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  • 1.
    Aili, K.
    et al.
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden & FoU Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Andersson, M.
    FoU Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden & Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Bremander, Ann
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). FoU Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Haglund, Emma
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). FoU Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Bergman, S.
    FoU Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden & University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sleep problems and fatigue as a predictor for the onset of chronic widespread pain over a 5- and 18-year perspective: a 20-year prospective study2018In: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, ISSN 0003-4967, E-ISSN 1468-2060, Vol. 77, no Suppl. 2, p. 87-87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: If localised pain represent one end of a pain spectra, with overall better general health, chronic widespread pain (CWP) and fibromyalgia represent the other end of the spectra with worse general health and more comorbidities with other somatic diseases and mental illness. Sleep problems and fatigue are common among individuals reporting CWP and previous research indicate that sleep problems may be an important predictor for pain prognosis.

    Objectives: The aim of this population-based study was to investigate if sleep problems and fatigue predict the onset of CWP 5 and 18 years later.

    Methods: In order to get more stable baseline classifications of CWP, a wash-out period was used, including only individuals who had not reported CWP (according to ACR 1990 criteria for fibromyalgia) at baseline (−98) and three years prior baseline (−95). In all, data from 1249 individuals entered the analyses for the 5 year follow-up (−03) and 791 entered for the 18 year follow-up (−16). Four parameters related to sleep (difficulties initiating sleep, maintaining sleep, early morning awakening and non-restorative sleep), and one parameter related to fatigue (SF-36 vitality scale) were investigated as predictors for CWP. Binary logistic regression analysis were used for analyses.

    Results: All investigated parameters predicted the onset of CWP five years later (problems with initiating sleep (OR 1.91; 1.16–3.14), maintaining sleep (OR 1.85; 1.14–3.01), early awakening (OR 2.0; 1.37–3.75), non-restorative sleep (OR 2.27; 1.37–3.75) and fatigue (OR 3.70; 1.76–7.84)) in a model adjusted for age, gender, socio-economy and mental health. All parameters except problems with early awakening predicted the onset of CWP also 18 years later. In all, 785 individuals did not report any of the sleeping problems at baseline (fatigue not included), 268 reported one of the problems, 167 two, 128 three and 117 subjects reported to have all four sleep problems. Reporting all four sleep problems was significantly associated with CWP at follow-up at both time points when adjusting for age, gender, socio economy and mental health (OR 4.00; 2.03–7.91 and OR 3.95; 1.90–8.20); adjusting for age, gender, socio economy and number of pain regions (OR 2.94; 1.48–5.82 and OR 2.65; 1.24–5.64) and in a model adjusting for age, gender, socio economy and pain severity (OR 2.97;1.53–5.76; and OR 3.02;1.47–6.21) for the 5 year and 18 year follow-up respectively, compared to not reporting any of the sleep problems at baseline.

    Conclusions: Both sleeping problems and fatigue predicts the onset of CWP 5- and 18 years later. The results highlight the importance of the assessment of sleep quality in the clinic.

  • 2.
    Aili, Katarina
    et al.
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden & FoU Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Andersson, Maria
    FoU Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden & Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Bremander, Ann
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). FoU Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Haglund, Emma
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). FoU Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Larsson, Ingrid
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI). FoU Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Bergman, Stefan
    FoU Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden & Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sleep problems and fatigue as a predictor for the onset of chronic widespread painover a 5- and 18-year perspective: a 20-year prospective study2018In: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, ISSN 0003-4967, E-ISSN 1468-2060, Vol. 77, p. 87-87, article id OP0072Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: If localised pain represent one end of a pain spectra, with overall better general health, chronic widespread pain (CWP) and fibromyalgia represent the other end of the spectra with worse general health and more comorbidities with other somatic diseases and mental illness. Sleep problems and fatigue are common among individuals reporting CWP and previous research indicate that sleep problems may be an important predictor for pain prognosis.

    Objectives: The aim of this population-based study was to investigate if sleep problems and fatigue predict the onset of CWP 5 and 18 years later.

    Methods: In order to get more stable baseline classifications of CWP, a wash-out period was used, including only individuals who had not reported CWP (according to ACR 1990 criteria for fibromyalgia) at baseline (−98) and three years prior baseline (−95). In all, data from 1249 individuals entered the analyses for the 5 year follow-up (−03) and 791 entered for the 18 year follow-up (−16). Four parameters related to sleep (difficulties initiating sleep, maintaining sleep, early morning awakening and non-restorative sleep), and one parameter related to fatigue (SF-36 vitality scale) were investigated as predictors for CWP. Binary logistic regression analysis were used for analyses.

    Results: All investigated parameters predicted the onset of CWP five years later (problems with initiating sleep (OR 1.91; 1.16–3.14), maintaining sleep (OR 1.85; 1.14–3.01), early awakening (OR 2.0; 1.37–3.75), non-restorative sleep (OR 2.27; 1.37–3.75) and fatigue (OR 3.70; 1.76–7.84)) in a model adjusted for age, gender, socio-economy and mental health. All parameters except problems with early awakening predicted the onset of CWP also 18 years later. In all, 785 individuals did not report any of the sleeping problems at baseline (fatigue not included), 268 reported one of the problems, 167 two, 128 three and 117 subjects reported to have all four sleep problems. Reporting all four sleep problems was significantly associated with CWP at follow-up at both time points when adjusting for age, gender, socio economy and mental health (OR 4.00; 2.03–7.91 and OR 3.95; 1.90–8.20); adjusting for age, gender, socio economy and number of pain regions (OR 2.94; 1.48–5.82 and OR 2.65; 1.24–5.64) and in a model adjusting for age, gender, socio economy and pain severity (OR 2.97;1.53–5.76; and OR 3.02;1.47–6.21) for the 5 year and 18 year follow-up respectively, compared to not reporting any of the sleep problems at baseline.

    Conclusions: Both sleeping problems and fatigue predicts the onset of CWP 5- and 18 years later. The results highlight the importance of the assessment of sleep quality in the clinic.

  • 3.
    Aili, Katarina
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport. Spenshult Research and Development Center, FoU Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden & Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Andersson, Maria
    Spenshult Research and Development Center, FoU Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden & Lunds Universitet, Lund, Sweden.
    Bremander, Ann
    Spenshult Research and Development Center, FoU Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden & Lunds Universitet, Lund, Sweden & University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark & Syddansk Universitet, Graasten, Danmark.
    Haglund, Emma
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Spenshult Research and Development Center, FoU Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Larsson, Ingrid
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Nursing. Spenshult Research and Development Center, FoU Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Bergman, Stefan
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Sleep problems and fatigue as predictorsfor the onset of chronic widespread painover a 5- and 18-year perspective2018In: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, ISSN 1471-2474, E-ISSN 1471-2474, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 1-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Previous research suggests that sleep problems may be an important predictor for chronic widespread pain (CWP). With this study we investigated both sleep problems and fatigue as predictors for the onset of CWP over a 5-year and an 18-year perspective in a population free from CWP at baseline.

    Methods: To get a more stable classification of CWP, we used a wash-out period, including only individuals who had not reported CWP at baseline (1998) and three years prior baseline (1995). In all, data from 1249 individuals entered the analyses for the 5-year follow-up and 791 entered for the 18-year follow-up. Difficulties initiating sleep, maintaining sleep, early morning awakening, non-restorative sleep and fatigue were investigated as predictors separately and simultaneously in binary logistic regression analyses.

    Results: The results showed that problems with initiating sleep, maintaining sleep, early awakening and non-restorative sleep predicted the onset of CWP over a 5-year (OR 1.85 to OR 2.27) and 18-year (OR 1.54 to OR 2.25) perspective irrespective of mental health (assessed by SF-36) at baseline. Also fatigue predicted the onset of CWP over the two-time perspectives (OR 3.70 and OR 2.36 respectively) when adjusting for mental health. Overall the effect of the sleep problems and fatigue on new onset CWP (over a 5-year perspective) was somewhat attenuated when adjusting for pain at baseline but remained significant for problems with early awakening, non-restorative sleep and fatigue. Problems with maintaining sleep predicted CWP 18 years later irrespective of mental health and number of pain regions (OR 1.72). Reporting simultaneous problems with all four aspects of sleep was associated with the onset of CWP over a five-year and 18-yearperspective, irrespective of age, gender, socio economy, mental health and pain at baseline. Sleep problems and fatigue predicted the onset of CWP five years later irrespective of each other.

    Conclusion: Sleep problems and fatigue were both important predictors for the onset of CWP over a five-year perspective. Sleep problems was a stronger predictor in a longer time-perspective. The results highlight the importance of the assessment of sleep quality and fatigue in the clinic. © The Author(s). 2018

  • 4.
    Aili, Katarina
    et al.
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bergman, Stefan
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI). FoU Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden & The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bremander, Ann
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). FoU Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden & Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Haglund, Emma
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). FoU Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Larsson, Ingrid
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI). FoU Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Women’s experiences of coping with chronic widespread pain: – a qualitative study2018In: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, ISSN 0003-4967, E-ISSN 1468-2060, Vol. 77, p. 1815-1815, article id FRI10737-HPRArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Approximately ten percent of the population report chronic widespread pain (CWP), the condition is more common among women than men. For most people, the pain interferes with many aspects of every-day life and implies large consequences. However, the group reporting CWP is heterogeneous and there is a need for better understanding of the different strategies used for coping with pain in every-day life.

