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  • 1.
    Akhtar, Naeem
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Analysis of Simris Hybrid Energy System Design and Working and Checking the Effects of Using High Capacity Factor Wind Turbine2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The world is entering the future where integration of renewable energy sources within the power grid will play an important role when facing the challenge of reducing global warming. The intermittent generation characteristics associate with renewable energy sources can be handled by the implementation of microgrids. A Microgrid is a group of energy source (e.g. wind, solar etc) that are located in the same local area that can operate independently in the event of electricity outage and can also be connected to the national grid in case of energy demand exceeds than the energy produced in the same local area. The implementation of microgrid in an electrical distribution system must be well planned to avoid problems. The EU has set high goals to reduce the non-renewable energy sources by 2030. EU has started some local energy systems (microgrids) and Simris is a part of it.

    This study is about a microgrid project at Simris in the south-east of Sweden. The village of Simris has 140 households supplied by a wind turbine of rated power 500kW and a solar power plant of 440 kW rated power. This project is run by E. ON within the framework and collaboration of Interflux, in which several network operators within the EU participate to investigate flexibility options in local energy systems. 

    The aim of this study is to find different scenarios in which the Simris microgrid can be run in islanded-mode. Four different scenarios were investigated, and simulation was done in MATLab. After simulation the results were discussed in the “Analysis and Results” section and the size of the wind turbine, the solar park (PV)and the battery were suggested for each of the scenarios. A short calculation was also included between the installation cost of the suggested wind turbine and the needed battery size. The cost of battery is much higher than the cost of wind turbine, so its beneficial for the economy of the microgrid to have a wind turbine of 1000 kW rated power and battery size 35 MWh rather than using the same old wind turbine of 469 kW rated power and upgrade the battery to 462 MWh. 

  • 2.
    Almouayad Alazm, Zafer
    Halmstad University.
    Study on solar driven office cooling system2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 3.
    Amos, Gideon Jojo
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    (Investigating) MNCs' CSR-related behaviour and impacts in institutionally and culturally distant markets: African developing-countries in focus2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall purpose of this thesis is to explore why and how institutional distance and contextual differences influence MNCs’ CSR-related behavior in African developing-countries. In order to achieve the purpose stated above, the thesis seeks to answer the overarching research question: How do institutional distance and contextual differences influence MNCs’ CSR-related behavior in African developing countries? To answer the research question this thesis employed an interpretive methodological approach in order to increase my understanding of the CSR phenomenon in a specific contextual environment characterized by different institutional distance through different theoretical and empirical perspectives (Guba and Lincoln, 1994; Lincoln and Guba, 2000). The thesis consists of two qualitative case studies, a systematic literature review, a conceptual paper focused on analyzing distance and MNC foreign subsidiaries’ CSR-related behaviour, and a longitudinal content analysis of annual CSR reports.

    The thesis found that the most prevalent CSR themes addressed in journal articles focused on developing-countries have been social issues, followed by environmental issues as a distant second, with ethics-related issues receiving the least attention. The findings further indicate that CSR rhetoric plays a more positive and significant role than so far explored in CSR research, as it incentivises the host-communities to push for the fulfilment of their CSR expectations or CSR initiatives proposed by the mining companies. Soft’ regulations to which members of industry associations voluntarily adhere mitigate the absence of enforcement of more stringent hard regulations by the state for companies. In doing business in distant or different institutional contexts, institutional duality of MNC subsidiaries renders business activities complex and even conflicting when it comes to seeking internal and external legitimacy. This finding and the proposed model extend Hillman and Wan’s (2005) argument of the existence of ‘institutional duality’ of MNC subsidiaries. The 60-item disclosure index is in itself a contribution to research as it provides a measure of ‘disclosure quality’ in relation to the disclosures of CSR-related performance information and CSR-related governance information.

    The main theoretical contribution of the thesis is that CSR expectations in developing-countries are distinct and may be more important to know how these empirical realities are taken into account when firms with their origin in developed-countries internationalize and enter markets in developing-countries. Second, an extended model is proposed which illustrates the roles of organizational fields, institutional pressures, legitimating environments, and legitimating strategies for MNC subsidiaries’ voluntary disclosure of CSR performance information. The overall contribution of the thesis is that it deepens our understanding of the CSR phenomenon, and of the role of host-communities and MNC subsidiaries’ managers from the context of developing-countries.

    © Gideon Jojo Amos

  • 4.
    Aramrattana, Maytheewat
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES). The Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), Göteborg, Sweden.
    A Simulation-Based Safety Analysis of CACC-Enabled Highway Platooning2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems (C-ITS) enable actors in the transport systems to interact and collaborate by exchanging information via wireless communication networks. There are several challenges to overcome before they can be implemented and deployed on public roads. Among the most important challenges are testing and evaluation in order to ensure the safety of C-ITS applications.

    This thesis focuses on testing and evaluation of C-ITS applications with regard to their safety using simulation. The main focus is on one C-ITS application, namely platooning, that is enabled by the Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control (CACC) function. Therefore, this thesis considers two main topics: i) what should be modelled and simulated for testing and evaluation of C-ITS applications? and ii) how should CACC functions be evaluated in order to ensure safety?

    When C-ITS applications are deployed, we can expect traffic situations which consist of vehicles with different capabilities, in terms of automation and connectivity. We propose that involving human drivers in testing and evaluation is important in such mixed traffic situations. Considering important aspects of C-ITS including human drivers, we propose a simulation framework, which combines driving-, network-, and traffic simulators. The simulation framework has been validated by demonstrating several use cases in the scope of platooning. In particular, it is used to demonstrate and analyse the safety of platooning applications in cut-in situations, where a vehicle driven by a human driver cuts in between vehicles in platoon. To assess the situations, time-to-collision (TTC) and its extensions are used as safety indicators in the analyses.

    The simulation framework permits future C-ITS research in other fields such as human factors by involving human drivers in a C-ITS context. Results from the safety analyses show that cut-in situations are not always hazardous, and two factors that are the most highly correlated to the collisions are relative speed and distance between vehicles at the moment of cutting in. Moreover, we suggest that to solely rely on CACC functions is not sufficient to handle cut-in situations. Therefore, guidelines and standards are required to address these situations properly.

  • 5.
    Aramrattana, Maytheewat
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES). The Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), Linköping, Sweden.
    Modelling and Simulation for Evaluation of Cooperative Intelligent Transport System Functions2016Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Future vehicles are expected to be equipped with wireless communication tech- nology, that enables them to be “connected” to each others and road infras- tructures. Complementing current autonomous vehicles and automated driving systems, the wireless communication allows the vehicles to interact, cooperate, and be aware of its surroundings beyond their own sensors’ range. Such sys- tems are often referred to as Cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems (C-ITS), which aims to provide extra safety, efficiency, and sustainability to transporta- tion systems. Several C-ITS applications are under development and will require thorough testing and evaluation before their deployment in the real-world. C- ITS depend on several sub-systems, which increase their complexity, and makes them difficult to evaluate.

    Simulations are often used to evaluate many different automotive appli- cations, including C-ITS. Although they have been used extensively, simulation tools dedicated to determine all aspects of C-ITS are rare, especially human fac- tors aspects, which are often ignored. The majority of the simulation tools for C-ITS rely heavily on different combinations of network and traffic simulators. The human factors issues have been covered in only a few C-ITS simulation tools, that involve a driving simulator. Therefore, in this thesis, a C-ITS simu- lation framework that combines driving, network, and traffic simulators is pre- sented. The simulation framework is able to evaluate C-ITS applications from three perspectives; a) human driver; b) wireless communication; and c) traffic systems.

    Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control (CACC) and its applications are cho- sen as the first set of C-ITS functions to be evaluated. Example scenarios from CACC and platoon merging applications are presented, and used as test cases for the simulation framework, as well as to elaborate potential usages of it. Moreover, approaches, results, and challenges from composing the simulation framework are presented and discussed. The results shows the usefulness of the proposed simulation framework.

  • 6.
    Arvidsson, Jessica
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), The Wigforss Group.
    Sysselsättning och social rättvisa: En nationell registerstudie om 12 269 unga vuxna med intellektuell funktionsnedsättning2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kunskapen om övergången mellan gymnasiesärskola och arbetsliv för unga vuxna med intellektuell funktionsnedsättning är begränsad. Varken välfärds- eller forskarsamhället har kunskap om vilken typ av sysselsättning som före detta elever i den svenska gymnasieskolan har efter skoltiden.

    Huvudsyftet med denna sammanläggningsavhandling är tredelat: att (a) öka kunskapen om vilka typer av sysselsättning som personer med intellektuell funktionsnedsättning har efter avslutad gymnasiesärskola, att (b) åskådliggöra mönster och faktorer (kön, förfluten tid sedan examen, utbildningsprogram, boendekommun samt föräldrarnas födelseland och utbildningsnivå) som kan bidra till skillnader vad gäller typ av sysselsättning, samt att (c) skapa ett nationellt register som möjliggör kvantitativa analyser, longitudinella studier och utgör underlag för kvalitativa fördjupande studier av efter(sär)gymnasial sysselsättning. Avhandlingen innehåller fyra artiklar och en ramberättelse.

    Ett nationellt register, Halmstad University Register on Pupils with Intellectual Disability (HURPID) skapades utifrån information i slutbetygen från 12 269 tidigare elever i gymnasiesärskolan. Slutbetyg är allmänna handlingar som begärdes från kommunerna. HURPID samkördes med två nationella register: Longitudinell Integrationsdatabas för Sjukförsäkrings- och Arbetsmarknadsstudier (LISA) och LSS-registret som innehåller information om insatser som beviljats enligt lag (1993:387) om stöd och service till vissa funktionshindrade. Avhandlingen bygger på tvärsnittsstudier vilka ger en ögonblicksbild av den efter(sär)gymnasiala sysselsättningen under 2011 bland de personer som gått ut mellan 2001-2011. Frekvensanalyser användes för att beskriva studiepopulationens karaktäristika. Korstabeller och Pearson´s chi2-test användes för att analysera skillnader avseende typ av sysselsättning mellan olika grupper i studiepopulationen. Sambandet mellan avhandlingens beroende och oberoende variabler undersöktes med bivariata och multivariata logistiska regressionsanalyser.

    Analyserna visar att den största andelen (47%) av de unga har sin sysselsättning inom daglig verksamhet, 22,4% har ett förvärvsarbete, de flesta med någon form av lönesubvention; och 6,6% studerar. En betydande andel (24%) betecknas vara "någon annanstans" (inte i någon av de andra tre sysselsättningstyperna). Andelen unga vuxna i daglig verksamhet är lägre än förväntat och andelen som har ett förvärvsarbete är högre än förväntat. En oväntat stor andel tillhör kategorin "någon annanstans" och har inte daglig verksamhet, inte ett förvärvsarabete och studerar inte.

    Kön, typ av utbildningsprogram, hur lång tid som förflutit sedan examen, boendekommun och föräldrarnas utbildningsnivå samt geografiska härkomst är alla faktorer som påverkar vilken typ av sysselsättning som unga vuxna med intellektuell funktionsnedsättning har. Män som har gått ett nationellt program i gymnasiesärskolan och som tog examen mellan 2001-2006 är de som har störst sannolikhet för att ha ett förvärvsarbete. Personernas boendekommun har en viss oberoende effekt på typ av efter(sär)gymnasial sysselsättning och den totalt sett låga andelen flyttar i populationen antas förstärka betydelsen av vilken kommun de bor i. Unga vars föräldrar är lågutbildade har mer sannolikt ett förvärvsarbete eller tillhör kategorin "någon annanstans". De vars föräldrar är högutbildade har mer sannolikt en sysselsättning inom daglig verksamhet eller studerar (exempelvis på Komvux eller folkhögskola). De unga vars föräldrar är födda i ett utom-europeiskt land är med större sannolikhet studerande eller personer som tillhör kategorin "någon annanstans".

    Avhandlingens huvudresultat diskuteras i förhållande till ett teoretiskt ramverk om social rättvisa. Betydelsen av samhällets ansvar att främja alla medborgares möjlighet att vara och göra vad de har anledning att värdesätta betonas. Ett samhälle som främjar social rättvisa måste stödja människors möjligheter att oavsett funktionsförmåga kunna välja sysselsättning. Såväl den offentliga som den privata sektorn behöver tydligare betrakta personer med intellektuell funktionsnedsättning som en viktig resurs i samhället och på arbetsmarknaden; se dem som personer med förmågor som riskerar att döljas bakom kategorier, fördomar och föråldrade strukturer.

