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  • 1.
    Abrahamsson, Filip
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Björklin, Jimmy
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Hur muskelaktiveringen påverkas vid en inåtrotation i axelleden med och utan Activation Grip.2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Även om kaströrelsen i detalj skiljer sig mellan olika idrotter så är den biomekaniska funktionen i grunden densamma. Inom alla kastrelaterade idrotter återkommer den så kallade accelerationsfasen, här har det visat sig att inåtrotationen i axelleden har en hög korrelation med bollhastighet i kaströrelsen. Axelledens inåtrotatorer har alltså en viktig funktion för ett effektivt kast. En funktionell uppvärmning av dessa strukturer optimerar prestationsförmågan och minskar skaderisken. Kan träningsredskapet Activation Grip (AG) effektivisera uppvärmningen av den övre extremiteten hos kastidrottare?

    Syfte: Att undersöka och jämföra hur muskelaktiviteten i m. pectoralis major (PM), m. deltoideus anterior (DA), m. flexor carpi raidalis (FCR) och m. extensor digitoris communis (EDC) påverkas vid inåtrotation i axelleden med och utan träningsredskapet AG. Studien syftar även till att utvärdera AG som produkt.

    Metod: Muskelaktiviteten i PM, DA, FCR och EDC registrerades med hjälp av elektromyografi (sEMG) hos 18 aktiva idrottare inom överarmskastrelaterade idrotter (ålder 23,7 ± 5,7) vid inåtrotation i axelleden med maximal hastighet, jämfört med samma rörelse med AG och 30% belastning.

    Resultat: Resultatet visade på en signifikant högre muskelaktivering (p < 0.05) i DA, FCR, EDC under inåtrotationen med maximal hastighet. Hos PM sågs ingen signifikant skillnad i muskelaktivitet. AG fick över lag positiv respons från testdeltagarna. 

    Konklusion: Med resultatet i beaktande så skulle AG kunna kombineras tillsammans med andra uppvärmningsövningar för att få specifik aktivering i önskad muskulatur. Vidare studier gällande rörelse, motstånd och hastighet för att effektivisera användningen av AG bör göras. Även om AG fick positiv respons så bör produkten utvecklas ytterligare.

  • 2.
    Albinsson, John
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Brorsson, Sofia
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Lindgren, Finn
    Lund University.
    Rydén Ahlgren, Åsa
    Lund University.
    Cinthio, Magnus
    Lund University.
    Combined use of Iteration, Quadratic Interpolation and an Extra Kernel for high-resolution 2D particle tracking: a first evaluation2010In: 2010 ieee international ultrasonics symposium, New York: IEEE Press, 2010, p. 2000-2003Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel 2D particle tracking method, that uses 1) iteration, 2) fast quadratic sub-pixel estimation (with only 28 multiplications per movement), and 3) a previous kernel, has been evaluated and compared with a full-search block-matching method. The comparison with high-frequency ultrasound data (40 MHz) was conducted in silico and on phantoms, which comprised lateral, diagonal, and ellipsoidal movement patterns with speeds of 0–15 mm/s. The mean tracking error was reduced by 68% in silico and 71% for the phantom measurements. When only sub-pixel estimation was used, the decrease in the tracking error was 61% in silico and 57% for the phantom measurements. As well as decreasing the tracking error, the new method only used 70% of the computational time needed by the full-search block-matching method. With a fast method having good tracking ability for high-frequency ultrasound data, we now have a tool to better investigate tissue movements and its dynamic functionality.

  • 3.
    Andersson, Camilla
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Törnqvist, Lena
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Effekten av plyometrisk träning i starten för unga elitsimmare2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies on power have shown the relevance for athletic performance. Furthermore, there are several studies in plyometric training that demonstrate improvement in elasticity in sprint performance. However, few studies have been made on plyometric training for swimmers. We find it startling that no further studies have been made according to the positive effects that have been shown in swim performance. 

     

    The aim of this study was to investigate if the swimmer can increase in power output by performing plyometric training for eight weeks in link with regular exercise. In this study we used a test group of seven male and three female elite junior swimmers from Laxen, Halmstad.

     

    The tests conducted were 1RM squat, long jump, squat jump and the time between start and slide phase. We analyzed data with Dartfish. The training program was carried out twice a week for eight weeks to increase power output. The exercises were one leg bounding, truck jump, countermovement jump with medicine ball and vertical jump with weight.

     

    The improvements were significant in three of four tests. Mean pre-test of 1RM was 86.7 kg (± 16.8) and post-study had average increased to 95 kg (± 10.8). The results showed a significant difference (p = 0.05). Mean pre-test on the squat jump was 36.4 inches (± 5.5) and post-test had average increased to 41.8 cm (± 6.3). The results showed a significant difference (p = 0.001). Mean pre-test on the long jump was 2.42 meters (± 22.5) and post-test had average increased to 2.64 m (± 23.3). The results showed a significant difference (p = 0.001). The swim start showed no significant difference but the time was reduced by 9.2 percent. The greatest difference was in squat jump, which had an increase of 20 percent.

     

    The conclusion was that the swimmers gained a greater force after the training period. The tests in 1RM, squat jump and long jump had a significant difference. The swimmers had an increase in performance at the start of 9,2 percent. Although it was not a significant difference in the start, each percent increase in elite swimming is important.

  • 4.
    Arakelyan, Arsen
    et al.
    Institute of Molecular Biology, National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Armenia (NAS RA), Yerevan, Armenia.
    Zakharyan, Roksana
    Institute of Molecular Biology, National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Armenia (NAS RA), Yerevan, Armenia.
    Hambardzumyan, Marina
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Petrkova, Jana
    Laboratory of Immunogenomics and Immunoproteomics, Institute of Molecular and Translational Medicine, Medical Faculty of Palacky University, Olomouc, Czech Republic.
    Olsson, M. Charlotte
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Petrek, Martin
    Laboratory of Immunogenomics and Immunoproteomics, Institute of Molecular and Translational Medicine, Medical Faculty of Palacky University, Olomouc, Czech Republic.
    Boyajyan, Anna
    Institute of Molecular Biology, National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Armenia (NAS RA), Yerevan, Armenia.
    Functional Genetic Polymorphisms of Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein 1 and C-C Chemokine Receptor Type 2 in Ischemic Stroke2014In: Journal of Interferon and Cytokine Research, ISSN 1079-9907, E-ISSN 1557-7465, Vol. 34, no 2, p. 100-105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent findings indicated that monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP1) and its C-C chemokine receptor type 2 (CCR2) play a key role in ischemic stroke (IS) progression. This study was aimed at evaluating the potential association of the MCP1 gene (MCP1) rs1024611 (-2518 A>G) and CCR2 gene (CCR2) rs1799864 (V64I; 190 G>A) functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with IS in the Armenian population. For the purpose of this study, genomic DNA samples of 100 patients with the first-episode IS and 115 healthy subjects (controls) were genotyped for the selected SNPs using a polymerase chain reaction with sequence-specific primers. The results obtained demonstrated that while the CCR2 rs1799864 SNP genotypes were equally distributed among patients and controls, the frequency and carriage rate of the of the MCP1 rs1024611*G minor allele were higher in patients. While a potential association between IS and CCR2 rs1799864 SNP was evaluated for the first time, the latest finding was in agreement with the earlier data reported for some other populations. In summary, this study revealed no association of CCR2 rs1799864 SNP with IS, and a positive association between G minor allele of MCP1 rs1024611 SNP and IS in the Armenian population. Based on the present and earlier reported data, we concluded that the minor G allele of the MCP1 rs1024611 SNP might be considered a risk factor for IS.

  • 5.
    Belka, Linda
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Larsson, Jonathan
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Rullstolshjälpmedel för tetraplegiker: Utveckling och utvärdering av en prototyp2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    An estimated 2000 people are today living in Sweden with a diagnosis of tetraplegi. The cause of the injury is trauma towards the cervical spine resulting in paralysis of the trunk as well as the lower limbs. The higher the positioning (i.e. the lower numbering of the vertebrae) of the cervical vertebrae damaged by the trauma, the more functions are lost in the upper extremities. When this happens, the traditional way of wheelchair propulsion with the push rim becomes less convenient. During the project, a prototype aid was developed. With the help of the aid, the users are able to change their pattern of movement when using the wheelchair. The new pattern allows the tetraplegi users to use their power in a tangential direction to the wheel. In addition they will be using mainly their strongest muscles in their arms, optimising their ability to move forward.

    In the project, dynamic product development was applied, focusing on the users in order to develop a user-friendly prototype which meets their requirements. To achieve this goal the project group collected data from people working with the rehabilitation of tetraplegics as well as people involved in the supply and distribution of rehabilitation aids. This benchmarking as well as meetings with intended users was helpful when gathering information. The prototype was developed with in close cooperation with various companies.

    User tests showed that the prototype could help increase maximum propulsive force required to climb over a threshold, for one of the two test persons. The prototype gave, however, a decrease in experienced maneuverability, as all of the components of the prototype were not working optimally. Further tests and development are needed before the product can operate for an extended use and for a wider target group.

  • 6.
    Bengtsson, Oscar
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Petersson, Johan
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    MAXIMAL STYRKA I ENBENSKNÄBÖJ KORRELERAR MED ACCELERATIONS KAPACITET OCH AGILITY2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Strong correlations have been found between strength in the two leg squat exercise and sprint performance in various distances but not in sprint performance in agility. In studies the most common way to test squat strength is on two legs.

    The purpose in this study was to investigate the correlation between maximal strength in a bulgarian split squat in a smith machine and speed in various sprint distances and agility.

    The test group were 19 men (age 23,9 ± 2,5 ) with regular experience in intermittent team sports. Sprint tests at 5, 10 and 20 meter and the zigzag agility test were performed. The bulgarian split squat was performed in a smith machine with the barbell on the shoulders to a depth of 110 degrees between tibia and femur.

    The results show significant correlation between maximal strength in the bulgarian split squat and sprint capacity in the 5 and 10 meter sprint test as well as the agility test. Maximal strength relative to bodyweight showed significant correlation with the 5 and 20 meter sprint as well as the agility test. The zigzag agility test also showed strong correlation between all distances in the sprint tests.

    Our conclusions based on the results are that the bulgarian split squat puts big demands on balance, stability and coordination and is therefore a specific movement towards sprints that include changes of direction. The maximum strength in a split squat is a good predictor for sprint capacity in sprints. Implementing one leg exercises in the strength and conditioning routine can be good for athletes in intermittent sports to improve the sports specific sprint capacity.

  • 7.
    Bergman, Lina
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Algotsson, Marcus
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Effekten av 6 veckor unilaterala knäböj, med eller utan isokinetiskt motstånd, på power och sprinttid på is hos manliga ishockeyspelare2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Ice-hockey are physically demanding. To be able to perform during a game it is required thatthe players have a high maximum leg strength and power. A bilateral squat is a valid and widespread exercise for improving muscle strength and power in the legs. Even more specific forice-hockey is the unilateral squat. During an isokinetic movement the velocity is pre-set andtherefore constant, while the force can be altered during the movement. Most isokineticsystems have been designed for unilateral training, but in terms of isokinetic multi-jointexercises, such as the squat, there seems to be no research until this day.The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of six weeks unilateral strength training(squat), either through traditional or isokinetic training, on power-output and 17.3 m sprinttime on ice among male junior ice-hockey players.20 elite male ice-hockey players, 18-19 years of age, was randomly divided in two differenttraining groups. One group (QG) did isokinetic unilateral squats in 1080 Quantum, with anangle of 110o degrees in the knee joint. The other group (SG) did traditional unilateral squatsin a Smith-machine, also with an angle of 110o degrees in the knee joint. The period oftraining was set to six weeks. Both groups participated in pre- and post-tests consisting ofsprint on ice and peak power in unilateral and bilateral jump squats.A significant improvement was seen with QG in peak power performed on both legs(p=0,004). SG had a significant improvement in unilateral squat performed on the right leg(p=0,018). A tendency to significant improvement was seen with QG in the ice-sprint(p=0,059).Isokinetic unilateral squat in a Smith-machine with a concentric velocity set to 0,2m/sec andan eccentric velocity set to 4,0m/sec with a maximum force is an effective exercise toimprove power-output on two legs, perhaps also to improve sprint ability on ice, among icehockeyplayers. It is difficult to draw conclusion about the results from this study whetherisokinetic unilateral squats is an effective method to improve the power compared totraditional unilateral squats in a Smith-machine with maximum speed.

