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  • 1.
    Andersen, Emelie
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Aeshna viridis distribution and habitat choices in South and Central Sweden and the possibility to use a database as a tool in monitoring a threatened species2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aeshna viridis, a dragonfly generally considered to be a specialist as it in most cases choosesStratiotes aloides as its habitat, have suffered badly from habitat loss and fragmentationsthroughout Europe under the last century as the human demand of land use have grown. It´sthereby considered near threatened on EU red list and is included in the Habitat Directive.This means that it is protected by EU law as all EU Member States is committed to protect,monitor and report back to EU the status of the species. Several European countries havedesigned protection plans for S. aloides to improve the preservation of A. viridis. My study inSouth and Central Sweden shows that the strong connection between A. viridis and S. aloidesmay not be consistent all over the distribution range of A. viridis, as my survey showed thatlarvae occur among other water plants when S. aloides is not present. Another aim in thisstudy was to evaluate the possibility to use occurrence data on A. viridis and S. aloides fromthe Species Observations System to monitor A. viridis distribution and dispersal. My studyimplies uncertainties of how well the datasets reflects reality and more research is necessarybefore clarifying if datasets could be a possible tool in conservation management of A. viridis.

  • 2.
    Averfalk, Helge
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Hansson, Anna
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Karlsson, Niklas
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Mattsson, Marie
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Klimatgaser i Halland – en målinriktad analys med framtidsperspektiv2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten innehåller en analys av utsläppen av de sex klimatgaserna i Halland mellan 1990 och 2011, en skattning vad som kommer att genomföras till 2020 och förslag till åtgärder för att kunna leverera utsläppsreduktioner efter 2020. Resultaten visar att de halländska utsläppen har minskat med 20 procent sedan 1990, målet om 27 procent lägre utsläpp till 2020 kommer troligen att uppnås, transporter och jordbruk måste kunna leverera utsläppsreduktioner efter 2020, regionala plan- och styrdokument måste i större utsträckning kunna kvantifiera framtida utsläppsreduktioner samt att det behövs ett regionalt kompetenscenter i Halland för att länet ska kunna leverera utsläppsreduktioner i framtiden.

  • 3.
    Ekholm, Emy
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Bottensubstrat och dess inverkan på reducering av BOD5, COD och TKN i lakvatten genom konstruerade rotzonsanläggningar: En pilotstudie vid Univates, Lajeado – RS Brasilien2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Treatment wetlands been showed efficient for reducing pollutant in waste water. In Lajeado – RS, Brazil the landfill has poor leachate water treatment. It is necessary to supplement the treatment plant because they need to reduce BOD, COD and nitrate of the water going to recipient. A subsurface flow wetland (SSF) can be a good choice.  In order to be able to design an efficient SSF it is important to understand how the grain sizes of a substrate affect the reducing of pollutants in waste water. This study focus on two substrate, sand with grain size of 0 - 3 mm and gravel with the grain size of 10 - 20 mm. To see the grain size reduces BOD, COD and nitrate best, the experiment used eight pilot scales SSF for leachate water treatment, four filled with sand and four filled with gravel. Two different flows, four with batch and four used continuous flow; two of each was planted with Thypa angustifolia L. Samples were taken from each wetland every week during a four week period. The results showed that the wetlands with the fine- grained substrate; sand gave the better reduction of BOD, COD and TKN (total kjeldahl kväve). It also showed great reduction in color. Important to notice in this study is the lack of time; more samples are required to be able to establish a pattern.

  • 4.
    Eriksson, Martina
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Utvärdering och framtagande av åtgärdsförslag för de mindre avloppsreningsanläggningarna i Laholms kommun: En studie av fem avloppsreningsanläggningar upp till 500 pe2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this project was to describe and to evaluate five small sewage treatment plants in the municipality of Laholm, Sweden, in order to investigate the treatment efficiency and to evaluate if effluents comply with discharge permits. The treatment systems were designed to treat effluents from 90 to 500 population equivalents. A report on the design and the present state of each sewage treatment plant has been made. This was made based upon previous documentation on water quality and by new sampling campaign as there were only a few previous measurements. Data has been evaluated and remedial actions proposed for those treatment plants that don’t fulfill discharge permits. Based upon the scientific investigation in combination with visits to the plants, discussions with the technicians in charge of the operation and literature study the following conclusions have been made:

    The sewage treatment plant in Hishult doesn’t comply with the permits and the plant will soon be totally renovated.

