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  • 951.
    Ulvenblad, Pia
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Knowledge Entrepreneurship and Enterprise Research (KEEN).
    Growth intentions and communicative practices: Strategic entrepreneurship in business development2009Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis focuses on the “will and skill” of individuals who take part in activities of running a business. The aspect of “will” is studied in terms of growth intentions and the aspect of “skill” is studied in terms of communicative practices. The overall purpose is to explore how entrepreneurs think and talk about growth and how they act in their communicative practices to express their growth intentions and to mobilize resources for their businesses. To meet the overall purpose four empirical studies have been conducted. The empirical data consist of interviews and observations “shadowing” entrepreneurs, as well as mail questionnaires to Swedish entrepreneurs. Perspective Text Analysis (PTA) has been used to analyse growth intentions, and reveals growth in both a pragmatic sense and an institutionalized sense. Pragmatic growth refers to talk about growth in terms of space for development, space for money and status, and/or space for security and control. Institutionalized growth refers to talk about growth in terms of a winning scenario or a threatening scenario. The analysis regarding communicative practices resulted in six categories of communicative behaviour in the business start-up: (i) from no one to someone, (ii) from small to big, (iii) from inexperienced to experienced, (iv) from one role to another role, (v) from alone to a network member, and (vi) from silence to conversation. Further, the entrepreneurs show other-orientation, openness and adaptation in their communicative behaviour. In addition, entrepreneurs with previous experience from entrepreneurship education report higher willingness in the dimension of openness and adaptation in communication. The communicative practices are merged into a model of content-centred, behaviour-centred and adaptive-centred communication strategies. Entrepreneurs’ “will and skill” with focus on communication strategies are proposed to be an important part of strategic entrepreneurship.

  • 952.
    Ulvenblad, Pia
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Knowledge Entrepreneurship and Enterprise Research (KEEN).
    The challenge of communication (ChoC): Communicative skills in the start-up phase of a business2008In: Small Enterprise Research: The Journal of SEAANZ, ISSN 1321-5906, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 2-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Entrepreneurs in newly started businesses need to think of communication in a strategic way since they lack a “track record” and suffer from liability of newness. The aim of this paper is to capture entrepreneurs´ communicative skills using a framework of leadership theories focused on the dimensions (i) other-orientation, (ii) openness and (iii)adaptation. The data is collected through structural observations “shadowing” five entrepreneurs in Sweden. The findings show that the entrepreneurs are both oriented toward others and open to input from them. They often adapt to the situation and act in accordance with the co-actor’s interest. However, they also withhold their standpoint when they find it necessary. The entrepreneurs with highgrowth orientation were those that showed the most frequent other-oriented and opened behaviour during the observations. They were also adaptive in their communication with different counterparts.

     

  • 953.
    Ulvenblad, Pia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Knowledge Entrepreneurship and Enterprise Research (KEEN).
    Barth, Henrik
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Cederholm Björklund, Jennie
    The Rural Economy and Agricultural Society, Lilla Böslid, Sweden.
    Hoveskog, Maya
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Business Model Innovation (BMI).
    Ulvenblad, Per-Ola
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Ståhl, Jenny
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Barriers to business model innovation in the agri-food industry: A systematic literature review2018In: Outlook on Agriculture, ISSN 0030-7270, E-ISSN 2043-6866, Vol. 47, no 4, p. 308-314Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of business model innovation (BMI) is widely recognized. BMI is especially important in the agri-food industry that faces enormous challenges as the demand for food increases worldwide. Much of the BMI research focuses on the technology and biomedical industries. Far less attention has been paid to the agri-food industry. This article is a systematic literature review of the BMI research in the agri-food industry. The article’s aim is to identify and categorize various barriers to BMI as described in the literature (in English) published in peer-reviewed journals between 1990 and 2014. The findings show a fairly even distribution among external and internal BMI barriers. Because the main barrier is the mind-set that is resistant to change, it is recommended the researchers and practitioners should focus more on the cognitive barriers to BMI in the agri-food industry.

  • 954.
    Ulvenblad, Pia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Barth, Henrik
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Hoveskog, Maya
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Business Model Innovation (BMI).
    Ulvenblad, Per-Ola
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Unpacking priorities of agri-food companies in Sweden: Insights from a survey of Sustainable Business Models2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 955.
    Ulvenblad, Pia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Knowledge Entrepreneurship and Enterprise Research (KEEN).
    Berggren, Eva
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Knowledge Entrepreneurship and Enterprise Research (KEEN).
    Winborg, Joakim
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Knowledge Entrepreneurship and Enterprise Research (KEEN).
    The role of entrepreneurship education and start-up experience for handling communication and liability of newness2013In: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research, ISSN 1355-2554, E-ISSN 1758-6534, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 187-209Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The aim of this study is to test the assumption that ability to handle communication and iability of newness (LoN) is enhanced by academic entrepreneurship education and/or previous start-upexperience.

    Design/methodology/approach – The data collection includes a questionnaire with a total sample of 392 responding entrepreneurs in Sweden. Statistical analyses are made between entrepreneurs with academic entrepreneurship education respectively previous start-up experience. Findings – The findings show that entrepreneurs with experience from entrepreneurship education report more developed communicative skills in the dimensions of openness as well as adaptation, whereas the dimension of other-orientation is found to be learned by previous start-up experience. When it comes to perceived problems related to LoN the differences between the groups were not as strong as assumed. However, the differences observed imply that also for handling LoN the authors identify a combined effect of possessing start-up experience as well as experience from entrepreneurship education. Consequently, entrepreneurs with experience from both, show in total the most elaborated skills.