  • 8.
    Bergman, Stefan
    et al.
    FoU Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden; The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden & Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Bremander, Ann
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine. FoU Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden & Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Bergman, Anna-Carin
    Sannarpsgymnasiet, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Brorsson, Sofia
    Health and Welfare, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden.
    Chronic Widespread Pain in Adolescents Is Highly Associated to Stress and Anxiety2015In: Arthritis & Rheumatology, ISSN 2326-5191, E-ISSN 2326-5205, Vol. 67, no Suppl. S10, article id 917Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background/Purpose: Chronic widespread pain (CWP), one of the hallmarks of fibromyalgia, is not uncommon in adolescents and it has previously been shown that adolescents with pain often become young adults with pain. CWP often co-varies with anxiety, depression, and stress symptoms in adults, but the knowledge regarding this is small in youth and young adults.

    The aim was to study the associations between CWP, anxiety, depression and stress in adolescents attending first year of high school.

    Methods: A computerized questionnaire to 296 adolescents attending Swedish high school, with validated questions regarding presence and distribution of pain (Epipain mannequin), stress symptoms (ELO question), anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale – HADS), and health related quality of life (HRQL as measured by EQ5D). Pain was considered chronic when persistent for more than three months, and the subgroup CWP was defined according to the 1990 ACR criteria for fibromyalgia. Statistical analyses in SPSS v21 with comparison of means by Student’s t-test and proportions by chi2-test or Fischer’s exact test.

    Results: 257 (87%) out of 296 eligible students, mean (SD) age 16.1 (0.7) and 65.8% girls, responded to the questionnaire.  Prevalence of chronic pain was 20.8% and that of the subgroup CWP was 4.7%, without any gender differences (boys 18.2% vs girls 22.2%; p=0.224, and 3.4% vs 5.4%; p=0.692). High level (4 or 5 on a 5 point scale) of stress symptoms were less common in boys (16.0% vs 28.2%; p=0.015), as was possible or probable anxiety (17.1% vs 44.4%; p<0.001), but not depression (10.3% vs 12.5%; p=0.764). Students with high level of stress reported CWP five times more often than those with less stress (30.4% vs 5.8%; p=0.001). Students with probable anxiety reported CWP ten times more often than students with no anxiety (17.6% vs 1.8%; p=0.001), and CWP was also more common, but not statistically significant, in students with probable depression (20.0% vs 3.1%; p=0.163). Those reporting CWP had significantly lower HRQL (0.58 vs 0.87; p=0.038) than students with no chronic pain.

    Conclusion: The high prevalence of chronic pain and the strong associations between CWP and reports of stress and anxiety in adolescents highlights that a multifactorial background to chronic pain must be considered early in life. An apparent lower score in EQ5D also indicates that the presence of CWP has an marked impact on HRQL also in adolescents.

  • 9.
    Birgersson, Rikard
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Eliasson, Eric
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Unilateralt och bilateralt genomförande av bänkpress och dess påverkan på varandra sett till muskelaktivering, effekt, och kraftutveckling2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: It has been studied whether strength-exercises performed with two arms (bilateral) leads to better performance when compared to exercises performed with only one arm (unilateral), and it has been shown that both implementations result in similar results after a short training period. At the same time, research shows that mixed results between different implementations in terms of muscle activation and force development exists.

    Objective: The main purpose of this study was to see the effect of unilateral or bilateral warm-up in the bench press and its influence on subsequent unilateral and bilateral performance in the bench press, investigating the factors: muscle activation, power, and force development. A secondary purpose was to relate the results of the study to bilateral index, to see if bilateral deficit or bilateral facilitation dominates.

    Method: Strength-trained men (n = 13, age 25 ± 3 years) warmed up with two different implementations (unilateral or bilateral), and after each individual warm-up they performed three submaximal lifts (40 and 80% of 1RM) in unilateral and bilateral bench press. Muscle activity, power, and force development were measured in muscles pectoralis major, anterior deltoid, and triceps brachii, after each individual warm-up during three submaximal lifts (40 and 80% of 1RM) in unilateral and bilateral bench press.

    Results: Significant results were found in unilateral performance in power and force development after unilateral warm-up (184 ± 36 W and 164 ± 31 W; 416 ± 76 N and 412 ± 74 N) compared with bilateral warm-up (p = 0.05). There were no significant differences between the different implementations in bilateral performance. Significant differences were neither found in the muscle activation of any of the implementations. The study also found evidence of a difference between the test participants regarding bilateral deficit and bilateral facilitation in terms of power and force development, where the majority of the test participants had bilateral facilitation.

    Conclusion: Regardless of warm-up, no difference was seen in the strength-trained men regarding muscle activation in the bilateral or unilateral bench press, however, the warm-up  was of importance to performance. Therefore, unilateral warm-up should be applied before unilateral performance, as this showed significant improvement. Although no significant improvement was observed, a bilateral warm-up should also preceed a bilateral performance.

  • 10.
    Björk, Oscar
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Post-activation Potentiation in Moderately Heavy Squats following a Heavy Pre-load Squat2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Post-activation potentiation (PAP) is a phenomenon where force output is acutely enhanced

    following muscular contraction. Previous research has documented enhanced performance in

    power-type light exercise following a heavy pre-load, such as vertical jumps following heavy

    squats. To date, the effect of PAP on moderately heavy exercise following a heavy pre-load

    has not been investigated. Purpose: The purpose was to examine whether PAP could be

    elicited in moderately heavy squats following a heavy squat pre-load, and if so, what intensity

    (as percentage of one repetition-maximum [1RM]) of pre-load elicited the highest PAP effect

    (measured as mean power, mean force and number of repetitions performed). Subjects:

    Seventeen resistance-trained males (age 24±2 years, length 182±8 cm, body mass 84.7±13.1

    kg, squat 1RM 147.6±29.6 kg) with at least 2 years of experience of the squat exercise.

    Methods: After testing parallel squat 1RM at a separate session, subjects performed three

    testing sessions in a randomized order in a cross-over design; performance test at 80% of

    parallel squat 1RM (control), one repetition at 85% of 1RM followed 8 minutes later by the

    same performance test (PAP85), and one repetition at 93% of 1RM followed 8 minutes later

    by the same performance test (PAP93). Sessions were separated by six days. Force and power

    output was recorded using a linear encoder. Friedman’s test was used to reveal differences

    between conditions, and a Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to identify these differences.

    Results: There was an increase in number of repetitions performed for PAP85 (p=0.009) and

    PAP93 (p=0.001) compared to control, but not for mean power or mean force. There was no

    significant difference between PAP85 and PAP93 for number of repetitions (p=0.091).

    Conclusion: PAP can be elicited to improve performance in moderately heavy squats

    following a heavy squat pre-load in trained subjects, but only measured as number of

    repetitions performed, not force or power. PAP could therefore be useful not only for

    designing power training, but also for strength and hypertrophy training.

    KEYWORDS: squat, post-activation potentiation, PAP, strength, power, hypertrophy.

  • 11.
    Björnell, Rebecha
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Kristensson, Michaela
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Kan ett 5-veckors hembaserat träningsprogram förbättra smärtan hos personer med fibromyalgi?2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka om ett 5-veckors enkelt styrketräningsprogram i hemmet minskar den upplevda smärtan hos personer med fibromyalgi.

    Metod: Antal deltagare med fibromyalgi var 10 stycken som rekryterades för att genomföra ett 5 veckors träningsprogram med fokus på styrka i buk-, rygg- och magmuskulatur. Före och efter träningsprogrammet mättes styrka (rygg, mage och ben – 3 tester) och smärta (Visual Analog Skala - VAS). Fyra frågor kring smärta besvarades med VAS-skala. Skillnad mellan undersökning före påbörjad träning (pretest) till undersökning efter avslutad träning (posttest) analyserades. Wilcoxons rangtest användes för att undersöka om där fanns en signifikant skillnad mellan pretest och posttest.

    Resultat: Efter avslutat träningsprogram hade inte smärtan förbättrats. I styrketesterna framkom signifikant förbättrad benstyrka medan rygg- och magstyrka var oförändrad. För sju av tio av deltagarna förbättrades styrkan i magtestet utan signifikant skillnad och för fem av tio deltagare förbättrades styrkan i ryggtestet utan signifikant skillnad. Smärtan var efter avslutad träning förbättrad, dock ej signifikant skillnad.  

    Slutsats: Det studerade styrketräningsprogrammet under 5 veckor ledde inte till en minskning av smärta.

  • 12.
    Blomgren, Bo
    et al.
    Safety Assessment, Bgn. 681 Gärtuna, AstraZeneca R and D Södertälje, Sodertalje SE 151 85, Sweden; Institution of Women's and Children's Health, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Johannesson, Ulrika
    Division of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Karolinska Institutet Danderyds Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bohm-Starke, Nina
    Division of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Karolinska Institutet Danderyds Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Falconer, Christian
    Division of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Karolinska Institutet Danderyds Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hilliges, Marita
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    A computerised, unbiased method for epithelial measurement2004In: Micron, ISSN 0968-4328, E-ISSN 1878-4291, Vol. 35, no 5, p. 319-329Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective

    To develop and evaluate a standardised method for unbiased measurements of epithelial thickness taking the variability of the dermal papillae in consideration.

    Methods

    A computer-assisted measurement program suitable for haematoxylin and eosin routine stained specimens has been developed.

    Results

    The developed program was designed to measure four different distance parameters, taking the number, height and width of dermal papillae into account. The measurement program gave very accurate results compared with manual measurements. The measurement results can be presented as tables or star graphs, and the results can be further processed by multivariate analysis.

    Conclusion

    The computer-assisted measurement program is considered to be a valuable and reliable tool for measurements of epithelial thickness, irrespectively of the variability of the epithelial morphology. Since length, size and number of the papillae may change with certain pathological conditions, age and also under hormonal influence, this method can be a helpful diagnostic tool.

  • 13.
    Bohm-Starke, Nina
    et al.
    Division of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Karolinska Institutet Danderyd Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Johannesson, Ulrika
    Division of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Department of Clinical Sciences, Danderyd Hospital, Stockholm.
    Hilliges, Marita
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Rylander, Eva
    Division of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Department of Clinical Sciences, Danderyd Hospital, Stockholm.
    Torebjörk, Erik
    Dept. of Clinical Neurophysiology, University Hospital, Uppsala.
    Decreased mechanical pain threshold in the vestibular mucosa of women using oral contraceptives: a contributing factor in vulvar vestibulitis?2004In: Journal of reproductive medicine, ISSN 0024-7758, E-ISSN 1943-3565, Vol. 49, no 11, p. 888-892Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective:

    To analyze possible differences in somatosensory perception in the vestibular mucosa in healthy women associated with the use of oral contraceptives.