    Mästocka and Kornhults sewage treatment plants are complying with discharge permits and will be left without further actions at the present time.

    Skogaby sewage treatment plant is in need of remedial action and I recommend focusing on the later treatment stages of the plant (pond and infiltration unit).

    Öringe sewage treatment plant needs to be further investigated before suitable remedial actions can be proposed.

  • 5.
    Ertem, Funda Cansu
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Ecology and Environmental Science.
    IMPROVING BIOGAS PRODUCTION BY ANAEROBIC DIGESTION OF DIFFERENT SUBSTRATES: Calculation of Potential Energy Outcomes2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Global energy demand is rapidly increasing. In contrast, fossil fuel reserves are decreasing. Today, one of the major challenge is energy supply for the future. Furthermore, effects of global warming cannot be neglected anymore. Alternative energy sources such as biogas should be developed. The biomass has huge biogas potential. However, arable area in the world is limited. Therefore, substrate which will be used for biogas production should be chosen carefully. The objective of this study was to determine the biogas yields of different substrates. For this reason; red algae, green algae, mixture of brown and red algae, mixture of sugar beets and sugar beet leaves, mixture of straw and sugar beet leaves, mixture of maize and sugar beet leaves, straw, maize and ensiled ley were chosen to conduct a lab-based anaerobic digestion experiment. Biogas production and composition in mesophilic (37 OC) conditions during 25 days were measured and compared. The measurements were performed in a system consisting of 32, 1000 ml glass bottles with rubberstoppers. Potential energy production and energy requirements of each substrate were calculated. Methane yields ranged between 65.8 – 578.9 m3. t-1 VS (Volatile Solids). Whilst the highest methane yield was obtained from sugar beets, the lowest methane yields were obtained from the co-digestion of sugar beets and sugar beet leaves. The highest total energy potential for Sweden was obtained from ensiled ley and the lowest energy potential was obtained from maize. Sugar beet leaves were not good co-substrates, when they were digested with sugar beets, since they resulted in a decline in the methane yields. The highest total energy requirements for cropping and digestion were calculated for sugar beets. The lowest total energy requirements for cropping and digestion were calculated for ensiled ley. In the present study, digestion of sugar beets is suggested as good substrates for biogas production in Sweden, since it is more economical and helpful to solve the food&energy challenge. Although algae did not yield as much biogas as crops, they are interesting for biogas production since algae are considered a problem on the beaches and their high growth rates and abundance make them attractive for use in energy production. Due to lack of information, further studies are needed about economical aspects of algae for using in biogas plants.

  • 6.
    Fleischer, Siegfried
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Emissionen av koldioxid inom Vesanområdet2010In: Överkörd natur: Rolands Hav och Vesan / [ed] Sven Björk, Olofström: Vekerum , 2010, p. 562-563Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Fleischer, Siegfried
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Interaction between N and C in Soil has Consequences for Global Carbon Cycling2012In: Journal of Resources and Ecology, ISSN 1674-764X, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 16-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy—yielding processes in the N—cycle form important links with the global C—cycle. One example is demonstrated with the supply of nitrogen to soils, initially resulting in lowered CO2 emissions. This well known effect has mostly been interpreted as hampered or delayed soil respiration. When added in surplus, however, nitrogen supply does not stabilize the minimum emissions initially obtained, but gradually results in increased CO2 emissions. Specific inhibition of the CO2 consuming process nitrification in soils, with surplus ammonium supply or with acetylene, mostly results in additional CO2 emissions. The difference between this disclosed gross heterotrophic respiration (GHR) and the net CO2 emission (NHR) is the result of a within—soil CO2—sink. Soil respiration solely determined as CO2 emitted as NHR (the common situation) therefore may lead to misinterpretations of the function of the soil system, especially in areas with high N—deposition. As a consequence, the interpreted ‘acclimation’ of the soil respiration response in a warmer world should be reconsidered. The concept of respiration inhibition by nitrogen supply may also be questioned. Disregard of these processes, including the indicated N—driven within—soil CO2—sink, may prevent adequate measures counteracting climate change.