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to describe women’s experiences of how to cope with CWP.

    Methods: The study had a descriptive design with a qualitative content analysis approach. Individual interviews were conducted with 19 women, 31–66 of age, who had reported CWP in a survey 2016. CWP was defined according to the 1990 ACR criteria for fibromyalgia. To be considered chronic, the pain should have persisted for more than three months during the last 12 months. A manifest qualitative content analysis was used to analyze the main question “How do you cope with your chronic widespread pain?” The analysis resulted in four categories.

    Results: Women described their coping with CWP in four different ways; to take control, to continue as usual, to follow instructions and to rest. To take control meant to make deliberate decisions to handle everyday day life. It also meant to take care of oneself, to think positive and to exercise at an adequate level. To continue as usual meant not to listen to body signals and either to ignore or accept the pain. To follow instructions meant listening to the health professionals and following advices, but without taking any part of the responsibility for the treatment outcome. To rest meant to perceive an unreasonable need for recovery, to resign and let the pain set the terms for the daily living.

    Conclusions: Women expressed different ways of coping with CWP including both active and passive strategies. The coping strategies included two dimensions, where one ranged from actively taking control over the pain, to passively following instructions and the other from actively continue as usual by either accepting or ignoring the pain to passively rest and being mastered by pain.

  • 5.
    Aksel Jacobsen, Freja
    et al.
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark & Novo Nordisk A/S, Bagsværd, Denmark.
    Scherer, Alexander N.
    Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA.
    Mouritsen, Jeppe
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark & Novozymes A/S, Bagsværd, Denmark.
    Bragadóttir, Hera
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark & Xelia Pharmaceuticals A/S, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Bäckström, B. Thomas
    Novo Nordisk A/S, Måløv, Denmark & BTB Pharma, Malmö, Sweden.
    Sardar, Samra
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Holmberg, Dan
    Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Koleske, Anthony J.
    Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA.
    Andersson, Åsa
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    A Role for the Non-Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Abl2/Arg in Experimental Neuroinflammation2018In: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology, ISSN 1557-1890, E-ISSN 1557-1904, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 265-276Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multiple sclerosis is a neuroinflammatory degenerative disease, caused by activated immune cells infiltrating the CNS. The disease etiology involves both genetic and environmental factors. The mouse genetic locus, Eae27, linked to disease development in the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model for multiple sclerosis, was studied in order to identify contributing disease susceptibility factors and potential drug targets for multiple sclerosis. Studies of an Eae27 congenic mouse strain, revealed that genetic variation within Eae27 influences EAE development. The Abl2 gene, encoding the non-receptor tyrosine kinase Arg, is located in the 4,1 megabase pair long Eae27 region. The Arg protein plays an important role in cellular regulation and is, in addition, involved in signaling through the B- and T-cell receptors, important for the autoimmune response. The presence of a single nucleotide polymorphism causing an amino acid change in a near actin-interacting domain of Arg, in addition to altered lymphocyte activation in the congenic mice upon immunization with myelin antigen, makes Abl2/Arg a candidate gene for EAE. Here we demonstrate that the non-synonymous SNP does not change Arg’s binding affinity for F-actin but suggest a role for Abl kinases in CNS inflammation pathogenesis by showing that pharmacological inhibition of Abl kinases ameliorates EAE, but not experimental arthritis. © 2018 The Author(s)

  • 6.
    Al Jawaheri, Raad
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Sahlén, Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Negative impact of lake liming programmes on the species richness of dragonflies (Odonata): a study from southern Sweden2017In: Hydrobiologia, ISSN 0018-8158, E-ISSN 1573-5117, Vol. 788, no 1, p. 99-113Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Liming programmes aiming to restore fish populations are being implemented in many acidified aquatic systems in northern Europe. We studied Odonata communities in 47 forest lakes in SW Sweden, 13 that are currently being limed, and 8 that have previously been limed. Thirty-one species were recorded, with the highest mean number in untreated lakes, followed by previously treated lakes and currently treated lakes. Species communities differed between untreated and limed lakes, but only few rare species found in the untreated lakes were absent in the treated lakes. Likewise, species known to thrive in acid environments were either rare or showed no preferences. Comparing the number of records of odonate species within a large regional area to the proportion of lakes inhabited in our study, we found that seven of the most commonly observed species occurred less frequently in limed lakes than in the untreated ones, including two of the three most common taxa. Reduced species numbers in limed lakes might be due to conditions on other trophic levels, including fish predation. We argue that Odonata should be considered when developing new biological indices of water quality, although the causes of the observed occurrence patterns need to be studied further. © 2016 Springer International Publishing Switzerland

  • 7.
    Albinsson, John
    et al.
    Lund Univ, Dept Biomed Engn, S-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Brorsson, Sofia
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Rydén Ahlgren, Åsa
    Lund Univ, Dept Clin Sci, Clin Physiol & Nucl Med Unit, Malmo, Sweden..
    Cinthio, Magnus
    Lund Univ, Dept Biomed Engn, S-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Improved tracking performance of lagrangian block-matching methodologies using block expansion in the time domain: In silico, phantom and invivo evaluations2014In: Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology, ISSN 0301-5629, E-ISSN 1879-291X, Vol. 40, no 10, p. 2508-2520Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to evaluate tracking performance when an extra reference block is added to a basic block-matching method, where the two reference blocks originate from two consecutive ultrasound frames. The use of an extra reference block was evaluated for two putative benefits: (i) an increase in tracking performance while maintaining the size of the reference blocks, evaluated using in silico and phantom cine loops; (ii) a reduction in the size of the reference blocks while maintaining the tracking performance, evaluated using in vivo cine loops of the common carotid artery where the longitudinal movement of the wall was estimated. The results indicated that tracking accuracy improved (mean - 48%, p<0.005 [in silico]; mean - 43%, p<0.01 [phantom]), and there was a reduction in size of the reference blocks while maintaining tracking performance (mean - 19%, p<0.01 [in vivo]). This novel method will facilitate further exploration of the longitudinal movement of the arterial wall. (C) 2014 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology.

  • 8.
    Anderberg, Cecilia
    et al.
    Volvo Cars Corporation, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Dimkovski, Zlate
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Rosén, Bengt Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Thomas, Tom R.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Low friction and emission cylinder liner surfaces and the influence of surface topography and scale2019In: Tribology International, ISSN 0301-679X, E-ISSN 1879-2464, Vol. 133, p. 224-229Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A low friction piston ring pack, with tangential load halved, was tested in engines with four different cylinder liner finishes. Oil consumption, oil temperature and liner surface temperature were monitored at different load and speed levels, under similar test conditions. The two smoother surfaces generally kept lower oil consumption compared to the two rougher ones. Results were correlated using an area-fractal analysis. The relative area of the surface was calculated at different scales and the result was compared with the level of oil consumption for the different liner surfaces at different engine speeds. It was found that oil consumption was strongly correlated with scale for areas of above 1000 μm2 and below 20 μm2.

  • 9.
    Andersson, Åsa
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Köpenhamns universitet, Köpenhamn, Danmark.
    Abl-tyrosinkinaser och multipel skleros2018In: BestPractice, Vol. 6, no 24, p. 14-16Article, review/survey (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Andersson, Åsa
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Aksel Jacobsen, Freja
    Copenhagen University, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    B-cells and Inflammation in the Absence of the Abelson Related Gene (Arg)2016In: Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology, ISSN 2155-9899, E-ISSN 2155-9899, Vol. 7, no 6, article id 1000470Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Abelson non-receptor tyrosine kinases, c-Abl and Arg, are important regulators of cellular processes in cancer, inflammation, infection, and neuronal dynamics. Recent research on the role for these kinases in processes involving interactions with the cytoskeleton or signaling molecules, may lead to further insight into the pathogenesis of a variety of disorders, including chronic inflammatory diseases. In a mouse model for multiple sclerosis, we recently reported that Arg deficient mice develop T-cell mediated autoimmune neuro-inflammation with the same severity as littermate controls, but display a different B-cell phenotype upon immunization. Here we comment on these results and discuss the role for Arg in B-cell activation and homeostasis.

  • 11.
    Averfalk, Helge
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Dalman, Bengt-Göran
    BG Dalman AB, Göteborg, Sverige.
    Kilersjö, Christer
    EKSTA, Kungsbacka, Sverige.
    Lygnerud, Kristina
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet, Stockholm, Sverige.
    Welling, Sebastian
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet, Stockholm, Sverige.
    Analys av 4e generationens fjärrvärmeteknik jämfört med 3e generationens: Simulering av sekundärnät i nybyggnationsområde2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrunden till studien är att nya förutsättningar genom energieffektivisering, konkurrens från värmepumpar och nya krav på kundsidan gör en modernisering av fjärrvärmeverksamhet nödvändig. En del av denna modernisering är att kunna dra nytta av de fördelar som lägre temperaturer i näten medför. Därtill skapas genom den nya tekniken förutsättningar för att ta hand om värmekällor som idag inte utnyttjas (t.ex. värme från kylprocesser och annan infrastruktur såsom värme från avloppsvatten och värme från kollektivtrafik).