    Practical implications – One way to improve future entrepreneurship educations is to make students more aware of the mutual profit in a business agreement and how to communicate this in a marketing situation. Another suggestion is to include starting business as a course work.

    Originality/value – This study not only meets the call for actual outcome from entrepreneurship educations in terms of changed behaviour but also for interdisciplinary research in the entrepreneurship field in integrating leadership research with focus on communication.

  • 956.
    Ulvenblad, Pia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Knowledge Entrepreneurship and Enterprise Research (KEEN).
    Blomkvist, Marita
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Hansson, Agneta
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Knowledge Entrepreneurship and Enterprise Research (KEEN).
    World-Class Entrepreneurship- and Innovation Programmes in Sweden - Focus on Gender Perceptions2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 957.
    Ulvenblad, Pia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Knowledge Entrepreneurship and Enterprise Research (KEEN).
    Blomkvist, Marita
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Knowledge Entrepreneurship and Enterprise Research (KEEN).
    Winborg, Joakim
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Knowledge Entrepreneurship and Enterprise Research (KEEN).
    Academic entrepreneurship - The structure of incubator management and best practice reported on Swedish business incubators’ web sites2010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to describe the extent and content of information regarding incubator management structure, selection, support and network mediation on Swedish incubators websites and analyse connections between different incubator management structure and the content of incubator best practice. The data is based on information reported on 44 incubator websites in Sweden processed within the SPSS system. The findings show that incubators with more male representation in board and coach/advisor personnel report a more active part in business support including network mediation.

  • 958.
    Ulvenblad, Pia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Knowledge Entrepreneurship and Enterprise Research (KEEN).
    Blomkvist, Marita
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Knowledge Entrepreneurship and Enterprise Research (KEEN).
    Winborg, Joakim
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Knowledge Entrepreneurship and Enterprise Research (KEEN).
    Academic entrepreneurship: the structure of incubator management and best practice reported on Swedish business incubators websites2011In: International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, ISSN 1476-1297, E-ISSN 1741-8054, Vol. 12, no 4, p. 445-458Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to describe the extent and content of information regarding incubator management structure, selection, support and network mediation on Swedish incubators websites and analyse connections between how different incubator management structure have an impact on the content of incubator best practice. The data is based on information reported on 44 incubator websites in Sweden processed within the SPSS system. The findings show that incubators with more male representation in board and coach/advisor personnel report a more active part in business support including network mediation.

  • 959.
    Ulvenblad, Pia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Cederholm Björklund, Jennie
    The Rural Economy and Agricultural Society, Lilla Böslid, Sweden.
    A leadership development programme for agricultural entrepreneurs in Sweden2018In: The Journal of Agricultural Education and Extension, ISSN 1389-224X, E-ISSN 1750-8622, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 327-343Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose:

    This article describes the five-phase process of a leadership development programme conducted with agricultural entrepreneurs who own and manage dairy farms in Sweden. The programme primarily focused on leadership of employees and on self-leadership. The article’s purpose is to present a template for leadership development programmes that can be used in the agricultural sector and in other industry sectors as well.

    Design/Methodology:

    The empirical data come from interviews with agricultural entrepreneurs, agricultural advisors and authors of a book on leadership in its various forms. Observations were also conducted of the instruction in the leadership development programme.

    Findings:

    First, agricultural entrepreneurs (and possibly entrepreneurs in other sectors) benefit from leadership development programmes in which the concept and practice of self-leadership are emphasized. Second, such programmes are more valuable to participants if other actors (e.g. academics and advisors) are participants. Third, coaches are useful as support for the programmes’ participants. Practical Implications: An implication of this study is the finding that working with the knowledge transfer and dissemination to advisors and entrepreneurs in the agricultural sector can enhance leadership competences in the industry. Role transformation (e.g. advisor to coach) can also enhance the transfer of such leadership competences.

    Theoretical implications:

    An implication for theory is to include a self-leadership module in leadership theories about learning leadership in development programmes.

    Originality/Value:

    Knowledge transfer and dissemination through leadership development programmes for agricultural advisors and entrepreneurs can have a beneficial effect on industry leadership and management. In addition to the traditional leadership skills that many leadership development programmes teach, such programmes also need to emphasize self-leadership.

  • 960.
    Ulvenblad, Pia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Hoveskog, Maya
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Tell, Joakim
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Ulvenblad, Per-Ola
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Ståhl, Jenny
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Barth, Henrik
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Agricultural business model innovation in Swedish food production: The influence of self-leadership and lean innovation2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This conceptual paper focuses on the need for knowledge in leadership, organization and innovative thinking that exist in primary production throughout the value chain from the farm to the final consumer. There are also needs in terms of improving and developing the entire value chain from the farm to the final consumer. Self-leadership and lean innovation is in this paper proposed to enhance the possibilities for business model innovation in the food production. The aims of the paper are two folded; Firstly, the aim is to present a framework containing self-leadership and lean innovation and how these theoretical approaches can facilitate and shape business model innovation in the agricultural sector. Secondly, the aim is to show a way of working with this problem area in order to meet these needs in the agricultural sector. A framework for business model innovation is presented as well as an interactive research design addressing the problem area in terms of action research in which learning networks is an important concept. The paper concludes with suggestions for future research challenges. 