  • 8.
    Fleischer, Siegfried
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Production of greenhouse gases in Lake Hornborga2014In: Limnological Methods for Environmental Rehabilitation: The Fine Art of Restoring Aquatic Ecosystems / [ed] Sven Björk, Stuttgart: E. Schweizerbart'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, 2014, p. 102-105Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Fleischer, Siegfried
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Bauhn, Lovisa
    Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering/Nuclear Chemistry, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Fors, Patrik
    Vattenfall Research and Development AB, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ödegaard-Jensen, Arvid
    Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering/Nuclear Chemistry, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Dark oxidation of water in soils2013In: Tellus. Series B, Chemical and physical meteorology, ISSN 0280-6509, E-ISSN 1600-0889, Vol. 65, no 1, article id 20490Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report the release of oxygen (O2) under dark conditions in aerobic soils. This unexpected process is hidden by respiration which constitutes the dominating reversal O2 flux. By using H218O in different soils, we confirmed that 16O18O and 18O2 released under dark soil conditions originated from added H218O. Water is the only large-scale source of electrons for reduction of CO2 in soils, but it has not been considered as an electron donor because of the very strong oxidation system needed. A high share of soil inorganic material seems to favor the release of O2. © 2013 S. Fleischer et al.

  • 10.
    Fleischer, Siegfried
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Bouse, Ivo
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Nitrogen cycling drives a strong within-soil CO2-sink2008In: Tellus. Series B, Chemical and physical meteorology, ISSN 0280-6509, E-ISSN 1600-0889, Vol. 60, no 5, p. 782-786Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For about three decades, it has not been possible to completely balance global carbon emissions into known pools. A residual (or 'missing') sink remains. Here evidence is presented that part of soil respiration is allocated into an internal soil CO2-sink localized to the saprophytic subsystem (roots excluded). The process occurs in forest, agricultural and grassland soils and is favoured by high N-deposition. Chemoautotrophic nitrification has a key role, and the most efficient internal CO2-sequestration occurs concurrently with lowest soil nitrate (NO3-) concentrations, despite considerable N-loading. Not until drastic N-supply occurs, does the CO2-sink successively breakdown, and nitrate concentrations increase, leading to NO3--leaching. Within-soil CO2-uptake seems to be of the same magnitude as the missing carbon sink. It may be gradually enforced by the ongoing input of nitrogen to the biosphere.

  • 11.
    Hansson, Anna
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Eno, Kristian
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Pedersen, Eja
    Environmental Psychology, Department of Architecture and Built Environment, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Bra kontakter kan bli bättre: Utvärdering av kontakter mellan brukare, handläggare och politiker inom miljö- och hälsoskyddsarbetet i Hallands län och Borås stad2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Att få återkoppling från de som berörs av miljö- och hälsoskyddstillsyn och rådgivning, det vill säga brukarna, är viktigt i det ständiga förbättringsarbetet. Denna studie ”Bra kontakter kan bli bättre” handlar därför om hur mötet mellan myndighet (handläggare och nämndledamöter) och brukare kan utvärderas på bästa sätt. Studien fokuserar på miljö- och hälsoskyddstillsynen av två olika grupper av brukare: verksamhetsutövare med enskilda avlopp (som ofta är privata fastighetsägare) och verksamhetsutövare inom livsmedel (som ofta är företagare), i Hallands län samt i Borås stad.

