweden.
    Who’s afraid of the big bad wolf?: Variation in the stress response among personalities and populations in a large wild herbivore2018In: Oecologia, ISSN 0029-8549, E-ISSN 1432-1939, Vol. 188, no 1, p. 85-95Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Faced with rapid environmental changes, individuals may express different magnitude and plasticity in their response to a given stressor. However, little is known about the causes of variation in phenotypic plasticity of the stress response in wild populations. In the present study, we repeatedly captured individual roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) from two wild populations in Sweden exposed to differing levels of predation pressure and measured plasma concentrations of stress-induced cortisol and behavioral docility. While controlling for the marked effects of habituation, we found clear between-population differences in the stress-induced cortisol response. Roe deer living in the area that was recently recolonized by lynx (Lynx lynx) and wolves (Canis lupus) expressed cortisol levels that were around 30% higher than roe deer in the human-dominated landscape free of large carnivores. In addition, for the first time to our knowledge, we investigated the stress-induced cortisol response in free-ranging newborn fawns and found no evidence for hypo-responsiveness during early life in this species. Indeed, stress-induced cortisol levels were of similar magnitude and differed between populations to a similar extent in both neonates and adults. Finally, at an individual level, we found that both cortisol and docility levels were strongly repeatable, and weakly negatively inter-correlated, suggesting that individuals differed consistently in how they respond to a stressor, and supporting the existence of a stress-management syndrome in roe deer. © 2018, The Author(s).

  • 4.
    Dejenfelt, Pontus
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Våtmarksfåglar i Stjärnarp, en inventering av nyanlagd våtmark utanför Halmstad, Halland2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    By doing a transect inventory combined with territory mapping at a recently constructed wetland in the area of Stjärnarp outside of Halmstad, during April-June in 2018, I have investigated species composition, species abundance and reproductive criteria shown by the bird species in the area. A comparison was made with five other wetlands in the county of Halland in matter of species composition and reproductive criteria to overlook if the age or area of the wetlands have an impact. After several visits in Stjärnarp, a total of 55 species of birds were recorded, of which 31 species were using the wetland area for reproduction, foraging or resting. Among all examined wetlands species richness varied more during 2018, when of different ages, compared to when they were about one year old. Overall analysis wasn’t significant for correlations, regressions or differences between the investigated variables of this study, though there were a significant correlation and regression between the amount of possibly reproductive species and the area of wetlands. According to others, characteristics of wetlands can have great impact on the presence of birds, e.g. size and age of wetlands, water depth, maintenance, location, presence of fish and more. According to this study, several reproductive species in particular have indicated attributes in Stjärnarp, e.g. early succession, nutrient rich waters, open meadows and more. Depending on what species or other biodiversity people which to benefit in the future, planning and continuous studies are needed here to find out if and how bird communities change with time, and to what causes.

  • 5.
    Hansson, Jessica
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Does the wolf (Canis lupus) affect presence of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in Sweden?2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Vargen (Canis lupus) har ökat stadigt i Sverige under de senaste decennierna. Vargens återkomst och dess påverkan på det svenska djurlivet studeras idag i stor utsträckning, och frågor har uppstått om vargen som toppredator kan komma att orsaka trofiska kaskader i ekosystemet, vilket har observerats i nationalparker i USA. Rödräven (Vulpes vulpes) har i Sverige visat sig dra stor nytta utav vargens återkomst genom den ökade mängden kadaver som vargen lämnar, vilket är en särskilt viktig födokälla under våren.

    Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka om närvaro av varg påverkar förekomst av rödräv. Rävspår räknades i 182 vilttrianglar i Örebro och Värmlands län under åren 2001-2003. Vilttrianglarna klassificerades med avseende på mängd jordbruksmark, avstånd till vargrevir och ålder på vargrevir. Effekt av varg på rävförekomst analyserades genom att jämföra rävspår med distans till vargrevir och hur länge det funnits varg i området samt rävspår i relation till mängd jordbruksmark. Studien kunde inte påvisa någon effekt av vargförekomst på räv.  Resultaten indikerar på att habitatet var nyckelfaktorn för rävförekomst istället för närvaro av varg. I och med att vargstammen ökar stadigt i Sverige är det dock av intresse med fortsatta studier i ämnet då vargen kan komma att spela en större roll i ekosystemet i framtiden.