  • 7.
    Ashfaq, Awais
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Predicting clinical outcomes via machine learning on electronic health records2019Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The rising complexity in healthcare, exacerbated by an ageing population, results in ineffective decision-making leading to detrimental effects on care quality and escalates care costs. Consequently, there is a need for smart decision support systems that can empower clinician's to make better informed care decisions. Decisions, which are not only based on general clinical knowledge and personal experience, but also rest on personalised and precise insights about future patient outcomes. A promising approach is to leverage the ongoing digitization of healthcare that generates unprecedented amounts of clinical data stored in Electronic Health Records (EHRs) and couple it with modern Machine Learning (ML) toolset for clinical decision support, and simultaneously, expand the evidence base of medicine. As promising as it sounds, assimilating complete clinical data that provides a rich perspective of the patient's health state comes with a multitude of data-science challenges that impede efficient learning of ML models. This thesis primarily focuses on learning comprehensive patient representations from EHRs. The key challenges of heterogeneity and temporality in EHR data are addressed using human-derived features appended to contextual embeddings of clinical concepts and Long-Short-Term-Memory networks, respectively. The developed models are empirically evaluated in the context of predicting adverse clinical outcomes such as mortality or hospital readmissions. We also present evidence that, surprisingly, different ML models primarily designed for non-EHR analysis (like language processing and time-series prediction) can be combined and adapted into a single framework to efficiently represent EHR data and predict patient outcomes.

  • 8.
    Böhm, Annette
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Delay-sensitive wireless communication for cooperative driving applications2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Cooperative driving holds the potential to considerably improve the level of safety and efficiency on our roads. Recent advances in in-vehicle sensing and wireless communication technology have paved the way for the development of cooperative traffic safety applications based on the exchange of data between vehicles (or between vehicles and road side units) over a wireless link. The access to up-to-date status information from surrounding vehicles is vital to most cooperative driving applications. Other applications rely on the fast dissemination of warning messages in case a hazardous event or certain situation is detected. Both message types put high requirements on timeliness and reliability of the underlying communication protocols.

    The recently adopted European profile of IEEE 802.11p defines two message types,periodic beacons for basic status exchange and event-triggered hazard warnings, both operating at pre-defined send rates and sharing a common control channel. The IEEE 802.11p Medium Access Control (MAC) scheme is a random access protocol that doesnot offer deterministic real-time support, i.e. no guarantee that a packet is granted access to the channel before its deadline can be given. It has been shown that a high number of channel access requests, either due to a high number of communicating vehicles or highdata volumes produced by these vehicles, cannot be supported by the IEEE 802.11p MAC protocol, as it may result in dropped packets and unbounded delays.

    The goal of the work presented in this thesis has therefore been to enhance IEEE 802.11p without altering the standard such that it better supports the timing and reliability requirements of traffic safety applications and provides context-aware andefficient use of the available communication resources in a vehicular network. The proposed solutions are mapped to the specific demands of a set of cooperative driving scenarios (featuring infrastructure-based and infrastructure-free use cases, densely and sparsely trafficked roads, very high and more relaxed timing requirements) and evaluated either analytically, by computer simulation or by measurements and compared to the results produced by the unaltered IEEE 802.11p standard.

    As an alternative to the random MAC method of IEEE 802.11p, a centralized solution isproposed for application scenarios where either a road side unit or a suitable dedicated vehicle is present long enough to take the coordinating role. A random access phase forevent-driven data traffic is interleaved with a collision-free phase where timely channel access of periodic delay-sensitive data is scheduled. The ratio of the two phases isdynamically adapted to the current data traffic load and specific application requirements. This centralized MAC solution is mapped on two cooperative driving applications: merge assistance at highway entrances and platooning of trucks. Further,the effect of a context-aware choice of parameters like send rate or priority settings based on a vehicle’s position or role in the safety application is studied with the goal to reduce the overall number of packets in the network or, alternatively, use the available resources more efficiently. Examples include position-based priorities for the merge assistance use case, context-aware send rate adaptation of status updates in anovertaking warning application targeting sparsely-trafficked rural roads and an efficient dissemination strategy for warning messages within a platoon.

    It can be concluded that IEEE 802.11p as is does not provide sufficient support for the specific timing and reliability requirements imposed by the exchange of safety-criticalreal-time data for cooperative driving applications. While the proper, context-awarechoice of parameters, concerning send rate or priority level, within the limits of the standard, can lead to improved packet inter-arrival rates and reduced end-to-end delays,the added benefits from integrating MAC solutions with real-time support into the standard are obvious and needs to be investigated further.

  • 9.
    Carpatorea, Iulian
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Methods to quantify and qualify truck driver performance2017Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Fuel consumption is a major economical component of vehicles, particularly for heavy-duty vehicles. It is dependent on many factors, such as driver and environment, and control over some factors is present, e.g. route, and we can try to optimize others, e.g. driver. The driver is responsible for around 30% of the operational cost for the fleet operator and is therefore important to have efficient drivers as they also inuence fuel consumption which is another major cost, amounting to around 40% of vehicle operation. The difference between good and bad drivers can be substantial, depending on the environment, experience and other factors.

    In this thesis, two methods are proposed that aim at quantifying and qualifying driver performance of heavy duty vehicles with respect to fuel consumption. The first method, Fuel under Predefined Conditions (FPC), makes use of domain knowledge in order to incorporate effect of factors which are not measured. Due to the complexity of the vehicles, many factors cannot be quantified precisely or even measured, e.g. wind speed and direction, tire pressure. For FPC to be feasible, several assumptions need to be made regarding unmeasured variables. The effect of said unmeasured variables has to be quantified, which is done by defining specific conditions that enable their estimation. Having calculated the effect of unmeasured variables, the contribution of measured variables can be estimated. All the steps are required to be able to calculate the influence of the driver. The second method, Accelerator Pedal Position - Engine Speed (APPES) seeks to qualify driver performance irrespective of the external factors by analyzing driver intention. APPES is a 2D histogram build from the two mentioned signals. Driver performance is expressed, in this case, using features calculated from APPES.

    The focus of first method is to quantify fuel consumption, giving us the possibility to estimate driver performance. The second method is more skewed towards qualitative analysis allowing a better understanding of driver decisions and how they affect fuel consumption. Both methods have the ability to give transferable knowledge that can be used to improve driver's performance or automatic driving systems.

    Throughout the thesis and attached articles we show that both methods are able to operate within the specified conditions and achieve the set goal.

  • 10.
    Correa da Cunha, Henrique
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Asymmetry and the moderating effects of formal institutional distance on the relationship between cultural distance and performance of foreign subsidiaries in Latin America2019Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates how Cultural and Formal Institutional distances and their interaction affect the performance of multinational foreign subsidiaries in Latin America. It is shown that using Kogut and Singh (1988) index or attributing the positive and negative signals to distances in opposite directions fail to capture asymmetric effects as it assumes either symmetry or opposing symmetry. To overcome such limitations, I propose an alternative measurement, which allows capturing the asymmetric effects of distances on the performance of foreign subsidiary firms. To test the main research question, I run a panel data model including 1466 subsidiaries, being 1216 from developed and 250 from developing countries, totaling 168 combinations of different home and host countries for a period ranging from 2013 to 2015.Cultural Distance is measured using Hofstede (1980) dimensions and Formal Institutional distances are calculated using the six World Governance Indicator’s variables. Findings show that when the direction of cultural and formal institutional distances is included, the effects on performance are in fact asymmetric. Moreover, not all formal institutional distances affect in a negative manner the performance of developed country subsidiaries operating in less developed countries as these firms seem to know how to interpret and respond to different regulatory quality conditions in the host countries. Latin American firms are in advantage when dealing with formal institutional distances while being affected in the same manner by cultural distances if compared to other emerging market firms from outside Latin America. Emerging market firms are affected in a positive manner while operating in less developed countries and in a negative way when institutions in the host country are superior to its home country. Finally, results show that formal institutional distance positively moderates the relationship between cultural distance and performance particularly when formal institutional distance is towards less developed countries. It can be concluded that despite the fact that cultural values remain fairly stable over time, the contextual changes in terms of formal institutions (and formal institutional distances among countries) will modify the way cultural distance affects the performance and the competitiveness of firms around the world.

  • 11.
    Deraz, Hossam
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Assessments of Advertisements on Social Networking Sites2016Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Advertisements (ads) in social networking sites (SNSAs) have been considered by many researchers as a crucial area of research. However, the scope of the existing studies on consumers’ assessments of SNSAs has been very limited. Most of the existing studies on assessing SNSAs have focused on Ducoffe’s (1996) model with its three variables, and they have ignored other related variables like the credibility value and interactivity value of the advertisement, which are more logically related to SNSAs than the traditional ads. Moreover, most of these studies have been skewed towards younger users and have ignored the social networking site (SNS) users from other age categories. Finally, previous studies about the assessment of SNSAs have depended on data collected from users of popular SNSs and ignored active users from the brand communities (fans of brands on SNSs). In this thesis, the present author has emphasized these three points as the major gaps in the literature about assessing SNSAs. Moreover, to deepen our understanding of how SNS users assess SNSAs this study presents the research findings of three published papers with three different purposes and with different levels of analysis.

    The first article aimed to extend Ducoffe’s (1996) model – which was used in the previous literature in assessing SNSAs – by considering the ads’ credibility and interactivity values in addition to Ducoffe’s (1996) three variables of information value, entertainment value, and irritation value. A multiple regression analysis was used to test the modified model, and based on the regression analysis of testing the five predictors, the model without the irritation value had the best coefficient of determination (R2). Moreover, coefficient analysis to test the given hypothesis and to determine the coefficients of the predictors was used. According to this survey study, the four primary variables that predicted the consumers’ assessment of the SNSAs were the information value, entertainment value, credibility value, and interactivity value. As perceived by the SNS users, the interactivity value was the strongest among the four predictors.

    Based on the unexpected result ofthe irritation value of the first paper, the second paper focused on testing the extended model of the assessments of SNSAs as perceived by a different research population, in this case, brand communities’ consumers (BCCs). Based on the regression analysis of testing the five predictors, the model with the five predictors had the best coefficient of determination (R2). The coefficient analysis was used to test the given hypothesis, to determine the coefficients of the five predictors, and to form a construct equation for assessing the SNSAs. Based on this survey study, the four variables with significant positive effects on the consumers’ assessment of SNSAs were informativeness, entertainment value, credibility value, and interactivity value, while the fifth dimension (irritation value) had a significant negative coefficient on the consumers’ assessment of SNSAs. Moreover, that study provided a deeper understanding of how the BCCs assess SNSAs, and it contributed to identifying the main characteristics ofthe BCCs on an SNS.

    The third paper focused on exploring the effect of national culture on the consumers’ assessment of SNSAs. The cultural features of the respondents in that study gave additional evidence about how a nation’s cultural characteristics can influence the consumers’ assessment of SNSAs. This study helped to identify how SNS users from Egypt, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom assess SNSAs. In this study, one-way analysis of variance with post hoc tests was used to compare the assessments of the three nations. Based on the empirical findings of this survey study, the three groups had significant difference F-ratios for their perception of four of the five variables for assessing SNSAs. Their perceptions of the entertainment value did not significantly differ between the three groups while the interactivity value had the strongest F-ratio.

    The overall purpose of this study was to deepen our understanding of how SNS users are assessing SNSAs in different settings by considering SNS users, BCCs, and others from various nations. All of the studies presented here have focused on variables for assessing the ads that have been used by other researchers in different research contexts.

  • 12.
    Deraz, Hossam
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Social Networking Sites – Consumers’ assessment of the value of advertisements (Extended Model)2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In light of the identified shortcomings in the earlier studies of consumers’ assessment of advertisement value on social networking sites, and the relative importance of explaining advertisement value, the overall purpose of this dissertation is to develop and empirically test a conceptual framework that can advance knowledge and increase our understanding of how online consumers assess the value of advertisements on social networking sites. In reference to this purpose, this doctoral dissertation has sought to answer the following overarching research question: What are the relevant variables that predict online consumers’ assessment of advertisement value on social networking sites, and how do these variables affect their assessment?

    To achieve the purpose of this study and to answer its overarching research question, a mixed method approach was used, adapting both quantitative and qualitative methods. A sequential explanatory strategy using mixed methods was the primary approach used to explain and interpret the quantitative results, by collecting and analyzing follow-up qualitative data. Consequently, this study started by doing a systematic literature review to identify the related factors, followed by a conceptual study to provide an extended conceptual framework that connected consumer beliefs to their sources of gratifications from using SNSs. That conceptual framework was partially examined in three survey papers to test the effects of its five belief factors (information value, entertainment value, irritation value, interactivity value, and credibility value) on assesments of advertisement value on SNSs. The three survey papers found that these five belief factors have significant effects on assessments of advertisement value on social networking sites. However, those effects varied according to consumers’ cultural backgrounds. The three survey papers were then followed by a qualitative focus group study to give a deeper explanation, and to discover the underlying reasons behind consumers’ assessment of advertisement value. That focus group study confirmed the role of culture in assessing the value of advertisements, and it gave deeper explanations behind the reasons for that variance in assessments of advertisement value within the context of social networking sites from one research population to another. In general, this study contributes to the understanding of consumers’ assessments of advertisements on social networking sites. It offers a new approach by connecting consumers’ gratifications from using social networking sites to their assessment of advertisement value. In turn, it helps to reflect a number of valuable insights that can be utilized by both researchers and marketers in order to understand how the addressed factors enhance consumers’ assessments by testing the contribution of credibility, interactivity value, social influence, pre-purchase search motivation, and cultural backgrounds, in addition to previously tested variables: information value, entertainment value, and irritation value.