    Befintlig teknik är beprövad och bygger på att det finns ekonomiska incitament att förbränna biobränsle och avfall. Steget till att pröva en ny teknik där andra värmekällor och en ny gränsdragning gentemot kund blir nödvändig är därför stort och förenat med ett antal frågor. Det är just de frågor som uppkommer i ett fjärrvärmeföretag inför implementering av 4e generationens fjärrvärmeteknik som projektet försöker identifiera. Det blir dock så att enbart en del av frågorna besvaras genom att studien har ett avgränsat fokus. Fokus är på jämförelse mellan ett 3GDHtvårörsystem och ett 4GDH-trerörsystem i ett sekundärnät i ett nybyggnationsområde.

    I projektet simuleras hur utfallet blir för olika parametrar om man hade valt att implementera 4e generationens teknik istället för 3e generationens teknik.

    Resultaten påvisar att:

    • 4e generationens lösning ökar energieffektiviteten i byggnader, detta främst genom att behovet av varmvattencirkulation försvinner.• Beaktas enbart distributionsförluster i näten så är 4e generationen mer effektiv än 3e generationen.• Genom lägenhetsväxlaren i 4e generationens lösning så elimineras risken för Legionella helt. En möjlig barriär för 4e generationens teknik består dock i att boverkets byggregler inte är konstruerade för att varmvattencirkulation inte finns.• Lägenhetsväxlarna innebär en kostnad per lägenhet vilket begränsar lösningens kostnadseffektivitet jämfört med en större värmeväxlare i fastighetens bottenplan. Idag är 4e generationens teknik lämpad för fastigheter med 10-15 lägenheter, är det fler lägenheter blir 4e generationens lösning dyrare än den konventionella 3e generationens lösning.• En viktig aspekt med 4e generationens lösning att värmeförlusten från huset förflyttas från fastighetsägaren till fjärrvärmeföretaget, genom att värmeleverans sker till varje lägenhet och inte vid husvägg. Initialt kan sådan börda på fjärrvärmeföretaget verka negativ med avseende på kostnad. Diskussionerna i projektet mynnade ut i att parterna enas om att affären blir mer rättvisande och att fastighetsägaren får ökad insyn i värmeförbrukningen vilket, med rätt affärsmodell, kan skapa ökat förtroende och en möjlighet att dela på förlusten mellan de två parterna.

    Projektet har omfattat löpande dialog med EKSTAs VD vilket varit värdefullt för att skapa förståelse kring fastighetsägarens perspektiv och frågor rörande 4e generationens teknik. Därtill har en workshop med EKSTAs driftspersonal hållits för att diskutera relevansen i de resultat som tagits fram. I projektet ingår BengtGöran Dalman med över 35 års erfarenhet av fjärrvärmeverksamhet vid Göteborg Energi. Projektets verklighetskoppling leder till slutsatsen att det inte föreligger någon särskild driftsproblematik för implementering av 4e generationens system.

    Som en egen del i projektet uppmärksammas den diskussion som förs i branschen kring möjligheten att dra nytta av billig el, främst under perioder då det blåser mycket och det blir ett överskott av el i elnätet. I studien analyseras möjligheten att inte använda en konventionell pelletspanna som tilläggsvärmekälla utan en eldriven panna. Resultaten visar att med dagens styrning genom skatter och avgifter så är det inte möjligt att dra nytta av att det förekommer perioder med mycket lågt elpris. Rådande regelverk stödjer istället installationer såsom pelletspannor.

    © ENERGIFORSK

  • 12.
    Averfalk, Helge
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Ingvarsson, Paul
    ÅF, Division Industry, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Persson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Gong, Mei
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Large heat pumps in Swedish district heating systems2017In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 79, p. 1275-1284Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Power-to-heat solutions like heat pumps and electric boilers are foreseen to be possible future tools to stabilise international power markets with high proportions of variable power supply. Temporary low cost electricity can be used for heat generation at times with high availability of wind and solar power through substitution of ordinary heat supply, hence contributing to increased energy system sustainability. Power-to-heat installations in district heating systems are competitive due to low specific investment and installation costs for large electric boilers, heat pumps, and heat storages. Several large-scale heat pumps were installed in Swedish district heating systems during the 1980s, since a national electricity surplus from new nuclear power existed for some years. The aim of this paper is to summarise the accumulated operation experiences from these large Swedish heat pumps to support and facilitate planning of future power-to-heat solutions with heat pumps in district heating systems. Gained experiences consider; installed capacities, capacity utilisation, heat sources used, refrigerant replacements, refrigerant leakages, and wear of mechanical components. The major conclusion is that many of the large thirty-year-old heat pumps are still in operation, but with reduced capacity utilisation due to internal competition from waste and biomass cogeneration plants in the district heating systems.

  • 13.
    Averfalk, Helge
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Efficient heat distribution in solar district heating systems2018In: SDH Solar District Heating: Proceeding, 2018, p. 63-66Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper contains a short analysis showing the main benefit for solar district heating when a novel heat distribution concept with low temperatures is applied. The analysis is performed by comparing the annual solar heat output from a solar collector field for current heat distribution temperatures in Sweden with the corresponding output for the novel heat distribution concept. The results show that the new low temperature concept provides 66% more solar heat for a typical solar collector. Hereby, the solar collector field can be reduced with 40%, giving a corresponding cost reduction for solar heat generated. Another result is that the cost gradient for lower costs from lower return temperatures is five times higher for solar district heating compared to current heat supply in Swedish district heating systems. One major conclusion is that high heat distribution temperatures in current European district heating systems are a major barrier for the competitiveness of solar district heating.

  • 14.
    Averfalk, Helge
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Essential improvements in future district heating systems2017In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 116, p. 217-225Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The major common denominator for future efficient fourth generation district heating systems is lower temperature levels in the distribution networks. Higher efficiencies are then obtained in both heat supply and heat distribution. Heat supply becomes more efficient with respect to combined heat and power, flue gas condensation, heat pumps, geothermal extraction, low temperature excess heat, and heat storage. Heat distribution becomes more efficient from lower distribution losses, less pipe expansion, lower scalding risks, and plastic pipes. The lower temperature levels will be possible since future buildings will have lower temperature demands when requiring lower heat demands. This paper aims at providing seven essential recommendations concerning design and construction strategies for future fourth generation systems. The method used is based on a critical examination of the barriers for lower temperature levels and the origins of high return temperatures in contemporary third generation systems. The two main research questions applied are: Which parts of contemporary system design are undesirable? Which possible improvements are desirable? Key results and the corresponding recommendations include temperature levels for heat distribution, recirculation, metering, supervision, thermal lengths for heat exchangers and heat sinks, hydronic balancing, and legionella. The main conclusion is that it should be possible to construct new fourth generation district heating networks according to these seven essential recommendations presented in this paper. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier

  • 15.
    Averfalk, Helge
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Framtida fjärrvärmeteknik: Möjligheter med en fjärde teknikgeneration2017Report (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Averfalk, Helge
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Novel low temperature heat distribution technology2018In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 145, p. 526-539Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lower future heat demands and lower availability of non-fossil high temperature heat supply are expected future market conditions that restrain the long-term viability of contemporary district heating systems. Hence, current district heating technology should be enhanced to increase system performance in new heat distribution areas. This paper aims to outline a proposal for technical improvements required to achieve lower annual average return temperatures in new residential buildings to improve viability in future market conditions. The proposed technical solution consists of three principle changes: three-pipe distribution networks, apartment substations, and longer thermal lengths for heat exchangers. The three technical modifications aims at addressing system embedded temperature errors. Furthermore, a simulation model was developed to assess the proposed technical solution concerning different energy performances of buildings and different thermal lengths in heat exchangers. The results show that implementation of the three technical modifications reaches time-weighted annual average return temperatures of 17–21 °C with supply temperatures of about 50 °C. The results also verify the increased necessity to separate the network return flows into delivery and recirculation flows in residential substations as energy performance in buildings increase.