    Study design:

    Quantitative sensory tests were performed on the vestibular mucosa in 39 healthy women. Twenty women were using oral contraceptives containing 30-40 µg ethinyl estradiol combined with various progestins; 19 women with regular menstrual periods not using oral contraceptives served as controls. The testing included mechanical and heat pain thresholds and detection thresholds of warmth and cold in the anterior and posterior part of the vestibule.

    Results:

    Significant lower mechanical pain thresholds were observed in both areas tested in women using oral contraceptives. The most sensitive area was the posterior vestibule in the group using oral contraceptives with a mechanical pain threshold of 72±10 (±SEM) mN as compared to 161±3 mN (p<0.01), in the controls. The result of the thermotest showed no significant differences between the groups.

    Conclusion:

    Oral contraceptives may induce increased sensitivity in the vestibular mucosa in healthy women and might be one contributing factor in the development of vulvar vestibulitis.

  • 14.
    Brandt, Sofie
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Hjälpmedel som underlättar öppnandet av skruvkorkar: - ett produktutvecklingsprojekt2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Every day we encounter various types of packaging. For many people, the opening of these packages is a difficult task, since it requires a certain degree of hand strength to succeed. Reduced hand strength can be a result of injuries or diseases such as Parkinson's disease, finger-joint osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Aging also has a negative effect on hand strength and function. An example of packaging that is difficult to open, is the ones with a plastic screw cap. Many packages, containing juice and milk products, as well as PET bottles, have this design. Today there are many tools in order to open these packages, but tests of existing facilities indicate that they do not meet user demands for functionality and usability. Therefore, the aim of the project was to develop a functional product that fits so many cap sizes as possible, and also be designed so that it can access the cap on all packaging.

    As part of the product development process, a group of women, 67-85 years old, who all experience difficulties in opening packaging with screw caps, was interviewed. Their views and opinions were of great importance for the project. Furthermore, brainstorming, sketching, prototyping and CAD modeling were methods used in the project. The CAD model was used to manufacture the product.

    The project resulted in a functioning product made of aluminum, and fits all cap sizes with a diameter of 25-41 mm, which includes all caps in today's packaging for juice and milk products, as well as PET bottles. The product is using a lever, which reduces the power consumption by up to 92%, and will facilitate the opening of packaging with screw caps for people with reduced hand strength.

  • 15.
    Bremander, Ann
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine. Department of Rheumatology, Clinical Sciences Lund, Lund University, Lund, Sweden & Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Jacobsson, Lennart T. H.
    Department of Rheumatology and Inflammation Research, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden & Department of Clinical Sciences, Section of Rheumatology, Malmö, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Bergman, Stefan
    Department of Rheumatology, Clinical Sciences Lund, Lund University, Lund, Sweden & Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Haglund, Emma
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine. Department of Rheumatology, Clinical Sciences Lund, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Löfvendahl, Sofia
    Department of Orthopedics, Clinical Sciences Lund, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Petersson, Ingemar F.
    Department of Orthopedics, Clinical Sciences Lund, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Smoking is associated with a worse self-reported health status in patients with psoriatic arthritis: data from a Swedish population-based cohort2015In: Clinical Rheumatology, ISSN 0770-3198, E-ISSN 1434-9949, Vol. 34, no 3, p. 579-583Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to study possible associations between smoking habits and self-reported clinical features in a large population-based cohort of patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA). All subjects with PsA who had sought health care in the period 2003-2007 were identified using a regional health-care register. In 2009, all those identified who were 18 years of age or more (n = 2,003) were sent a questionnaire with questions on smoking, health-related quality of life [EuroQol five-dimension (EQ-5D)questionnaire], function [Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ)], pain, fatigue, and global health. We performed age- and sex-adjusted regression analysis to compare health status outcomes in never and ever smokers. Altogether, 1,185 subjects (59 %) returned the questionnaire. Mean age was 57 years (SD 13.5), and 58 % were women; 38 % were never smokers and 62 % were ever smokers. Mean age at disease onset was 38.2 years (SD 13.2) and 41.2 years (SD 13.6), respectively (p = 0.001). In age- and sex-adjusted data, ever smokers reported worse EQ-5D (p = 0.009); worse reports of global health (p = 0.01), pain (p = 0.01), and fatigue (p = 0.04); and a higher number of painful body regions (p = 0.04) compared to never smokers. In this population-based PsA cohort, patients who were ever smokers reported worse health status than never smokers. Besides being a possible result of a worse PsA in ever smokers, impaired health status could also be an effect of unstudied comorbidities. Further longitudinal studies are needed to gain a better understanding of cause and effect. However, smoking cessation should be recommended because of general health considerations as well as disease-specific issues.

  • 16.
    Bremander, Ann
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine. Research and Development Centre, Spenshult Hospital for Rheumatic Diseases, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Petersson, Ingemar F.
    Department of Orthopedics, Clinical Sciences Lund, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Haglund, Emma
    Spenshult Hospital for Rheumatic Diseases, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Bergman, Stefan
    Research and Development Centre, Spenshult Hospital for Rheumatic Diseases, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Jacobsson, Lennart T.H.
    Department of Rheumatology and Inflammation Research, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Smoking Is Associated with Worse and More Widespread Pain, Worse Disease Activity, Function, Fatigue and Health Related Quality of Life in Patients with Axial Spondyloarthritis: Results From a Population Based Cohort2012In: Arthritis and Rheumatism, ISSN 0004-3591, E-ISSN 1529-0131, Vol. 64, no S10, p. S43-S43, article id 95Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In subjects with early axial Spondyloarthritis (SpA) smoking has recently been associated with earlier onset of disease, worse lesions of the sacroiliac joints and in later stages syndesmophyte progression. The aim was to study associations of smoking habits with self-reported information in a large population based cohort of patients with axial SpA.

    Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey performed in 2009 included all health care seeking subjects aged >18 years with a diagnosis of SpA according to ICD 10 codes identified by a regional health care register (n=3711). Smoking habits were studied in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS, ICD M45) and in patients who fulfilled criteria for “non AS axial SpA” (without having one of AS). Criteria for non AS axial SpA were based on data from the questionnaire: pain for 3 months or more during the last 12 months together with 2 or more features out of 5 (inflammatory back pain, history of psoriasis, uveitis/tendinitis, inflammatory bowel disease or heredity). The questionnaire included data on smoking (never smokers vs. ever smokers), disease activity (BASDAI) physical function (BASFI), general health (BAS-G) all measured with numerical rating scales 0-10 (best to worst), health related quality of life (EQ-5D, 0-1 worst to best), pain, fatigue (numerical rating scales 0-10 best to worst) and number of painful regions noted on a pain mannequin (0-16 best to worst). Linear regression analysis was performed and all data were controlled for sex and age.

    Results:

    Response rate was 76% whereof 2167 (58%) returned the questionnaire and 18% declined participation in the study. 598 subjects had an AS diagnose and 572 fulfilled the criteria for non AS axial SpA.

    The AS group had a mean age of 54 (SD14) years and 35% were women. Never smokers constituted 48% of the AS group. Ever smokers had worse scores in all studied variables compared with never smokers.

    The linear regression analysis showed that ever smokers in the AS group had worse self-reported scores in BASDAI with age-sex adjusted parameter estimate (B) = 0.60 (95% CI 0.21 ; 1.00), BASFI B = 0.51 (95% CI 0.11 ; 0.91) and fatigue B = 0.51 (95% CI  0.06 ; 1.00) . There was a tendency to worse scores for ever smokers also in EQ-5D B = -0.04 (95% CI -0.09 ; 0.001)

    Mean age in the non AS axial SpA group was 55 (SD 14) years and 68% were women. Never smokers constituted 38% of this group. Also in the non AS axial SpA group the linear regression analysis showed that ever smokers had worse self-reported scores in BASDAI with age-sex adjusted parameter estimate (B) = 0.59 (95% CI 0.23 ; 0.94), BASFI B = 0.59 (95% CI 0.17 ; 1.00), pain B = 0.45 (95% CI 0.08 ; 0.82) and fatigue B = 0.43 (95% CI  0.03 ; 0.83), no of painful areas B = 0.73 (95% CI  0.06 ; 1.46) and also in EQ-5D B = -0.06 (95% CI -0.11 ; -0.002).                                                                                                                                                

    Conclusion: In a large population based axial SpA cohort, both patients with AS and non AS axial SpA who were ever smokers reported worse clinical features compared with never smokers. Further longitudinal studies are needed to better understand cause and effect. However, smoking cessation should be recommended not only due to general health perspectives but also due to disease specific issues.

    References

    1Smokers in early axial spondyloarthritis have earlier disease onset, more disease activity, inflammation and damage, and poorer function and health-related quality of life: results from the DESIR cohort. Chung HY, Machado P, van der Heijde D, D'Agostino MA, Dougados M. Ann Rheum Dis. 2012 Jun;71(6):809-16.

  • 17.
    Bremert, Carl
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Hake, Joel
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Rollatorer: undersökning och utveckling kring framkomlighet i hemmet2011Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 18.
    Brorsson, Sofia
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Biomechanical studies of finger extension function. Analysis with a new force measuring device and ultrasound examination in rheumatoid arthritis and healthy muscles2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims:

    The overall aim of this thesis was to further our understanding of extensor muscles and their role for hand function.

    The aims of the studies were:

    To develop and evaluate a new device for finger extensor force measurements. To evaluate ultrasound as a tool for assessment of muscle architecture. To determine the correlation between extensor muscle force and hand function. To evaluate the degree of impaired finger extensor force in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and the correlation to impaired... mer hand function. To analyse the effect of hand exercise in RA patients and healthy subjects with ultrasound and finger extension force measurements.

    Method:

    A new finger extension force measuring device was developed and an ultrasound based method was used to be able to objectively measure the finger extension force and analyze the static and dynamic extensor muscle architectures. Measurements were made of healthy volunteers (n=127) and RA patients (n=77) during uninfluenced and experimental conditions. A hand exercise program was performed and evaluated with hand force measurements, hand function test, patient relevant questionnaires (DASH and SF-36) and ultrasound measurements.

    Results:

    The new finger extension force measurement device was developed and then validated with measurements of accuracy as well as test-retest reliability. The coefficient of variation was 1.8 % of the applied load, and the test-retest reliability showed a coefficient of variation no more than 7.1% for healthy subjects. Ultrasound examination on m. extensor digitorum communis (EDC) showed significant differences between healthy men and healthy women as well as between healthy women and RA patients. The extension and flexion force improved in both groups after six weeks of hand exercise (p<0.01). Hand function improved in both groups (p<0.01). The RA group showed improvement in the results of the DASH questionnaire (p<0.05). The cross-sectional area of the EDC increased significantly in both groups.

    Conclusions:

    A new finger extension force measuring device has been developed which provides objective and reliable data on the extension force capacity of normal and dysfunctional hands and is sufficiently sensitive to evaluate the effects of hand exercise. US provide useful information about muscle architecture. A significant improvement of hand strength and hand function in RA patients was seen after six weeks of hand training, the improvement was even more pronounced after 12 weeks. Hand exercise is thus an effective intervention for RA patients, providing better strength and function.

  • 19.
    Brorsson, Sofia
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), PRODEA: Centrum för produktframtagning inom hälsoteknik. Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Extensor muscle force measurements and muscle architecture in rheumatoid arthritis patientsArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Brorsson, Sofia
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Extensor muscle force measurements and muscle architecture in Rheumatoid Arthritis patients2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients frequently experience muscle weakness, limited information exists on disease specific muscle changes. The common hand deformity in RA includes disturbed finger extension with subsequent flexion deformities. The aims of this study were to measure finger extension force and finger flexion force in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and compare them with healthy subjects.  We also wanted to explore the possible causes of impaired finger extension force with the help of ultrasound muscle analyses.