  • 13.
    Duracz, Adam
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Rigorous Simulation: Its Theory and Applications2016Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Designing Cyber-Physical Systems is hard. Physical testing can be slow, expensive and dangerous. Furthermore computational components make testing all possible behavior unfeasible. Model-based design mitigates these issues by making it possible to iterate over a design much faster. Traditional simulation tools can produce useful results, but their results are traditionally approximations that make it impossible to distinguish a useful simulation from one dominated by numerical error. Verification tools require skills in formal specification and a priori understanding of the particular dynamical system being studied.

    This thesis presents rigorous simulation, an approach to simulation that uses validated numerics to produce results that quantify and bound all approximation errors accumulated during simulation. This makes it possible for the user to objectively and reliably distinguish accurate simulations from ones that do not provide enough information to be useful. Explicitly quantifying the error in the output has the side-effect of leading to a tool for dealing with inputs that come with quantified uncertainty.

    We formalize the approach as an operational semantics for a core subset of the domain-specific language Acumen. The operational semantics is extended to a larger subset through a translation. Preliminary results toward proving the soundness of the operational semantics with respect to a denotational semantics are presented. A modeling environment with a rigorous simulator based on the operational semantics is described. The implementation is portable, and its source code is freely available. The accuracy of the simulator on different kinds of systems is explored through a set of benchmark models that exercise different aspects of a rigorous simulator. A case study from the automotive domain is used to evaluate the applicability of the simulator and its modeling language. In the case study, the simulator is used to compute rigorous bounds on the output of a model.

  • 14.
    Fan, Yuantao
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    A Self-Organized Fault Detection Method for Vehicle Fleets2016Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A fleet of commercial heavy-duty vehicles is a very interesting application arena for fault detection and predictive maintenance. With a highly digitized electronic system and hundreds of sensors mounted on-board a modern bus, a huge amount of data is generated from daily operations.

    This thesis and appended papers present a study of an autonomous framework for fault detection, using the data gathered from the regular operation of vehicles. We employed an unsupervised deviation detection method, called Consensus Self-Organising Models (COSMO), which is based on the concept of ‘wisdom of the crowd’. It assumes that the majority of the group is ‘healthy’; by comparing individual units within the group, deviations from the majority can be considered as potentially ‘faulty’. Information regarding detected anomalies can be utilized to prevent unplanned stops.

    This thesis demonstrates how knowledge useful for detecting faults and predicting failures can be autonomously generated based on the COSMO method, using different generic data representations. The case study in this work focuses on vehicle air system problems of a commercial fleet of city buses. We propose an approach to evaluate the COSMO method and show that it is capable of detecting various faults and indicates upcoming air compressor failures. A comparison of the proposed method with an expert knowledge based system shows that both methods perform equally well. The thesis also analyses the usage and potential benefits of using the Echo State Network as a generic data representation for the COSMO method and demonstrates the capability of Echo State Network to capture interesting characteristics in detecting different types of faults.

  • 15.
    Gebrewahid, Essayas
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Compiling Concurrent Programs for Manycores2015Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The arrival of manycore systems enforces new approaches for developing applications in order to exploit the available hardware resources. Developing applications for manycores requires programmers to partition the application into subtasks, consider the dependence between the subtasks, understand the underlying hardware and select an appropriate programming model. This is complex, time-consuming and prone to error.

    In this thesis, we identify and implement abstraction layers in compilation tools to decrease the burden of the programmer, increase programming productivity and program portability for manycores and to analyze their impact on performance and efficiency. We present compilation frameworks for two concurrent programming languages, occam-pi and CAL Actor Language, and demonstrate the applicability of the approach with application case-studies targeting these different manycore architectures: STHorm, Epiphany and Ambric.

    For occam-pi, we have extended the Tock compiler and added a backend for STHorm. We evaluate the approach using a fault tolerance model for a four stage 1D-DCT algorithm implemented by using occam-pi’s constructs for dynamic reconfiguration, and the FAST corner detection algorithm which demonstrates the suitability of occam-pi and the compilation framework for data-intensive applications. We also present a new CAL compilation framework which has a front end, two intermediate representations and three backends: for a uniprocessor, Epiphany, and Ambric. We show the feasibility of our approach by compiling a CAL implementation of the 2D-IDCT for the three backends. We also present an evaluation and optimization of code generation for Epiphany by comparing the code generated from CAL with a hand-written C code implementation of 2D-IDCT.

  • 16.
    Gebrewahid, Essayas
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Tools to Compile Dataflow Programs for Manycores2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The arrival of manycore systems enforces new approaches for developing applications in order to exploit the available hardware resources. Developing applications for manycores requires programmers to partition the application into subtasks, consider the dependence between the subtasks, understand the underlying hardware and select an appropriate programming model. This is complex, time-consuming and prone to error. In this thesis, we identify and implement abstraction layers in compilation tools to decrease the burden of the programmer, increase program portability and scalability, and increase retargetability of the compilation framework. We present compilation frameworks for two concurrent programming languages, occam-pi and CAL Actor Language, and demonstrate the applicability of the approach with application case-studies targeting these different manycore architectures: STHorm, Epiphany, Ambric, EIT, and ePUMA. For occam-pi, we have extended the Tock compiler and added a backend for STHorm. We evaluate the approach using a fault tolerance model for a four stage 1D-DCT algorithm implemented by using occam-pi's constructs for dynamic reconguration, and the FAST corner detection algorithm which demonstrates the suitability of occam-pi and the compilation framework for data-intensive applications. For CAL, we have developed a new compilation framework, namely Cal2Many. The Cal2Many framework has a front end, two intermediate representations and four backends: for a uniprocessor, Epiphany, Ambric, and a backend for SIMD based architectures. Also, we have identied and implemented of CAL actor fusion and fission methodologies for efficient mapping CAL applications. We have used QRD, FAST corner detection, 2D-IDCT, and MPEG applications to evaluate our compilation process and to analyze the limitations of the hardware.

  • 17.
    Ghannad, Navid
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    The role of the entrepreneur in the international new venture – opening the black box2013Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite significant research output in recent decades on international new ventures (INVs),little attention has been paid to understanding the processes and conditions under whichthe entrepreneur identifies and exploits an opportunity and subsequently creates valuewithin the firm. As a result, the dynamics involved in the role of the entrepreneur during theestablishment and internationalization of INVs remain in a black box. In order to understandthe context, interaction among players and other dynamics involved before, during, and afterthe establishment of the INV’s creation and development, a different approach is needed. Theaim of this dissertation is to describe and understand the role of entrepreneurs in the processof establishment and internationalization of international new ventures.

    Three longitudinal case studies were conducted between 1999 and 2008 with a total of 108interviews using snowball sampling. In addition, comprehensive secondary data have beencollected to enrich the empirical cases with thick descriptions, and to enhance content validityas well as the reliability of the research.

    This study offers a more nuanced picture of how entrepreneurs’ characteristics influencethe international development of their firms. For example, it appears that it was neitherthe previous foreign experience, the education, nor the previously developed internationalnetwork (as suggested by previous literature) that can be credited for the rapid and vastinternationalization of the case firms. Instead, it is suggested that an entrepreneur’schildhood and prior life story directly influences their behaviour in the INV. We proposethat different types of entrepreneurs are important factors to understanding firms’ differentinternationalization patterns. Depending on the backgrounds of the entrepreneurs, theydeveloped preferences, skills, and especially desires that would come to affect the totalbehaviour of their future organizations. This study also develops the notion of psychicdistance into three separate spaces - the physical, the mental and the social space. Forexample, the context and experience during childhood creates the foundations for theentrepreneurs’ mental and social space, which can separately, but also in relation toeach other, offer a more accurate and deeper understanding of the actions taken by theentrepreneurs in the INV. Furthermore, this study has shown that the role and characteristicsof the entrepreneur do change over time, which also determines the individual’s sensitivity toopportunities and the international behaviour of the company.

  • 18.
    Gholami Shahbandi, Saeed
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Interpretation and Alignment of 2D Indoor Maps: Towards a Heterogeneous Map Representation2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Mobile robots are increasingly being used in automation solutions with notable examples in service robots, such as home-care, and warehouses. Autonomy of mobile robots is particularly challenging, since their work space is not deterministic, known a priori, or fully predictable. Accordingly, the ability to model the work space, that is robotic mapping, is among the core technologies that are the backbone of autonomous mobile robots. However, for some applications the abilities of mapping and localization do not meet all the requirements, and robots with an enhanced awareness of their surroundings are desired. For instance, a map augmented with semantic labels is instrumental to support Human-Robot Interaction and high-level task planning and reasoning.This thesis addresses this requirement through an interpretation and integration of multiple input maps into a semantically annotated heterogeneous representation. The heterogeneity of the representation should to contain different interpretations of an input map, establish and maintain associations among different input sources, and construct a hierarchy of abstraction through model-based representation. The structuring and construction of this representation are at the core of this thesis, and the main objectives are: a) modeling, interpretation, semantic annotation, and association of the different data sources into a heterogeneous representation, and b) improving the autonomy of the aforementioned processes by curtailing the dependency of the methods on human input, such as domain knowledge.This work proposes map interpretation techniques, such as abstract representation through modeling and semantic annotation, in an attempt to enrich the final representation. In order to associate multiple data sources, this work also proposes a map alignment method. The contributions and general observations that result from the studies included in this work could be summarized as: i) manner of structuring the heterogeneous representation, ii) underlining the advantages of modeling and abstract representations, iii) several approaches to semantic annotation, and iv) improved extensibility of methods by lessening their dependency on human input.The scope of the work has been focused on 2D maps of well-structured indoor environments, such as warehouses, home, and office buildings.

  • 19.
    Gholami Shahbandi, Saeed
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Semantic Mapping in Warehouses2016Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis and appended papers present the process of tacking the problem of environment modeling for autonomous agent. More specifically, the focus of the work has been semantic mapping of warehouses. A semantic map for such purpose is expected to be layout-like and support semantics of both open spaces and infrastructure of the environment. The representation of the semantic map is required to be understandable by all involved agents (humans, AGVs and WMS.) And the process of semantic mapping is desired to lean toward full-autonomy, with minimum input requirement from human user. To that end, we studied the problem of semantic annotation over two kinds of spatial map from different modalities. We identified properties, structure, and challenges of the problem. And we have developed representations and accompanied methods, while meeting the set criteria. The overall objective of the work is “to develop and construct a layer of abstraction (models and/or decomposition) for structuring and facilitate access to salient information in the sensory data. This layer of abstraction connects high level concepts to low-level sensory pattern.” Relying on modeling and decomposition of sensory data, we present our work on abstract representation for two modalities (laser scanner and camera) in three appended papers. Feasibility and the performance of the proposed methods are evaluated over data from real warehouse. The thesis conclude with summarizing the presented technical details, and drawing the outline for future work.

  • 20.
    Hafemann Fragal, Vanderson
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Automatic generation of configurable test-suites for software product lines2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Software Product Line Engineering (SPLE) is an approach used in the development of similar products, which aims at systematic reuse of software artifacts. The SPLE process has several activities executed to assure software quality. Quality assurance is of vital importance for achieving and maintaining a high quality for various artifacts, such as products and processes. Testing activities are widely used in industry for quality assurance. However, the effort for applying testing is usually high, and increasing the testing efficiency is a major concern. A common means of increasing efficiency is automation of test design. Several techniques, processes, and strategies were developed for SPLE testing, but still many problems are open in this area of research. The challenge in focus is the reduction of the overall test effort required to test SPLE products. Test effort can be reduced by maximizing test reuse using models that take advantage of the similarity between products. The thesis goal is to automate the generation of small test-suites with high fault detection and low test redundancy between products. To achieve the goal, equivalent tests are identified for a set of products using complete and configurable test-suites. Two research directions are explored, one is product-based centered, and the other is product line-centered. For test design, test-suites that have full fault coverage were generated from state machines with and without feature constraints. A prototype tool was implemented for test design automation. In addition, the proposed approach was evaluated using examples, experimental studies, and an industrial case study for the automotive domain. The results of the product-based centered approach indicate a reduction of 36% on the number of test cases that need to be concretized. The results of the product line-centered approach indicate a reduction of 50% on the number of test cases generated for groups of product configurations.