  • 17.
    Averfalk, Helge
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Felsmann, Clemens
    Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany.
    Rühling, Karin
    Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany.
    Wiltshire, Robin
    Building Research Establishment (BRE), Garston, Watford, United Kingdom.
    Svendsen, Svend
    Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark.
    Li, Hongwei
    Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark.
    Faessler, Jérôme
    University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Floriane, Mermoud
    University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Quiquerez, Loïc
    University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Transformation Roadmap from High to Low Temperature District Heating Systems: Annex XI final report2017Report (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Bauhn, Lovisa
    et al.
    Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nuclear Chemistry, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ekberg, Christian
    Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nuclear Chemistry, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Fleischer, Siegfried
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Mattsson, Marie
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    On the spot study reveals the missing carbon sink2017In: / [ed] Martin Novak, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An increasing amount of CO2 emitted from human activities globally does not add to the increase in the atmosphere. Taking the ocean sink into acount, the fate of about 3 Gt C annually remains to be explained. This huge amount is calculated as the residual from known fluxes1 We present an `on the spot´ study that is based on systematic soil sampling in different regions and over the years since 2004. The difference between gross heterotrophic respiration (GHR) in the soil, and net heterotrophic respiration (NHR) that is the part of the carbon dioxide leaving the ground surface, was analyzed. The accumulated data indicate a within-soil CO2 sink of the same magnitude as the sink derived from different fluxes1 . Both approaches describe the same sink but our results show that the sink is CO2 uptake from the soil atmosphere, not emitted CO2 that is returned to some unknown area on land. The energy yield needed from nitrification to explain the observed reduction of CO2 to organic material is large, and NH4 + is recycled several times. It was unexpectedly observed that O2 was released in this gross nitrification cycle and this was confirmed with H2 18O incubations in soils2 . The large CO2 sink changes between seasons, between sites and even from a sink to an additional source, which may explain why it has so long been ”missing”.

    1 Le Quéré et al. 2015. Global Carbon Budgets 2015. Earth Syst. Sci. Data 7, 349–396

    2 Fleischer S. et al. 2013. Dark oxidation of water in soils. Tellus B 65, 20490

  • 19.
    Bergman, Stefan
    et al.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden & University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden & RandD centre Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Haglund, Emma
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). RandD centre Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Aili, Katarina
    RandD centre Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden & Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Olsson, Cecilia
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bremander, Ann
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Lund University, Lund, Sweden & RandD centre Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Chronic widespread pain, sleep problems and pressure pain thresholds in a population sample2018In: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, ISSN 0003-4967, E-ISSN 1468-2060, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 1645-1646Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Berrimi, Chihab Eddine
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Chaparala, Anish
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    A STUDY ON THE SURFACE TOPOGRAPHY AND DIMENSIONAL ACCURACY OF FUSED DEPOSITION MODELING: THE EFFECTS OF SURFACE ORIENTATION AND DIFFERENT PRINT SETTINGS2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The ease of manufacturing complex geometries using fused deposition modeling (FDM) 3D-Printing reduces the overall production cost compared with the traditional manufacturing techniques. Because of the benefits of 3D printing technologies, it is proposed to be used in the manufacturing of different products. But there is still no definite characterization of the surface quality of objects manufactured by 3D printing. Hence in order to define the texture of the surfaces produced, measurements from different samples are taken and quantified.In this study, a 3D test model consisting of various slopes is printed at different layer thicknesses and different print speeds using different 3D printers.Thus, the effect of the surface orientation on the surface roughness was studied in relation to the different layer thicknesses and different print speeds. The study samples are measured using the state of the art equipment at Halmstad University.This thesis studies the surface roughness at different slopes of FDM models.A related study on the dimensional variation between the CAD model and the actual3D printed model, and causes/reasons for the variations are analyzed.It is observed that FDM produced part surface topography is directly affected by the orientation of the surface. Also, the surface roughness increases with increase in layer thickness. The observed correlations between surface roughness and layer thickness and surface orientation could be used to better understand the behavior of FDM surfaces, thus to better quantify the surface roughness. To improve quality, it must first be quantified. It is well observed that dimensional inaccuracy exists between the CAD model and the printed part. These results suggest that there is a lot of work and improvements to be done in order to close the gap of dimensional inaccuracy and achieve a high precision commercial FDM 3Dprinting.

  • 21.
    Bodin, Hristina
    et al.
    Division of Natural Sciences, Kristianstad University, Kristianstad, Sweden.
    Ehde, Per Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Weisner, Stefan
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Attenuation of Pharmaceutical Substances: Phytoremediation using Constructed Wetlands2018In: 13th Society of Wetland Scientists (SWS) Europe Chapter Meeting: Management of Wetland Ecosystem Services: Issues, Challenges and Solutions, 2018, p. 19-22Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Currently, wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) do not efficiently remove pharmaceutical substances (PS). Thus, such substances are now frequently found in aquatic ecosystems worldwide. Also, concentrations of some PS in treated effluents exceed Environmental Quality Standards proposed by EU legislation. One resource-efficient option for increasing PS removal in WWTP effluents is to use constructed wetlands (CWs) as an attenuation step (Breitholtz et al. 2012; Li et al. 2014). However, very little research has been done on how to maximize the PS attenuation capacity of CWs. Therefore, a project with the aim to investigate reduction of different pharmaceutical substances in CWs with different vegetation compositions and water depths, was performed at the Experimental Wetland Area (EVA) located 20 km north of Halmstad, Sweden. 

  • 22.
    Bonnot, N. C.
    et al.
    Grimsö Wildlife Research Station, Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Riddarhyttan, 730 91, Sweden.
    Bergvall, U. A.
    Grimsö Wildlife Research Station, Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Riddarhyttan, 730 91, Sweden.
    Jarnemo, Anders
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Kjellander, P.
    Grimsö Wildlife Research Station, Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Riddarhyttan, 730 91, Sweden.
    Who’s afraid of the big bad wolf?: Variation in the stress response among personalities and populations in a large wild herbivore2018In: Oecologia, ISSN 0029-8549, E-ISSN 1432-1939, Vol. 188, no 1, p. 85-95Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Faced with rapid environmental changes, individuals may express different magnitude and plasticity in their response to a given stressor. However, little is known about the causes of variation in phenotypic plasticity of the stress response in wild populations. In the present study, we repeatedly captured individual roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) from two wild populations in Sweden exposed to differing levels of predation pressure and measured plasma concentrations of stress-induced cortisol and behavioral docility. While controlling for the marked effects of habituation, we found clear between-population differences in the stress-induced cortisol response. Roe deer living in the area that was recently recolonized by lynx (Lynx lynx) and wolves (Canis lupus) expressed cortisol levels that were around 30% higher than roe deer in the human-dominated landscape free of large carnivores. In addition, for the first time to our knowledge, we investigated the stress-induced cortisol response in free-ranging newborn fawns and found no evidence for hypo-responsiveness during early life in this species. Indeed, stress-induced cortisol levels were of similar magnitude and differed between populations to a similar extent in both neonates and adults. Finally, at an individual level, we found that both cortisol and docility levels were strongly repeatable, and weakly negatively inter-correlated, suggesting that individuals differed consistently in how they respond to a stressor, and supporting the existence of a stress-management syndrome in roe deer. © 2018, The Author(s).

  • 23.
    Bremander, Ann
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Lund University, Lund, Sweden & Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Forslind, K.
    Lund University, Lund and Helsingborg, Sweden & Helsingborg's hospital, Helsingborg, Sweden.
    Eberhardt, K.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Andersson, M.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden & Spenshult Research and Devlopment Centre, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Functional Impairment in Patients with RA in an Eight Year Perspective2017In: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, ISSN 0003-4967, E-ISSN 1468-2060, Vol. 76, no Suppl. 2, p. 1513-1514Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In people with Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) impaired physical functioning is an acute as well as long term effect of the disease. Observational performance tests reflecting range of motion in upper as well as in lower extremities should be easy to perform in the clinic as well as in research as a complement to self-reported measures of physical functioning. The Signal Of Functional Impairment (SOFI)1 is a performance test which so far has been applied only in Sweden but commonly used in the clinic and in long term follow-up clinical studies.

    Objectives: The aim was to study performance-based function assessed with SOFI over 8 years and, secondly, to study which items included in SOFI that were associated with change in functioning over time.

    Methods: An inception cohort of 1 052 patients with early RA, from the BARFOT-study, recruited 1992–2006 was investigated, mean (SD) age was 54 years (14), 70% were women. The patients were followed by a structured protocol at baseline, 3 and 6 months and at 1, 2, 5, and 8 years. SOFI consists of 3 parts measuring hand, arm (upper), and leg (lower) function (1). Hand function is tested by 4 movements; cylinder grip (H1), pen grip (H2), pincer grip (H3) and opposition of the thumb (H4). Arm function is assessed by 3 movements; hand behind the head and the ability to touch the cervical spine processes with fingers (A1), elbow supination (A2) and elbow extension (A3). Leg function is tested by 4 movements; the ability to touch the opposite knee with the heel while sitting (L1), knee extension in supine position (L2), dorsiflexion of the foot standing on a balance board (L3), and the ability to stand on tip toes without shoes (L4). An assessor scores the patient's ability to perform the different tests on an ordinal scale (0=normal, 1= partly impaired and 2= unable to perform). The range of SOFI scores is 0–44 (best to worst).

    Results: At baseline the mean (SD) SOFI was 7.2 (5.8), and at 1 year follow-up the improvement was 2.75 (5.65), p<0.001. From 1 year to 8 year follow-up the deterioration was 1.5 (4.6), p<0.001. When studying hand, upper and lower function separately, the pen grip and the ability to stand on tip toes improves most during the first year. From 1 to 8 year the pincer grip and the ability to stand on tip toes are the items that deteriorate most (Figure). Assessment of the pen grip, the pincer grip and the ability to stand on tip toes explain 58% to 70% of the SOFI score over time, with the highest rate at 5 (65%) and 8 years follow-up (70%).