  • 961.
    Ulvenblad, Pia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Knowledge Entrepreneurship and Enterprise Research (KEEN).
    Ulvenblad, Per-Ola
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Knowledge Entrepreneurship and Enterprise Research (KEEN).
    Bank Financing of the Innovative Firms – How Do Bank Officers Perceive the Communication of the Entrepreneur?2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 962.
    Ulvenblad, Pia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Knowledge Entrepreneurship and Enterprise Research (KEEN).
    Wall, Anna
    LRF.
    Cederholm, Jennie
    Hushållningssällskapet Halland.
    Hedin, Erland
    LRF.
    Ledarpraktikan : Konsten att leda Mig själv, Mina medarbetare och Min verksamhet2012Book (Other academic)
  • 963.
    Ulvenblad, Pia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Knowledge Entrepreneurship and Enterprise Research (KEEN).
    Winborg, Joakim
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Knowledge Entrepreneurship and Enterprise Research (KEEN).
    Billström, Anders
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Knowledge Entrepreneurship and Enterprise Research (KEEN).
    Entrepreneurs’ perceptions of stakeholder importance and timing - A Pecking Order Stakeholder (POS) perspective of incubator businesses2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 964.
    Urbas, Anders
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Education, Humanities and Social Science, Centrum för lärande, kultur och samhälle (CLKS).
    Trolle-Schultz Jensen, Jette
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Holmquist, Mats
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Regional Learning and Governance (RELL).
    Nyman, Carin
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Delutvärderingsrapport 2: Projekt Individsamverkansteam (IST) Falkenberg2015Report (Other academic)
  • 965.
    van den Brink, Jakob Jan
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Martensson, Jesper
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Entry mode decision for Swedish business-to-business firms internationalizing to India2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    AbstractTitleEntry mode decision for Swedish business-to-business firms internationalizing to India. AuthorsJesper Mårtensson, Joep van den BrinkSubjectMaster Thesis in International Marketing KeywordsInternationalization, Entry Mode, BRIC-markets, Internal & External Factors, Effectuation & Causation. Question(s)How do internal and external factors influence the entry mode decision for Swedish business-to-businessfirms internationalizing to India?How can the entry mode decision process be characterized for Swedish business-to-businessfirms when internationalizing to India?How does the entry mode, used by Swedish business-to-business firms in India, follows the Transaction Cost Approach to entry modes and the Resource Based Approach to entry modes?PurposeThe purpose of this study is to get a deeper understanding of how internal and external factors influence the entry mode decision forSwedish business-to-business firms that internationalize to India. Furthermore, the study aims at bringing in a process-based view of the entry mode decision literature.The study also aims to investigate entry modes used in India to see how it followsthe recommendations of the transaction cost and the Resource Based explanation to entry mode choice. MethodQualitative multiple case study consisting of three cases. The data was collected through personal interviews. The cases have been analyzed using a within-case analysis and a cross-case analysis.ConclusionThe findings of our study show that firms evaluate just a few internal and external factors when internationalizing to India. As can be derived from our study, the product has an importantinfluence on the entry mode decision for the investigated firms. The more standardized a product is, the easier it is to penetrate the Indian market using low-control entry modes. The higher the complexity of the product, the more knowledge is required from the firm and thus, the higher the likelihood for a firm to internationalize to the Indian market using high-control entry modes. It is also shown that firms tend to rely on earlier experiences when internationalizing to India, whereas this could limit the firms for choosing the right entry mode. Furthermore, the specific market barriers for the Indian market have an influence on the entry mode decision as well. It is also found that firms that have a causational approach to foreign entry mode will not allow for a rapid switch in the level of foreign involvement before they have reliable information as a base for the decision. The firms with an effectual approach made their entry mode decision based on selecting an entry mode with low resource commitment, seeing their achieved turnovers in India as a bonus.

  • 966.
    Venkatesh, Uma Devi
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Alsamuraaiy, Omar Ali Ahmed
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Adoption of Smart Packaging: Case Study Analysis from retailer’s perspective2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the challenges faced by the retailers during the adoption of smart packaging in food packaging industry. The paper introduces three largest food retailers in Sweden, and the problems they faced during the introduction of the adoption of smart packaging technologies packaging. Introduction- The authors present the paper with complete background of the food packaging industry in general, as well as each types of smart packaging techniques. In addition, the paper introduces the adoption process for the smart packaging. The research question of this paper is: What are the hinders of adopting smart packaging technology in food packaging industry and why? • What challenges do they face during the adoption process? • What are the hinders in this adoption process? • What are the new hinders in this adoption process? Purpose- The main purpose of this paper is to find the challenges that occur during the adoption of smart packaging in food packaging industry faced by the retailers. Knowing the basic knowledge of the food packaging industry and giving importance to the challenges may lead to achieve our aim. Methodology- This research paper uses the research onion model as a methodology to analyse the gathered data. The authors performed interviews with retailers and end-users of food packaging industry to analyse their challenges during the adoption of smart packaging. The collected data are further discussed in the analysis and discussion part. Conclusion- This paper concludes the adoption in the new technology and concentrates on how each retailer has their own perspective to see the quality and use it to overcome the adoption process. This paper describes the common and unique challenges faced by the retailers during the adoption process. The main common challenges faced by all the retailers in common was to create awareness and to make end-user understand the adoption process but also the benefits of adoption. The most important challenges faced by the retailers of ICA is they consider that adopting to new technology in smart packaging is a challenge for them, because they must create an understanding about the new technology to the end-users which requires a lot of time for the adoption process. According to Coop the open to new smart packaging technologies because since they use only localize products and resources, the overall cost of the product increases which again becomes a barrier for end-user adoption. The interviewee from Willys state that they offer affordable smart packaging technologies without creating barrier for customer adoption, at the same time they are not willing to adopt new technologies without testing its feasibility with the customers. Omar, Uma Thesis in Industrial Innovation Management (IN7001) iii Limitation- The aim of this study is focused on only one element of smart packaging i.e. “Adoption”. Moreover, this study is limited to adoption of smart packaging done in three companies (Coop, Willys & ICA Maxi) in the retail sector in Halmstad, Sweden. This study is conducted from the retailer perspective, by analysing the challenges faced by the retailers during the adoption process.