    The study group comprised of 40 women: 20 patients with RA (median disease duration 20 years) and 20 healthy age-matched controls. The finger extension force measurements were performed with a newly developed device (EX-it), finger flexion force was measured with the Grippit. The extensor digitorum communis muscle was examined with ultrasound.

    Significant differences were found between the two groups, concerning extension and flexion force (p<0.001). Ultrasound measurements indicated significant differences in structural parameters (Cross Section Area (p< 0.05), muscle thickness (p < 0.05) and fascicle length (p < 0.05)). Overall changes in muscle architecture during contraction were more pronounced in the control group than in the RA group (p < 0.01).

    The results indicate differences in structural parameters as well as functional tests, i.e. contraction time and extension muscle force capacity, between normal and RA muscles. Whether these differences depend on a disease-specific effect on the muscles in RA, or are secondary to inactivity or hand deformities, remains to be elucidated.

  • 21.
    Brorsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Lundgren, Lina
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Olsson, Charlotte
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Ett fysiologiskt perspektiv på fysisk aktivitet och hälsa2010In: Hälsa & Livsstil: forskning och praktiska tillämpningar / [ed] Lillemor R-M Hallberg, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2010, 1, p. 87-112Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Brorsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Nilsdotter, Anna
    R & D centre Spenshult Hospital for Rheumatic Diseases, Oskarström, Sweden.
    Hilliges, Marita
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Sollerman, Christer
    R & D centre Spenshult Hospital for Rheumatic Diseases, Oskarström, Sweden & Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Aurell, Ylva
    Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Halmstad Central Hospital, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Ultrasound evaluation in combination with finger extension force measurements of the forearm musculus extensor digitorum communis in healthy subjects2008In: BMC Medical Imaging, ISSN 1471-2342, E-ISSN 1471-2342, Vol. 8, article id 6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of an ultrasound-based method of examining extensor muscle architecture, especially the parameters important for force development. This paper presents the combination of two non-invasive methods for studying the extensor muscle architecture using ultrasound simultaneously with finger extension force measurements.

    Methods:

    M. extensor digitorum communis (EDC) was examined in 40 healthy subjects, 20 women and 20 men, aged 35-73 years. Ultrasound measurements were made in a relaxed position of the hand as well as in full contraction. Muscle cross-sectional area (CSA), pennation angle and contraction patterns were measured with ultrasound, and muscle volume and fascicle length were also estimated. Finger extension force was measured using a newly developed finger force measurement device.

    Results:

    The following muscle parameters were determined: CSA, circumference, thickness, pennation angles and changes in shape of the muscle CSA. The mean EDC volume in men was 28.3 cm3 and in women 16.6 cm3. The mean CSA was 2.54 cm2 for men and 1.84 cm2 for women. The mean pennation angle for men was 6.5° and for women 5.5°. The mean muscle thickness for men was 1.2 cm and for women 0.76 cm. The mean fascicle length for men was 7.3 cm and for women 5.0 cm. Significant differences were found between men and women regarding EDC volume (p < 0.001), CSA (p < 0.001), pennation angle (p < 0.05), muscle thickness (p < 0.001), fascicle length (p < 0.001) and finger force (p < 0.001). Changes in the shape of muscle architecture during contraction were more pronounced in men than women (p < 0.01). The mean finger extension force for men was 96.7 N and for women 39.6 N. Muscle parameters related to the extension force differed between men and women. For men the muscle volume and muscle CSA were related to extension force, while for women muscle thickness was related to the extension force.

    Conclusion:

    Ultrasound is a useful tool for studying muscle architectures in EDC. Muscle parameters of importance for force development were identified. Knowledge concerning the correlation between muscle dynamics and force is of importance for the development of new hand training programmes and rehabilitation after surgery.

    © 2008 Brorsson et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  • 23.
    Brorsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Nilsdotter, Anna
    R & D Center, Spenshult Hospital of Rheumatic Diseases, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Sollerman, Christer
    Department of Hand Surgery, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Baerveldt, Albert-Jan
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Hilliges, Marita
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    A new force measurement device for evaluating finger extension function in the healthy and rheumatoid arthritis hand2008In: Technology and Health Care, ISSN 0928-7329, E-ISSN 1878-7401, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 283-292Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although often neglected, finger extension force is of great importance for developing grip strength. This paper describes the design and evaluation of a new finger extension force measurement device (EX-it) based on the biomechanics of the hand. Measurement accuracy and test-retest reliability were analysed. The device allows measurements on single fingers as well as all the fingers (excluding the thumb) of both healthy and deformed hands. The coefficient of variation in the device was 1.8% of the applied load, and the test-retest reliability showed a coefficient of variation no more than 7.1% for healthy subjects. This study also provides reference values for finger extension force in healthy subjects and patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Significant differences were found in extension strength between healthy subject and RA patients (men, p < 0.05 and women, p < 0.001). EX-it provides objective and reliable data on the extension force capacity of normal and dysfunctional hands and can be used to evaluate the outcome of therapeutic interventions after hand trauma or disease

  • 24.
    Brorsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Nordenskiöld, U.
    Section for Clinical Neuroscience and Rehabilitation, The Sahlgrenska Academy University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Grip assistive devices studied in women with reumatic diseases2011In: Abstracts EULAR 2011 London, United Kingdom, 25-28 May 2011, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    Previous studies have shown that persons with reumatoid disease use assistive devices to manage activites of daily living and that loss of grip force and high factors of pain are the main indicator for the use of assitive devices. Furthermore, these studies have pointed out that activities as open and handle bottles, cans are hard items to performe.

    Objectives:

    This pilot project aimed to evaluate grip assistive devices adapted for people with reduced hand function as grip force and pain also disabilities as difficulties in some daily activities. Furthermore, the project aims to evaluate the participants' reflections and advice about the manageability of the products.

    Methods:

    The test group consisted of 14 female patients (mean age 60 years) with rheumatoid diseases (Rheumatoid arthritis (7), Osteoarthritis (5), Fibromyalgia (1), Psoriasis arthritis (1)). Eight different grip assistive devices, developed for opening and handle cans, bottles and canned food, were evaluated. The grip assistive devices was evaluated using a rated scale from 0-10 (0= not useful, 10=very useful) and the cut-off for classification as useful were at least five points.

    Hand activities were evaluated with the Grip Ability Test (GAT) and the questionnaire Quick DASH (Disability of Arm, Shoulder and Hand). The hand function as pain was marked using visual analogue scale (VAS) and grip force was measured using the electronic grip force device Grippit®.

    Results:

    The hand test, GAT, was 34.2 ± 12.0 points and the Quick DASH was 45.5 ± 18.1, VAS was 3.8 ± 3.0 and mean grip force was 76.1 ± 37.2 Newton. The grip force was correlated to pain (r= - 0.581, p=0.029) and also to DASH (r=-0.641, p=0.014). Furthermore there was a correlation between DASH and VAS (r=0.748, p=0.002). There was no correlation between GAT and Grip force, DASH or VAS. Concerning the grip assistive devices five of the eight devices were rated over six points and perceived as functional and useful for open bottles and cans. There was a significant correlation between grip force and the grip device (r=0.557, p=0.039) most useful for the patients and a tendency for correlation between grip force and the other four grip assistive devices that the patients has rated as useful.

    Conclusions:

    This pilot study shows that grip force is one important factor for patients when it comes to chose grip assistive devices. Furthermore, it is individual what grip assistive devices that will be chosen to perform a specific activity. Therefore it is important to measure both hand function and hand activities to maintain good possibilities to perform an active life style with reduced pain and increased grip force in patients with rheumatic diseases.

    References:

    1. Dellhag, B. and A. Bjelle (1995). "A Grip Ability Test for use in rheumatology practice." J Rheumatol 22 (8):1559-65
    2. Gummesson, C., M. M. Ward, et al. (2006). "The shortened disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand questionnaire (QuickDASH): validity and reliability based on responses within the full-length DASH." BMC Musculoskelet Disord 7: 44.
    3. Nordenskiold, U (1997). “ Daily activities in women with rheumatoid arthritis. Aspects of patients education, assistive devices and methods for disability and impairment assessment.” Scand J Rehabil Med Suppl 37:1-72.
    4. (2003). “Rheumatoid arthritis: hand function, activities of daily living, grip strength and essential assistive devices.” Curationis 26 (3):98-106.
  • 25.
    Brorsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Olsson, M Charlotte
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Bengtsson, Oscar
    Petersson, Johan
    Maximal strength in one leg squat correlates with acceleration capacity and agility2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: In many intermittent team sports capacities such as speed, agility and explosiveness are important for performance and are evaluated by sprint-, agility- and strength tests. Earlier studies have shown strong correlations between strength in the two leg squat exercise and sprint performance in various distances but not in sprint performance in agility. Studies evaluating squat strength predominantly perform tests on two legs even when they test athletes involved in intermittent sports where sprinting and agility are common features. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between maximal strength in a one leg squat (Bulgarian split squat) and acceleration capacity in various sprint distances and agility.

    METHODS: The test group consisted of 19 men (mean age 24 ± 2 years ) with experience in intermittent team sports. Acceleration capacity was assessed by sprint tests at 5, 10 and 20 meters and agility was evaluated using the zigzag agility test. The timing was made using photocells (Muscle lab,Ergotest Technology,Norway). The Bulgarian split squat was performed in a smith machine with the barbell on the shoulders to a depth of 110 degrees between tibia and femur.

    RESULTS: The results show significant correlation between maximal strength in the Bulgarian split squat and sprint capacity in the 5 and 10 meter sprint test (Rp= -0,56; p<0.01) as well as the agility test. Maximal strength relative to bodyweight showed significant correlation with the 5 and 20 meter sprint (Rp=-0,62; p< 0,01) as well as the agility test. The zigzag agility test also showed significant correlation between all distances in the sprint tests (p<0.01).

    CONCLUSION: The results from this study show that there maximal strength in one leg correlate significantly with both acceleration capacity and agility. Implementing one leg exercises in the strength and conditioning routine can be useful for athletes in intermittent sports wanting to improve agility and short sprinting capacity. Further implications is that the Bulgarian split squat could be a more functional test for agility performance than the squat on two legs which  predominantly is being used today.

  • 26.
    Brorsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Olsson, M Charlotte
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Fredriksson, Daniel
    Training program for young female soccer players with focus on increasing the acceleration capacity2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: Soccer is the world’s most popular team sport with over 240 million players around the world. About 20 million of the 240 million players are women and 80% of these women are adolescence or juniors. Acceleration capacity is one of the most important physical qualities for a soccer player. The aim of this study was to design, perform and evaluate a training program for young female soccer players with focus on increasing the acceleration capacity.

    METHODS: There were 22 young females (14,6 ± 1,0 years, 50,3 ± 5,1 kg, 160,2 ± 3,0 cm) from two different soccer teams participating. They were split into two groups, one test group (TG) (n=8) and one control group (CG) (n=14). The training period was 12 weeks, with soccer training 3 times per week for both groups. In the TG one workout per week was specifically designed to increase the acceleration capacity and took about 40 minutes to perform. The acceleration capacity was evaluated by a sprint test of 10-20-30 meter and vertical countermovement jump test using photocells.