    Conclusions: Functioning as assessed by SOFI improved during the first year in patients with early RA and then deteriorated slowly. Over a longer period, pincer grip and the ability to stand on tip toes seemed to be the two most important items to measure when assessing functional impairment over time. © 2017, BMJ Publishing Group Limited

  • 24.
    Bremander, Ann
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Department of Clinical Sciences, Section of Rheumatology, Lund, Sweden & R&D centre, Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Haglund, Emma
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). R&D centre, Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Bergman, Stefan
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Section of Rheumatology, Lund, Sweden & R&D centre, Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden & Primary Health Care Unit, Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Measures of Physical Activity and Fear Avoidance in People with Chronic Pain2018In: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, ISSN 0003-4967, E-ISSN 1468-2060, Vol. 77, no Suppl. 2, p. 1829-1830, article id SAT0737-HPRArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Lifestyle factors such as physical activity (PA) has the possibility to contribute to improved health and quality of life in the population as well as in chronic diseases. Most often PA is self-reported while measures of the aerobic capacity are more seldom measured in subjects with chronic pain.

    Objectives To describe physical activity levels (self-reported and aerobic capacity) in people with chronic pain classified as regional or widespread and to compare the findings with a group that report no pain.

    Methods From the 2016 follow-up of the Swedish population based Epipain cohort (n 1321), 146 subjects were invited to a clinical assessment where the aerobic capacity was assessed by using a submaximal bicycle test, the Ekblom-Bak test, together with assessment of the Borg scale for perceived exertion (RPE). Aerobic capacity was also classified as low, average or high according to data from the general population. Self-reported physical activity was coded as MVPArec if recommended levels of PA was reported (physically active on a moderate level ≥150 min/week (MPA) or on an vigorous level ≥75 min/week (VPA) or not). The Fear Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire for PA (FABQ-PA, 0–24 best to worst) and for work (FABQ-W, 0–48 best to worst) were also assessed. The participants were classified as having chronic widespread pain (CWP), chronic regional pain (CRP) or no chronic pain (NCP) based on a pain mannequin presenting 0–18 pain regions and if pain had lasted for 3 months or more. Chi2 and Kruskal-Wallis tests were performed to study differences between the three pain groups.

    Results 141/146 (97%) subjects (mean (SD) age 59.4 (8.2) years) whereof 61% were women, could be classified into pain groups; 43 as CWP (84% women), 43 as CRP (42% women) and 55 as NCP (58% women). The group with CWP was slightly older than those with CRP (mean (SD) age 57.0 (7.6) years vs. 61.9 (6.9) years, p 0.02). The CWP group also had lower aerobic capacity (mean (SD) 2.2 (0.5) l/min vs. 2.6 (0.6) l/min, p 0.03), and a larger proportion was classified as having low aerobic capacity (CWP 21%, CRP 7% and NCP 10%, p 0.04). The proportion of MVPArec did not differ between the groups; CWP 70%, CRP 81% and NCP 74% (p 0.5). There was neither a difference between the groups in BMI, RPE or in sitting hours/week (p>0.6). However, differences were found in the FABQ where in the PA scale those with CRP had worse scores compared with NCP (mean (SD) 11.2 (7.3) vs. 6.0 (6.0), p<0.001), the difference between CWP (mean (SD) 8.9 (6.7)) and NCP was p 0.06. In the work subscale of FABQ, CWP had worse scores compared with CRP (mean (SD) 18.9 (15.7) vs. 10.0 (12.5), p 0.002) and CRP had worse scores compared to those with NCP (mean (SD) 10.0 (12.5) vs. 6.5 (9.1), p<0.001).

    Conclusions In this sample of subjects with chronic pain or no pain, having widespread pain tended to affect the aerobic capacity negatively while self-reports of reaching recommended levels of physical activity did not differ between groups. Fear avoidance in relation to physical activity and especially in relation to work was more noticeable in subjects with chronic pain compared to those with no pain. Measures of aerobic capacity and information of fear avoidance beliefs might help health professionals to better tailor the non-pharmacological treatment for subjects with chronic pain.

    Disclosure of Interest None declared

    © 2018, Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited.

  • 25.
    Bremander, Ann
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Lund University, Lund, Sweden & Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Haglund, Emma
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Bergman, Stefan
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden; Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden & The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ndosi, M.
    University of the West of England, Bristol, United Kingdom.
    The Educational Needs of Patients with Undifferentiated Spondyloarthritis2017In: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, ISSN 0003-4967, E-ISSN 1468-2060, Vol. 76, no Suppl. 2, p. 1495-1496Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Bremander, Ann
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Department of Clinical Sciences, Section of Rheumatology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden & Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Haglund, Emma
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Bergman, Stefan
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Section of Rheumatology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden & Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden & Primary Health Care Unit, Department ofPublic Health and Community Medicine,Institute of Medicine, The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ndosi, Mwidimi E.
    Department of Nursing and Midwifery, University of the West of England, Bristol, United Kingdom.
    The educational needs of patients with undifferentiated spondyloarthritis: Validation of the ENAT questionnaire and needs assessment2018In: Musculoskeletal Care, ISSN 1478-2189, E-ISSN 1557-0681, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 313-317Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to validate the Swedish version of the educational needs assessment tool (SwENAT) in undifferentiated spondyloarthritis (USpA) and use it to study the educational needs of patients with USpA.

    METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study, recruiting a random sample of patients with USpA from a hospital register in Sweden. Educational needs data were collected, together with disease activity and function indices (Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index [BASDAI] and Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index [BASFI]). Rasch analysis was utilized to evaluate the construct validity, internal consistency and unidimensionality of the SwENAT before studying differences in educational needs between patient subgroups (gender, age and disease severity).

    RESULTS: = 11.488; p = 0.119), including strict unidimensionality. Overall, the mean (SD) SwENAT score was 86 (32). Women reported higher needs than men in the domains of pain (mean [SD] 13.1 [6.8] versus 10.1 [6.0]; p = 0.05); movement (mean [SD] 13.0 [5.5] versus 9.9 [5.7]; p = 0.02) and self-help (mean [SD] 17.0 [5.8] versus 14.1 [5.0]; p = 0.03). Higher disease activity (BASDAI >4) was associated with higher educational needs (mean [SD] 92.6 [31.9] versus 73.7 [29.4]; p = 0.02).

    CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that the SwENAT is valid in USpA. Women and patients with higher disease activity are more likely to have high levels of educational needs, so special attention and strategies to target patient education are warranted. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • 27.
    Bååth, Lars
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Mantovani, F.
    Istituto di Radioastronomia del C.N.R., Bologna, Italy.
    Rantakyrö, F.T.
    Istituto di Radioastronomia del C.N.R., Bologna, Italy.
    High resolution interferometry of the QSO 1422+2021997In: Astronomy and Astrophysics. Supplement Series, ISSN 1286-4846, Vol. 125, no 1, p. 453-458Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present VLA A-array observations at 8.4 and 15GHz and European VLBI Network (EVN) observations at 1.6GHz of the radio source 1422+202. It is suggested that 1422+202 is a Medium-size Object in the evolutionary sequence from Compact Steep-spectrum Sources to larger sized radio sources. The VLBI data were analysed with the phase referencing technique and we show that the EVN can work as a phase stable instrument for separations between the calibrator source and the target source up to ~ 10 degrees. With the VLA and VLBI observations we investigate some of the issues about the nucleus of 1422+202 and we discuss the possible cause for the low frequency variability detected while monitoring the source.

