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  • 1.
    Hurtig, Jörgen
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Report-evaluation of a small scale district heating system in Ullared, Sweden2010Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This evaluation and final report is a part of an EU-project, “Energy in Minds” (EiM). The project is a part of the EU-programme Concerto within the Sixth Framework Programme. EiM has been running from 2005 and is now finalized in May 2010. Within the EiM project, the local energy company, Falkenberg Energi AB (FEAB), has received EU-funding of totally 98 200 Euro for the two local heating systems consist of a completely new small scale district heating system in Ullared and one partly new in Vessigebro, in the north-east part of the municipality of Falkenberg. The system in Ullared, which this report is focusing on, a prefabricated transportable heating plant with a boiler of 1500 kW has been installed. The fuel used is pellets. The pipe network consists now of about 2,5 km of double pipeline. 22 customers have been con-nected so far, representing a heat demand of about 2400 MWh annually. The main customers are the school building, health care centre, elderly housing and the parish. The main pipe network is made up of traditional double district heating pipes of steel with polyurethane insulation and a polythene casing.

    The financial results have improved during 2009, mostly due to greatly reduced depreciations. For 2009 the result was +304 000 SEK. (2008: -146 000 SEK) The heat density of the system in Ullared is, being a small scale district heating system, quite normal with a linear heat density of about 0,8 MWh/m. But the key problem of the district heating system in Ullared is the very low connection rate which is roughly estimated to 22%. This is for the system in Ullared at the same time a well needed future potential for expansion. The Environmental impact is important for many customers when they chose their heating system and it is usually a good argument for the district heating industry as a whole. However, the environmental impact from low density district heating systems is higher than for traditional systems since both heat losses and resource depletion from pipes and components increase with lower heat density. Still research report referred to in this report states that the choice of district heating is a good choice for the environmental impact for those property owners who today uses fossil fuel for heating. One estimation says roughly a reduction of 40 tons of CO2-equivalents per year compared with oil furnace heating. Finally, the small scale district heating system in Ullared has definitely the potential of attracting more customers in the future with a well spread out distribution net with many buildings close situated offering an alternative for change of heating system for potential customers for a future connection when energy prices for oil and electricity increases even more. Anyway it will have a positive impact on the environment both globally and locally.

  • 2.
    Hurtig, Jörgen
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Report-evaluation of multi-storey Low Energy Houses at Hertings Gård, Falkenberg2010Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The new residential buildings at Hertings Gård in Falkenberg are built and owned by the local municipal housing company, Falkenbergs Bostads AB (FaBo) during 2007-2010. It is a good example of when knowledge of Passive house technology combined with good energy planning and project management can result in multi-storey houses with energy rating under 50kWh/m2. The multi-storey houses at Hertings Gård have innovative solar air heating systems connected to the ventilation system that is quiet unique. The solar air heating system contributes to the buildings energy supply by preheating the ventilation supply air. (The solar air is part of another project in Energy in Minds). This evaluation is based on metered energy used for space heat, domestic hot water, electricity for building service and domestic electricity for two of the multi-storey houses during 2009, House 18 and 19. The result is presented as monthly uses and compared with initial project specifications and some other parameters. The total initial energy specifications set by Concerto/Energy in Minds and FaBo for the houses are almost reached. Results are for House 18 and 19, 76,8 and 77,5 kWh/m2. (Specification 75 kWh/m2) This is total use of purchased energy. (excl. lighting at parking lots, not corrected after Swedish statistical normal year.) If we exclude the domestic energy use, the results looks as follows, House 18 47,8 and House 19 45,9 kWh/m2.(Specification: 50 kWh/m2). The used domestic energy for 2009 is varying a lot (House 18 from about 650 kWh up to 6500 kWh) between the apartments and is in total roughly 20% more than was expected in the project. A conclusion is that domestic energy is most of all a result of the tenant’s individual needs and behavior. Another energy specification that is not fully reached is the electricity for building service which is slightly more than specified in the project. The efficiency of the ventilation system is analyzed (with Specific Fan Power, SFP=2,80) which is relatively high compared to recommendations in National Swedish building code. This is probably a consequence of the chosen ventilation system with functions such as individual indoor temperature control. This function needs a design of the ventilation system that causes more power drops and therefore also more power than a more traditional and centralized ventilation system. The energy used for domestic hot water (DHW) is about 26% lower than specified in the project. (14,75 kWh/m2, year vs 20 kWh/ m2, year). The metered average specific DHW use at Hertings Gård is 0,27 m3/m2 and year. This is just slightly over the average of about 128 000 German apartments with individual metering and charging of DHW (0,25 m3/m2 and year). Hertings Gård has individual metering and charging of DHW use and low-flush water taps which are contributing to this relatively low DHW use. What is also achieved at Hertings Gård is, at least when looking at the tenant’s answers in the completed survey, that it seems to be a valued housing for its comfort as well as in other quality aspects. Many tenants can recommend the housing to other people. In conclusion, Hertings Gård is a good housing for the tenants, most probably a good investment for the housing company and above all a good living for the environment and the climate.

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