  • 6.
    Hedström, Ingemar
    et al.
    Department of Applied Science, Mid Sweden University, Härnösand, Sweden & Escuela de Biología, Universidad de Costa Rica, San José, Costa Rica & Department of Ecumenical Research, Sabanilla, Costa Rica.
    Sahlén, Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    A key to the adult Costa Rican "helicopter" damselflies (Odonata Pseudostigmatidae) with notes on their phenology and life zone preferences2001In: Revista de biologia tropical, ISSN 0034-7744, E-ISSN 2215-2075, Vol. 49, no 3-4, p. 1037-1056Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a key to the Costa Rican species of Pseudostigmatidae, comprising three genera with the following species: Megaloprepus caerulatus, Mecistogaster linearis, M. modesta, M. ornata and Pseudostigma aberrans. Pseudostigma accedens, which may occur in the region, is also included. For each species we give a brief account of morphology, phenology and life zone preferences, including distributional maps based on more than 270 records. These are not all of the known specimens from the area, but a high enough number to give a relatively good picture of the distribution and status of the species. We found M. caerulatus to be active during the first half of the year in seasonal, tropical semi-dry lowland forest and tropical moist forest at mid-elevation, but like M. linearis, M. caerulatus was active all year round in non-seasonal, tropical wet lowland forest and tropical moist forest at mid-elevation. Mecistogaster modesta also flew year round in non-seasonal, tropical wet lowland forest and tropical moist evergreen forest at mid-elevation, and likewise in seasonal and non-seasonal, tropical premontane moist forest. Only a few findings, however, have been made of M. modesta in seasonal, tropical semi-dry deciduous forest and seasonal, tropical moist evergreen forest. Mecistogaster ornata was missing entirely from non-seasonal, tropical wet lowland forest and non-seasonal, tropical moist forest at mid-elevation, while this species was active year round in seasonal, tropical dry lowland forest and tropical semi-dry forest, as well as in seasonal, tropical moist evergreen forest and tropical premontane moist forest, both at mid-elevation. Pseudostigma aberrans has so far been found too few times in Costa Rica for any indication of flight time preference.

  • 7.
    Jarnemo, Anders
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Grimsö Wildlife Research Station, Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agriculture, SLU, Riddarhyttan, Sweden.
    Jansson, Gunnar
    Grimsö Wildlife Research Station, Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agriculture, SLU, Riddarhyttan, Sweden.
    Månsson, Johan
    Grimsö Wildlife Research Station, Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agriculture, SLU, Riddarhyttan, Sweden.
    Temporal variations in activity patterns during rut - Implications for survey techniques of red deer, Cervus elaphus2017In: Wildlife research (East Melbourne), ISSN 1035-3712, E-ISSN 1448-5494, Vol. 44, no 2, p. 106-113Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context Intraspecific differences in behaviour can affect censuses and bias population estimates, suggesting that choice and implementation of census methods are fundamental, and need to be adapted to behavioural variations. Aims We investigated temporal variations in activity patterns during the rut among red deer (Cervus elaphus) categories and the implications for two different census methods. Methods We used a long-term dataset collected during 17 consecutive red deer rutting seasons in southernmost Sweden. The two census methods were: (1) a collection of observation ratios; and (2) a count of individuals including identification of males. Both methods are commonly used in ungulate management. Key results There was a difference in activity among age and sex categories, with a temporal variation in activity and/or presence at rutting grounds of adult (≥6 years) and subadult (2-5 years) males. Observation ratios of adult and subadult males increased from low at the start of the rut to a top level during peak rut, with subadults lagging behind adults. Before and during peak rut, the proportion of adult males was higher than that of subadults. After peak rut, the proportion of adult males decreased, whereas subadult males remained high, resulting in a higher number of subadults than of adults. The comparison of the two census methods revealed a strong correlation regarding the trends of population size and for the age and sex categories. There was also a strong consistency concerning the calf/female ratio. The male proportion was, however, consistently lower in the collected observations than in the counts. Conclusions The lower proportion of males in observations compared with counts may be explained by behavioural differences among male age classes, i.e. by temporal variations in presence and activity. That females, calves and yearling males are stationary during the rut, but adult and subadult males arrive and depart the rutting grounds at varying points of time, can lead to an underestimated male proportion in continuously collected observation data. Implications The results suggest that census should be conducted during peak rut, and that incorporating identification of individual males in the monitoring may be beneficiary. © CSIRO 2017.