  • 28.
    Cabanettes, Frederic
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces. University of Lyon – ENISE, Saint-Etienne, France.
    Joubert, A.
    University of Lyon – ENISE, Saint-Etienne, France.
    Rech, Joel
    University of Lyon – ENISE, Saint-Etienne, France.
    Dimkovski, Zlate
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Multi scale analysis of as built surfaces generated in metal additive manufacturing2017In: Mets&Props 2017: 16th International Conference on Metrology and Properties of Engineering Surfaces: Conference abstracts, 2017, p. 149-150Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Cabanettes, Frederic
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Halmstad Univ, Sch Business & Engn, SE-30118 Halmstad, Sweden..
    Rosén, Bengt Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Topography changes observation during running-in of rolling contacts2014In: Wear, ISSN 0043-1648, E-ISSN 1873-2577, Vol. 315, no 1-2, p. 78-86Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The automotive industry and the design of engines are strongly ruled by performance and legislation demands. In the valve train, besides the main function (transformation of rotation to translation movements) to fulfill, new requirements in environmental demands and performance in terms of wear are leading to more and more detailed studies of the cams and rollers. Wear reduction studies for prolonging lifetime of these components require decreasing the scale of observation down to roughness. Among the different wear stages of a component, the running-in is a crucial period which will greatly influence the lifetime and performance of components. The aim of this paper is to analyze the topography variations observed during the running-in of a camshaft on a valve train rig test. A truck engine's camshaft is run under realistic conditions and 3D surfaces are measured before and after the test by using relocation techniques. By measuring the very same surfaces before and after the experiment, a deep analysis of the running-in effects on surfaces can be performed. 3D surface roughness parameters are used in parallel with new proposed methods of analysis. As a result, the mechanisms involved during running-in are emphasized and can be used for further simulations and optimization of the cam roller contact. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 30.
    Cabanettes, Frédéric
    et al.
    University of Lyon – ENISE, Saint-Etienne, France.
    Faverjon, Pierre
    PCI SCEMM – Tongtai Group, Saint-Etienne, France.
    Sova, A.
    University of Lyon – ENISE, Saint-Etienne, France.
    Dumont, F.
    University of Lyon – ENISE, Saint-Etienne, France.
    Rech, Joel
    University of Lyon – ENISE, Saint-Etienne, France.
    Dimkovski, Zlate
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Influence of surface topography on starvation of lubricated contacts: application to MQL machining2017In: Mets&Props 2017: 16th International Conference on Metrology and Properties of Engineering Surfaces: Conference abstracts, 2017, p. 187-189Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Cabanettes, Frédéric
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). University of Lyon, ENISE, Laboratoire de Tribologie et Dynamique des Systèmes, Saint-Etienne, France.
    Joubert, A.
    University of Lyon, ENISE, Laboratoire de Tribologie et Dynamique des Systèmes, Saint-Etienne, France.
    Chardon, G.
    University of Lyon, ENISE, Laboratoire de Tribologie et Dynamique des Systèmes, Saint-Etienne, France.
    Dumas, V.
    University of Lyon, ENISE, Laboratoire de Tribologie et Dynamique des Systèmes, Saint-Etienne, France.
    Rech, J.
    University of Lyon, ENISE, Laboratoire de Tribologie et Dynamique des Systèmes, Saint-Etienne, France.
    Grosjean, C.
    Centre Technique des Industries Mécaniques, Saint-Etienne, France.
    Dimkovski, Zlate
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Topography of as built surfaces generated in metal additive manufacturing: A multi scale analysis from form to roughness2018In: Precision engineering, ISSN 0141-6359, E-ISSN 1873-2372, Vol. 52, p. 249-265Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Topographies are one of the challenges for the development of the metal additive manufacturing promising technique. The article investigates multi scale topographies (from form to roughness) of as built surfaces generated by selective laser melting (SLM). Different building inclinations of samples were observed both for upskin and downskin surfaces with a wide range of measuring techniques. The two main aims are: (i) to make a critical review of measuring techniques at different scales, (ii) to enlighten the different surface generation phenomena (and the corresponding scale) occurring during additive manufacturing. The effect of heat treatment on each scale of the topography is also discussed. It is found that the focus variation technique is well suited for AM surfaces. Concerning the observation of the inclined surfaces, some parameters are emphasized as good indicators of typical signatures of AM surfaces: isotropy for the weld track component, the skewness and Rsm for the staircase effect, fractal dimension for the presence of partly melted particles. The different parameters studied helps to model and understand the different surface generation phenomena aforementioned. © 2018 Elsevier Inc.

  • 32.
    Cansu Ertem, Funda
    et al.
    Institute of Biotechnology, Technische Universität Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
    Wang, Liqian
    Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Shanghai, China.
    Mattsson, Marie
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Analyzing the impacts of inoculums to substrate ratio and pretreatment methods on the anaerobic biogas production from sugar beets2016In: ETIKUM 2016: Proceedings, Novi Sad: Faculty of technical sciences department of production engineering , 2016, p. 113-116Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study evaluates the impacts of three different pretreatment methods on the biogas production from sugar beet, when it is anaerobically digested with a variety of inoculum mixing ratios. In this context, this research focuses on the influences of different pretreatment methods and inoculum on the digestibility on the digestibility. Sugar beet was anaerobically digested at 37°C. Actively digested cow manure slurry, vegetable and fruit residues mix was used as inoculum. The series of laboratory experiments using 32 digesters (each 1 L) were performed in batch operation mode. The results prove that inoculum and pretreatments could either enhance the biogas potential or totally inhibit the digestion. Key words: sugar beet, inoculum, pretreatment methods, biogas production.

  • 33.
    Carlzon, Linnéa
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Karlsson, Amanda
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Falk, Knud
    www.vandrefalk.dk, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Liess, Antonia
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Møller, Søren
    Roskilde University Library, Roskilde, Denmark.
    Extreme weather affects Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus tundrius) breeding success in South GreenlandIn: Ornis Hungarica, ISSN 1215-1610Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to better understand the potential effects of climate change on the Peregrine Falcon, we investigated the relationship between extreme weather events and Peregrines’ breeding success in South Greenland. We defined three variables – number of days with extremely low temperatures, extreme precipitation, consecutive rainy days – and an additive variable, total days with extreme weather, and tested their relationship with Peregrines’ breeding success (measured as young per site and nest success) over a 33 year study period. Breeding success was negatively influenced by the number of days with extreme weather and extremely low temperature. The strongest relationship found was total days with extreme weather in the entire breeding season, which explained 22% and 27% of the variation in nest success and young per site, respectively. The number of days with extreme weather in our study related to fluctuations in the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). Thus, with a strengthening of the NAO, linked to climate change, more extreme weather may occur in the Arctic and induce increased variation in Peregrines’ breeding success. Our data did not allow us to pinpoint when in the breeding cycle inclement weather was particularly harmful, and we recommend finer-scale research (e.g. automated nest cameras) to better monitor the species-specific effects of rapidly changing climate.

  • 34.
    Cregård, Anna
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Inter-occupational cooperation and boundary work in the hospital setting2018In: Journal of Health Organisation & Management, ISSN 1477-7266, E-ISSN 1758-7247, Vol. 32, no 5, p. 658-673Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to add a little piece to the research on boundary work and inter-occupational cooperation by addressing two questions: how do actors perform boundary work in an inter-occupational cooperation project that seeks to improve the personnel health work in a hospital setting? What impact does the boundary work have on such cooperation in the personnel health project?

    Design/methodology/approach: The study is based on individual, in-depth interviews and participative observations of focus group discussions conducted at a regional municipal organization in Sweden. Respondents are hospital line managers, experts and strategists in the HR departments, and experts from the internal occupational health service.

    Findings: The concepts on boundary work, which include closing/opening boundary strategies, provide the framework for the empirical illustrations. The cooperation runs smoothly in the rehabilitation work because of an agreed upon process in which the professionals’ jurisdictions are preserved through closing strategies. Illness prevention and health promotion are not areas of inter-occupational cooperation because the stronger actors use closing strategies. While the weaker actors, who try to cooperate, use opening boundary strategies in these areas, they are excluded or marginalized.

    Research limitations/implications: The empirical investigation concerns one cooperation project and was completed at one data collection point.

    Originality/value: No similar study of boundary work and inter-occupational cooperation in a hospital setting is available despite the frequency of this professional group configuration in practice. A more inclusive concept of professionalism may facilitate the study of boundary work and inter-occupational cooperation among actors with different professional authority. © Emerald Publishing Limited 2018

  • 35.
    Cregård, Anna
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Investigating the Risks of Spiritual Leadership2017In: Nonprofit Management & Leadership, ISSN 1048-6682, E-ISSN 1542-7854, Vol. 27, no 4, p. 533-547Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The spiritual leadership literature suggests that such leadership has a positive influence on organizations' productivity and profitability as well as on employees' enjoyment and well-being. In a qualitative study conducted at a Swedish abbey for nuns, using interviews, observations, correspondence, and documents, this research indicates that spiritual leadership may pose negative risks to organizations and their leaders. Risks in spiritual leadership that are indicated include a culture of narrow-mindedness and leadership rotation failure that can lead to rigidity and to the leader's work overload because of the demand for limitless empathy and for personal sacrifice. The findings should be viewed as an inspiration for further research.