  • 967.
    Voitkane, Aija
    et al.
    Department of Economics and Technology and Society, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Johansson, Jeaneth
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL). Department of Economics and Technology and Society, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Malmström, Malin
    Department of Economics and Technology and Society, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Department of Entrepreneurship, Management and Organisation, Hanken School of Economics, Helsinki, Finland & Institute of Technology Management, University of St. Gallen, St. Gallen, Switzerland.
    How much does the “same-gender effect” matter in VCs' assessments of entrepreneurs?2019In: Journal of Business Venturing Insights, ISSN 2352-6734, Vol. 12, article id e00133Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our study uses cognitive mapping techniques to take into account how the same/opposite gender influences the cognitive evaluations of venture capitalists (VCs). Contrary to what has often been discussed in previous entrepreneurship literature, our results report women VCs evaluate women entrepreneurs more critically, and men VCs evaluate men entrepreneurs more critically. However, overall, the VCs' vaguer processing and lower rating of women's venturing compared to men's indicate a general structure of subordinating women's venturing compared to men's venturing. Ultimately, this contributes with an alternative view to explain what we see on the VC scene: women entrepreneurs are more likely to be rejected. We discuss implications of these results as well as implications for future study. © 2019 Elsevier Inc. 

  • 968.
    Voitkane, Aija
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Johansson, Jeaneth
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL). Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Malmström, Malin
    Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    How vague entrepreneurial identities of Swedish women entrepreneurs are performed by government financiers2018In: Women entrepreneurs and the myth of 'underperformance': a new look at women's entrepreneurship research / [ed] Shumaila Yousafzai, Alain Fayolle, Adam Lindgreen, Colette Henry, Saadat Saeed & Shandana Sheikh, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2018, p. 107-124Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 969.
    Voordeckers, Wim
    et al.
    Hasselt University, Hasselt, Belgium.
    Van Gils, Anita
    Maastricht University, Maastricht, Netherlands.
    Gabrielsson, Jonas
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL). Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Politis, Diamanto
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Huse, Morten
    University of Witten/Herdecke, Germany & Department of Communication and Culture, Norwegian School of Management BI, Oslo, Norway.
    Board structures and board behaviour: A cross-country comparison of privately held SMEs in Belgium, the Netherlands and Norway2014In: International Journal of Business Governance and Ethics, ISSN 1477-9048, E-ISSN 1741-802X, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 197-219Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we examine and compare formal board structures and actual board behaviour in privately held SMEs. We integrate and build on ideas from institutional theory and the behavioural theory of the firm to propose that privately held firms have specific governance needs that 'decouple' formal board structures from actual board behaviour. Following this logic, we expect board structures to vary across countries while board behaviour does not. We test this in a cross-country sample of SMEs in Belgium, the Netherlands and Norway. The empirical results support the proposition that board structures are largely decoupled from actual board behaviour in privately held SMEs. Overall, the findings imply that it is possible to coordinate and disseminate board development research and practice across countries despite national differences in formal board structures. Copyright © 2014 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

  • 970.
    Vriens, Dirk
    et al.
    Radboud University, Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    Solberg Søilen, Klaus
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Disruptive intelligence - How to gather information to deal with disruptive innovations2014In: Journal of Intelligence Studies in Business, ISSN 2001-015X, E-ISSN 2001-015X, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 63-78Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Disruptive innovations are innovations that have the capacity to transform a whole business into one with products that are more accessible and affordable (cf. Christensen et al. 2009). As Christensen et al. argue no business is immune to such disruptive innovations. If these authors are right, it might be relevant to be able to recognize these innovations before they disrupt a business. Incumbents may use this information to protect their business and others may use it to participate in the disruption. Either way, gathering information about potential disruptive innovations is a relevant activity. The production of this information (we call this information "disruptive Intelligence") is the topic of this paper. In particular, we analyze disruptive innovation theory and formulate several intelligence topics which may help in predicting disruptive innovations. In addition, we formulate several ’biases’ which may impair the production of ’disruptive intelligence’.

  • 971.
    Wagner, Beverly
    et al.
    Department of Marketing, Strathclyde Business School, Glasgow, UK.
    Svensson, Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER). Oslo School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    A framework to navigate sustainability in business networks: The transformative business sustainability (TBS) model2014In: European Business Review, ISSN 0955-534X, E-ISSN 1758-7107, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 340-367Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    – The purpose of this paper is to describe a transformative business sustainability (TBS) model of stakeholders and sources in sustainable business practices with an interface and exchange node of resource residuals.

    Design/methodology/approach

    – The research is based upon a grounded methodology drawn from four in-depth case studies, spanning over six years in different countries and industries. Data were gathered from multiple sources, and interview transcriptions were returned to interviewees for clarification, accuracy, final proofreading and approval.