  • 8.
    Jarnemo, Anders
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Grimsö Wildlife Research Station, Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-730 91 Riddarhyttan, Sweden.
    Minderman, Jeroen
    Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA, United Kingdom.
    Bunnefeld, Nils
    Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA, United Kingdom.
    Zidar, Josefina
    Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, SE-581 83 Linköping, Sweden.
    Månsson, Johan
    Grimsö Wildlife Research Station, Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-730 91 Riddarhyttan, Sweden.
    Managing landscapes for multiple objectives: Alternative forage can reduce the conflict between deer and forestry2014In: Ecosphere, ISSN 2150-8925, E-ISSN 2150-8925, Vol. 5, no 8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Deer (Cervidae) cause considerable damage to forest plantations, crops, and protected habitats. The most common response to this damage is to implement strategies to lower population densities. However, lowering deer density may not always be desirable from hunting, recreational, or conservation perspectives. Therefore, knowledge is needed about additional factors beyond deer density that affect damage levels, and management actions that consider competing management goals. We studied the relationships between levels of bark-stripping by red deer (Cervus elaphus) on Norway spruce (Picea abies) and (1) relative deer density indices (pellet group count and deer harvest data), (2) availability of alternative natural forage (cover of forage species) and (3) proportion forest in the landscape, both at a forest stand scale and at a landscape scale. Extensive variation in damage level was evident between the six study areas. On a stand scale, the proportion of spruce damaged was positively related to pellet group density, indicating the importance of local deer usage of stands. In addition, available alternative forage in the field layer within spruce stands and proportion forest surrounding stands was negatively related to damage level. On the landscape scale, damage level was negatively related to availability of forage in the field and shrub layers and proportion forest, but was not related to any of the relative deer density indices. Increasing alternative forage may thus decrease damage and thereby reduce conflicts. Additionally, the proportion of forest in the landscape affects damage levels and should thus be considered in landscape planning and when forecasting damage risk. The relationship between local deer usage of stands and damage level suggests that future studies should try to separate the effects of local deer usage and deer density. © 2014 Jarnemo et al.

  • 9.
    Koch, Kamilla
    et al.
    University of Mainz.
    Quast, Malte
    Waldweg 8, 38176, Wendeburg, Germany.
    Sahlén, Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Morphological differences in the ovary of Libellulidae (Odonata)2009In: International Journal of Odonatology, ISSN 1388-7890, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 147-156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    All female Odonata have been assumed to produce oocytes continuously during their mature life span. However, a recent study of ovariole orientation and development led to the suggestion that Libellulidae are divided into two groups of species, one with continuous, the other with stepwise oocyte production. To find more evidence of this division, we compared the size variation and growth within the vitellarium of the ovary, studying oocytes, and follicle cells. We found that morphological characters discriminate between the two ovary types in eight of the 10 investigated species. In both types we found an increase in all measurements from the anterior to the posterior end of the vitellarium. The increase in oocyte width and follicle cell length was significantly higher in species with a continuous oocyte production. We also noted that follicle cells may have more than one nucleus and that their number can vary during vitellogenesis. Our study confirmed the hypotheses that two different ovary types exist in Libellulidae. The two species not fitting into this grouping could be an artefact of small samp le size due to intraspecific phenotypic plasticity, or else there might be more than two ovary groups, or even a continuum. We could not offer an explanation as to how the process of stepwise oocyte production differs from continuous based production on morphological characters.