    RESULTS: The TG showed a tendency to increased acceleration at the sprint test (p=0,08) and significant improvement at the jump test (p<0.05) after 12 weeks of training. The acceleration training also showed significant correlations between the sprint- and jump test in the TG after completed the 12 week training period (p<0.05). The CG showed decreased acceleration at the sprint test (p<0.05) and the vertical jump height was not significantly different. There were no significant differences between the two groups pre and post training.

    CONCLUSION: A 12 week training program can increase the acceleration capacity and the vertical jump height on young female soccer players. In sport were acceleration capacity is important it seems relevant to specifically train those qualities.

  • 27.
    Brorsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Olsson, M Charlotte
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Westerberg, Martin
    Maximal multiple repetitions in free weight strength training with different bar sizes2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: An individual’s grip strength is vital for performance of physical demanding tasks such as give some other example here? As well as strength training with free weights. Performing strength training with a thicker grip around the bar may enhance the strength of the grip in the athlete without other special routines for grip strength development. The purpose of this study was a) to examine the difference in performance in multiple repetitions in two strength training exercises using two different sizes on the bar, b) to investigate correlations between hand grip strength and the amount of repetitions performed with two different sizes of the  bar and c) to correlate hand size with the amount of performed repetitions with two different bar sizes.

    METHODS: Fifteen male participants (24 ± 4 years) with at least one year of strength training experience performed bench press and a prone lying rowing exercise with two different bar sizes (normal Olympic lifting bar with and with out Fat Gripz™). The participants performed test of maximal number of repetitions at a level of 80% of one repetition maximum (1RM), hand size was measured as well as maximum grip strength (using JAMAR).

    RESULTS: The use of a thicker diameter bar resulted in 22 % (p<0.01) reduction of weight performance in number of performed repetitions in the bench press compared to the normal diameter of the bar.  When performing lying bench row a 66 % (p<0.01) reduction in number of performed repetitions was seen with the thicker diameter of the bar. There was no significant correlation between hand size and the submaximal strength test (rp = 0,33 ; p = 0,23) or grip strength and submaximal strength test (rp = 0,31 ; p = 0,27).

    CONCLUSION: The results from this study indicated that the size of the bar diameter influences the performance in maximal number of repetitions in a prone lying rowing exercise and bench press.  Further studies have to be done to analyses the effect of strength training with thicker bar.

     

  • 28.
    Brorsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Pedersen, Eja
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    12-weeks of hand exercise provides better hand function, muscle balance and muscle strength in the rheumatoid arthritis hand2010In: Abstract Archive Sessions Index 2010, EULAR , 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    Impaired grip ability in RA is due to reduced strength in the flexor muscles as well as by dysfunctional extensor muscles leading to inability to open the hand. Furthermore the extensor muscles are important for stabilization during flexion force production and active for developing a controlled grip force. There is today scientific evidence showing that various forms of hand exercise are beneficial for improving hand function and strength in RA patients (Ronningen and Kjeken 2008; Brorsson, Hilliges et al. 2009). However, comparatively little research has evaluated and specific designed hand exercise program for the extensor muscles controlling the hand and fingers (Weiss, Moore et al. 2004; O'Brien, Jones et al. 2006).

    Objectives:

    The objectives for this study were to evaluate the effect of an exercise program on hand strength, hand function and perceived function of daily life activities among RA patients and to explore the possibility to improve the balance between the extensor and flexor muscle forces in the hand.

    Methods:

    The study group comprised of 20 patients with RA (median disease duration 20 years) that performed a hand exercise program for twelve weeks. The finger extension force was measured with a newly developed device (EX-it), finger flexion force was measured with the Grippit. Hand function was evaluated with the Grip Ability Test (GAT) and self reported questionnaire Disability Arm Shoulder and Hand (DASH).

    Results:

    Hand strength (both extension and flexion force) and hand function improved significantly after twelve weeks. The RA group showed improvement in the results of the DASH questionnaire (p < 0.05), but on individual level, the result was partly significant. The relation between extension and flexion force in the hand was not correlated, however, after the exercise there was a strong association between flexion and extension force (p < 0.001). The result on individual level is related to age and duration time.

    Conclusion:

    Twelve weeks of hand exercise significantly improved hand strength, hand function and perceived function for RA patients. Furthermore, exercise improved the relation between the finger extension and flexion force. Hand exercise is thus an effective intervention for RA patients, providing better strength and function.

    References:

    1. Brorsson, S., M. Hilliges, et al. (2009). A six-week hand exercise programme improves strength and hand function in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. J Rehabil Med 41(5): 338-42.
    2. O'Brien, A.V., P. Jones, et al. (2006). Conservative hand therapy treatments in rheumatoid arthritis–a randomized controlled trial. Rheumatology (Oxford) 45(5): 577-83.
    3. Ronningen, A. and I. Kjeken (2008). ffect of an intensive hand exercise programme in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Scand J Occup Ther: 1-11.
    4. Weiss, A. P., D. C. Moore, et al. (2004). Metacarpophalangeal joint mechanics after 3 different silicone arthroplasties. J Hand Surg [Am] 29(5): 796-803.
  • 29.
    Bäckman, Sandra
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Produktutvecklingsprojekt: En applikation till användandet av oxygenbehandling i hemmet.2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    According to statistics, in 2010 there were 26 individuals seen by a group of 100,000 who were depending in home oxygen therapy (HOT). Oxygen treatment adds a certain amount of Oxygen to the patient because the ability to breathe correctly and sufficiently is negatively affected.

    The dominant disease that leads to HOT is COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. As the name suggests, it is a chronic disease which gives inflammatory changes to the lung bronchioles. These changes affect the breathing surface which results in that the individuals’ respiratory capacity becomes reduced.

    The project used methods from dynamic product development with the user in focus. This to obtain a functional prototype that could be used by the target group and to fulfill the purpose, goals and requirements set for the project's results. An important component of the project therefore was to work with the collection of data. For this, various methods were used to obtain information from users as well as prescribers of HOT. All of the methods used have been tested earlier and proven reliable. This project collected information from interviews, observations, matrix arrays, risk analysis and usability testing in patients with HOT.

    The prototype developed in the project resulted in that the target group could perform live test without any risks during testing. The results showed that the aim and objective for the project were fulfilled, expressed in that patients would be able to move the oxygen tube used in HOT.

    It was further concluded that the results fulfilled the patients' desire and opportunity to move the Oxygen tube in their home and at the same time answered the questions that the project was to answer. There were no existing solutions to the problem which is included in the project, but it was possible to develop a first prototype that met the purpose and object of the project.

  • 30.
    Carbonnier, Anders
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Martinsson, Ninni
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Examining muscle activation for Hang Clean and three different TRX Power Exercises: A validation study2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Resistance training has proven to increase athletic performance, traditionally barbell training and Olympic Lifting have been used for this purpose. Sling training has recently been developed as a complement or substitution to traditional resistance training. Research has shown an increase in sport specific athletic performance and core stability with sling training. TRX Suspension Trainer is a newly developed sling training tool and to date no independent research has been done with the TRX. Purpose: To examine and compare muscle activation using TRX and the Olympic Lifting movement Hang Clean. Methods: 32 senior high school male soccer players participated in the study. Surface electromyographic (sEMG) data were collected on mm.erector spinae (back), m.gluteus maximus (glutes), m.vastus lateralis (quadriceps), m.semitendinosus (hamstrings) and m.gastrocnemius caput laterale (calf). Surface EMG data was collected when the subjects performed five different exercises, Hang Clean, TRX Squat Jump, TRX Front Squat and TRX Power Pull. In addition a Squat Jump was used as reference. Results: A similar muscle activation was found between Hang Clean (674 µV), TRX Squat Jump (684 µV) and TRX Front Squat (691 µV). TRX Power Pull showed the highest activation for mm.erector spinae and m.gluteus maximus but the lowest when comparing total muscle activation for all measured muscles. Conclusion: The similar amount of muscular activation for Hang Clean, TRX Squat Jump and TRX Front Squat indicates that the TRX Suspension Trainer can be used as a complement, for experienced athletes, or a substitution, for novice athletes, to traditional strength training. Coaches and athletic trainers should acknowledge the need and the importance of resistance training for athletic performance.

  • 31.
    Carlsson, Lena
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Johansson, Alexandra
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Sex veckors bålstabilitetsträning med FuncGym Training bands: Dess inverkan på manliga handbollsspelares kasthastighet på elitnivå2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Earlier studies refer to the fact that scientific research is lacking when it comes to functional training such as core strengthening and trunk stability in relation to athletic performance like throwing velocity. It is widely debated if instability when performed training exercises improves stability which in turn would improve athletic performance. The most equivalent study that has been made concerning training program with slings to improve trunk stability with the purpose to improve throwing velocity has shown significant results.

     The purpose of this study was to investigate if six weeks core stability training program with the functional training equipment Func.Gym training bands improved the throwing velocity in male elite handball players. 

    Two groups were used in this study, one test group consisting of six subjects (n=6) with an average age of 22,3 years, and one control group consisting of three subjects (n=3), with an average age 21 years. All the subjects were team players from HK Drott.

    The training program consisted of six exercises and was accomplished by the functional training equipment Func.Gym training bands.     

    To measure throwing velocity a Casio EX-F1 EXILIM was used, adjusted to high speed (hs) with 300 frames per second (fps). The clip from the high speed camera was analyzed in the Dartfish classroom edition program.

    One of the test persons in the test group showed improved result in throwing velocity. The remaining, both test group and control group, showed decreased measures in velocity after six week training. Measures of exercise repetitions and questionnaire showed improved strength in trunk stability. 

    Conclusion: Func.Gym Training bands improved trunk stability but did not in this study show any positive effect on throwing velocity.  

  • 32.
    Carlsson, Markus
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Utvärdering av protesfötter med hjälp av en konstruktion som kan utföra en mekanisk gång.2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper has evaluated a new type of prosthetic foot, X-Balance, which aim was to facilitate the performance on uneven ground for the user. This study have performed gait analyzes with three prosthetic feet, the X-Balance, Flex-Foot and assure Ottobock9192 on flat and uneven surfaces using 3D analysis system QTM (Qualisys Track Manager) and associated force plates. During the project a prototype of a design that can perform a mechanical gait were manufactured. The prototype has then been used to fulfill the purpose and objective of this study which is to make different final sets that demonstrate differences between prosthetic feet. Gait analyses of individuals have also been performed to get an idea of what normal gait is. The reliability of the prototype was measured and compared to the study with individuals. By comparison, it could be established that the structure had a higher reliability than the individuals, thus making it easier to compare prosthetic feet against each other. There are no measurements to show that proves that the mechanical gait with the prototype has a high validity. The evaluation findings shows that Ottobock9192 reduce the forces in the Z- and Y-direction most and thus contributes to a gentler heel strike than the other two prosthetics. The results also shows that X-Balance allows greater flexibility in sideway direction (supination) and contributing to a more gentle and easier gait for the user once operate the prosthetic foot over an object with the medial part of the forefoot.

  • 33.
    Danielsson, Tommy
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET). Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Asymmetry in Elite Snowboarders: A Study comparing Range of Motion in the Hip and Spine, Power in Lower Extremities and Circumference of Thigh2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Snowboarding is a relatively young sport and has grown since the birth in the 1960-70.

    Today, snowboarding still is a lifestyle to many, but also an accepted mainstream sport and has been an Olympic sport since the Olympic Winter Games in Nagano, Japan 1998 (18,35,36). The movement pattern and body position is asymmetric, since you stand sideways with the front foot ahead of the rear foot in the line of direction (14,18,28). Several studies that have investigated the biomechanics of snowboarding have showed that the loading of the lower extremities are different in the front leg compared to the rear leg during riding (14,18, 22,23,28).