  • 36.
    Cregård, Anna
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Berntson, ErikStockholms universitet, Stockholm, Sverige.Tengblad, StefanHögskolan i Skövde, Skövde, Sverige.
    Att leda i en komplex organisation: Utmaningar och nya perspektiv för chefer i offentlig verksamhet2018Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Cregård, Anna
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Berntson, Erik
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm, Sverige.
    Tengblad, Stefan
    Högskolan i Skövde, Skövde, Sverige.
    Andersson, Pia
    Göteborgs universitet, Göteborg, Sverige.
    Lindgren, Hans
    Göteborgs universitet, Göteborg, Sverige.
    En introduktion till ledarskap och organisatorisk komplexitet2018In: Att leda i en komplex organisation: Utmaningar och nya perspektiv för chefer i offentlig verksamhet / [ed] Anna Cregård, Erik Berntson & Stefan Tengblad, Stockholm: Natur och kultur, 2018, p. 9-21Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Cregård, Anna
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Eriksson, Nomie
    Högskolan i Skövde, Skövde, Sverige.
    Chefskap i professionella organisationer: Läkare som chefer2018In: Att leda i en komplex organisation: Utmaningar och nya perspektiv för chefer i offentlig verksamhet / [ed] Anna Cregård, Erik Berntson & Stefan Tengblad, Stockholm: Natur och kultur, 2018, p. 71-84Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Cregård, Anna
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Forsberg, Tina
    Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Berntson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Models for cooperation between line-managers and techno structure experts: creating value and professionalization in local government2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years the number of people working within the techno structure in public sector organizations has increased, for example within human resource, communication, financial control, and general administration, just as Mintzberg (1993) foresaw already in the beginning of the 1980’s[1]. Many of these occupations have initiated a professionalization process, which among other things has resulted in an increased focus on developing the profession itself, strengthening boundaries towards other occupations and functions, and elevating the jurisdiction. For example within local government human resource and communication functions the jurisdictional claim has been transferred from the operative, hands-on work to more strategic work and in partnership with strategic management[2]. The techno structure experts can be described as more professional, more knowledgeable and highly skilled, but also more detached from the everyday work of civil servants and operative managers trying to execute the public organization’s mission, hence creating public value.

    Professionalization within the local governments’ techno structure is theoretically interesting. For example there is a matter of gender, since women mostly inhabit the techno structure functions. It is also interesting from a cooperation and boundary work point of view, since different models of cooperation contain different logics of negotiations, conflict and agreements. And cooperation is hard to achieve, since that requires actual prioritization and redistribution of resources[3]. In this study our aim is to develop knowledge on cooperation models between the techno structure experts and line-managers in order to create sustainable and healthy organizing that can foster public value creation. Following Zhou, et al.[4] inter-occupational cooperation is defined here as working together across boundaries in order to achieve common goals, emphasizing the multi-actor and multi-occupational relationships.

    In order to investigate the content and effects of different models of cooperation we have conducted case studies in three Swedish local governments, including focus group interviews, survey data and secondary sources. We have also re-analyzed both survey data and interview data from our previous investigations on related issues in local governments.

    We present three analytical models of cooperation between line-managers and techno structure experts, derived from the empirical investigation. The three models are built up by different logics, and hence create different levels of value to the public organization and common good on the one hand, and to the different functions and professions involved on the other hand. The models may be used as analytical tools for empirical and normative work for the development of the public organization, but also as a foundation for adding a little piece of the theoretical puzzle of how to create cooperation and value within local government organizations. 

      

    [1] Mintzberg, H. (1993). Structure in fives: Designing effective organizations. Prentice-Hall, Inc. 

    [2] Condrey, S.E. (2015). Public Human Resource Management: How We Get Where We are Today. Riccucci, N. M. (ed) Public Personnel Management. 1-13. Routledge. 

    [3] Ashkenas, R. (2015). There’s a Difference Between Cooperation and Collaboration. Harvard Business Review, April 20, 1-6. 

    [4] Zhou, J., et al. (2014). Making collaborators happy: The outcome priming effect in integrative negotiation. Public Personnel Management, 43(3), 290-300.

  • 40.
    Cregård, Anna
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Solli, Rolf
    University of Borås, Borås, Sweden.
    Top managerial role in transition – or not? Trajectories during 20 years in Swedish local government2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The top municipal managers – the CEOs – hold an important role in the Swedish municipalities. He or she is the highest non-politically appointed official, in charge of the administration. Often the position has ensured stability in municipalities with high turnover on politicians and changing political majority, and with the position also comes a comprehensive and professional bureaucracy. The municipal services are extensive in Sweden, and are characterized by high competence, independence from state intervention and a wide-ranging scope. Politics and management usually work close to each other. However, this makes the position of the municipal CEO both influential and difficult, as she or he moves in and between major political issues but always has to be perceived as apolitical and objective. The position is formally unregulated and is often described in terms of understanding and making sense about a golden interface. In this paper we analyze the past, present and the future of Swedish municipal administrative governance based on the perspective of the municipal CEO. We also discuss effects of the development of the role and its performance. We conclude by suggesting how the role - and thus also part of the municipal governance - could develop in the future.

    Two theoretical frameworks form the basis of our studies. Institutional theory forms the basis for analyzing path dependencies and change. Theoretical concepts of leadership form the basis for studying the managerial role of the municipal CEO. The framework provides the starting point for our operationalization of questions to a questionnaire sent to all Swedish municipal CEOs every five years for a 20-year period (a total of five times starting in 1995). In addition to the survey data, we use longitudinally collected interview data as well as secondary sources.

    Our investigations reveal that the municipal CEO holds his or her position in a shorter period (increased turnover) grows older and the proportion of women is increasing rapidly and steadily. The CEO puts less emphasis on economic crisis management, but puts more emphasis on ensuring compliance with rules, giving politicians advice and planning for regional development with other municipalities’ CEO. Comparing to other countries' corresponding positions, we notice that the Swedish municipal CEO has much in common with Northern Europe's local administrations, but not with Southern Europe's countries or Great Britain. The leadership style is more participatory than authoritative even if this changes slightly over the years. The CEOs describe their role as difficult, especially in relation to the political level. The changes in the role during the investigated 20 years suggest there are at least three trajectories to choose from in the future: 1) to become increasingly political (and perhaps even politically appointed), 2) to be clearly separated from the political level through increased formal regulation, or 3) to support continued informal interpreting of the mystic and undefined golden interface.

  • 41.
    Cöster, Maria C.
    et al.
    Department of Orthopedics and Clinical Sciences, SUS Malmö, Malmö, Sweden.
    Nilsdotter, Anna
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Brudin, Lars
    Department of Clinical Physiology, Kalmar Hospital, Kalmar, Sweden & Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Linköping University Hospital, Linköping, Sweden.
    Bremander, Ann
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund, Section of Rheumatology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Minimally important change, measurement error, and responsiveness for the Self-Reported Foot and Ankle Score2017In: Acta Orthopaedica, ISSN 1745-3674, E-ISSN 1745-3682, Vol. 88, no 3, p. 300-304Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and purpose: Patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) are increasingly used to evaluate results in orthopedic surgery. To enhance good responsiveness with a PROM, the minimally important change (MIC) should be established. MIC reflects the smallest measured change in score that is perceived as being relevant by the patients. We assessed MIC for the Self-reported Foot and Ankle Score (SEFAS) used in Swedish national registries.

    Patients and methods: Patients with forefoot disorders (n = 83) or hindfoot/ankle disorders (n = 80) completed the SEFAS before surgery and 6 months after surgery. At 6 months also, a patient global assessment (PGA) scaleas external criterionwas completed. Measurement error was expressed as the standard error of a single determination. MIC was calculated by (1) median change scores in improved patients on the PGA scale, and (2) the best cutoff point (BCP) and area under the curve (AUC) using analysis of receiver operating characteristic curves (ROCs).

    Results: The change in mean summary score was the same, 9 (SD 9), in patients with forefoot disorders and in patients with hindfoot/ankle disorders. MIC for SEFAS in the total sample was 5 score points (IQR: 2-8) and the measurement error was 2.4. BCP was 5 and AUC was 0.8 (95% CI: 0.7-0.9).

    Interpretation: As previously shown, SEFAS has good responsiveness. The score change in SEFAS 6 months after surgery should exceed 5 score points in both forefoot patients and hindfoot/ankle patients to be considered as being clinically relevant.

    © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Taylor & Francis on behalf of the Nordic Orthopedic Federation.

  • 42.
    Dalzochio, Marina Schmidt
    et al.
    Laboratório de Ecologia e Evolução, Universidade do Vale do Taquari – UNIVATES, Lajeado, Brazil.
    Périco, Eduardo
    Laboratório de Ecologia e Evolução, Universidade do Vale do Taquari – UNIVATES, Lajeado, Brazil.
    Renner, Samuel
    Laboratório de Ecologia e Evolução, Universidade do Vale do Taquari – UNIVATES, Lajeado, Brazil.
    Sahlén, Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Description of the final stadium larva of Erythrodiplax media (Odonata: Libellulidae) with preliminary key to known South American larvae in the genus2018In: International Journal of Odonatology, ISSN 1388-7890, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 93-104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The larva of Erythrodiplax media is described and illustrated based on two exuviae of reared larvae and one final stadium larva collected in Xangri-lá, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The larva of E. media can be distinguished from other species of Erythrodiplax by the presence of lateral spines on S8 and S9, the number of premental setae (n = 22), palpal setae (n = 7) and by the mandibular formula. We also provide a preliminary key to known South American larvae in the genus. © 2018 Worldwide Dragonfly Association.