    Findings

    – The TBS model complements existing research by emphasising the importance of commitment to an overarching vision through corporate leadership assigning areas of strategic priority that respond to current and future environmental regulation and social needs.

    Research implications/limitations

    – Efforts aimed towards business sustainability and application of sustainable business practices in business networks include interfaces and interactions between involved stakeholders and sources. We argue that stakeholders and sources should be recognised as intertwined, where resources used in activities in a business network causing resource residuals may be recovered and reused by other actors in the business network.

    Practice implications

    – The TBS model can be used by managers to plan, implement and assess practices to provide a holistic view of sustainable business activities that supports the development of a company and its network. It may also be used to map and navigate interactions between elements within and external to the company.

    Originality/value

    – The principal contribution of the current research is twofold, a TBS model and a tool to map and navigate corporate sustainability efforts. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

  • 972.
    Waters, Rupert
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Clusters and resilience: economic growth in Oxfordshire and Cambridgeshire2015In: International Journal of Global Environmental Issues, ISSN 1466-6650, E-ISSN 1741-5136, Vol. 14, no 1/2, p. 132-150Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Oxfordshire and Cambridgeshire are two of the most important knowledge economies in the UK. Home to world class research universities and public and private research laboratories as well as a full range of business and professional services to support the development of the knowledge economy, they have been identified as exemplars of high technology local economies by both policy makers and academics (see for example, DTI, 2002; Garnsey and Lawton Smith, 1998). This paper draws on national datasets relating to economic issues such as new firm formation, sectoral composition and gross value added to review the continued development of these centres, before conclusions are drawn on the extent to which the presence of successful clusters (Spencer et al., 2010) influences outcomes for the local economy more generally, and how Oxfordshire and Cambridgeshire have performed over the last ten years. Copyright © 2015 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

  • 973.
    Waters, Rupert
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER). Birkbeck, University of London, London, United Kingdom.
    Lawton Smith, Helen
    Birkbeck, University of London, London, United Kingdom.
    Global economic crises and local fortunes: The case of Oxfordshire and Buckinghamshire2016In: Global Economic Crisis and Local Economic Development: International cases and policy responses / [ed] Jason Begley, Dan Coffey, Tom Donnely & Carole Thornley, New York, NY: Routledge, 2016, p. 30-46Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 974.
    Waymond, Rodgers
    et al.
    University of Hull, Hull, UK & University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, Texas, USA.
    Simon, Jon
    University of Hull, Hull, UK.
    Gabrielsson, Jonas
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Combining experiential and conceptual learning in management and accounting education2016In: Academy of Management: Proceedings, New York: Academy of Management , 2016, article id 16208Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within management and accounting education both conceptual and experiential learning have been important learning approaches. However, while experiential learning has been extensively studied in accounting education the critical role of conceptual learning has received considerably less attention. In this article we review theory and research to develop a framework that relates to both conceptual and experiential learning. We use a Throughput Model to suggest and demonstrate that both learning cycles can live alongside each other to support accounting education from both student and educator perspectives. Based on our review and combination we suggest implications for the design and implementation of management and accounting education. Copyright © 2016, Academy of Management

  • 975.
    Weman Josefsson, Karin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Ebbesson, Esbjörn
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Man and Information technology laboratory (MI-lab).
    Halila, Fawzi
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity.
    Lund, Jesper
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Man and Information technology laboratory (MI-lab).
    Wickström, Nicholas
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Wärnestål, Pontus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Man and Information technology laboratory (MI-lab).
    Application of self-determination theory in the e-health industry – promoting sustainable exercise motivation2015In: Proceeding: 14th European Congress of Sport Psychology: Sport Psychology: Theories and Applications for Performance, Health and Humanity: 14-19 July 2015, Bern, Switzerland / [ed] Olivier Schmid & Roland Seiler, Bern: University of Bern , 2015, p. 372-372Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Developing tailored digital interventions for exercise motivation by applying behavioral theory into existing web services in cooperation with the e-health industry could create a mutual base for experience exchange and practical implications. It could also add higher standards to e-health business by providing a scientifically sound and trustworthy foundation for digital solutions. This project aims to design an interactive tool grounded in sport and exercise psychology and combined with the latest expertise from information technology and innovation science, considering e-health industrial requirements and user needs. A main objective is to test the efficacy of using Self-Determination Theory (SDT) in designing, constructing and evaluating an exercise intervention. The digital intervention is based on a literature review mapping exercise motivation related to self-determination theory, complemented by qualitative cross-disciplinary interaction design methodologies, such as qualitative analysis of interviews and contextual observation capturing participant goals, behaviour, preferences, attitudes and frustrations. Intervention contents are essentially autonomy supportive structures, goal-setting support and relapse prevention, self-regulation structures, health information and web links. In February 2015 the intervention prototype will be pilot tested in a randomized controlled trial (RCT), involving existing members and clients (N > 10 000) of two health service companies. Outcomes relate to self-determined exercise motivation (The Basic Psychological Needs in Exercise Scale and The Behavioral Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire-2) and exercise behaviour, measured both by self-report measures (Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire) and step counters. The RCT contains three measure points in order to allow advanced analyses of change and mechanisms based on the SDT-process model and motivational profiles. Latent growth curve and structural equation models will primarily be used to analyse data. This pilot study will create a baseline for elaboration into a second phase, were the digital tool will be further developed and longitudinally tested and evaluated over a nine months period. © 2015 University of Bern, Institut of Sport Science 