    Studien tog utgångspunkt i metoden grundad teori där resultatet tas fram och valideras i en process där framväxande faktorer testas i datamaterialet, för att sedan modifieras och testas igen. I denna studie innebar detta en analys av fritextsvar från över 500 tidigare utskickade enkäter, gruppintervjuer med totalt 17 tjänstemän och närmare 30 nämndledamöter samt 23 intervjuer med brukare varav 8 innebar längre samtal vid platsbesök. Analysarbetet fortgick tills faktorerna var kompletta och mättnad uppstod, dvs. inga nya aspekter som ändrade faktorerna kom fram.

    Av analyserna framgår att brukare, handläggare och nämndledamöter har en gemensam syn på vilka faktorer som är viktiga i miljö- och hälsoskyddsarbetet, även om de olika rollerna ibland leder till delvis olika tolkningar av vad dessa innebär. Brukare, handläggare och nämndledamöter är överens om att brukaren har rätt Att bli rättvist behandlad med korrekt bemötande på jämlik nivå och med hänsyn tagen till omständigheterna kring den egna verksamheten. Det är också viktigt som brukare Att få stöd, men det kan vara svårt för handläggaren i sin dubbla roll som rådgivare och inspektör. Både brukare och handläggare upplevde att dialog är nyckeln till god kommunikation, ur brukarnas synpunkt uttryckt som Att bli lyssnad på. Att få kontakt och besked, gärna muntligt, under arbetets gång är centralt. Kontakt med samma handläggare ger möjlighet till Att få kontinuitet, men likartad handläggning oavsett handläggare är viktigast. De avgifter som brukarna betalar för miljö- och hälsoskyddstillsynen upplevdes ibland, av både brukare och handläggare, som svårmotiverade. Upplevelsen Att få valuta för pengarna kan ökas med ökad samsyn av vad miljö- och hälsoskyddstillsyn innebär.

    Resultatet gav också en bild av vad brukare, handläggare och nämndledamöter efterfrågar av utvärderingar kopplade till miljö- och hälsoskyddskontorens arbete. Brukarnas motiv är möjligheten att få uttrycka en åsikt och påverka tillsynsarbetet. Handläggare och nämndledamöter vill kunna använda utvärderingar för att få svar på vad brukarna tycker om tillsynsarbetet och deras bemötande. De vill att resultaten från utvärderingar värderas och leder till kunskap om vad som kan förbättras så att förbättringsåtgärder sätts in där de blir som mest effektiva. En utvärdering ska ge klara svar och förhoppningsvis leda till samsyn mellan olika handläggare och nämndledamöter samt mellan olika kommuner.

    Resultatet som identifierades i studien handlar mycket om kommunikation och behovet av ömsesidig förståelse mellan parterna. Att arbeta för en gemensam samsyn av vad miljö- och hälsoskyddsarbete innebär skulle kunna vara en väg att ytterligare förbättra kontakterna. Svårigheter som uppstår kan bero på att brukare, handläggare och nämndledamöter har olika målbild. Utifrån vad som framkommit i studien och tidigare erfarenheter ger vi ett förslag på hur framtida utvärderingar kan utformas. Förslaget ska ses som ett diskussionsunderlag, snarare än ett färdigt förslag.

    - Syftet med utvärderingen och hur resultatet ska användas klargörs gemensamt av handläggare och nämndledamöter.

    - En övergripande enkät, där det finns möjlighet att följa arbetet över åren och att jämföra kommuner, gärna nationellt, skickas ut även i fortsättningen. Resurser läggs på att få in så många svar som möjligt och att analysera resultaten.

    - Mer detaljerad kunskap om brukarnas upplevelse av miljö- och hälsoskyddsarbetet studeras i samband med utvärdering av själva verksamheten.

    - I utvärdering av en riktad satsning, eller av ett delområde inom den löpande verksamheten, utifrån de kriterier som respektive kommun använder, t.ex. nyckeltal för miljönytta eller kvalitetsmätningar, bör utvärdering av brukarnas upplevelse ingå och belysas av handläggare och nämndledamöter.