  • 21.
    Hedenberg, Klas
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research. University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    Obstacle Detection for Driverless Trucks in Industrial Environments2014Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    With an increased demand on productivity and safety in industry, new issues in terms of automated material handling arise. This results in industries not having a homogenous fleet of trucks and driven and driverless trucks are mixed in a dynamic environment. Driven trucks are more flexible than driverless trucks, but are also involved in more accidents. A transition from driven to driverless trucks can increase safety, but also productivity in terms of fewer accidents and more accurate delivery. Hence, reliable and standardized solutions that avoid accidents are important to achieve high productivity and safety. There are two different safety standards for driverless trucks for Europe (EN1525) and U.S. (B56.5–2012) and they have developed differently. In terms of obstacles, they both consider contact with humans. However, a machinery-shaped object has recently been added to the U.S. standard (B56.5–2012). The U.S. standard also considers different materials for different sensors and non-contact sensors. For obstacle detection, the historical contact-sensitive mechanical bumpers as well as the traditional laser scanner used today both have limitations – they do not detect hanging objects. In this work we have identified several thin objects that are of interest in an industrial environment. A test apparatus with a thin structure is introduced for a more uniform way to evaluate sensors. To detect thin obstacles, we used a standard setup of a stereo system and developed this further to a trinocular system (a stereo system with three cameras). We also propose a method to evaluate 3D sensors based on the information from a 2D range sensor. The 3D model is created by measuring the position of a reflector with known position to an object with a known size. The trinocular system, a 3D TOF camera and a Kinect sensor are evaluated with this method. The results showed that the method can be used to evaluate sensors. It also showed that 3D sensor systems have potential to be used on driverless trucks to detect obstacles, initially as a complement to existing safety classed sensors. To improve safety and productivity, there is a need for harmonization of the European and the U.S. safety standards. Furthermore, parallel development of sensor systems and standards is needed to make use of state-of-the-art technology for sensors.

  • 22.
    Hertz, Erik
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES). Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Methodologies for Approximation of Unary Functions and Their Implementation in Hardware2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Applications in computer graphics, digital signal processing, communication systems, robotics, astrophysics, fluid physics and many other areas have evolved to become very computation intensive. Algorithms are becoming increasingly complex and require higher accuracy in the computations. In addition, software solutions for these applications are in many cases not sufficient in terms of performance. A hardware implementation is therefore needed. A recurring bottleneck in the algorithms is the performance of the approximations of unary functions, such as trigonometric functions, logarithms and the square root, as well as binary functions such as division. The challenge is therefore to develop a methodology for the implementation of approximations of unary functions in hardware that can cope with the growing requirements. The methodology is required to result in fast execution time, low complexity basic operations that are simple to implement in hardware, and – sincemany applications are battery powered – low power consumption. To ensure appropriate performance of the entire computation in which the approximation is a part, the characteristics and distribution of the approximation error are also things that must be possible to manage. The new approximation methodologies presented in this thesis are of the type that aims to reduce the sizes of the look-up tables by the use of auxiliary functions. They are founded on a synthesis of parabolic functions by multiplication – instead of addition, which is the most common. Three approximation methodologies have been developed; the two last being further developments of the first. For some functions, such as roots, inverse and inverse roots, a straightforward solution with an approximation is not manageable. Since these functions are frequent in many computation intensive algorithms, it is necessary to find very efficient implementations of these functions. New methods for this are also presented in this thesis. They are all founded on working in a floating-point format, and, for the roots functions, a change of number base is also used. The transformations not only enable simpler solutions but also increased accuracy, since the approximation algorithm is performed on a mantissa of limited range. Tools for error analysis have been developed as well. The characteristics and distribution of the approximation error in the new methodologies are presented and compared with existing state-of-the-art methods such as CORDIC. The verification and evaluation of the solutions have to a large extent been made as comparative ASIC implementations with other approximation methods, separately or embedded in algorithms. As an example, an implementation of the logarithm made using the third methodology developed, Harmonized Parabolic Synthesis (HPS), is compared with an implementation using the CORDIC algorithm. Both implementations are designed to provide 15-bit resolution. The design implemented using HPS performs 12 times better than the CORDIC implementation in terms of throughput. In terms of energy consumption, the new methodology consumes 96% less. The chip area is 60% smaller than for the CORDIC algorithm. In summary, the new approximation methodologies presented are found to well meet the demanding requirements that exist in this area.

  • 23.
    Hoang, Le-Nam
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Relaying for Timely and Reliable Applications in Wireless Networks2017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Many emerging applications based on wireless networks involve distributed control. This implies high requirements on reliability, but also on predictable maximum delay. Further, for applications, it is vital to use off-the-shelf components, both due to cost constraints and requirements on interoperability with existing networks. This, in turn, implies that concurrent transmissions and multiuser detection are seldom possible. Instead, half-duplex time-division multiple access (TDMA) is typically used. Aiming to reduce the packet error rate given a deadline (a set of TDMA time-slots), this thesis proposes a relaying scheme, which can be implemented on top of off-the-shelf components. The relaying scheme selects the best sequence of relayers, given the number of time-slots allowed by the deadline, such that the resulting error probability is minimized at the targeted receiver(s). The scheme differs from existing work in that it considers both unicast as well as broadcast and assumes that all nodes can overhear each other, as opposed to separating source nodes, relay nodes and destination nodes into three disjoint sets. A full analysis of the resulting error probability is provided and complementary numerical results show that the proposed relay sequencing strategy significantly improves reliability given a certain maximum delay, or alternatively, reduces the delay, given a certain target reliability requirement. To illustrate the performance improvements of relay sequencing, it is incorporated in a platooning application. If the decision regarding which relayer to assign in each time-slot can be taken online, just before the transmission, much can be gained. To this end, a low-complexity algorithm is developed, which is shown to be highly likely to find the optimal combination of relaying nodes that minimizes the resulting error probability at the targeted receiver(s). Data packets in wireless automation networks is typically small. To enable timely and reliable all-to-all broadcast in such systems, relay sequencing using packet aggregation is proposed. The strategy assigns relayers to time slots, as well as determines which packets to aggregate in each slot, using the proposed low-complexity algorithm. To further increase the reliability, a clustering scheme is proposed. When a relayer in the sequence fails to overhear a correct copy, a backup relayer in the cluster takes over. This work thereby enables ultra-reliable communications with maintained end-toend delay using low-complexity techniques and off-the-shelf components.

  • 24.
    Hoang, Le-Nam
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Relaying for Timely and Reliable Message Dissemination in Wireless Distributed Control Systems2015Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Distributed control applications enabled by wireless networks are becoming more and more frequent. The advantages of wireless access are many, as control systems become mobile, autonomous and connected. Examples include platooning and automated factories. However, distributed control systems have stringent requirement on both reliability and timeliness, the latter in terms of deadlines. If the deadline is missed, the packet is considered useless, similarly to a lost or erroneous packet in a system without deadlines. In addition, wireless channels are, by nature, more exposed to noise and interference than their wired counterparts. Consequently, it implies a considerable challenge to fulfill the deadline requirements with sufficient reliability for proper functionality of distributed control applications. However, by taking advantage of cooperative communications, increased reliability can be achieved with little or no additional delay.

    Reducing the delay until a message is successfully received is a two-fold problem: providing channel access with a predictable maximum delay and maximizing the reliability of each transmission, once granted by the medium access method. To this end, this thesis proposes a framework that provides a bounded channel access delay and handles the co-existence of both time-triggered and event-driven messages encountered in distributed control applications. In addition, the thesis proposes and evaluates an efficient message dissemination technique based on relaying that maximizes the reliability given a certain deadline, or alternatively determines the delay required to achieve a certain reliability threshold for both unicast and broadcast scenarios. Numerical results, which are verified by Monte-Carlo simulations, show significant improvements with the proposed relaying scheme as compared to a conventional scheme without cooperation, providing more reliable message delivery given a fixed number of available time-slots. It also becomes clear in which situations relaying is preferable and in which situations pure retransmissions are preferable, as the relay selection algorithm will always pick the best option. The relay selection algorithm has a reasonable complexity and can be used by both routing algorithms and relaying scenarios in any time-critical application as long as it is used together with a framework that enables predictable channel access. In addition, it can be implemented on top of commercially available transceivers.

  • 25.
    Holmqvist, Gärd
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Bildterapi – en väg till inre förändring och förbättrad hälsa2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of the dissertation was to investigate the ability of art therapy to contribute to inner change and improved health in the individual. Inner change refers to a structural and lasting change that occurs on a psychologically deeper level, as opposed to an external and more temporary change. Art therapy treatment is based on a combination of image creation and a different degree of reflective, processing dialogue. Art therapy is distinguished from other verbal therapies by a triangular relationship, patient – image – art therapist.

    The thesis design was primarily qualitative, except for study I, which was a review. Study I involved examination of studies of art therapy for three different patient groups. A quality assessment was carried out using two different evidence systems. In study II, interviews were carried out with women about their experiences of inner change and whether these were exhibited in selected painted images. The interviews were analysed using deductive and inductive content analysis. In study III, two open questions were sent to art therapists about what they perceived as an inner change in the patient. Data was analysed using thematic analysis. Study IV entailed a secondary analysis of the interviews from study II. Based on a theoretical perspective, the occurrence of vitality affects and basic affects and their importance for inner change were investigated. A deductive content analysis was conducted.

    This thesis describes inner change and improved health from three different perspectives: a group of female patients, a group of art therapists and a theoretical perspective. The results show that art therapy can contribute to a lasting inner change that involves identity change, changed behavior and improved health. Women who did not experience an inner change found that art therapy provided support in everyday life. Existential questions about the meaning of life were central to both the women's and the art therapists’ statements. The results show that therapeutic alliance, attachment and the ability to develop a reflective distance to the image is crucial to whether an individual inner change is possible. Furthermore, an exploratory approach and reflective dialogue about the importance of the image is important for an internal change to occur. An art therapeutic process of change contains vitality affects and basic affects. It leads to increased insight and awareness of feelings. It improves self-esteem, increases authenticity and autonomy, and provides widening perspectives.

    The thesis contributes to increased knowledge of inner change and improved health through treatment with art therapy. By showing that inner change occurs, describing what, is experienced and perceived as inner change, and by confirming inner change by theories, the thesis may demystify the myth of artistry that often surrounds art therapy and make it clearer. The thesis may contribute to improved communication between art therapists and caregivers with regard to the method’s possibilities and limitations. Caregivers can therefore consider using art therapy as a complement or as an alternative to other treatments. 

  • 26.
    Iddris, Faisal
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Innovation Capability within a Supply Chain Context2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A firm’s supply chain faces challenges relating to reducing operational cost while at the same time producing innovative products and services to meet consumers’ current and potential demand. One important phenomenon in the field of innovation research is the concept of innovation capability. The purpose of this thesis is to empirically explore innovation capability as a firm interacts with its supply chain members. In order to achieve the above stated purpose, the thesis attempted to answer the overarching research question: How does a focal firm’s interaction with its supply chain members affect its innovation capability?

    To answer the research question, a multiple method approach was adopted. This consists of two qualitative case studies, conceptual analysis, a quantitative study of a sample of 117 managers and systematic literature review (SLR). First; we used the systematic literature review (SLR) method to identify important innovation capability factors and theories applied in innovation capability studies. Second, multiple case studies were used to further investigate innovation capability in a supply chain context. Third, quantitative survey-method was used to explore innovation capability measures in the context of the supply chain.

    Five individual papers are presented in this thesis. The findings are summarised and presented in the cover (“kappa”) of the thesis. The findings revealed that focal firms’ innovation capability was influenced as a result of a focal firm’s interaction with its supply chain members. In addition, technological embeddedness influences innovation capability of the focal firms. 

  • 27.
    Jiang, Ying
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Suggested biogas production and carbon dioxide emission reduction by handling and treating food waste in China: inspiration from a Swedish system2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Although China’s food waste recycling has been carried out for nearly 10 years, the effect is still not good, and there are some gaps with developed countries. This study reviews the present status and main problems of food waste treatment in China as well as the successful Swedish food waste treatment model. This study calculates the food waste volumes in the city scale (Beijing) and the national scale (the whole of China) , and estimates the biogas potential of anaerobic digestion from food waste. The result shows that from 2013 to 2017, the total amount of food waste from household and restaurants in Beijing was on average 5.4 million tons per year which could have produced 3 524 million m3 of biogas. These quantities of biogas could have generated 5.3 TWh of electricity, equivalent to 2.1 tons of standard coal. If used as a gas fuel, it is equivalent to 813 million liters of diesel, or 1084 million liters of gasoline. The CO2 emissions that could have been saved were approximately 5.3 million tons, 2.1 million tons, and 2.5 million tons, when the biogas replaces standard coal, diesel and gasoline, respectively. The food waste production of China was on average 153.2 million tons per year with 99 712 million m3 of biogas potential. This study also proposes a framework for food waste collection, transportation, biogas production, and product utilization inspired from the Swedish system. The feasibility from the perspective of circular economy is also discussed. Finally, suggestions are made on the main problems in the current treatment of food waste in China like people’s awareness of food waste sorting which should be enhanced through various means. The food waste separation infrastructure and transportation system should be improved, and necessary reward and punishment measures should be implemented to promote the separation and treatment of food waste by individuals and public or private entities.

  • 28.
    Larsson, Marcus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Methods to Improve V2V Communications in Platoons of Heavy Duty Vehicles2016Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the coming years V2V communications will probably be mandated and vehicle OEMs strive to find business opportunities to finance its investments in V2V communications technology. For heavy vehicles, platooning can be this business opportunity, with the motivation for the fleet owners that platooning can decrease the fuel consumption by up to 15 % when driving in platoons. However, challenges still exists with respect to the quality and reliability of the V2V communications, which is essential in order to enable platooning in a safe way.