    The purpose of this study was to investigate if the asymmetric body position in snowboarding causes differences between front and rear leg considering; circumference of thigh, range of motion (ROM) in the hip joints, power in lower extremities, or causes asymmetrical ROM in the spine in the test group compared to the control group.

    Two groups were used, one test group consisting of ten elite snowboarders (n=10) with an average age of 18 years, and one control group consisting of eight high level skiers (n=8), average age 17,25 years. All subjects were students at Malung/Sälen Alpine Elite Gymnasium. Measurements of ROM in hip and spine were made with a myrin incline goniometer and universal plastic goniometer. A one leg countermovement jump (CMJ) was made as a test of power in the lower extremities using Ivar ump & speed analyzer. Measurements of circumference of thighs were made using a soft tape measure.

    The results show significant differences in four of the ten measurements in test group and in two of the ten measurements in the control group. There are significant differences in hip passive flexion (P<0,05) and adduction(P<0,05) in both groups (Tables 2,3) suggesting that in these movements there are individual differences. The one leg CMJ and circumference of thigh shows significant differences, (P>0,05) and (P<0,001), between front and rear leg in the test group (Table 2), but no such differences can be seen in the control group (Table 3) suggesting that these differences may be caused by the asymmetrical body position during snowboarding.

  • 34.
    Edman, Sebastian
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Esping, Tobias
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Squats as a predictor of on-ice performance in ice hockey2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The National Hockey League Entry Draft Combine (NHLED Combine) is

    considered one of the toughest physical fitness tests an ice hockey player has to go through. The NHLED Combine consists of several fitness tests evaluating the athlete’s aerobic- and anaerobic capacity; lower body power, upper body strength and power, flexibility and anthropometrics; no lower body strength test are employed. Squats are the only exercise used by all National Hockey League (NHL) strength and conditioning coaches yet it is not included in the NHLED Combine.

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine which off-ice test correlates best with on-ice performance measured as forward skating speed. We hypothesised that squat one repetition maximum (squat 1RM) would be a better or equal predictor of on-ice performance compared to the current NHLED Combine tests standing long jump (SLJ) and Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT).

    Method: Eleven male subjects, aged 17.8 ± 0.8 years, performed an on-ice sprint followed by the off-ice tests SLJ, WAnT and squat 1RM.

    Results: A correlation was found between sprint time on-ice and SLJ (r= -0,727, p= 0.006), Wingate anaerobic test mean power/ body weight (WAnT MP/BW) (r= -0,607, p= 0,024), squat 1RM (r= -0,600, p= 0.026) and squat 1 repetition maximum/body weight (squat 1RM/BW) (r= -0,609, p= 0.023).

    Conclusion: The results indicate that squat 1RM and squat 1RM/BW are equally good predictors of hockey performance as SLJ and WAnT MP/BW.

  • 35.
    Enqvist, Louise
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Lövqvist, Robin
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    En studie av muskelaktivitet i dominant jämfört med icke dominant sida vid bänkpress med fri stång och i Smithmaskin2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A common question for many strength trainers is whether exercise with free weights or with machines is best. The advantage with free weights and machines is a popular debate among both athletes, coaches and scientists, but there is still no definite answer. Therefore, the purpose with this study was to examine the differences in muscle activity in the dominant and the non dominant side of Pectoralis major and Deltoideus anterior, in bench press with barbell and in a Smith machine.

    Participants consisted of 13 male students at Halmstad University with a mean age of 25,2 ± 3,0 years. All participants had at least 1 year experience from bench press. They performed three tests. At first one test to get their 1 repetition maximum (1RM), then two tests with 6 repetitions on 60 % of their 1RM, one with barbell and the other one in a Smith machine. The muscle activity was measured with surface electromyography (sEMG).

    All participants turned out to be right handed. The result shows that Deltoideus anterior had a significant higher muscle activity bilateral when using a barbell then a Smith machine (p≤0,05). Deltoideus anterior had higher muscle activity than Pectoralis major, both with a barbell (p≤0,05) and in the Smith machine. Pectoralis major had higher muscle activity bilateral in the Smith machine than with a barbell. The dominant side of Pectoralis major had higher muscle activity than the non dominant side in bench press with both barbell and Smith machine. The non dominant side of Deltoideus anterior had higher muscle activity than the dominant side in bench press with both barbell and Smith machine.

    Working out with a barbell and in a Smith machine has its advantages and disadvantages. There is no answer to which one is the best, it depends on both experience and the goal with the training. If the purpose is to train the middle part of the breast, it is according to our study better to do the bench press in a Smith machine. For novices, it can be a good idea to use machines in the beginning, to give the body time to adapt without stressing the muscles and the joints unnecessarily. Persons with more experience can benefit greatly from the additional benefits, as greater variation in exercises, and the similarity to daily and sport movements that exercising with free weights can give. For most people, the combination of free weights and machines gives an effective variation in the training.

  • 36.
    Eriksson, Elin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Lundberg, Andrea
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Knästabilitet hos ungdomar aktiva inom fotboll och handboll: En rörelseanalys som riskindikator för främre korsbandsskador2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Anterior cruciate ligament injuries (ACL-injuries) are serious and common in sports, especially in adolescents between the ages of 14 and 19. An increased risk for ACL-injury has been shown in individuals active in soccer and team handball, which both are popular sports worldwide. Within these sports, women have been proven to have two to eight times greater risk for ACL-injury than men.

    Aim: The aim was to investigate whether there was any difference in knee stability during a jump-landing movement between girls and boys aged 16-19 years, active in soccer and team handball and also to investigate whether there was any difference between the soccer players and team handball players, regardless of gender.

    Method: A drop jump test was performed by 20 adolescents, active in soccer and team handball, mean ± SD age 17.0 ± 0.9 years old. The tests were recorded in the frontal and sagittal plane and were then analyzed using the Landing Error Scoring System (LESS). Post hoc analyzes were used to examine differences in 1) the degree of knee valgus alignment between the girls and the boys and 2) the degree of knee flexion between the soccer- and the team handball players in the landing movement. An independent student’s t-test was used in the statistical analysis and the level of significance was set at p ≤ 0.05.

    Results: There was no significant difference in LESS-score between the girls and the boys (p = 0.694). The soccer players had significantly lower LESS-score (p = 0.002). A higher frequency of the girls displayed a knee valgus alignment during the test compared to the boys. The soccer players displayed according to LESS adequate knee flexion to greater extent than the team handball players did during the test.

    Conclusion: No significant difference in knee stability and jump-landing technique was found between the girls and the boys. The soccer players displayed significantly better knee stability and jump-landing technique than the team handball players. The girls displayed a greater degree of knee valgus during the test than the boys did and the team handball players displayed a smaller degree of knee flexion then the soccer players did. More research is required within the area to be able to generalize the results.

  • 37.
    Folkhammar Andersson, Siv
    et al.
    Unit of Rehabilitation, Kalmar County Council, Samrehab, Oskarshamn, Sweden.
    Bergman, Stefan
    The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Lund University, Lund, Sweden & FoU Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Bremander, Ann
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine. Lund University, Lund, Sweden & FoU Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Arthritis Management in Primary Care and Adherence to National Guidelines – a Swedish Survey Based on the Canadian Physiotherapists Arthritis Care Questionnaire2015In: Arthritis & Rheumatology, ISSN 2326-5191, E-ISSN 2326-5205, Vol. 67, no Suppl. S10, article id 2385Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background/Purpose:

    For patients with osteoarthritis (OA) physical therapy is recommended first line treatment and performed in primary care while patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) may be treated in primary care at disease onset and during stable phases of the disease. This requires updated skills and evidence based knowledge of the physical therapists (PTs) in arthritis treatment. The aim of this study was to explore physical therapy arthritis practice in primary care and to study the application of evidence based care given to patients with OA or RA.

    Methods:

    All PTs working in primary care in one health care region in Sweden (n=70) were e-mailed a questionnaire (the Canadian Physiotherapists Arthritis Care Survey1) to assess the frequency of current practice, feeling of confidence, educational needs and adherence to national guidelines in managing patients with OA or RA.  The questionnaire was translated and culturally adapted into Swedish according to international recommendations. Interventions supported by national guidelines were compared with reports of treatment modalities in the questionnaire. Mann-Whitney U test, Chi-square test or Fishers Exact test, were used where appropriate, to analyze differences between groups (PT management of patients with OA vs. RA).

    Results:

    Sixty-four PTs responded (91%), reporting a higher feeling of confidence in assessment, treatment and education for patients with OA than for RA (p<0.001). The total numbers of roles assumed by the PTs were higher in management of OA compared to RA (p<0.001). PTs who assumed a large numbers of roles also reported a higher feeling of confident in assessing OA (p=0.036). PTs who assumed a lower numbers of roles also reported a lower feeling of confidence in RA treatment (p=0.045). The recommendations in the guidelines were reported to be followed by almost all PTs in managing patients with RA and for eight out of eleven treatment modalities for patients with OA. Most PTs did provide joint mobilization and education of proper footwear for patients with OA even though Swedish national guidelines did not recommend this as treatment until further research has proven its effectiveness.

    Conclusion:

    PTs reported a lower feeling of confidence and to have assumed a lower numbers of roles in managing patients with RA than OA. There was a good adherence to the national guidelines for almost all listed treatment modalities. However, experienced evidence care and national guidelines did not totally agree. The results indicate a need for education in arthritis care, especially in RA.

    References:

    Li CL, Hurkmans EJ, Sayre EC, Vliet Vlieland TPM (2010). Continuing professional development is associated with increasing physical therapists´ roles in arthritis management in Canada and the Netherlands. Physical Therapy 90:629-42.

  • 38.
    Frandsen, Björn
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Hip and trunk muscle electromyography differences between bilateral and unilateral bodyweight resistance exercises2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 39.
    Frandsen, Björn
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Olsson, M Charlotte
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Hip and Trunk Muscle Electromyography Differences Between Bilateral and Unilateral Bodyweight Resistance Exercises2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    In sports, force production and movement are predominantly generated in a unilateral weight-bearing stance. Therefore, unilateral resistance training may possibly elicit more sport-specific strength gains compared to traditional bilateral strength training. Hip- and trunk- muscles stabilize the pelvis and trunk to maintain proper technique and posture in resistance training and are thought to play a central role in sports performance as well as injury prevention. Hip- and trunk- muscle activity increases as the body weight balance change from a bilateral to a unilateral stance. Little research has examined the magnitude of change in muscle activation differences between bilateral and unilateral stance in lower body exercises.

    Aim

    The aim of this study was to examine the electromyographic (EMG) activity in hip and trunk muscles in three bodyweight exercises performed in a bilateral and a unilateral stance.

    Methods

    14 healthy, young adults participated in a single session, single-group, observational study. Manual muscle testing was used to attain a maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVC) value for gluteus medius, gluteus maximus, rectus abdominis, and erector spinae. EMG measurements (4 channel ME6000, MegaWin Software, Kuopio, Finland) were taken during performance of squat, bridge, and plank exercises in both a bilateral and a unilateral stance.

    Results

    In all three exercises, EMG activity (presented as magnitude of change) was greater in the unilateral stance compared to the bilateral stance (p< 0.05), for the muscles gluteus medius (squat 478%, bridge 204%, plank 285%) and gluteus maximus (squat 371%, bridge 172%, plank 233%). In addition, in plank, EMG activity was greater in unilateral stance compared to the bilateral stance (p< 0.05) in rectus abdominis (120%) and erector spinae (127%). In the squat and bridge, no differences were identified in EMG activity for rectus abdominis and erector spinae between the bilateral and the unilateral stance.