    - Utvärderingen bör göras av utredare utanför miljö- och hälsoskyddskontoren med kunskap om utvärderingar, t.ex. av kommunens utredningsavdelning eller av en fristående konsult.

    - Resultatet av utvärderingen, dvs. utvärdering av verksamhet där även brukare, handläggare och nämnledamöters synpunkter synliggörs, återkopplas till brukare som har ärenden inom det studerade ärendeområdet.

    - Utvärderingen ger nämndledamöter ökad kunskap om verksamheten och om hur brukare och handläggare uppfattar den.

    - Utvärderingen ger handläggare återkoppling på sitt arbete och en bas för det fortsatta förbättringsarbetet.

    - Utvärderingen ger brukarna möjlighet att se hur deras perspektiv beaktas och öka sin förståelse för miljö- och hälsoskyddsarbetet.

  • 12.
    Hansson, Jessica
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Does the wolf (Canis lupus) affect presence of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in Sweden?2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Vargen (Canis lupus) har ökat stadigt i Sverige under de senaste decennierna. Vargens återkomst och dess påverkan på det svenska djurlivet studeras idag i stor utsträckning, och frågor har uppstått om vargen som toppredator kan komma att orsaka trofiska kaskader i ekosystemet, vilket har observerats i nationalparker i USA. Rödräven (Vulpes vulpes) har i Sverige visat sig dra stor nytta utav vargens återkomst genom den ökade mängden kadaver som vargen lämnar, vilket är en särskilt viktig födokälla under våren.

    Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka om närvaro av varg påverkar förekomst av rödräv. Rävspår räknades i 182 vilttrianglar i Örebro och Värmlands län under åren 2001-2003. Vilttrianglarna klassificerades med avseende på mängd jordbruksmark, avstånd till vargrevir och ålder på vargrevir. Effekt av varg på rävförekomst analyserades genom att jämföra rävspår med distans till vargrevir och hur länge det funnits varg i området samt rävspår i relation till mängd jordbruksmark. Studien kunde inte påvisa någon effekt av vargförekomst på räv.  Resultaten indikerar på att habitatet var nyckelfaktorn för rävförekomst istället för närvaro av varg. I och med att vargstammen ökar stadigt i Sverige är det dock av intresse med fortsatta studier i ämnet då vargen kan komma att spela en större roll i ekosystemet i framtiden.

  • 13.
    Hultquist, Thomas
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Vindkraftverk: Inverkan på flyttfåglar över Halmstad kommun2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Wind power is a difficult subject to study, since it is both economical and ecological interests involved. Today the society is depending in lots of energy and therefore we are in needs of a less polluting energy-source, and one of the alternatives is wind power. The wind power is developed in a large scale, with all of Sweden included. When there are so huge economical interests involved, it might be a risk that other interests are put a side, for example the ecological ones.

    This study will give a greater knowledge about how wind power plants affect certain bird species. The study is limited to Halmstad municipality and areas with wind power plants. My method was to compile old reports of migrating birds, and to find an adequate location to proceed with the field studies, and then perform field studies close to wind power plants.

    The field study was performed during a limited period which resulted in too less information for making any certain conclusions. The information that was withdrawn from the study shows that the migrating birds flies on a higher elevation than the maximum height of the wind power plants. Birds flying at a lower elevation manage to dodge the plants and fly either around or above them.

    The wind power should be able to develop in Sweden, under the circumstances that more studies and more knowledge, about the effects on birdlife, is obtained. The study does not give an answer if wind power is the optimal energy source but it gives an increased knowledge for future decision.