  • 976.
    Weman Josefsson, Karin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI). University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Halila, Fawzi
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Lindwall, Magnus
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Wickström, Nicholas
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Wärnestål, Pontus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Man and Information technology laboratory (MI-lab).
    Digital innovations and self-determined exercise motivation: a person-centred perspective2014In: Vitalis – Nordens ledande eHälsomöte 2014: Vetenskapliga papers presenterade vid Vitalis konferens, Svenska Mässan, Göteborg, 8-10 april 2014, Göteborg: Vitalis & Sahlgrenska akademin, Göteborgs universitet , 2014, p. 22-25Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Health care costs are increasing twice as fast as wealth, making health promotion and development of cost-effective care increasingly important in order to generate sustainable health care solutions. E-health, applications and interactive tools for exercise promotion flourish; but despite this and an overflow of information regarding health benefits of regular physical activity, exercise adherence has proven to be a significant challenge. This article concerns a project aimed to design an interactive tool based on comprehensive knowledge from the field of psychology combined with expertise from information technology and innovation, based on e-health industrial requirements and user needs. The research group will, together with the expertise and infrastructure of the collaborating companies Health Profile Institute AB and Tappa Service AB, support and progress an existing PhD-project on digital interventions in exercise motivation. This will be done by designing; applying and evaluating a person-centred digital intervention prototype for exercise motivation and adherence enhancement based on Self-Determination Theory.

  • 977.
    Weman Josefsson, Karin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Halila, Fawzi
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity.
    Wickström, Nicholas
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Wärnestål, Pontus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Man and Information technology laboratory (MI-lab).
    Digital interventions in self-determined exercise motivation – interdisciplinary innovations2015In: ISBNPA 2015: Advancing Behavior Change Science : 3rd – 6th June 2015: Abstract Book, 2015, p. 592-592Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose:There is a need for scientifically sound and theory based tools and services in e-health. In this project knowledge from the field of psychology will be complemented by expertise in information technology and innovation science in designing a digital intervention based on Self-determination theory (SDT) aiming to facilitate exercise motivation.

    Methods:The intervention will be tested by a three wave RCT design in a population of e-health clients (n = 200) in a web based exercise service. Sensors (step counters) and self-reports (Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire) will be used to measure objective and subjective exercise behavior while instruments based on SDT (Basic Psychological Needs in Exercise Scale and Behavioral Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire-2 ) will measure factors related to motivation.  Advanced mediation variable analyses (MVA) and latent growth curve models (LGCM) will be used to explore motivational processes, changes and profiles in relation to exercise behavior.

    Expected Results:Based on the SDT process model, it is hypothesized that a (digital) environment supporting basic psychological need satisfaction will facilitate internalization and enhanced self-determined motivation, which in turn will have a positive effect on exercise behavior.

    Conclusions:Clarifying mechanisms and indirect effects provide knowledge of how intervention effects could be interpreted and understood. Combining high level research design like RCT and advanced analyses as MVA provides valuable contributions to the understanding of theoretical mechanisms of motivation that could inform the tailoring of effective interventions promoting healthy exercise behaviours.  In addition, the project might form a prosperous interdisciplinary fusion generating innovative and theory based digital solutions for e-health.

  • 978.
    Weman-Josefsson, Karin Anna
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity. University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Halila, Fawzi
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity.
    Wickström, Nicholas
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Wärnestål, Pontus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Man and Information technology laboratory (MI-lab).
    Digital Innovations and Self-determined exercise motivation: an interdisciplinary approach2015In: Proceedings of The 6th International Multi-Conference on Complexity, Informatics and Cybernetics: IMCIC March 2015. Orlando, Florida., 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In face of escalating health care costs, new technology holds great promise for innovative solutions and new, more sustainable health care models. Technology centers around the individual, allowing for greater autonomy and control in health issues and access to tailored information and customized health behavior interventions. While this offers good opportunities for both public health impact and improved well-being at individual levels, it also emphasizes the need for properly designed e-health models firmly based on scientific principles and adequate theoretical frameworks. Consequently, this project aims to design an interactive tool utilizing an interdisciplinary approach combining motivational theory with the fields of information technology and business model innovation. In collaboration with two companies from the e-health industry, the purpose is to design, apply and evaluate a person-centered interactive prototype for maintainable and self-determined exercise motivation.