  • 10.
    Pålsson, Joakim
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Geografisk spridning och morfologisk variation hos Brachygaster minutus (Hymenoptera: Evaniidae) i Sverige2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 11.
    Renner, Samuel
    et al.
    Centro Universitário Univates, Lajeado, RS, Brazil.
    Périco, Eduardo
    Centro Universitário Univates, Lajeado, RS, Brazil.
    Sahlén, Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    List of Odonates from the Floresta Nacional de São Francisco de Paula (FLONA - SFP), with two new distribution records for Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil2016In: Biota Neotropica, ISSN 1806-129X, E-ISSN 1676-0611, Vol. 3, article id e20150132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A survey of Odonata was carried out in the National Forest FLONA - SFP, Northeastern region of the Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. This conservation unit is mainly covered by Mixed Ombrophilous Forest (MOF), a subtype of Atlantic Forest biome, being also areas covered in planted Pinus, planted Araucaria and open fields. Our sampling efforts were conducted in thirty aquatic environments inside this reserve during the period between January 2014 and November 2014. The sampling sites were selected randomly, comprehending lakes, bogs, small streams and river sections, all inserted in the four vegetation types occurring in the reserve. Fortysix species of Odonata were collected and grouped into 23 genera and seven families. The dominant families were Coenagrionidae (32%), Libellulidae (32%), Aeshnidae (12%), and, Calopterygidae and Lestidae (9%). As expected, the findings revealed the presence of a highly diverse Odonate assemblage, mainly represented by generalist species in the most human disturbed sectors (Pinus and Open fields) and some specialist species in the pristine forest. Two species were registered for the first time in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil: Libellula herculea Karsch, 1889 (Libellulidae) and Heteragrion luizfelipei Machado, 2006 (Heteragrionidae). © 2016, Universidade Estadual de Campinas UNICAMP. All rights reserved.

  • 12.
    Renner, Samuel
    et al.
    Ecologia e Sensoriamento Remoto, Centro Universitário Univates, Lajeado-RS, Brasil.
    Périco, Eduardo
    Ecologia e Sensoriamento Remoto, Centro Universitário Univates, Lajeado-RS, Brasil.
    Sahlén, Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Man-made lakes form species-rich dragonfly communities in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest (Odonata)2016In: Odonatologica, ISSN 0375-0183, Vol. 45, no 3-4, p. 135-154Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the forest types occurring in Southern Brazil is the Mixed Ombrophilous Forest (MOF), a subtype of the Atlantic Forest and one of the biodiversity hotspots on Earth. We sampled adult Odonata at 30 locations in the Floresta Nacional de São Francisco de Paula (FLONA-SFP), Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, a national reserve which is divided into several sectors of MOF, planted Araucaria angustifolia, Pinus elliottii used for sustainable and financial purposes, and open fields. There are three types of aquatic environments in the reserve: lakes, swamps, and rivers/streams. Our aim was to obtain an overview of the species’ distribution patterns in the three types of aquatic environments and to evaluate the species occurring in lakes, an exclusively man-made habitat in this area. We recorded 46 species from seven odonate families; 25 species (x = 5.71 ± 1.77 SD) occurring in rivers/ streams, 24 in lakes (11.57 ± 2.15) and 21 in swamps (5.22 ± 3.60). Using Non-metric Multidimensional Scaling (NmDS), we showed that the species composition differed clearly between the three types of aquatic habitats. While swamps and rivers/streams had a relatively similar and uniform species composition, species in the lakes were more varied but the total species number was almost as high as that of the rivers/streams. The lake communities also differed distinctly from those of the other habitats, and we assume that the lake species originate from other degraded areas in the vicinity, indicating that the remains of the Atlantic Forest has already been strongly altered by humans. Given the poor knowledge of the Odonata in the Atlantic Forest/MOF, we hope that our study may increase the understanding of the communities, and contribute to the development of conservation measures for this fragmented biome.