  • 14.
    Janssen, S.A.
    et al.
    Department of Urban Environment and Safety, Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research, P.O. Box 49, 2600 AA Delft, Netherlands.
    Vos, H.
    Department of Urban Environment and Safety, Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research, P.O. Box 49, 2600 AA Delft, Netherlands.
    Eisses, A.R.
    Department of Acoustics and Sonar, Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research, P.O. Box 96864, 2509 JG The Hague, Netherlands.
    Pedersen, Eja
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Ecology and Environmental Science.
    A comparison between exposure-response relationships for wind turbine annoyance and annoyance due to other sources2011In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 130, no 6, p. 3746-3753Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Surveys have shown that noise from wind turbines is perceived as annoying by a proportion of residents living in their vicinity, apparently at much lower noise levels than those inducing annoyance due to other environmental sources. The aim of the present study was to derive the exposure-response relationship between wind turbine noise exposure in L(den) and the expected percentage annoyed residents and to compare it to previously established relationships for industrial noise and transportation noise. In addition, the influence of several individual and situational factors was assessed. On the basis of available data from two surveys in Sweden (N=341, N=754) and one survey in the Netherlands (N=725), a relationship was derived for annoyance indoors and for annoyance outdoors at the dwelling. In comparison to other sources of environmental noise, annoyance due to wind turbine noise was found at relatively low noise exposure levels. Furthermore, annoyance was lower among residents who received economical benefit from wind turbines and higher among residents for whom the wind turbine was visible from the dwelling. Age and noise sensitivity had similar effects on annoyance to those found in research on annoyance by other sources

  • 15.
    Larsson, Matilda
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Inventering av Strandpadda (Bufo calamita) 2012 på Balgö och inom Varbergs kust2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 16.
    Olsson, Therese
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Miljöbedömning: Miljökonsekvensbeskrivning för prövning av muddring i Natura 2000-området Nordre älvsestuarium2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Nordre älv estuary is the largest of its kind in Sweden with the typical fresh and salt water mix. It contains eelgrass which is an important habitat for many organisms as feeding ground and nursery area. The estuary is protected by several different directives, laws and conventions, such as: nature reserve and Natura 2000 according to the Habitats Directive and Birds Directive issued by the EU. Because of changed conditions for marine traffic through Gothenburg it may be necessary to relocate it to the river Nordre älv in the future. That would require a dredging since the river mouth contains a shallow threshold. An environmental impact assessment (EIA) is required as part of the permit application for dredging. This essay is a literature review inspired by EIA based on publications from agencies and organizations, research, scientific articles and personal communication with experts. The major effect of dredging is directly removal of vegetation and fauna. Other effects that may have significant impact is clouding (short term) and altered hydrodynamics. Eelgrass extent will decrease but might be offset by compensational measures. Through proper planning and precautions it’s possible to reduce negative environmental impacts.

  • 17.
    Pedersen, Eja
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Health aspects associated with wind turbine noise: Results from three field studies2011In: Noise Control Engineering Journal, ISSN 0736-2501, E-ISSN 2168-8710, Vol. 59, no 1, p. 47-53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wind farms are a new source of environmental noise. The impact of wind turbine noise on health and well-being has not yet been well-established and remains under debate. Long-term effects, especially, are not known, because of the short time wind turbines have been operating and the relatively few people who have so far been exposed to wind turbine noise. As the rate of new installations increases, so does the number of people being exposed to wind turbine noise and the importance of identifying possible adverse health effects. Data from three cross-sectional studies comprising A-weighted sound pressure levels of wind turbine noise, and subjectively measured responses from 1,755 people, were used to systematically explore the relationships between sound levels and aspects of health and well-being. Consistent findings, that is, where all three studies showed the same result, are presented, and possible associations between wind turbine noise and human health are discussed.

  • 18.
    Petersson, Frida
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Beräkningsverktyg för koldioxidutsläpp från avfallshantering2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In a time with an increasing demand for declaration of the environmental impacts of companies, which also can result in an enhanced market-value, companies have begun to look for information about how their waste is affecting the environment. Renova AB, a waste management company, has in recent years received an increasing number of inquiries from their customers about how their waste management affects the climate. Therefore Renova AB wanted to develop a computational model for such an analysis, which laid the foundation of this thesis.

    The aim of this thesis is to enable Renova AB to provide their clients with information on the amount of fossil carbon dioxide emissions, the degree of recycling and landfill, as well as energy extraction for the client’s delivered waste. Thus the objective of the thesis was to provide Renova AB with a computational tool for this.