    In this thesis, two proposals of improving the quality and reliability of V2V communications in a platooning scenario are presented. The first proposal is the Curvature Based Antenna Selection Method that utilize the curvature of the road in order to estimate which antenna have the highest probability of having line of sight conditions, hence highest probability of successful communication. The method assumes a platoon of heavy vehicles with one antenna mounted in each rear view mirror. It also assumes that the leading vehicle can estimate the yaw rate of the platoon in order to determine if it is turning or not. The second proposal include two message forwarding algorithms, the Reachability Matrix forwarding algorithm and the Data Age Dependent forwarding algorithm. Both algorithms utilize information on the preceding communication capability in order to estimate which node to choose as forwarding candidate. The Reachability Matrix Algorithm puts its focus on keeping the overhead low, while at the same time improve the information up-to-dateness. The Data Age Dependent algorithm instead puts its main focus on performance with respect to improving the information up-to-dateness, with the cost of higher overhead compared to the Reachability Matrix algorithm.

    Both proposals show potential of improving the quality of the V2V communication in a platooning scenario. The first proposal, the antenna selection method, is able to maintain a Data Age deadline of 150 ms approximately twice as often as when selecting transmission antenna in a round robin fashion. For the second proposal, the Reachability Matrix Algorithm reduces the miss of a 0.2 s Data Age deadline in the communication between the first and the fourth vehicle in a platoon from 18 % to 11 %, while only increasing the number of sent messages from 40 to 48.5 per second compared to when only broadcast is used. The Data Age Dependent algorithm shows even better performance with respect to reducing the missing of the 0.2 s Data Age deadline, i.e., with a reduction from 18 % to 5 %.

  • 29.
    Lindberg, Susanne
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Man and Information technology laboratory (MI-lab).
    Ethics of User Involvement in Sensitive Design Situations2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    While this era of digital technology brings great possibilities for improving the lives of many people with digital healthcare services, the design of these services in turn present challenges that are ethical in nature. Participatory Design (PD) values user involvement in design from a democratic, empowerment and ethical perspective. However, the design of digital healthcare services constitutes sensitive design situations, that is, situations that have the potential to negatively impact the participants. As a consequence, participation in these design situations involves risks, causing ethical dilemmas. The ethical dilemmas that designers face in sensitive design situations are situated, dynamic, diverse, unpredictable, and occur in-action. Yet, it is a complex field with little in situ support for designers who intend to involve users in sensitive design situations, and high complexity and risk increase the need to understand ethics in these situations. Consequently, this thesis intends to answer the question: How can users be involved in sensitive design situations?

    The research question has emerged from the study of two design projects and is addressed through a Design Research (DR) approach. Both projects aimed at designing Digital Peer Support (DPS); one designs DPS for children between 8-12 cured from cancer, and the other designs DPS for people diagnosed with schizophrenia. The DR approach enables the study of de facto design situations in the two design projects. The thesis consists of a collection of five papers and a cover paper.

    The results show that, in sensitive design situations it can be challenging to uphold the fundamental ethical commitments of PD: that participation is a democratic right, the user is the expert, design should enhance, and design is situated. Based on the empirical study, I propose four principles for ethics in sensitive design situations that aim to support the upholding of these ethical commitments: (I) the principle of enhancement; (II) the principle of acknowledgement; (III) the principle of advocacy; and (IV) the principle of accommodation.

    The research contributes to the discourse on ethics in PD by expanding the understanding of ethical values of user involvement. Ethical guidelines must be dynamic and responsive, and participation should be carried out using methods for continuous critical reflection. The research contributes to practice by providing practical guidance for those who intend to involve users in sensitive design situations, ethical review boards who review PD, and for training of future PD researchers.

  • 30.
    Lindholm, Annelie
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI). Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Overweight and Obesity in Preschool Children: Early Risk Factors and Early Identification2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Overweight and obesity in children has reached epidemic proportions in recent decades, and even the youngest age groups are affected. Excess weight during childhood often follows the child into adulthood and is associated with diseases such as cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes mellitus. In addition, excess weight often leads to health problems already during childhood. Childhood obesity is therefore one of the greatest public health challenges of the 21st century.

    AIM: The overall aim was to study growth patterns and early risk factors for overweight, obesity and an elevated waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) in preschool children. The specific aims were to: examine early body mass index (BMI) and WHtR growth patterns and their ability to predict overweight or obesity in children at 5 years of age (Paper I); examine if BMI and WHtR growth patterns from an early age could identify children with an elevated WHtR at 5 years of age by using standard deviation score(s) (SDS) in children classified according to WHtRSDS at 5 years of age. Another aim was to study the association between BMISDS and WHtRSDS at 5 years of age (Paper II); examine nutrition- and feeding practice-related risk factors for rapid weight gain during the first 0–6 months and the following 6–12 months (Paper III); examine the association between potential early risk factors and an elevated WHtR, defined as WHtRSDS ≥ 1 at 5 years of age, and examine whether similar associations also were found for overweight or obesity at the same age (Paper IV).

    METHODS: This project was part of the population-based birth cohort study the Halland Health and Growth Study, including 2,666 children born in the county of Halland in the southwestern part of Sweden between October 2007 and December 2008. Weight, height and waist circumference were measured at nine time points starting at birth. At every measurement point the parents filled in questionnaires regarding their child’s nutrition, health and lifestyle and also background information about the family.

    RESULTS: We found that children with overweight or obesity at 5 years of age could be identified already from an early age by significantly higher mean BMISDS and WHtRSDS than corresponding values in children with normal weight or underweight. BMI was sufficient for predicting overweight or obesity at 5 years of age and WHtR did not add any further information in this prediction.

    Children with a WHtRSDS ≥ 1 at 5 years of age could be identified already from an early age by significantly higher mean BMISDS and WHtRSDS than corresponding values in children with a WHtRSDS < 1. When comparing WHtRSDS and BMISDS at 5 years of age, 55% of the children with an elevated WHtRSDS had normal BMISDS.

    Rapid weight gain was more common during the first 6 months of the first year than during the next 6 months. Bottle-feeding and nighttime meals containing formula milk were associated with rapid weight gain between 0 and 6 months. Breastfeeding was negatively associated with rapid weight gain during the same period.

    Rapid weight gain during 0–6 months and also maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and paternal BMI were associated with a WHtRSDS ≥ 1 at 5 years of age. Rapid weight gain during both 0–6 and 6–12 months and also maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, were associated with overweight or obesity at 5 years of age.

    CONCLUSION: This thesis showed that BMI was sufficient for predicting overweight or obesity at 5 years of age, and WHtR did not add any further information to this prediction. For identification of children with an elevated WHtR, BMI classification missed every second child, indicating that WHtR adds value in children who may need further investigation regarding cardiometabolic risk factors. Risk factors operating before pregnancy and early in life increase the risk of early rapid weight gain, an elevated WHtR and overweight or obesity at 5 years of age and bottle feeding, nighttime meals, early rapid weight gain as well as parental overweight are potential modifiable risk factors in this development.

  • 31.
    Liu, Lihua
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Business Model Innovation (BMI). Business School, Shanghai Dianji University, Shanghai, China.
    Ride The Wind: Symbiotic Business Model Innovation for the Chinese Wind Power Industry2019Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    China has become one of the world’s leading countries in renewable energy, particularly in wind power. Goldwind Science and Technology has become not only the largest wind turbine manufacturer in China, but also one of the largest in the world. Goldwind has installed more than 31,000 wind turbines and in total more than 50 GW of wind power energy worldwide.The aims of this dissertation are to explore, in order to understand, how the business model approach has been developed over time to support the establishment and success of Goldwind, the role of the Chinese government, and how the business model can be designed, redesigned, reorganised and managed, providing Goldwind with opportunities to offer new service and maintenance solutions that fit customers’ strategic expectations and needs as well as stake holders’ expectations in a life-cycle perspective.I have chosen an action research approach, influenced by grounded theory and participatory approach, to develop a new “Open and Seamless Complementary Collaborative Business Model” focusing on service and maintenance for Goldwind. This model emphasises that service and maintenance operations should be seamlessly shared between Goldwind, its customers and third-party service providers in a way that considers customers’ strategic desires, capabilities and the best way to complement the capabilities of customers in the life cycle of wind turbine operations, from designing wind farms to repowering and recycling old systems.My research case is the organisational field that is centered by Goldwind, including political, institutional and regulatory actors. By an extensive analysis of the dynamics of business model innovation of Goldwind in the institutional system that Goldwind is embedded in from its inception to today, I have reached following conclusions:Chinese political, institutional and business actors co-created and co-shaped China’s wind power industry and the largest wind turbine manufacturer through mutual understanding and actions based on continual dialogue that is still going on.There is a specific “Symbiotic Business Model” in China in general and in the Chinese wind power context.- Symbiotic relationships exist in two dimensions: horizontal and vertical. The horizontal symbiotic relationship refers to the seamless complementary collaboration along the industry value chain. The vertical symbiotic relationship refers to political, institutional and business actors co-create, co-develop and co-achieve social, political and economic targets.- The symbiotic relationship is achieved via ongoing dialogue between political and business actors by using regulatory tools with the support of institutional actors.- Specific informal social network-based trust-building mechanism plays a complementary role that supports the smooth functioning of the symbiotic business model for the co-development of the Chinese wind power industry.- There are plural logics in the symbiotic business model, and multiple logics are absorbed in the symbiotic business model through the senior managers’ cognitive model and carried out in the strategic choices of the enterprise in the business model design and implementation.My observation is that by 2019, almost 85% of the new business model is being implemented in Goldwind’s practice.

  • 32.
    Lundström, Jens
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Situation Awareness in Colour Printing and Beyond2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Machine learning methods are increasingly being used to solve real-world problems in the society. Often, the complexity of the methods are well hidden for users. However, integrating machine learning methods in real-world applications is not a straightforward process and requires knowledge both about the methods and domain knowledge of the problem. Two such domains are colour print quality assessment and anomaly detection in smart homes, which are currently driven by manual monitoring of complex situations. The goal of the presented work is to develop methods, algorithms and tools to facilitate monitoring and understanding of the complex situations which arise in colour print quality assessment and anomaly detection for smart homes. The proposed approach builds on the use and adaption of supervised and unsupervised machine learning methods.

    Novel algorithms for computing objective measures of print quality in production are proposed in this work. Objective measures are also modelled to study how paper and press parameters influence print quality. Moreover, a study on how print quality is perceived by humans is presented and experiments aiming to understand how subjective assessments of print quality relate to objective measurements are explained. The obtained results show that the objective measures reflect important aspects of print quality, these measures are also modelled with reasonable accuracy using paper and press parameters. The models of objective  measures are shown to reveal relationships consistent to known print quality phenomena.

    In the second part of this thesis the application area of anomaly detection in smart homes is explored. A method for modelling human behaviour patterns is proposed. The model is used in order to detect deviating behaviour patterns using contextual information from both time and space. The proposed behaviour pattern model is tested using simulated data and is shown to be suitable given four types of scenarios.

    The thesis shows that parts of offset lithographic printing, which traditionally is a human-centered process, can be automated by the introduction of image processing and machine learning methods. Moreover, it is concluded that in order to facilitate robust and accurate anomaly detection in smart homes, a holistic approach which makes use of several contextual aspects is required.

  • 33.
    Lurafu, Zanele Penny
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Arthur, Asha Khadija
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    How social organisations successfully manage institutional complexities caused by contradicting logics: Evidence from Sweden2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate how social organisations successfully manage institutional complexities caused by competing, often contradicting, social and commercial institutional logics. Specifically, the authors endeavour to analyse the nature of the challenges which social organisations encountered as a result of their core principles contradicting mainstream commercial practices. Past studies have analysed these issues, however, what is missing, is a framework which assesses the challenges and barriers that social organisations can expect to encounter, to give them tools to facilitate their existence and growth. This paper adds to the existing literature on institutional complexities which emerge from contradicting logics. Qualitative case study analysis was used to gain more understanding of underlying institutional logics challenges encountered by social organisations. Assessing four small-medium size successful Swedish social organisations.

  • 34.
    Luthfa Karim, Sabrina
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    The Uncertainty-Embedded Innovation Process: A study of how uncertainty emerges in the innovation process and of how firms address that to create novelty2017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite much discussion in the literature of uncertainties in relation to the innovation process, there is little knowledge of how they emerge in this process. This thesis accordingly aims to understand how uncertainty emerges in the innovation process and how firms address that uncertainty to create novelty from the process. Uncertainty is embedded in the innovation process (Jalonen, 2012), which implies that it is not only a factor affecting the innovation process but also an outcome of the process itself. To fulfil the purpose of this study, it is important to understand how the innovation process unfolds over time. It is well established that innovation is a process of recombining resources (Schumpeter, 1934) through the performing and linking of certain activities in sequence (Richardson, 1972; Dubois, 1994; Bankvall, 2011) by various actors (i.e., firms and organizations) in a network context (Håkansson and Olsen, 2012; Lampela, 2012; Love and Roper, 2001; Pittaway et al., 2004; Powell et al., 1996). To fulfil the purpose of this study, the following research question has been asked: How and why do actors undertake and link resource recombination activities in a network context, thereby managing uncertainties in the innovation process?