    Discussion

    Nearly all unilateral exercises activated the hip muscles (gluteus medius, gluteus maximus) more than double compared to the same exercises performed bilaterally. In particular, gluteal muscle activity during the unilateral squat was more than 3.5 fold greater as compared to the bilateral stance. This greater magnitude of change in the unilateral squat might be explained by the single contact point with the ground in the squat, whereas the bridge and plank exercises include more ground contact points even in their unilateral stance. A unilateral training program including squat exercises might be beneficial for developing hip strength which is of great importance in sports performance.

  • 40.
    Frejd, Amanda
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Salomonsson, Elin
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Sit and Go: Ett hjälpmedel som underlättar för rullstolsanvändare vid matlagning2013Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The number of persons with disabilities is expected to increase since they live longer with their disability. To increase the empowerment of the disabled, new innovative assistive technologies have to be developed and existing assistive technologies further developed.

    The idea to this project arose when one of the project members for a long time have seen her family member, who is a wheelchair user, find his own solutions when cooking on the stovein a non-adjusted kitchen. The main aim of the project has been to solve the problems that wheelchair users may encounter when cooking on the stove, for example, that they cannot reach or see properly. The goal has been to develop a functional prototype to perform tests on users to ensure improved ergonomics and opportunity for increased independence.

    The result of the project was a user friendly prototype. The prototype consists of a walker with an attached harness/seat that gives support while cooking on the stove. The harness/seat can also be attached to a rail at the kitchen counter or on the wall.

  • 41.
    Frisén, Ida
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET). Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Karlsson, Emma
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET). Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Förbättrad muskelfunktion och balans hos äldre kvinnor efter sex veckors funktionell träning2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden is the country that has got the largest amount of elderly in the adult population in the world. The physical activity level decreases as we grow old and we experience muscle mass loss and a bone density reduction. This leads to an increased risk for falls and subsequent fractures. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether an exercise program could affect muscle function and balance ability to prevent falls. 17 women (age 64-79) participated in this study and was assigned to a control group (n=7) and an intervention group (n=10). The subjects were physically active on a regular basis (3-5 times per week). The participants performed three tests, Timed Up & Go (TUG), Berg Balance Scale (BBS) and One Leg Stance (OLS), and answered questionnaires. During a sex week period the intervention group performed group training three times a week. The training program was based on functional exercises to strengthen the lower extremities. The results of the intervention group showed a significant (p≤0, 05) difference in all tests, except the TUG. The control group only showed a significant difference on one test from pre- to post testing. The hypothesis of increased muscle function and confidence of one’s ability was met. It was concluded that the present training program with functional exercises can be used to prevent falls.

  • 42.
    Gatica, Nicolas
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Kraftskillnad i olika Muay Thai tekniker: händer armbågar och sparkar mot huvudet2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In the martial art of Muay Thai, techniques are used with hands, elbows, knees and kicks. The contestants are divided into different weight classes and experience levels. The Swedish martial arts association has decided that techniques with elbow are not allowed in B-class. Why is it so?

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate whether the martial arts delegation decision to restrict techniques with elbows to the head in the B-class is justified. To do this, comparison of peak force and impulse between elbow techniques and already authorized techniques with hand and kick was compared.

    Method: Ten Muay Thai practitioners of high class (Class A and Class B) hit a punching bag fitted with a triaxial accelerometer. The force was calculated by multiplying the mass of the bag with acceleration resultant. The peak force was taken out and compared between the techniques. A high-speed camera was used to record the techniques. The contact time was calculated through video analysis and through analyzing the power data of the techniques. The contact time was used to calculate the impulse.

    Results: Peak force for technique with the hand was 135 (SD 757) N greater than for technique with elbow. Peak force for technique with kick was 348 (SD 835) N less than the technique with elbow. The differences were not statistically significant. For impulse calculated by video analysis, technique with hand was 18 (SD 13) Ns greater than for technique with elbow and technique with kick was 13 (SD 27) Ns greater than for technique with elbow. Analysis of the force data showed the same trend. Technique with hand was 14 (SD 9) Ns greater than technique with elbow and technique with kick was 4 (SD 19) Ns greater than for technique with elbow. Impulse difference between hand techniques and elbow techniques was statistically significant.

    Conclusion: Techniques with elbow does not generate statistically significantly greater peak force or impulse than already permitted techniques. The martial arts delegation decision should be reviewed.

  • 43.
    Gunterberg, Sofia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Nyqvist, Jennifer
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Bergström, Cecilia
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    EFFEKTEN AV DROP JUMP PÅ VOLLEYBOLLSPELARES EFTERFÖLJANDE HOPPHÖJD2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Hopphöjden är en viktig faktor inom volleyboll och kan vara direkt avgörande i spelsituationer. Drop jump (DJ) är en vanligt förekommande plyometrisk övning som används för att förbättra hopphöjden. Ett fåtal studier har påvisat den omedelbara effekten utav att implementera DJ i ett träningsupplägg. Syfte: Syftet med studien var att undersöka om ett set med fem repetitioner av DJ kan förbättra hopphöjden efter tre minuters aktiv vila. Avsikten med studiens upplägg var att det med enkelhet ska kunna implementeras i en matchsituation. Metod: Nio kvinnliga volleybollspelare på elitnivå deltog i studien i åldern 25±7 år, med vikt 73±6 kg och längd 172±8 cm. Deltagarnas hopphöjd testades med tre countermovement jump (CMJ) och 72 timmar senare utfördes fem DJ innan liknande CMJ utfördes. Hopphöjden uppmättes med Ivar jump system.   Resultat: Resultatet påvisade ingen signifikant förbättring i hopphöjd (p = 0,6) efter utförandet av fem DJ. Dock noterades en positiv trend då åtta av nio deltagare förbättrade sin hopphöjd med ±1,6 cm. Slutsats: Utförandet av fem DJ före en hopprestation kan ge positiv effekt. Ytterligare forskning krävs dock för att kunna fastställa slutsatsen och hur länge effekten håller i sig.

  • 44.
    Gustafsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Jeanette, Backholm
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    PÅVERKAR ÅLDER, KÖN OCH TRÄNINGSMÄNGD FMS?: En tvärsnittsstudie mellan Functional movement screen samt sf-36v2 Health survey2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Regelbunden fysisk aktivitet motverkar en rad fysiska och mentala sjukdomar. Hälsovinster av fysisk aktivitet är bland annat en högre funktionell muskulär- och kardiovaskulär kapacitet samt en högre livskvalitet. Stillasittande och inaktivitet kan leda till övervikt, kardiovaskulära sjukdomar, cancer, psykosociala problem och metaboliska sjukdomar.

    Mellan män och kvinnor finns fysiologiska skillnader som visar sig i kroppsstorlek och muskelmassa. Detta ger generellt sett kvinnor mer flexibel fysik medan män är fysiskt starkare.

    WHOs rekommendationer om daglig fysisk aktivitet är 150 min/vecka av moderat aerobisk träning eller 75 min mer ansträngande aerobisk träning. Styrketräning som involverar större muskelgrupper rekommenderas i åldrarna 18-64.  

    Till hjälp att undersöka hypotesen har två oberoende test används. En skriftlig enkät, SF-36v2 Health Survey, samt ett fysiskt test, Functional Movement Screen.

    I denna studie undersöks huruvida det finns ett samband mellan en ökad träningsmängd och ett högre FMS-resultat samt om en högre ålder ger lägre FMS-resultat, oavsett kön. Vi tror oss även se ett samband mellan högre FMS-poäng och ett högre uppskattat mentalt och fysiskt mående.

    Testpersonerna (N:30) som deltog i studien var arbetande eller studerande män (N:15) och kvinnor (N:15) i åldrarna 20-65år.

    FMS-resultaten visade ingen signifikant skillnad mellan kön eller stigande ålder. Däremot ser vi signifikanta skillnader mellan könen vid specifika styrke- eller rörlighetstester i FMS. Kvinnorna visar tydligt via resultaten att de generellt har en mer flexibel fysik medan männen är starkare.

    Som slutsats av denna studie kan vi konstatera att FMS som testmetod är könsneutralt och kan användas på blandade populationer. Detta ger testmetoden en bred användbarhet på just en blandad population.

    Fler studier krävs för att få fram normerande poängsättning om FMS skall användas på medelmotionären. 

  • 45.
    Hagel, Sofia
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Section of Rheumatology, Lund University and Skåne University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.
    Petersson, Ingemar F
    Department of Orthopedics, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Bremander, Ann
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Lindqvist, Elisabet
    Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Section of Rheumatology, Lund University and Skåne University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.
    Bergknut, Charlotte
    Department of Orthopedics, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Englund, Martin
    Department of Orthopedics, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Trends in the first decade of 21st century healthcare utilisation in a rheumatoid arthritis cohort compared with the general population2012In: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, ISSN 0003-4967, E-ISSN 1468-2060, Vol. 72, no 7, p. 1212-1216Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To study 21st century trends in healthcare utilisation by patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) compared with the general population.

    Methods: Observational cohort study. Using Swedish healthcare register data, we identified 3977 Region Skåne residents (mean age in 2001, 62.7 years; 73% women) presenting with RA (International Classification of Diseases-10 codes M05 or M06) in 1998-2001. We randomly sampled two referents from the general population per RA patient matched for age, sex and area of residence. We calculated the year 2001-2010 trends for the annual ratio (RA cohort/referents) of the mean number of hospitalisations and outpatient clinic visits.

    Results: By the end of the 10-year period, 62% of patients and 74% of referents were still alive and resident in the region. From 2001 to 2010, the ratio (RA cohort/referents) of the mean number of hospitalisations for men and women decreased by 27% (p=0.01) and 28% (p=0.004), respectively. The corresponding decrease was 29% (p=0.005) and 16% (p=0.004) for outpatient physician care, 34% (p=0.009) and 18% (p=0.01) for nurse visits, and 34% (p=0.01) and 28% (p=0.004) for physiotherapy. The absolute reduction in number of hospitalisations was from an annual mean of 0.79 to 0.69 in male patients and from 0.71 to 0.59 in female patients. The corresponding annual mean number of consultations in outpatient physician care by male and female RA patients changed from 9.2 to 7.7 and from 9.9 to 8.7, respectively.

    Conclusions: During the first decade of the 21st century, coinciding with increasing use of earlier and more active RA treatment including biological treatment, overall inpatient and outpatient healthcare utilisation by a cohort of patients with RA decreased relative to the general population. Copyright Article author (or their employer) 2012.

  • 46.
    Haglund, Emma
    et al.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Bergman, Stefan
    Research and Development Centre, Spenshult Hospital for Rheumatic Diseases, Oskarström, Sweden.
    Petersson, Ingemar F.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Jacobsson, Lennart T. H.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Strömbeck, Britta
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Bremander, Ann
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine. Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Differences in physical activity patterns in patients with spondylarthritis2012In: Arthritis Care and Research, ISSN 0893-7524, E-ISSN 1529-0123, Vol. 64, no 12, p. 1886-1894Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To study patient-reported physical activity in patients with spondylarthritis (SpA) and possible differences in physical activity patterns between the SpA subtypes and sexes.

    METHODS: In 2009, a questionnaire including inquiries concerning physical activity was sent to patients with a SpA diagnosis (n = 3,711). The World Health Organization (WHO) global recommendations of physical activity for health requiring 150 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity (MI-PA) or 75 minutes of vigorous-intensity physical activity (VI-PA) per week were used as recommended levels. Standardized risk ratios (RRs) were calculated by using physical activity data from the Swedish population. The association within the SpA group between sex, age, disease-related variables, anxiety, and depression and meeting recommended levels of MI-PA and VI-PA (dependent variables) was studied with multivariate analysis.