    By following the method of a life cycle analysis, an Excel-based computational tool was developed. The computational tool is the result of this thesis. The tool consists of nine sheets. Only one of the sheets is to be filled out by the user to specify the waste, after which all the calculations are performed automatically. Three sheets represent the types of waste for which the calculations can be performed on, in its current version. It is in these sheets that the user can find the results of the calculations. In this version calculations can be performed on wood, combustible and unsorted waste. Two sheets contain all the reference values for the calculations, like a database. This is where the tool can be contemporized with changes in the company. One sheet demonstrates the process trees that describe how the waste is treated throughout Renova AB, and two sheets introduce and explain the tool to the user.

    The computational tool can be used in more ways than for retrospective calculations of carbon dioxide emissions. It can be used prospectively by calculating the emission of, for example changes in the company or changes in the content of the waste, and then comparing the changes with the current situation. Alternatively it could be used as an incitement for Renova AB’s customers to reduce the amount of delivered waste, in order to reduce their carbon dioxide emissions which emphasize their environmental profile.

    When the computational tool was completed it was demonstrated for and trial ran by the Renova AB staff. Opinions where collected for final revisions.

    Given the time limitation and amount of available information, the ambition was to create a computational tool which reflected the reality as much as possible. The tool has great potential to further development to give even more representative results. Recommendations for further development have been elaborated.

  • 19.
    Pålsson, Joakim
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Geografisk spridning och morfologisk variation hos Brachygaster minutus (Hymenoptera: Evaniidae) i Sverige2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 20.
    Sager, Liselotte
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Ecology and Environmental Science.
    NY VÄGLEDNINGSINFORMATION FÖR GRIS FÖR DJURSKYDDSINSPEKTÖRER2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 21.
    Suhling, Frank
    et al.
    Dept. of Environ. System Analysis, Institut für Geoökologie, TU Braunschweig, Langer Kamp 19c, DE-38102 Braunschweig, Germany.
    Sahlén, Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Kasperski, Judith
    Dept. of Environ. System Analysis, Institut für Geoökologie, TU Braunschweig, Langer Kamp 19c, DE-38102 Braunschweig, Germany.
    Gaedecke, Dunja
    Dept. of Environ. System Analysis, Institut für Geoökologie, TU Braunschweig, Langer Kamp 19c, DE-38102 Braunschweig, Germany.
    Behavioural and life history traits in temporary and perennial waters: comparisons among three pairs of sibling dragonfly species2005In: Oikos, ISSN 0030-1299, E-ISSN 1600-0706, Vol. 108, no 3, p. 609-617Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Identifying and examining traits that influence the distribution of species is crucial to the understanding of community structure. Theory predicts that traits should differ between species that live in temporary and permanent waters because of differing major environmental variables; viz drying out and predator presence, respectively. Species, however, will also be influenced by their evolutionary history, i.e. by the traits of their common ancestors. We studied differences in life history and behaviour traits in a series of laboratory experiments using pairs of dragonfly species out of three genera of Namibian Libellulidae (Odonata) with one species from each type of habitat. As predicted, growth rates were significantly higher in the temporary water species compared to the permanent water species. Activity and foraging, in contrast, differed between the genera, but did not differ between the habitat types. Hence, our study implies that the behavioural traits are influenced by phylogenetic inertia rather than by the habitat variables, while growth rate is adapted to the habitat. We argue that in all three genera one species has diverged recently from a sister species that lives in the original habitat of the genus, which may be temporary waters in Crocothemis Brauer and in Orthetrum Newman, and permanent waters in Trithemis Brauer. The behavioural traits may therefore be less well adapted. Rapid growth may be the more relevant trait because it is crucial to survival in temporary waters.