  • 13.
    Renner, Samuel
    et al.
    Centro Universitário Univates, Lajeado, RS, Brazil.
    Périco, Eduardo
    Centro Universitário Univates, Lajeado, RS, Brazil.
    Sahlén, Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Martins dos Santos, Daniel
    Centro Universitário Univates, Lajeado, RS, Brazil.
    Consatti, Guilherme
    Centro Universitário Univates, Lajeado, RS, Brazil.
    Dragonflies (Odonata) from the Taquari River valley region, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil2015In: Check List, ISSN 1809-127X, E-ISSN 1809-127X, Vol. 11, no 5, article id 1740Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A survey of Odonata was carried out in the central region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul: the Taquari River valley. This region was originally covered by deciduous and Semi-deciduous Atlantic Forest, which today only exist in a highly fragmented environment mainly due to agricultural activities. Our survey was conducted in 12 municipalities from this region, between March 2011 and April 2013. Aiming a general overview of the species composition, our sampling sites included lakes, bogs, small streams and river sections, all inside or surrounded by small forest fragments or forest areas. Fifty species of Odonata were collected comprising 29 genera and seven families. The dominant families were Libellulidae (40%) and Coenagrionidae (36%), while Aeshindae, Gomphidae and Lestidae each only comprise 6% of the total number of species. The findings revealed the presence of a highly diverse odonate assemblage, mainly represented by generalist species in human disturbed fragments and a few forest specialist species in the best preserved remnants only.

  • 14.
    Sahlén, Göran
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Suhling, Frank
    Institut für Geoökologie, Technische UniversitätBraunschweig, Braunschweig, Germany.
    Martens, Andreas
    Institut für Biologie und Schulgartenentwicklung, Pädagogische Hochschule Karlsruhe,Karlsruhe, Germany.
    Gorb, Stanislav N.
    Zoological Institute: Functional Morphology and Biomechanics, Kiel University, Kiel, Germany.
    Fincke, Ola M.
    Ecologyand Evolutionary Biology Program, Department of Biology, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK, U.S.A..
    For consistency’s sake? A reply to Bybee et al.2016In: Systematic Entomology, ISSN 0307-6970, E-ISSN 1365-3113, Vol. 41, no 2, p. 307-308Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Suhling, Frank
    et al.
    Institut für Geoökologie, Technische Universität Braunschweig, Braunschweig, Germany .
    Sahlén, Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Gorb, Stanislav
    Spezielle Zoologie, Universität Kiel, Kiel, Germany .
    Kalkman, Vincent
    Nederlands Centrum voor Biodiversiteit Naturalis, Leiden, The Netherlands.
    Dijkstra, Klaas-Douwe
    Nederlands Centrum voor Biodiversiteit Naturalis, Leiden, The Netherlands.
    van Tol, Jan
    Nederlands Centrum voor Biodiversiteit Naturalis, Leiden, The Netherlands.
    Order Odonata2015In: Thorp and Covich's Freshwater Invertebrates: ecology and general biology / [ed] James H. Thorp & D. Christopher Rogers, Amsterdam: Academic Press, 2015, p. 894-932Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter introduces the insect order Odonata. It provides the most recent phylogeny and up-to-date systematics as well as genera and species numbers of the various families in the biogeographic regions. We also present an overview about the general biology, ecology and behavior of Odonata. This includes details on morphology and ultrastructures. We also attempt an updated categorization of odonate life cycle types. The subchapters on ecology and behavior focus on various aspects of habitat selection and microhabitat occupancy, including effects of biotic interactions and antipredation behavior. Finally, we summarize collection and sampling methods for adult and larval Odonata. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved

  • 16.
    Suhling, Ida
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS). Technische Universität Braunschweig, Braunschweig, Germany.
    Suhling, Frank
    Technische Universität Braunschweig, Braunschweig, Germany.
    Thermal adaptation affects interactions between a range-expanding and a native odonate species2013In: Freshwater Biology, ISSN 0046-5070, E-ISSN 1365-2427, Vol. 58, no 4, p. 705-714Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1.Increasing temperature and invading species may interact in their effects on communities. In this study, we investigated how rising temperatures alter larval interactions between a naturally range-expanding dragonfly, Crocothemis erythraea, and a native northern European species, Leucorrhinia dubia. Initial studies revealed that C.erythraea grow up to 3.5 times faster than L.dubia at temperatures above 16 degrees C. As a result, we hypothesised that divergent temperature responses would lead to rapid size differences between coexisting larvae and, consequently, to asymmetric intraguild predation at higher ambient temperatures. 2. Mortality and growth rates were measured in interaction treatments (with both species present) and non-interaction controls (one species present) at four different temperature regimes: at an ambient temperature representative of central Germany, where both species overlap in distribution, and at temperatures increased by 2, 4 and 6 degrees C. 3.The mortality of C.erythraea did not differ between treatment and control. In contrast, mortality of L.dubia remained similar over all temperatures in the controls, but increased with temperature in the presence of the other species and was significantly higher there than in the controls. We concluded that L.dubia suffered asymmetric intraguild predation, particularly at increased temperature. Reduced growth rate of L.dubia in the interaction treatment at higher temperatures also suggested asymmetric competition for prey in the first phase of the experiment. 4.The results imply that the range expansion of C.erythraea may cause reduction in population size of syntopic L.dubia when temperature rises by more than 2 degrees C. The consequences for future range patterns, as well as other factors that may influence the interaction in nature, are discussed. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  • 17.
    Svensson, Ofir
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Does small-scale land use affect the understory birds negative in the Peruvian National Reserve Allpahuayo Mishana?2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Human activities that lead to fragmentation and habitat loss are big problems in the world. Due to global climate change the negative effects of fragmented habitats can be catastrophic for many organisms. In the Amazon rainforest, that is most sensitive to human impact, stands a big risk to lose its species diversity. Fragmentation and climate change together seems to escalate the death rate of rainforest plants and that will change the whole ecosystem. Birds and insects are depending on the trees and the trees faces big challenges now. Many of the rainforest organisms have been noticed to emigrate further up to northern altitudes due to the warmer climate and maybe also because of deforestation. Many of the lowland forest birds are predicted to distribute from their origin habitats. The national reserve Allpahuayo Mishana in the Peruvian Amazon is known for its diversity of birds. It is a big challenge for the reserve to maintain the origin forest composition from climate change, which will lead to losses of species. The reserve allows the local community to utilize the land for small-scale uses inside the protected zone. Many of the birds are sensitive for external disturbance. Most human activities are resulting in that the forest becomes less dense, which can lead to that the territory for the birds decreases. This makes it important for the reserve to improve the human land use not to restrict the birds' habitat inside the reserve. This project will investigate if the small-scale land uses affects the understory birds’ diversity and habitat negative. The purpose is to see if the fragmented forests in the reserve, closest to the utilized land, can functioning as a secondary forest for the understory birds, or are the understory birds limited by the small-scale land use, in the national reserve Allpahuayo Mishana? Four sites with various human activities were chosen to investigate if the sites contain any understory birds. The result showed that the most disturbed sites had poor bird diversity compare to the sites with no human disturbance.

  • 18.
    Vårhammar, Annelie
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Is there canine distemper virus in the Antarctic seal populations?2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The highly contagious canine distemper virus (CDV) has caused many so called epizootics, i.e. widespread transmissions of severe diseases in animal populations. Antibodies to CDV have been found several times in the northern hemisphere, but only once in the 1980’s in the phocid seal populations on the remote continent of Antarctica. This raises the question of whether the virus is enzootic or if it has been eliminated from the seal populations, which brings forth this study with serological testing on recently sampled seals. In this study, samples of 49 crabeater seals (Lobodon carcinophagus), 49 Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii) and 14 Ross seals (Ommatophoca rossii) from two separate expeditions with the Swedish icebreaker Oden in year 2008/2009 and 2010/2011 were tested for antibodies to CDV using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The ELISA was repeated three times on the same samples but unexpectedly showed inconsistent results. Statistical analysis revealed that there were significant differences in titre values between the three trials in all three species. The results must therefore be considered unreliable for the purpose of estimating antibody prevalence and should be discarded. The inconsistency could be explained by the ELISA kit being designed for dogs. Thus, the present study is valuable as a pilot study and shows that ELISA tests on seals developed for dogs should be treated with caution and that the samples need to be re-tested with other methods, preferably by using a virus neutralization test. The present study reviews the preceding literature concerning the prevalence of antibodies against CDV in the Antarctic seals, and also displays how the results of a future re-testing can be used to assess the susceptibility of a future outbreak of CDV in the seals of Antarctica.