  • 43.
    David, Andrei
    et al.
    Aalborg Univ, Dept Planning, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Vad Mathiesen, Brian
    Aalborg Univ, Dept Planning, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Averfalk, Helge
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Lund, Henrik
    Aalborg Univ, Dept Planning, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Heat Roadmap Europe: Large-Scale Electric Heat Pumps in District Heating Systems2017In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 10, no 4, article id 578Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Heat Roadmap Europe (HRE) studies estimated a potential increase of the district heating (DH) share to 50% of the entire heat demand by 2050, with approximately 25–30% of it being supplied using large-scale electric heat pumps. This study builds on this potential and aims to document that such developments can begin now with technologies currently available. We present a database and the status of the technology and its ability of expansion to other European locations by reviewing experiences aimed at further research or application in the heating industry. This is based on a survey of the existing capacity of electric large-scale heat pumps with more than 1 MW thermal output, operating in European DH systems. The survey is the first database of its kind containing the technical characteristics of these heat pumps, and provides the basis for the analysis of this paper. By quantifying the heat sources, refrigerants, efficiency and types of operation of 149 units with 1580 MW of thermal output, the study further uses this data to analyze if the deployment of this technology on a large-scale is possible in other locations in Europe. It finally demonstrates that the technical level of the existing heat pumps is mature enough to make them suitable for replication in other locations in Europe.

  • 44.
    Diehl, Sebastian
    et al.
    Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden & Integrated Science Lab (IceLab), Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Thomsson, Gustaf
    Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Kahlert, Maria
    Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Guo, Junwen
    Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Liess, Antonia
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Inverse relationship of epilithic algae and pelagic phosphorusin unproductive lakes: Roles of N2 fixers and light2018In: Freshwater Biology, ISSN 0046-5070, E-ISSN 1365-2427, Vol. 63, no 7, p. 662-675Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. Phosphorus (P) often limits the biomass of primary producers in freshwater lakes. However, in unproductive northern lakes, where anthropogenic nitrogen (N) deposition is low, N instead of P can limit primary producers. In addition, light can be limiting to primary producers at high concentrations of coloured dissolved organic matter (cDOM), as cDOM is the major determinant of light penetration in these lakes.

    2. To address resource limitation of epilithic algal biomass, we repeatedly sampled epilithon (periphyton on stony substrata) in 20 lakes covering a large, correlated cDOM and N-deposition gradient across boreal and subarctic Sweden. Across these lakes, pelagic total N (TN) and total P (TP) were positively correlated, and benthic light supply was negatively correlated, with cDOM. Microscopically determined algal biovolume and epilithic carbon (C), N and P were subsequently regressed against benthic light supply and pelagic TN and TP.

    3. Patterns in epilithic biovolume were driven by N2-fixing cyanobacteria, which accounted for 2%–90% of total epilithic biovolume. Averaged over the growing season, epilithic algal biovolume, C and N were negatively related to TP and positively to TN, and were highest in the clearest, most phosphorus-poor lakes, where epilithon was heavily dominated by potentially N2-fixing cyanobacteria.

    4. A structural equation model supports the hypothesis that cDOM had two counteracting effects on total epilithic algal biovolume: a positive one by providing N to algae that depend on dissolved N for growth, and a negative one by shading N2-fixing cyanobacteria, with the negative effect being somewhat stronger.

    5. Together, these findings suggest that (1) light and N are the main resources limiting epilithic algal biomass in boreal to subarctic Swedish lakes, (2) epilithic cyanobacteria are more competitive in high-light and low-nitrogen environments, where their N2-fixing ability allows them to reach high biomass, and (3) epilithic N increases with N2 fixer biomass and is—seemingly paradoxically—highest in the most oligotrophic lakes. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd

  • 45.
    Dimkovski, Zlate
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Lööf, Pär-Johan
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Dumbreville, Lucas
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science. École nationale d'ingénieurs de Saint-Étienne (ENISE), Saint-Étienne, France.
    Rosén, Bengt Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Nilsson, Per
    Volvo Group Trucks Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Functional Parameters Screening for Predicting Wear between Two Cylindrical Surfaces with Different Finishes2017In: Mets&Props 2017: 16th International Conference on Metrology and Properties of Engineering Surfaces: Conference abstracts, 2017, p. 75-76Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Dimkovski, Zlate
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Lööf, Pär-Johan
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Rosén, Bengt Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Nilsson, Per
    Volvo Group Trucks Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Functional parameter screening for predicting durability of rolling sliding contacts with different surface finishes2018In: Surface Topography: Metrology and Properties, ISSN 2051-672X, Vol. 6, no 2, article id 024005Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The reliability and lifetime of machine elements such as gears and rolling bearings depend on their wear and fatigue resistance. In order to screen the wear and surface damage, three finishing processes: (i) brushing, (ii) manganese phosphating and (iii) shot peening were applied on three disc pairs and long-term tested on a twin-disc tribometer. In this paper, the elastic contact of the disc surfaces (measured after only few revolutions) was simulated and a number of functional and roughness parameters were correlated. The functional parameters consisted of subsurface stresses at different depths and a new parameter called 'pressure spikes' factor'. The new parameter is derived from the pressure distribution and takes into account the proximity and magnitude of the pressure spikes. Strong correlations were found among the pressure spikes' factor and surface peak/height parameters. The orthogonal shear stresses and Von Mises stresses at the shallowest depths under the surface have shown the highest correlations but no good correlations were found when the statistics of the whole stress fields was analyzed. The use of the new parameter offers a fast way to screen the durability of the contacting surfaces operating at similar conditions. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  • 47.
    Dimkovski, Zlate
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Tomanik, Eduardo
    MAHLE Metal Leve, Jundiai, Sao Paulo, Brazil; University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    Grange, Simon
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science. École nationale d'ingénieurs de Saint-Étienne (ENISE), Saint-Étienne, France.
    Epinat, Flavien
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science. École nationale d'ingénieurs de Saint-Étienne (ENISE), Saint-Étienne, France.
    Novel Testing Methods for Screening the Tribological Performance of Ring-Liner Surfaces2017In: Mets&Props 2017: 16th International Conference on Metrology and Properties of Engineering Surfaces: Conference abstracts, 2017, p. 59-60Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 48.
    Dimkovski, Zlate
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Tomanik, Eduardo
    University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    Grange, Simon
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science. ENISE, St. Étienne, France.
    Epinat, Flavien
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science. ENISE, St. Étienne, France.
    Novel testing methods for screening the tribological performance of ring-liner surfaces2018In: Surface Topography: Metrology and Properties, E-ISSN 2051-672X, Vol. 6, no 3, article id 034017Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The piston system accounts for about the half of the frictional losses of internal combustion engines and requires special testing methods to understand and improve its function. The most common way to screen the surface performance is to rub ring/liner segments against each other in a reciprocating manner. However, short reciprocating tests have intrinsic low sliding speeds, unable to reach the mixed/hydrodynamic regimes found in the engine, especially at the mid-stroke. This paper presents a rotating test for the oil control ring, which has the largest frictional losses of all other rings. Both reciprocating and rotating tests were conducted using different in-house developed modules and fixtures. Twin land oil control rings against liners with two different finishes commonly used in heavy duty diesel truck engines were tested under similar loads and speeds as in a real engine. Engine oil 5W-30 and room temperature was used for all the tests. Sliding speed, load, friction force and electrical resistance were recorded during the tests. The results show a clear discrimination of the different liner finishes depending on the lubrication regime present.

  • 49.
    El-Ghoul, Zoel-Fikar
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    John, Shobin
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Dimkovski, Zlate
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Lööf, Pär-Johan
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Lundmark, Jonas
    Applied Nano Surfaces AB, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Mohlin, Johan
    Gnutti Carlo Sweden AB, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Wear Analysis of Pin and Roller Surfaces2017In: Mets&Props 2017: 16th International Conference on Metrology and Properties of Engineering Surfaces: Conference abstracts, 2017, p. 190-192Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 50.
    Eriksson, Lars
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Rosén, Bengt Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Bergman, Martin
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Affective surface engineering- using soft and hard metrology to measure the Sensation and perception in surface properties2018In: Proceedings of NordDesign: Design in the Era of Digitalization, NordDesign 2018, The Design Society , 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    New surface treatments, novel material developments, and improved quality control procedures and advanced metrology instrumentation create a possibility to further develop competitiveness by the selection of “optimal” surface features”, to a product. The customers first apprehension of a product and the creation of desire is a very complex, but tempting process to learn more about. The interaction between the added quantitative- and the qualitative direct impressions with the customers known and unknown functional demands, social background, and expectations results in sensation and perception, partly possible to quantify and to great extent impossible to pin-down as numbers. Customer sensation and perception are much about psychological factors. There has been a strong industrial- and academic need and interest for methods and tools to quantify and linking product properties to the human response but a lack of studies of the impact of surfaces. This paper aims to introduce a novel approach to develop and join a human sensoric inspired metrology frame-work with qualitative gradings of apprehended impressions of products with varying surface properties. The aim is to establish the metrology framework to link measurable- and unmeasurable impressions of product surfaces to customer FEELING as exemplified by a set of industrial applications. In conclusions of the study, future research in Soft metrology is proposed to allow understanding and modelling of product perception and sensations in combination with a development of the Kansei Surface Engineering methodology and software tools. © Proceedings of NordDesign: Design in the Era of Digitalization, NordDesign 2018. All rights reserved.

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