  • 22.
    Suhling, Frank
    et al.
    Institut für Geoökologie, Technische Universität Braunschweig, Langer Kamp 19c, D-38106 Braunschweig, Germany.
    Sahlén, Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Martens, Andreas
    Biology, Karlsruhe University of Education, Bismarckstrasse 10, D-76133 Karlsruhe, Germany.
    Marais, Eugene
    National Museum of Namibia, Windhoek, P.O. Box 1203, Windhoek, Namibia.
    Schütte, Carsten
    Institut für Geoökologie, Technische Universität Braunschweig, Langer Kamp 19c, D-38106 Braunschweig, Germany.
    Dragonfly Assemblages in Arid Tropical Environments: A Case Study from Western Namibia2006In: Biodiversity and Conservation, ISSN 0960-3115, E-ISSN 1572-9710, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 311-332Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dragonflies have been proposed as indicators for the ecosystem health of freshwater wetlands. For their useful functioning as indicators it is, however, necessary to identify species compositions in specific habitats and species-habitat associations, particularly in the tropics, where such knowledge is still weak. We examined the dragonfly species composition of 133 localities in the arid environment of western Namibia. An analysis of nestedness indicated that distinct, and predictable patterns of species associations can be expected. Discriminant analyses revealed that most of the nine habitat types separated by structural and hydrological parameters are well discriminated by their dragonfly assemblages. Spring brooks in particular host a specific assemblage, which is threatened due to the habitat restriction of several species, as well as by recent habitat loss and degradation. Using a hierarchical method of several criteria we demonstrated the selection of a set of potential indicator species from the species set, most of these being useful indicators for spring brook assemblages. The conservation status of certain habitats and species is discussed. We propose that dragonflies will have a high indicator potential for threatened freshwater wetlands in such areas and may also serve as an indication of the sustainable use of water resources including evaluating measures to rehabilitate environments.

  • 23.
    Wang, Liqian
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Different Pretreatments to Enhance Biogas Production: A comparison of thermal, chemical and ultrasonic methods2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 24.
    Özdes, Denise Seher
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Utfasning av miljö- och hälsofarliga kemikalieprodukter för att uppnå miljömålet "Giftfri miljö": Ett exempel från vård- och äldreomsorgsförvaltningen i Alingsås kommun2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Jag har valt att göra ett examensarbete för Alingsås kommun som går ut på att ta reda på vilka kemiska produkter som används inom vård och äldreomsorgen i Alingsås kommun samt komma med förslag och arbetsätt för Alingsås kommun att arbeta mer effektivt med deras utfasningsarbete. Genom att genomföra en litteratursammanställning av miljölagstiftningen, inventera kemikalie produkter som används i äldreboendena samt genomföra intervjuer om andra kommuners kemikaliearbete kan syftet med uppsatsen uppnås. Uppsatsen är en del av arbetet för att uppnå en del av Alingsås miljömål. Arbetet inleddes med en kemikalieinventering för samtliga äldre boenden där alla påträffbara rengöringsprodukter sammanställdes. De kemikalieprodukter som påträffades var rengöringsmedel för olika användningsområden. De rengöringsprodukter som inte var miljömärkta listades i en enskild lista och undersöktes. Meningen med undersökningen var att garantera att inga ämnen i produkterna var särskilt farliga för människors hälsa- och miljö. Resultatet av intervjuerna visade att det skiljer sig mellan olika kommuners kemikaliearbete men svaren visade också att alla kommuner arbetar med någon del som berör kemikaliearbetet men på olika nivåer. Litteraturstudien visar att miljömärkta produkter måste uppfylla en del krav för att bli miljömärkta, genom att använda sig av miljömärkta produkter bidrar man till att minska användingen av skadliga kemiska ämnen som påverkar miljö- och hälsa. Alingsås äldreboenden använder sig inte av några farliga rengöringsprodukter men en del av produkterna är inte miljömärkta som de borde vara enligt kommunens miljöpolicy och borde därför ersättas. Jämförelsevis utifrån de intervjuade kommunerna samt Alingsås kommun ligger Alingsås kommun på en bra nivå i sitt kemikaliearbete. En del bitar behöver utvecklas och med hjälp av enkla metoder kan man skapa ett bättre kemikaliearbete.

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