    The thesis investigates the innovation process in two companies. One of the companies had completed its innovation journey and the other had almost done so. The discussion gives a detailed account of: the activities these companies performed alone and jointly with their partners in a network context; the resources they exchanged with each other and recombined to bring new solutions to the market; the uncertainties created in the process of recombining the resources; and the activities they undertook in response to address these uncertainties. The innovation process in the case companies is analysed in light of a conceptual model developed here based on Dubois’ (1994) “end product related activity structure model”, Håkansson’s (1987) “ARA model/network model”, and Goldratt’s (1997) “critical chain concept”.

    This study identifies the conditions under which uncertainties emerged in the innovation process in the studied companies. One of the significant conditions was resource unavailability, which was caused by actors’ reluctance to share resources, prohibition by government policy, and the resources’ own conflicting conditions and internal resistance (Håkansson and Snehota, 1995; Håkansson and Waluszewski, 2002; Waluszewski, 2004). Resource unavailability caused inertial and repetitive activities and delayed the process of producing an outcome, having such an impact on the activities under the condition of path dependency (Arthur, 1994; David, 2000). Another observed condition was the actors’ lack of knowledge of resource combination (Jalonen, 2011).

    A type of uncertainty that seriously affects the outcome of the innovation process is the activity void, a situation in which no activity is taking place. Activity voids are created from resource unavailability either by an actor’s reluctance to share resources or by the outcome of combining conflicting resource properties.

    The outcome of the innovation process is therefore affected by the key actor’s attempt to reduce the activity void by making compromises at the three levels, interplay among which construct the process, i.e., actors, resources, and activities. To manage uncertainties, managers make many compromises when they perform and link various activities. Although the underlying motivation for making compromises is rational, it is boundedly rational (Simon, 1957) because by making compromises, managers forego expectations of having all the properties or of being able to plan, undertake, and link activities as intended. This study also reveals that sometimes actors prefer not to make compromises despite knowing that this might cost a great deal. Accordingly, the findings suggest that compromises made within a working relationship allow actors to produce novelty without deviating from the desired path by ensuring access to resources and partners’ abilities. On the contrary, compromises not made in the relationship can threaten actors’ ability to produce the desired novelty, as the exchange of partners’ resources and abilities is hindered in a poor relationship. Compromises made in resource configuration and activities threaten actors’ ability to produce the desired novelty by limiting their choices, while compromises not made in resource configuration and activities allow actors to produce the desired novelty without deviation.

  • 35.
    Lyamin, Nikita
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Performance evaluation of C-ACC/platooning under ITS-G5 communications2016Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) are aiming to provide innovative services related to different modes of transport and traffic management, and enable various users to be better informed and make safer, more coordinated and smarter use of transport networks. Cooperative-ITS (C-ITS) support connectivity between vehicles, vehicles and roadside infrastructure, traffic signals as well as with other road users. In order to enable vehicular communications European Telecommunication Standards Institute (ETSI) delivered ITS-G5 -- a of set of C-ITS standards. Considering the goals of C-ITS, inter-vehicle communications should be reliable and efficient.

    In this thesis we study the performance, efficiency, and dependability of ITS-G5 communications for Cooperative adaptive cruise control (C-ACC) and platooning C-ITS applications. We provide an overview of currently available and ongoing standardization targeting communications in C-ACC/platooning. We study the performance of ITS-G5 beaconing in a C-ACC/platooning scenario, where we show that its performance may deteriorate when implemented in cooperative driving applications due to the kinematic-dependent design of the message triggering mechanism. We explain in detail the cause of this phenomenon and test it for a wide range of parameters. Also, we study the influence of different available ITS-G5 legitimate setups on the C-ACC/platooning fuel efficiency and demonstrate that proper communication setup may enhance fuel savings. This thesis also proposes a jamming denial-of-service attack detection algorithm for platooning. The main advantage of our detector is its short learning phase that not exceed a second and low detection delay of a few hundreds of milliseconds. Under some assumptions, the proposed algorithm demonstrates the ability to detect certain types of attacks with average probability above 0.9.

  • 36.
    Lyamin, Nikita
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Performance evaluation of safety critical ITS-G5 V2V communications for cooperative driving applications2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) are aiming to provide innovative services related to different modes of transport and traffic management, and enable various users to be better informed and make safer, more coordinated and smarter use of transport networks. Cooperative-ITS (C-ITS) support connectivity between vehicles, vehicles and roadside infrastructure, traffic signals as well as with other road users. In order to enable vehicular communications European Telecommunication Standards Institute (ETSI) delivered ITS-G5 -- a of set of C-ITS standards. Considering the goals of C-ITS, inter-vehicle communications should be reliable and efficient.

    The subject of this thesis is evaluation of the performance, efficiency, and dependability of ITS-G5 communications for cooperative driving applications support. This thesis includes eight scientific papers and extends the research area in three directions: evaluation of the performance of ITS-G5 beaconing protocols; studying the performance of ITS-G5 congestion control mechanisms; and studying the radio jamming Denial-of-Service (DoS) attacks and their detection methods.

    First, an overview of currently available and ongoing standardization targeting communications in C-ACC/platooning cooperative driving applications is provided. Then, as part of the first research direction, we demonstrate via a number of studies, that the adaptive beaconing approach where message generation is coupled to the speed variation of the originating ITS-s may lead to a message synchronization effect in the time domain when vehicles follow mobility scenarios that involve cooperative speed variation. We explain in detail the cause of this phenomenon and test it for a wide range of parameters. In relation to the second problem, we, first, study the influence of different available ITS-G5 legitimate setups on the C-ACC/platooning fuel efficiency and demonstrate that proper communication setup may enhance fuel savings. Then we thoroughly study the standardization of the congestion control mechanism for ITS-G5, which will affect the operation of all cooperative driving C-ITS applications as a mandatory component. We study the influence of congestion control on application performance and give recommendations for improvement to make the congestion control to target at optimizing the applications performance metrics. In the scope of the last research direction, we propose two real-time jamming DoS detection methods. The main advantage of our detection techniques is their short learning phase that not exceed a few seconds and low detection delay of a few hundreds of milliseconds. Under some assumptions, the proposed algorithms demonstrates the ability to detect certain types of attacks with high detection probability.

  • 37.
    Lysek, Michal
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Business Model Innovation (BMI). HMS Networks AB, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Embedded Innovation: Exploring the Dynamics of Innovation2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    For this dissertation I aimed to explore HMS Networks AB and how HMS managed to transform their potential ideas into innovations. My purpose was also to develop knowledge and understanding of the dynamics between exploration of new ideas and exploitation of old solutions, which can support HMS in developing future innovations. My research orientation thus led me to perform a longitudinal study to learn about HMS' past, present, and future, from the perspective of key actors, their performed activities, and how they were affected by different events in their process of creating innovation. My approach enabled me to learn how HMS managed to create their two Anybus® innovations in the past and what they did to become a market leader in the industrial communication industry. I also used a metaphorical perspective to understand how HMS created their two innovations in the past and what HMS could do to create more innovations in the future. I used an inductive and qualitative research approach substantially influenced by grounded theory to collect empirical data that were periodically and chronologically sorted and categorized for the study of key actors and how their activities and different events changed over time. I conceptualized the collected empirical data to discover latent social and psychological processes and behavioral aspects of people in their process of creating innovation. And through my analysis I constructed two main concepts - "embedded innovation" and the "dynamics of innovation" - to capture how companies co-exist in symbiosis and create a higher value together compared to what they can do on their own, to how companies survive long-term.

    Embedded innovation mainly captures how companies, as organisms, struggle for survival within their (often turbulent) environment, and how they embed themselves with other organisms within their environment. Embedded innovation also focuses on capturing the needs of the different organisms within the environment, such as customer needs, employee needs, supplier and partner needs, as well as the need of the focal organization itself. Embedded innovation therefore considers the process of creating "innovation ecosystems" and performing "business model innovation" as instrumental techniques for embedding the different organisms in the environment with each other, which also makes the concept of "embeddedness" a central aspect for embedded innovation. The dynamics of innovation captures the difficulty of innovation over time and that the ever-changing environment expects its organisms (its companies and their employees) to balance the different dualities of organizational life, especially the two phases of diversification (the process of exploration) and focus (the process of exploitation). Consequently, learning how to balance between these two processes is of key importance for the organism's survival and for innovation.

    The study of HMS was also complemented with a study of two other companies, namely Axis Communication AB and Sectra AB, in order to gain more knowledge on the dynamics of innovation from their perspective. A strategy for diversifying close to the knitting was also proposed, since the dynamics of innovation relies on this strategy, which offers a new perspective for managers on how to balance between exploration and exploitation. This dissertation therefore intertwines embedded innovation with the dynamics of innovation, by focusing on balancing between exploring new possibilities and exploiting old certainties for the creation of innovation.

  • 38.
    Marques Marinho, Marco Antonio
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Array Processing Techniques for Direction of Arrival Estimation, Communications, and Localization in Vehicular and Wireless Sensor Networks2018Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Array signal processing in wireless communication has been a topic of interest in research for over three decades. In the fourth generation (4G) of the wireless communication systems, also known as Long Term Evolution (LTE), multi antenna systems have been adopted according to the Release 9 of the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP). For the fifth generation (5G) of the wireless communication systems, hundreds of antennas should be incorporated to the devices in a massive multi-user Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) architecture. The presence of multiple antennas provides array gain, diversity gain, spatial gain, and interference reduction. Furthermore, arrays enable spatial filtering and parameter estimation, which can be used to help solve problems that could not previously be addressed from a signal processing perspective. The aim of this thesis is to bridge some gaps between signal processing theory and real world applications. Array processing techniques traditionally assume an ideal array. Therefore, in order to exploit such techniques, a robust set of methods for array interpolation are fundamental and are developed in this work. In this dissertation, novel methods for array interpolation are presented and their performance in real world scenarios is evaluated. Problems in the field of wireless sensor networks and vehicular networks are also addressed from an array signal processing perspective. Signal processing concepts are implemented in the context of a wireless sensor network. These concepts provide a level of synchronization sufficient for distributed multi antenna communication to be applied, resulting in improved lifetime and improved overall network behaviour. Array signal processing methods are proposed to solve the problem of radio based localization in vehicular network scenarios with applications in road safety and pedestrian protection.

  • 39.
    Mashad Nemati, Hassan
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Data-Driven Methods for Reliability Evaluation of Power Cables in Smart Distribution Grids2017Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This research aims to develop data-driven methods that automatically exploit historical data in smart distribution grids for reliability evaluation, i.e., analyzing frequency of failures, and modeling components’ lifetime. The results enable power distribution companies to change from reactive maintenance to predictive maintenance by deriving benefits from historical data. In particular, the data is exploited for two purposes: (a) failure pattern discovery, and (b) reliability evaluation of power cables. To analyze failure characteristics it is important to discover which failures share common features, e.g., if there are any types of failures that happen mostly in certain parts of the grid or at certain times. This analysis provides information about correlation between different features and identifying the most vulnerable components. In this case, we applied statistical analysis and association rules to discover failure patterns. Furthermore, we propose an easy-to-understand visualization of the correlations between different factors representing failures by using an approximated Bayesian network. We show that the Bayesian Network constructed based on the interesting rules of two items is a good approximation of the real dataset. The main focus of reliability evaluation is on failure rate estimation and reliability ranking. In case of power cables, the limited amount of recorded events makes it difficult to perform failure rate modeling, i.e., estimating the function that describes changes in the rate of failure depending on age. Therefore, we propose a method for interpreting the results of goodness-of-fit measures with confidence intervals, estimated using synthetic data. To perform reliability ranking of power cables, in addition to the age of cables, we consider other factors. Then, we use the Cox proportional hazard model (PHM) to assess the impact of the factors and calculate the failure rate of each individual cable. In reliability evaluation, it is important to consider the fact that power cables are repairable components. We show that the conclusions about different factors in PHM and cables ranking will be misleading if one considers the cables as non-repairable components. The developed methods of (a) are applied on data from Halmstad Energi och Miljö (HEM Nät), Öresundskraft, Göteborg Energy, and Växjö Energy, four different distribution system operators in Sweden. The developed methods of (b) are applied on data from HEM Nät.