    RESULTS: A total of 2,167 patients with SpA (48% men, mean ± SD age 55 ± 14 years) responded to the questionnaire. Sixty-eight percent of the patients met the WHO recommendations, more frequently in women than in men (70% versus 66%). The recommendations were more often met in the SpA group (RR 1.09, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.04-1.15) compared with the Swedish population. There was a tendency for young women to meet the WHO recommendations less often than the Swedish population (RR 0.94, 95% CI 0.63-1.25). Different factors were found to influence whether the patients were exercising with a moderate or vigorous intensity.

    CONCLUSION: Seven of 10 patients with SpA met the WHO recommendations of physical activity for health, but we found sex and disease subtype differences. This information can be useful in clinical practice when coaching patients to have a healthier lifestyle. © 2012 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  • 47.
    Haglund, Emma
    et al.
    R&D Center Spenshult, Oskarström, Sweden.
    Bremander, Ann
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Bergman, Stefan
    Department of Rheumatology, Clinical sciences, Skåne University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden.
    Jacobsson, Lennart
    Department of Rheumatology, Clinical sciences, Skåne University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden.
    Strömbeck, Britta
    Musculoskeletal Sciences, Department of Orthopedics, Clinical Sciences, Lund, Sweden.
    Petersson, Ingemar
    Musculoskeletal Sciences, Department of Orthopedics, Clinical Sciences, Lund, Sweden.
    Work productivity in a population based cohort of patients with Spondyloarthritis2012In: Arthritis and Rheumatism, ISSN 0004-3591, E-ISSN 1529-0131, Vol. 64, no 10, p. S1015-S1015Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Spondyloarthritis (SpA) often causes impaired function, activity limitations, affected health related quality of life and work disability. Work disability has been shown to be affected both in terms of absenteeism and in impaired productivity while working (presenteeism). In this group with increased socioeconomic costs there is also an increase in  the use of expensive pharmacotherapies. Thus, it is important to study factors related to the ability to stay productive while at work.

    Objective: The aim was to study factors associated with presenteeism in patients with SpA. Also to analyse possible differences in age, gender and SpA subtypes (ankylosing spondylitis, psoriatic arthritis and undifferentiated SpA).

    Methods: The analysis was based on 1773 patients seeking health care for SpA aged 18-67 years from southern Sweden, identified by a health care register. A questionnaire survey in 2009 included questions concerning self-reported presenteeism, defined as the percentage of impairment due to SpA while working 0-100, (0=no impact), was answered by 1447 individuals. Patients´ characteristics: disease duration, disease activity (BASDAI), physical function (BASFI), health related quality of life (EQ-5D), anxiety (HAD-a), depression (HAD-d), self-efficacy pain and symptom (ASES) and register based sick leave. The Pearson’s correlation coefficient and univariate analyses with ANOVA were used to study factors associated with presenteeism and t-test was used for group comparisons.

    Results: Fifty-five percent (n=802/1447) reported no impact on work presenteeism, while mean impairment was 20 (95% CI 18-21) (n=1447). Women reported higher impact on work presenteeism than men (mean impairment 23 vs. 17, p<0.001) but no statistically significant differences were found between the SpA subtype groups. Twenty-eight percent (n=504/1773) were registered for any sick leave (absenteeism > 14 days). Worse outcome in quality of life (EQ-5D), disease activity (BASDAI) and physical function (BASFI) all correlated to higher impact on work presenteeism (r >0.5, p <0.001), while sick leave (absenteeism) did not.  In the univariate analyses experiencing worse outcome in EQ-5D (β-est -9.6, p<0.001) BASDAI (β-est 7.8, p<0.001) and BASFI (β-est 7.3, p<0.001) were all associated to higher impact on presenteeism regardless of age, gender and disease subtype. Worse outcome of EQ-5D was associated to a higher degree impact on presenteeism in the younger women (18-52 yrs). Self-efficacy, anxiety, depression, disease duration and education level <12 years were all associated to higher impact on presenteeism but were not significant in all strata for age, gender and disease subtype.

    Conclusion: Quality of life, disease activity and physical function all affect work presenteeism in patients with SpA, regardless of age, gender and disease subtype. The results indicate that work presenteeism is affected in patients with all types of SpA and more affected in women. We also find that presenteeism and register based sick leave (absenteeism) may be related to different dimensions of the individuals and their disease.

  • 48.
    Haglund, Emma
    et al.
    Spenshult Research and Development Center, Spenshult, Oskarström, Sweden.
    Bremander, Ann
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine. Spenshult Research and Development Center, Spenshult, Oskarström, Sweden.
    Bergman, Stefan
    Spenshult Research and Development Center, Spenshult, Oskarström, Sweden.
    Jacobsson, Lennart T H
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Malmö, Section of Rheumatology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Petersson, Ingemar F
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund, Section of Rheumatology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Work productivity in a population-based cohort of patients with spondyloarthritis2013In: Rheumatology, ISSN 1462-0324, E-ISSN 1462-0332, Vol. 52, no 9, p. 1708-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To assess work productivity and associated factors in patients with SpA.

    METHODS: This cross-sectional postal survey included 1773 patients with SpA identified in a regional health care register. Items on presenteeism (reduced productivity at work, 0-100%, 0 = no reduction) were answered by 1447 individuals. Absenteeism was defined as register-based sick leave using data from a national register. Disease duration, disease activity (BASDAI), physical function (BASFI), health-related quality of life (EQ-5D), anxiety (HAD-a), depression (HAD-d), self-efficacy [Arthritis Self-efficacy Scale (ASES) pain and symptom], physical activity and education were also measured.

    RESULTS: Forty-five per cent reported reduced productivity at work with a mean reduction of 20% (95% CI 18, 21) and women reported a higher mean reduction than men (mean 23% vs 17%, P < 0.001). Worse quality of life, disease activity, physical function and anxiety all correlated with reduced productivity (r = 0.52-0.66, P < 0.001), while sick leave did not. Worse outcomes on the EQ-5D (β-est -9.6, P < 0.001), BASDAI (β-est 7.8, P < 0.001), BASFI (β-est 7.3, P < 0.001), ASES pain (β-est -0.5, P < 0.001) and HAD-d (β-est 3.4, P < 0.001) were associated with reduced productivity at work in patients with SpA regardless of age, gender and disease subgroup. ASES symptoms, HAD-a and education level <12 years were associated with reduced productivity but were not significant in all strata for age, gender and disease subgroup.

    CONCLUSION: Work productivity was reduced in patients with SpA and more so in women. Worse quality of life, disease activity, physical function, self-efficacy and depression were all associated with reduced productivity at work in patients with SpA.

    © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved.

  • 49.
    Haglund, Emma
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS). Lund University, Lund, Sweden & Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Bremander, Ann
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine. Lund University, Lund, Sweden & Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Bergman, Stefan
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden; Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden & The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Larsson, Ingrid
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health promotion and disease prevention. Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Patient Education in Spondyloarthritis Should be Guiding, Reliable and Available and Presented in Varied Formats2015In: Arthritis & Rheumatology, ISSN 2326-5191, E-ISSN 2326-5205, Vol. 67, no Suppl. S10, article id 1196Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background/Purpose:

    The treatment target for axial spondyloarthritis (SpA) is to maximize health-related quality of life (HRQoL) by controlling disease activity and improving functioning. The treatment cornerstones are a combination of patient education, pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment. Health professionals are familiar with providing patient education but the knowledge is scarce concerning how this education is experienced by the patients.

    The aim was to describe patients’ experiences of education in SpA management.

    Methods:

    The study had a descriptive design with a qualitative conventional content analysis approach performed in seven steps in accordance with Graneheim & Lundman (1). The analysis aimed to describe and preserve contextual meanings. After coding and subgrouping meaningful parts of the text were merged into categories. Eleven interviews were conducted between 2014-2015 in patients with SpA based on a strategic sampling in order to achieve variation with regard to sex (7 men, 4 women), age (38-66 years), subdiagnoses (5 patients with AS, 6 with USpA), quality of life (EQ5D 0.29-1.0), disease activity (BASDAI 1-6), physical function (BASFI 0-5), and global health (BASG 0-7) .

    Results:

    Three categories representing patients’ experiences of patient education in disease management emerged; guiding education, reliable education and available education. Guiding education comprised SpA management including disease knowledge such as symptoms, prognosis, treatment, self-management, climate impact, heredity, and assisting devices. Reliable education meant how and by whom the education was communicated and was considered reliable if it was based on science and communicated by specialists, for example by physician, nurse, PT, dietician and senior patients with experience of rheumatic diseases. The patients experienced difficulties in assessing the large flow of education coming from various sources. Individualized education also increased the reliability. Available education meant that the education can and should be presented in varied formats, and that the amount of information could be chosen. The education could be given orally (through meetings, videos, lectures), in writing (by pamphlets, e-mails, journals, webpages) or obtained through own personal experiences. There were requests to utilize newer media like skype, video and chat forums. Furthermore, individual contacts with healthcare professionals when needed were of importance.

    Conclusion:

    This study highlights the importance of obtaining a guiding, reliable and available patient education for management of SpA. Health care professionals need to consider the importance of presenting varied formats of education based on patients’ experiences and expectations.

    References:

    1.Graneheim UH, Lundman B. Qualitative content analysis in nursing research: concepts, procedures and measures to achieve trustworthiness. Nurse education today 2004;24(2):105-12.

  • 50.
    Haglund, Emma
    et al.
    Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Petersson, Ingemar F.
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund, Section of Rheumatology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Bremander, Ann
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine. Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden & Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund, Section of Rheumatology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Bergman, Stefan
    Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden & Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund, Section of Rheumatology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Predictors of Presenteeism and Activity Impairment Outside Work in Patients with Spondyloarthritis2015In: Journal of occupational rehabilitation, ISSN 1053-0487, E-ISSN 1573-3688, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 288-295Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purposes To assess predictors of presenteeism (reduced productivity at work) and activity impairment outside work in patients with spondyloarthritis (SpA). Methods Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to study predictors of presenteeism and activity impairment in 1,253 patients with SpA based on a 2.5 year follow-up questionnaire. The Work Productivity and Activity Impairment (WPAI) questionnaire was used as main outcome. Age, gender, lifestyle factors, subgroups, disease duration, and different patient reported outcome measures (PROMs) were studied as possible predictors. The association between presenteeism and WPAI activity impairment outside work was assessed. Results Out of 1,253 patients, 757 reported being in work and of these 720 responded to the WPAI questionnaire. The mean (confidence interval, CI) reported presenteeism was 25 % (23-27 %) and mean activity impairment 33 % (31-35 %) (0-100 %, 0 = no reduction). Significant predictors of presenteeism and activity impairment at follow-up (controlled for gender, age, spondyloarthritis subgroups and presenteeism at baseline) were presenteeism at baseline, poor quality of life, worse disease activity, decreased physical function, lower self-efficacy pain and symptom, higher scores of anxiety, depression, smoking and low education level, and for activity impairment also female sex. There was a strong association between presenteeism and activity impairment outside work (OR 16.7; 95 % CI 11.6-24.3; p < 0.001). Conclusions Presenteeism and activity impairment were not only predicted by presenteeism at baseline, but also by several PROMs commonly used in clinical rheumatology practice. Impaired activity outside work could indicate problems also at work suggesting why both areas need to be addressed in the clinical situation. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York.

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