  • 979.
    Weman-Josefsson, Karin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Wärnestål, Pontus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Man and Information technology laboratory (MI-lab).
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Halila, Fawzi
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Wickström, Nicholas
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    An interdisciplinary project plan on Digital Innovations and Self-determined Exercise Motivation2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 980.
    Wictor, Ingemar
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    A Born Global Company’s Way to Growth2011Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, a Born Global company is studied, with the aim of investigating how it has developed from 1990 to 2007. Which growth stages can we identify over time? Which factors influence these stages? The method used is the case study and the information was gathered through interviews and secondary data. For the theoretical approach, I have used the indicative ‘stages’ of the growth/life-cycle modelsby Churchill and Lewis (1987) and Smallbone and Wyer (2006), a framework focusing oninternational growth, international market strategy, international entrepreneurship and cultureand international organisation. The Rubber Company was studied from 1990 to 2007, which suggests that three CEOs have been in charge of the company; the founder, external CEO I and CEO II. The company’s development and expansion over the study period were followed and related to the stages of growth/life-cycle model and theoretical framework. The stages analysed are the Entrepreneurial stage (1990–1999), the Expansion stage (2000–2004) and the Industrial stage (2005– ). The three CEOs took part in different stages, which affect firm development. The Rubber Company is still growing and very entrepreneurial, over time lifting its development curve to newlevels. Market strategy has changed from distributors to subsidiaries. Unknown global segmentshave been developed. Critical incidents over time have been the founder’s way of acting during the second stage in relation to CEO I, who came from a much larger company with a strong support staff. In combination with the fact that the founder was still the owner and had the power, this did not make it easy to change the company to a new stage of development. He also did not have the experience of working in a smaller company. CEO II already had a close relationwith the founder and thus he was more quickly accepted. During the Industrial stage, the new investor supported the firm’s strong development.The ongoing Entrepreneurial stage on the business development curve indicates even faster growth for the Rubber Company. For that situation, entrepreneurship strategies must be more open, decentralised and teamwork-oriented. Another management style is later required to leadand expand the company. Since 2005, the company has been in the Industrial stage; i.e.expanding even faster in the global market. A value-added pricing concept has been developed. The company’s external focus on customers and relations is very important. CEO II suggests that traditional multinationals have too much of an internal focus. The learning process in the Rubber Company has been present from inception, but the firm hashow become more professionalised through international workshops. For the culture and vision,it is important to agree on the internal values of the company all over the world – the “CompanyWay” of doing business. Entrepreneurship strategies have changed from an entrepreneur deciding in most cases to a more coaching style of leadership. New owners have now invested inthe company and capital for expansion is available.The most interesting question is how the Rubber Company grows over time and how management continuously manages to shift the life-cycle curve to new levels. A Born Global company grows and develops in its special way according to the prevailing theory. However,when it is growing, it is more and more like a traditional company but still with an extreme entrepreneurial focus, in some cases because of the founder.

  • 981.
    Wictor, Ingemar
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Born globals: explanations to rapid internationalisation2006Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 982.
    Wictor, Ingemar
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Born Globals, Networks and Management2013In: The 16th Annual McGill International Entrepreneurship Conference: Researching New Frontiers: The Conference Program and Collection of Short Summaries, 2013, p. 103-103Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Many studies have been focusing the entrepreneur and the international market situation for the Born Global Company as parts of developing the company and its growth. Networks have also been studied over time but not so much value creating networks from an internal perspective in relation to the company’s management. Networks are important and can be used to “involve help in overcoming perceived barriers on cultural and regulatory issues, those associated with locating partners, plus other matters deemed important to specific management teams” (Crick, 2009, p. 466). Cooney (2009) found evidence of a positive relationship between entrepreneurial teams and high-growth firms.

    This study will take its starting point in the conceptual framework of Andersson and Wictor (2003): The Entrepreneurs, Networks, Globalisation and Industry. The study will deepen especially the knowledge about networks and how the management works developing the company and making it profitable. The purpose of this paper is to investigate how value creating networks are used in Born Global companies and how management acts.

    In this quality study data has been collected through a case study. For this a conceptual framework has been developed. How does the management work in Born Global Companies?

    Results which were found, was that different networks were handled differently. Building a strong and profitable company is due to how you work with your core manufacturing, outsourcing and your strategic situations in the company, how you handle your suppliers and who is responsible in your management team. In this case they have built up strong and close relationships to the suppliers and have for strategic reasons taken over strategic equipment suppliers. The management has to be aware of and define what is core manufacturing and not. It may be the easiest way to outsource but is it the best in the long run? To compete you should build a strong local network and if possible automatize your core manufacturing. The CEO has to take his or her responsibility for strategic operative situations. To decide the different roles are important in the management team. The entrepreneur’s charismatic leadership is important for empowering the organisation and its acting and for creating interesting ‘value creating networks’. Theoretical implications may be to deepen this study even more in many more companies. To study the relation from the suppliers and the customers perspective would very interesting. Practical implications are for the management to be aware of how important the strategic questions are for the management to handle in an efficient way. The board members have to be aware of what they delegate of the core business so the CEO can work with distinct roles and to secure that networks are built for supporting a profitable development. This will be even more important in the future through the Chinese competition.

    This is an on-going study and will be presented in a final paper.