  • 19.
    Wikenros, Camilla
    et al.
    Grimsö Wildlife Research Station, Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Riddarhyttan, Sweden.
    Aronsson, Malin
    Grimsö Wildlife Research Station, Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Riddarhyttan, Sweden.
    Liberg, Olof
    Grimsö Wildlife Research Station, Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Riddarhyttan, Sweden.
    Jarnemo, Anders
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Hansson, Jessica
    Halmstad University.
    Wallgren, Märtha
    3 Forestry Research Institute of Sweden, Uppsala Science Park, SE-751 83, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Sand, Håkan
    Grimsö Wildlife Research Station, Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Riddarhyttan, Sweden.
    Bergström, Råger
    3 Forestry Research Institute of Sweden, Uppsala Science Park, SE-751 83, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Fear or food - Abundance of red fox in relation to occurrence of lynx and Wolf2017In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, no 1, article id 9059Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Apex predators may affect mesopredators through intraguild predation and/or supply of carrion from their prey, causing a trade-off between avoidance and attractiveness. We used wildlife triangle snow-tracking data to investigate the abundance of red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in relation to lynx (Lynx lynx) and wolf (Canis lupus) occurrence as well as land composition and vole (Microtus spp.) density. Data from the Swedish wolf-monitoring system and VHF/GPS-collared wolves were used to study the effect of wolf pack size and time since wolf territory establishment on fox abundance. Bottom-up processes were more influential than top-down effects as the proportion of arable land was the key indicator of fox abundance at the landscape level. At this spatial scale, there was no effect of wolf abundance on fox abundance, whereas lynx abundance had a positive effect. In contrast, at the wolf territory level there was a negative effect of wolves on fox abundance when including detailed information of pack size and time since territory establishment, whereas there was no effect of lynx abundance. This study shows that different apex predator species may affect mesopredator abundance in different ways and that the results may be dependent on the spatiotemporal scale and resolution of the data. © 2017 The Author(s).

  • 20.
    Wikenros, Camilla
    et al.
    Grimsö Wildlife Research Station, Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Riddarhyttan, Sweden; Mammal Research Institute, Polish Academy of Sciences, Białowieża, Poland.
    Jarnemo, Anders
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Frisén, Marielle
    Halmstad University.
    Kuijper, Dries P. J.
    Mammal Research Institute, Polish Academy of Sciences, Waszkiewicza 1, Białowieża, Poland.
    Schmidt, Krzysztof
    Mammal Research Institute, Polish Academy of Sciences, Białowieża, Poland.
    Mesopredator behavioral response to olfactory signals of an apex predator2017In: Journal of ethology, ISSN 0289-0771, E-ISSN 1439-5444, Vol. 35, no 2, p. 161-168Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Olfactory signals constitute an important mechanism in interspecific interactions, but little is known regarding their role in communication between predator species. We analyzed the behavioral responses of a mesopredator, the red fox (Vulpes vulpes), to an olfactory cue (scat) of an apex predator, the lynx (Lynx lynx) in BiałowieÅŒa Primeval Forest, Poland, using video camera traps. Red fox visited sites with scats more often than expected and the duration of their visits was longer at scat sites than at control sites (no scat added). Vigilant behavior, sniffing and scent marking (including over-marking) occurred more often at scat sites compared to control sites, where foxes mainly passed by. Vigilance was most pronounced during the first days of the recordings. Red fox behavior was also influenced by foxes previously visiting scat sites. They sniffed and scent marked (multiple over-marking) more frequently when the lynx scat had been over-marked previously by red fox. Fox visits to lynx scats may be seen as a trade-off between obtaining information on a potential food source (prey killed by lynx) and the potential risk of predation by an apex predator. © 2017, The Author(s).

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