  • 40.
    Mikaelyan, Anna
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Compact orientation and frequency estimation with applications in biometrics: Biometrics on the orientation express2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Automatic feature extraction still remains a relevant image and signal processing problem even tough both the field and technologies are developing rapidly. Images of low quality, where it is extremely difficult to reliably process image information automatically, are of special interest. To such images we can refer forensic fingerprints, which are left unintentionally on different surfaces andare contaminated by several of the most difficult noise types. For this reason, identification of fingerprints is mainly based on the visual skills of forensic examiners. We address the problem caused by low quality in fingerprints by connecting different sources of information together, yielding dense frequency and orientation maps in an iterative scheme. This scheme comprises smoothing ofthe original, but only along, ideally never across, the ridges. Reliable estimation of dense maps allows to introduce a continuous fingerprint ridge counting technique. In fingerprint scenario the collection of irrefutable tiny details, e.g. bifurcation of ridges, called minutiae, is used to tie the pattern of such points and their tangential directions to the finger producing the pattern. This limited feature set, location and direction of minutiae, is used in current AFIS systems, while fingerprint examiners use the extended set of features, including the image information between the points. With reasonably accurate estimationsof dense frequency and orientation maps at hand, we have been able to propose a novel compact feature descriptor of arbitrary points. We have used these descriptors to show that the image information between minutiae can be extracted automatically and be valuable for identity establishment of forensic images even if the underlying images are noisy. We collect and compress the image information in the neighborhoods of the fine details, such as minutiae, to vectors, one per minutia, and use the vectors to "color" the minutiae. When matching two patterns (of minutiae) even the color of the minutia must match to conclude that they come from the same identity. This feature development has been concentrated and tested on forensic fingerprint images. However, we have also studied an extension of its application area to other biometrics, periocular regions of faces. This allowed us to test the persistence of automatically extracted features across different types of imagesand image qualities, supporting its generalizability.

  • 41.
    Mueller Meirinho, Ana Clara
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Mengting, Li
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Cross-Cultural Comparative Study of Entrepreneurial Leadership Traits Among Brazil and China in Small Businesses2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title: Cross-Cultural Comparative Study of Entrepreneurial Leadership Traits Among Brazil

    and China in Small Businesses

    Authors: Ana Clara Mueller Meirinho and Li Mengting

    Level: Master Thesis, 30 hp

    Keywords: Entrepreneurial leadership, Leader traits, Hofstede’s 6D Model, Small Business, Cross-Cultural leadership, Brazil, China.

    Background: Entrepreneurship is important among all the countries for the growth and prosperity of nations due to movement of economic activities that they generate. To sustain a business, the character behind it, known as a leader, plays an important role since for guiding a business the entrepreneurs needs to provide a clear vision for the company. Entrepreneurial leaders can have different postures when leading business inside a country. Yet, when comparing between countries, their behaviors can be influenced by many aspects, mainly because of the culture of the nation. However, a study showed that appear to be a convergence of entrepreneurial leadership among the BRICS countries. Also, there have been a lack of studies of entrepreneurial leadership in emergent economies like the BRICS countries, and for that reason, Brazil and China were selected to be the main focus of this study. Furthermore, studies also lack measurements of entrepreneurial leadership traits and behaviors.

    Research Question: What are the predominant traits of entrepreneurial leaders of small business and which cultural aspect impact on the behaviour of leaders among Brazil and China?

    Sub research question: What are the similarities and differences on the way that leadership is conducted by entrepreneurs of small businesses among Brazil and China?

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is, therefore, to describe, explore and instigate predominant traits of leaders as entrepreneurs in small businesses that can lead to distinct behaviour, through investigations in Brazil and China. In addition, this study also verifies similarities and differences of leaders behaviour that can differ from one culture to another, due to cultural impact. This way, the authors developed a framework, to better visualize entrepreneurial leadership traits comparison between Brazil and China, giving the readers a better understanding of preferred traits in both countries, directing them to take right actions considering the cultural values.

    Method: A mixed method approach was used in this research. Qualitative semi-structured exploratory interviews with abductive approach were conducted with leaders who are entrepreneurs of small businesses in South Brazil and Urban China, which focuses on entrepreneurial leadership traits. Also, quantitative surveys were collected, aiming to measure cultural value and predominant traits of leaders, complementing the qualitative interview.

    Theoretical Framework: Articles used for this study were meticulously selected, focusing on reliable sources and quality content; also, it was given preferences to new data from well- known journals. This section covers subjects that are interesting and fit to the thematic, such as regarding of Entrepreneurial Leadership and Traits, Hofstede 6D Model, Importance of Micro and Small Businesses to Society, and economic and political facts about Brazil and China, alike as definitions and data of micro and small business characteristics in each nation, and the nations own beliefs. Particular information from the countries was brought from organizations and governmental related websites.

    Discussion and Conclusion: Based on the results of respondent’s surveys and the interpretation of interviews with entrepreneurs among south Brazil and China. The results are structured and analyzed in the same sequence as the surveys and interviews are designed using Hofstede 6D model, discussing first south Brazil and urban China and then a general overview about similarities and differences of both countries for each section. The study revealed that the preferred entrepreneurial leadership traits are divergence between two countries, while there appear to be a convergence of entrepreneurial leadership style that encompass more democratic, flexible, opportunity oriented yet still remaining the traits of paternalistic and authoritative leadership including directing, participative, consideration of subordinates in small businesses among both countries. Furthermore, the author presented an overview of similarities and different entrepreneurial leadership traits among two countries by categorized based on distal attributes, including personality, cognitive ability and motives values, as well as proximal attributes, including social appraisal skills, problem solving skills and expertise/tacit knowledge are shown in the end.

  • 42.
    Mühlfellner, Peter
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research. Volkswagen AG.
    Lifelong Visual Localization for Automated Vehicles2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Automated driving can help solve the current and future problems of individualtransportation. Automated valet parking is a possible approach to help with overcrowded parking areas in cities and make electric vehicles more appealing. In an automated valet system, drivers are able to drop off their vehicle close to a parking area. The vehicle drives to a free parking spot on its own, while the driver is free to perform other tasks — such as switching the mode of transportation. Such a system requires the automated car to navigate unstructured, possibly three dimensional areas. This goes beyond the scope ofthe tasks performed in the state of the art for automated driving.

    This thesis describes a visual localization system that provides accuratemetric pose estimates. As sensors, the described system uses multiple monocular cameras and wheel-tick odometry. This is a sensor set-up that is close to what can be found in current production cars. Metric pose estimates with errors in the order of tens of centimeters enable maneuvers such as parking into tight parking spots. This system forms the basis for automated navigationin the EU-funded V-Charge project.

    Furthermore, we present an approach to the challenging problem of life-long mapping and localization. Over long time spans, the visual appearance ofthe world is subject to change due to natural and man-made phenomena. The effective long-term usage of visual maps requires the ability to adapt to these changes. We describe a multi-session mapping system, that fuses datasets intoiiia single, unambiguous, metric representation. This enables automated navigation in the presence of environmental change. To handle the growing complexityof such a system we propose the concept of Summary Maps, which contain a reduced set of landmarks that has been selected through a combination of scoring and sampling criteria. We show that a Summary Map with bounded complexity can achieve accurate localization under a wide variety of conditions.

    Finally, as a foundation for lifelong mapping, we propose a relational database system. This system is based on use-cases that are not only concerned with solving the basic mapping problem, but also with providing users with a better understanding of the long-term processes that comprise a map. We demonstrate that we can pose interesting queries to the database, that help us gain a better intuition about the correctness and robustness of the created maps. This is accomplished by answering questions about the appearance and distribution of visual landmarks that were used during mapping. This thesis takes on one of the major unsolved challenges in vision-based localization and mapping: long-term operation in a changing environment. We approach this problem through extensive real world experimentation, as well as in-depth evaluation and analysis of recorded data. We demonstrate that accurate metric localization is feasible both during short term changes, as exemplified by the transition between day and night, as well as longer term changes, such as due to seasonal variation.

  • 43.
    Ourique de Morais, Wagner
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Architecting Smart Home Environments for Healthcare: A Database-Centric Approach2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of system architectures and applications for smart homes and ambient assisted living has been the main activity of a number of academic and industrial research projects around the world. Existing system architectures for smart environments usually employ different architectural styles in a multi-layer logical architecture to support the integration and interoperation of heterogeneous hardware and software technologies, which are subsequently used to provide two major functionalities: monitoring and assistance. It is also usual among existing architectures that the database management system is the most common but the least exploited architectural component, existing in the periphery of the system and devoted exclusively for data storage and retrieval. However, database technology has advanced and matured considerably over the years, and, as a result, current database management systems can be and do more.

    This thesis considers the hypothesis of several features of modern database management systems being employed to address functional (e.g. well-being and security monitoring, automated control, data processing) and non-functional (e.g. interoperability, extensibility, data security and privacy) requirements of smart environments, i.e. the database management system serves as a platform for smart environments. The scope of this thesis is therefore to investigate the possibility of using different features supported by database management systems to create a database-centric system architecture for the development of smart home environments and ambient assisted living. The thesis also investigates the development of applications for health monitoring and assistance: 1) a serious game for fall prevention that assists people in practicing Tai Chi at home, and 2) a non-intrusive home-based method for sleep assessment.

    These features are explored in this thesis to address general functional aspects of smart environments, such as monitoring, processing, coordination and control of various types of events in a given environment. Extensibility and security features and cross-platform capabilities of database management systems are employed to accommodate non-functional, but still technical, properties of smart environments, including interoperability, extensibility, portability, scalability, security and privacy. Heterogeneous technologies are integrated into the system using programming language and platform independent software resource adapters. Interoperation among integrated technologies is mediated in an active database.

    The feasibility of the proposed database-centric system architecture was pragmatically investigated with the development of a "smart bedroom'' demonstrator and with the implementation of a number of short-term and long-term types of services to support active aging, aging in place and ambient assisted living. In the proposed architecture, active in-database processing maintains sensitive data within the database. This increases data security and independence from external software applications for data analysis. Changes in the system are managed during runtime, which improves flexibility and avoids system downtime. The proposed system architecture was evaluated taking into account different application scenarios and heterogeneous computing platforms.

    As a conclusion, modern database management systems support features that can be successfully employed in a database-centric system architecture to effectively and efficiently address functional and non-functional requirements of smart environments.

  • 44.
    Parker, James
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    A multi-disciplinary approach to studying performance among high-level golfers: physiological and biomechanical aspects2018Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In competitive golf, the player’s ability to hit the ball a long distance affects the score in a positive way. Swing kinematics is considered an important factor in driver performance; one way of improving swing kinematics is through strength and power training. Subsequently, high-level golfers and their coaches often explore novel ways of increasing the distance of a shot, in particular driver carry distance (CD). This licentiate thesis presents two studies with the overall aim of studying how swing kinematic and physical characteristics are associated with driver performance among intercollegiate golf players. The studies report swing kinematics associated with driver performance (study 1) and the impact of isokinetic rotational training on driver performance and swing kinematic variables (study 2).

    The methods used were (1) a cross-sectional correlation study (n=15) and (2) an open trial intervention study (n=20). The studies investigated (1) the relationship between golf swing kinematics and driver performance, and (2) the impact of strength training on swing kinematics and driver performance variable.

    The results show variables that were distinctive for the club head speed (CHS) were mainly during the downswing: greater X-factor stretch; and higher pelvis peak speed. Whilst, factors distinctive to the regression model for CD were mainly at impact: reduced thorax rotation; and greater thorax lateral bend. Nine weeks of isokinetic training increased seated rotational force and power, peak arm speed and arm acceleration, ball speed, and CD more compared to isotonic training. Even though isokinetic training did not increase CHS, it did result in greater CD.

    This licentiate thesis contributes to the understanding of which variables influence driver performance, in particular CD, among high-level golfers. Segmental interactions (pelvis-thorax), lead arm speed and acceleration, isokinetic and isotonic training. These results may guide training interventions aiming to improve driver and golf performance among high-level golfers, particularly those with a background of strength training. Future studies could investigate how the interaction between swing kinematics, clubhead trajectory, and driver performance variables differ between male and female golfers.

  • 45.
    Parsapoor, Mahboobeh
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Brain Emotional Learning-Inspired Models2014Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis the mammalian nervous system and mammalian brain have been used as inspiration to develop a computational intelligence model based on the neural structure of fear conditioning and to extend the structure of the previous proposed amygdala-orbitofrontal model. The proposed model can be seen as a framework for developing general computational intelligence based on the emotional system instead of traditional models on the rational system of the human brain. The suggested model can be considered a new data driven model and is referred to as the brain emotional learning-inspired model (BELIM). Structurally, a BELIM consists of four main parts to mimic those parts of the brain’s emotional system that are responsible for activating the fear response. In this thesis the model is initially investigated for prediction and classification. The performance has been evaluated using various benchmark data sets from prediction applications, e.g. sunspot numbers from solar activity prediction, auroral electroject (AE) index from geomagnetic storms prediction and Henon map, Lorenz time series. In most of these cases, the model was tested for both long-term and short-term prediction. The performance of BELIM has also been evaluated for classification, by classifying binary and multiclass benchmark data sets.

  • 46.
    Parsapoor, Mahboobeh
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Towards Emotion inspired Computational Intelligence (EiCI)2015Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the main challenges in the computational intelligence (CI) community is to develop nature-inspired algorithms that can efficiently solve real-world problems such as the prediction of space weather phenomena. An early example in this context is taking inspiration from the biological neurons in the mammal’s nervous system and developing an artificial neuron. This work laid the foundation for artificial neural networks (ANNs) that aim to mimic the connections between neurons in the mammal’s nervous system and to develop an artificial model of the brain. ANNs are well-known CI models that have shown high generalization capability when solving real-world problems, e.g., chaotic time-series prediction problems. However, ANNs mostly tend to suffer from long computation time and high model complexity. This thesis presents a new category of CI paradigms by taking inspiration from emotions, and these CI models are referred to as emotion-inspired computational intelligence models (EiCIs). In the thesis, I have outlined the preliminary steps that have been taken to develop EiCIs. These steps include studying different emotional theories and hypotheses, designing and implementing CI models for two specific applications in artificial intelligence (prediction and optimization), evaluating the performance of the new CI models, and comparing the obtained results with the results of well-known CI models (e.g., ANNs) and discussing the potential improvement that can be achieved. The first step, and a significant contribution of this thesis, is to review the various definitions of emotions and to investigate which emotional theories that are the most relevant for developing a CI model. Amongst different theories and hypotheses of emotions, the fear conditioning hypothesis as well as affect theory have been two main sources of inspiration in the development of the EiCIs proposed in this thesis. The fear conditioning hypothesis that was first proposed by LeDoux reveals some important characteristics of the underlying neural structure of fear conditioning behavior in biological systems. Based on the features of such networks, it could be an applicable hypothesis to be the basis of the development of a subgroup of EiCIs that could be used for prediction applications, e.g. BELIMs (Brain Emotional Learning Inspired Models), and as emotion-inspired engines for decision-making applications.The second emotional theory of the thesis is the affect theory (which was first suggested by Silvan Tomkins) that describes what the basic emotions are and how they can be associated with facial expressions. A mechanism to express the basic emotional feelings is also useful in designing another category of EiCIs that are referred to as emotion-inspired optimization methods. The fundamental hypotheses of the thesis, have led to developing EiCIs, can be presented as follows. The first hypothesis is that the neural structure of fear conditioning can be considered to be a nature-based system with the capability to show intelligent behavior through its functionality. This hypothesis is stated on the basis of the three main characteristics of the neural structure of fear conditioning behavior.The first characteristic is that the amygdala is the main center for processing fear-induced stimuli and that it provides the fear reaction through its interaction with other regions of the brain such as the sensory cortex, the thalamus, and the hippocampus. The second characteristic is that the procedure of processing of fearful stimuli and the provision of emotional reactions is simple and quick. The third aspect is that the amygdala not only provides fear responses but also learns to predict aversive events by interacting with other regions of the brain, which means that an intelligent behavior emerges.The second hypothesis is that the system in which the three monoamines neurotransmitters serotonin, dopamine, and noradrenalin and thus produces emotional behaviors, can be viewed as a biological system associated with the emergence of intelligent behavior.The above hypotheses state that a suitable way to develop new CI models is to take inspiration from the neural structure of fear conditioning and the natural system of three monoamine neurotransmitters. A significant contribution of this thesis is the evaluation of the ability of EiCIs by examining them to solve real-world problems such as the prediction of space weather phenomena (e.g., predicting real time-series such as sunspot number, auroral electrojet index, and disturbance time index) and the optimization of some central procedures in network communications. These evaluations have led to that comparable results have been obtained, which in turn supports the conclusion that EiCIs have acceptable and reasonable performance regarding computation time and model complexity. However, to achieve the final goal of the research study (i.e., to develop a CI model with low computation time and low model complexity), some enhancements of EiCIs are necessary. Moreover, new designs and implementations of these models can be developed by taking inspiration from other theories.

  • 47.
    Pignaton de Freitas, Edison
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Cooperative Context-Aware Setup and Performance of Surveillance Missions Using Static and Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks2011Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Surveillance systems are usually employed to monitor wide areas in which their usersaim to detect and/or observe events or phenomena of their interest. The use ofwireless sensor networks in such systems is of particular interest as these networks can provide a relative low cost and robust solution to cover large areas. Emerging applications in this context are proposing the use of wireless sensor networks composed of both static and mobile sensor nodes. Motivation for this trend is toreduce deployment and operating costs, besides providing enhanced functionalities.The usage of both static and mobile sensor nodes can reduce the overall systemcosts, by making low-cost simple static sensors cooperate with more expensive andpowerful mobile ones. Mobile wireless sensor networks are also desired in somespecific scenarios in which mobility of sensor nodes is required, or there is a specificrestriction to the usage of static sensors, such as secrecy. Despite the motivation,systems that use different combinations of static and mobile sensor nodes are appearing and with them, challenges in their interoperation. This is specially the case for surveillance systems.This work focuses on the proposal of solutions for wireless sensor networks including static and mobile sensor nodes specifically regarding cooperative andcontext aware mission setup and performance. Orthogonally to the setup and performance problems and related cooperative and context aware solutions, the goalof this work is to keep the communication costs as low as possible in the executionof the proposed solutions. This concern comes from the fact that communication increases energy consumption, which is a particular issue for energy constrained sensor nodes often used in wireless sensor networks, especially if battery supplied. Inthe case of the mobile nodes, this energy constraint may not be valid, since their motion might need much more energy. For this type of node the problem incommunicating is related to the links’ instabilities and short time windows availableto receive and transmit data. Therefore, it is better to communicate as little as possible. For the interaction among static and mobile sensor nodes, all thesecommunication constraints have to be considered.For the interaction among static sensor nodes, the problems of dissemination and allocation of sensing missions are studied and a solution that explores local information is proposed and evaluated. This solution uses mobile software agentsthat have capabilities to take autonomous decisions about the mission dissemination and allocation using local context information so that the mission’s requirementscan be fulfilled. For mobile wireless sensor networks, the problem studied is how to perform the handover of missions among the nodes according to their movements.This problem assumes that each mission has to be done in a given area of interest. In addition, the nodes are assumed to move according to different movement patterns,passing through these areas. It is also assumed that they have no commitment in staying or moving to a specific area due to the mission that they are carrying. To handle this problem, a mobile agent approach is proposed in which the agents implement the sensing missions’ migration from node to node using geographical context information to decide about their migrations. For the networks combining static and mobile sensor nodes, the cooperation among them is approached by abiologically-inspired mechanism to deliver data from the static to the mobile nodes.The mechanism explores an analogy based on the behaviour of ants building and following trails to provide data delivery, inspired by the ant colony algorithm. It is used to request the displacement of mobile sensors to a given location according tothe need of more sophisticated sensing equipment/devices that they can provide, so that a mission can be accomplished.The proposed solutions are flexible, being able to be applied to different application domains, and less complex than many existing approaches. The simplicity of the solutions neither demands great computational efforts nor large amounts of memory space for data storage. Obtained experimental results provide evidence of the scalability of these proposed solutions, for example by evaluatingtheir cost in terms of communication, among other metrics of interest for eachsolution. These results are compared to those achieved by reference solutions (optimum and flooding-based), providing indications of the proposed solutions’ efficiency. These results are considered close to the optimum one and significantly better than the ones achieved by flooding-based solutions.

  • 48.
    Prack, Berit
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), The Wigforss Group.
    Aktiv anpassning till förändrade villkor: Fem kvinnors erfarenheter av kroniskt nedsatt funktionsförmåga och återskapande av ett meningsfullt liv2017Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall objective of the study is to develop an understanding oft he women’s experiences of suffering from and living with chronically reduced physical ability in adulthood. In addition to the study’s descriptive and knowledge-building objective, it also aims at helping towards developing research in the field of “health and lifestyle”. The study is based on active interviews with five women who have suffered from reduced physical abilities in adulthood, due to chronic disease or injury. The analyses were conducted over two stages that gradually provided a more in-depth understanding of the women’s stories. The first stage was to thematically analyse the content of the women’s stories. The thematic analyses was summarised by how the women personally, through various methods, emphasised specifically important parts of their stories. The second stage of the analyses used previous research and symbolic interaction perspectives. The study’s compatibility increased via the results of previous research and theoretical context. The results of the study were compatible with previous research, confirming such things as the significance of time while adapting to a life of reduced physical ability, where control over one’s life was restored either through planning day-to-day life, giving the individual enough energy for the essentials in life, or by compressing time to the here and now, taking one day at a time and shying away from the uncertainties of the future. There were also findings that exceeded what previous research had reported on. The women who took part in the study mapped out their social rights, and reconstructed an identity from previous experiences, with a lifestyle in balance between the world around them and their own expectations of their reduced physical abilities. Circumstances that contributed to a healthy lifestyle were women’s organising in social network and engaging in non-profit organisations, were they could experience the compassion that they sometimes felt was lacking when interacting with caregivers or governmental authorities.

    The women that took part in the study appeared more active and creative than was usual among women with reduced physical abilities from other studies. The women in the study explained how they took the initiative, planned and carried out extensive life projects, like study initiatives and starting businesses, which was not as common in previous studies. Some women displayed their independence by not unconditionally accepting healthcare and government authorities’ decisions, but opposed such things that were counter intuitive to their desire to realise personal objectives. The women bolstered their selfesteem and developed alternative lifestyles and identities by using previous experience, from which they could form new lifestyles, characterised by relative good health and wellbeing. This happened either by developing an interest for team sports with other athletes with disabilities, or by maintaining a fresh and youthful appearance, confirmed by modelling for a fashion show. The results of the study are important for strengthening women with impaired functional ability in adulthood, but also for professionals who meet women in the same situation and their relatives.

  • 49.
    Prytz, Rune
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research. Volvo Group Trucks Technology, Malmö, Sweden.
    Machine learning methods for vehicle predictive maintenance using off-board and on-board data2014Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Vehicle uptime is getting increasingly important as the transport solutions become more complex and the transport industry seeks new ways of being competitive. Traditional Fleet Management Systems are gradually extended with new features to improve reliability, such as better maintenance planning. Typical diagnostic and predictive maintenance methods require extensive experimentation and modelling during development. This is unfeasible if the complete vehicle is addressed as it would require too much engineering resources.

    This thesis investigates unsupervised and supervised methods for predicting vehicle maintenance. The methods are data driven and use extensive amounts of data, either streamed, on-board data or historic and aggregated data from off-board databases. The methods rely on a telematics gateway that enables vehicles to communicate with a back-office system. Data representations, either aggregations or models, are sent wirelessly to an off-board system which analyses the data for deviations. These are later associated to the repair history and form a knowledge base that can be used to predict upcoming failures on other vehicles that show the same deviations.

    The thesis further investigates different ways of doing data representations and deviation detection. The first one presented, COSMO, is an unsupervised and self-organised approach demonstrated on a fleet of city buses. It automatically comes up with the most interesting on-board data representations and uses a consensus based approach to isolate the deviating vehicle. The second approach outlined is a super-vised classification based on earlier collected and aggregated vehicle statistics in which the repair history is used to label the usage statistics. A classifier is trained to learn patterns in the usage data that precede specific repairs and thus can be used to predict vehicle maintenance. This method is demonstrated for failures of the vehicle air compressor and based on AB Volvo’s database of vehicle usage statistics.

  • 50.
    Ramazanali, Hawar
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES). Saab Training & Simulation, Husqvarna, Sweden.
    Managing Radio and Energy Resources in LTE-Based Military Training Networks2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The number of wireless connected devices are growing exponentially and the importance of this research area is growing as well to meet the known and looming challenges and expectations. The 5:th Generation telecommunications standard is partly embodied by the Machine-to-Machine (M2M) and Internet of Things (IoT) technologies and standards to handle a big part of these devices and connections. An example within the IoT paradigm is military training systems where each system can consist of thousands of battery operated mobile devices and their shifting requirements shall be fullled in an energy-aware manner to increase battery operating times.

    Military training radio networks enables realistic combat training. The services and features provided in commercial telecommunications networks are desirable in these often proprietary and task specic networks, increasing capabilities and functionalities. To facilitate the current and future R&D of LTE based networks for adoption in military training networks and services this doctoral thesis intends to provide the starting ground for the energy-aware LTE based wireless communications. The thesis first presents general solutions on how to meet traffic deadlines in wireless networks for large number of nodes, and then continues with solutions for energy-aware LTE-based communications for the User Equipments (UEs).

    The work builds on the problem formulation how to provide energy-aware resource handling for LTE-based military training networks from where three research questions are derived. From the research questions we derive different hypotheses and then test these within the investigated area to answer the research questions.

    The contributions of this work are within areas of resource handling and power saving for mobile devices. In the first area an admission control using deterministic analysis is proposed fullling traffic requirements for military training mobile nodes. This admission control is enhanced for multiple-channel base stations, and evaluated using mobile nodes with different heterogeneous traffic requirements. In the second part energy-awareness is in focus for LTE/LTE-A based networks. The main power saving method for LTE/LTE-A UEs, Discontinuous Reception (DRX) mechanism, is evaluated and models for DRX in Idle and Connected state are proposed including metrics for wake-up delay and power saving. Additionally a mean queuing delay analysis is proposed for a variant of the Connected state DRX. Using these models and metrics, practical design guidelines for tuning of DRX parameters are proposed, including optimization of DRX parameters for either minimizing delay or maximizing power saving.

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