  • 983.
    Wictor, Ingemar
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Born Globals: Rapid International Growth in New Ventures2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The traditional theories developed by Johanson and Vahlne (1977, 1990) and other researchers ofinternationalisation have long been questioned because of the fast-changing environment and deregulations. In particular, for Born Global firms, namely a company that has achieved a foreign sales volume of at least 25% within three years of its inception and that seeks to derive significant competitive advantage from the use of resources and the sales of outputs in multiple countries (Andersson and Wictor, 2003, p. 254), itis a question of surviving by establishing in many markets in a short period of time.This thesis summarises five papers. Paper 1 showed that the CEO´s perception and the fast changing environment push small firms to internationalise and that younger CEOs have an important role in expanding the firm. This is often because of their experiences accumulated inthe organisation over time or because the entrepreneur has been exposed to the international arena and information technologies, which can explain why some small firms continue to expandtheir international activities.The conceptual framework in paper 2 comprises four factors that influence Born Global firms:entrepreneurs, networks, industry and globalisation. To succeed in establishing a global firm it isimportant to have certain resources, such as an entrepreneur with international experience and strong networks. A Born Global entrepreneur is distinguished by his interest and motivation todo business abroad and his vision for the future.Paper 3 focuses on the importance of Born Globals’ foreign market channel strategies. The decision to establish a new market is of great importance for the long-term survival of the company. In this comparative case study, four companies that display different foreign entrymodes are compared. We found that these companies had very different market channel strategies even though they internationalised rapidly.Paper 4 is a study of four companies that indicates that their CEOs are active and involved in making strategic decisions in all parts of a Born Global firm’s value chain activities. Decisions on localisation and outsourcing are influenced by the entrepreneur’s definition of his firm’s core competencies. However, factors outside the firm are also an influence: potential suppliers,outsourcing of manufacturing and potential partners in distribution, especially relating to the riseof new emerging markets (e.g. China). The importance of coordinating value chain activities also influences the localisation of different activities. Entrepreneurs aim to arrange value-creating networks to secure their core manufacturing processes and close relations with local suppliers when they outsource products. In such a case, the entrepreneur can be seen as an orchestrator ina virtual organisation. The ‘global factory’ concept can be adjusted to fit locally for a Born Global company and its environment. Paper 5 focuses on a Born Global company’s way to grow and is a longitudinal study of acompany over 17 years (1990–2007) and its development in the different stages in the growth/life-cycle curve. From inception, the vision is already strong to go global. During thea bove period, the founder, external CEO I and CEO II were interviewed to assess whatcharacterises the different stages of growth over time compared with the growth/life-cycle model of Smallbone and Wyer (2006). The company is still growing and very entrepreneurial. The leadership has changed from a deciding style to a more coaching way of leading. Themanagement and organisation have changed to be more professionalised and team-oriented over8time. Entrepreneurial teams have also become more and more important for transferring knowledge to individuals in the organisation.The traditional models of Johanson and Vahlne (1977, 1990) point out that learning at an organisational level is a main factor in international development over time. However, a way to speed up the development of Born Global firms is entrepreneurial background with long experience and different knowledge serving his vision for the company. Nevertheless, theknowledge transfer from the entrepreneur and his team to the organisation is important. Knight and Cavusgil (2004, p. 137) find that “Born Globals pose an important new challenge to traditional views on the internationalization of the firm”.Johanson and Vahlne (2003) study what happens in companies because of rapid changes in the environment. They suggest that the Uppsala model is still valid, but that the early stage of a firm’sinternationalisation is important to study. Organisational learning is carried out at an individual and an entrepreneurial level. Johanson and Vahlne (1977) focus on the importance of the people working in a market and their learning. In their latest published article by Schweizer et al. (2010,pp. 368–369), they argue that “it is the liability of outsidership rather than the liability offoreignness that gives rise to internationalization difficulties. Outsidership implies that the firm isnot a member of relevant networks. Internationalization can be seen then as taking steps tobecome an insider in relevant networks in focal foreign markets … In their last study it emphasizes the entrepreneurial facets of a firm’s internationalization process”. The above defined background of the entrepreneur, his entrepreneurial way of working and his experience from former jobs also means that he already has the networks necessary for international expansion.The entrepreneur and his team in a Born Global company must from the beginning have the capability and knowledge of the environment and market in a country to establish in the new market as well as the understanding of how to manage the company and organisation. If they do not have this knowledge, they must have a network from which to extract this information. The entrepreneur has to be strongly involved in building and sustaining relationships with both customers and suppliers. In the organisation, he also has to build a powerful culture with decentralisation and empowered employees. The leadership in these companies is charismatic,employees are empowered in their jobs and the teams are entrepreneurial. Employees are therefore also allowed to make their own decisions within certain limits. Networks are important to overcome “perceived barriers on cultural and regulatory issues, those associated with locating partners, plus other matters deemed important to specific management teams” (Crick, 2009, p. 466). Coviello and Cox (2006) find that a company’s network is aresource when it is working with acquisitions and important recruitments. For companies growing over many years such as the Rubber Company studied herein, networks change and the chairman’s networks can be of great importance when core individuals should be recruited as an important part of the company’s strategies.

  • 984.
    Wictor, Ingemar
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    The importance of value chain in born globals2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 985.
    Wictor, Ingemar
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    The Management of Value Chain Activities in Born Global Companies2011Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how Born Global companies’ value chain activities are managed and organised.

    Methodology

    This study explores how Born Global firms’ activities are managed and organised through qualitative research using secondary data and interviews with the entrepreneurs and CEOs offour Swedish Born Global firms.

    Findings

    This study indicates that CEOs are active in making strategic decisions in all parts of a Born Global firm’s value chain activities. Decisions on localisation and outsourcing are influenced by the entrepreneur’s definition of his firm’s core competencies. However, factors outside the firmare also an influence: potential suppliers, outsourcing of manufacturing and potential partners indistribution, especially relating to the rise of new emerging markets (e.g. China). The importanceof coordinating value chain activities also influences the localisation of different activities. The use of value-creating networks is important for Born Global companies. These networks,especially local ones, can also be seen in connection with the ‘global factory’ concept but adjusted to the Born Global Company and its international environment.

    Research limitations/implications

    This study provides a deeper understanding of how entrepreneurs in Born Global firms are involved in decisions regarding all parts of the value chain. A limitation is that it has focused onthe value activities within these firms. Future studies should also investigate how the relationship with other actors in the value chain (e.g. suppliers and distributors) influences the development of Born Global firms.

    Practical implications

    It is important to focus on strategic decisions in all parts of the value chain in global settings. The management team needs to create an organisation that can deal with operative matters and work without the direct supervision of top-level management.

    Originality/value

    This paper takes a holistic view of all parts of Born Global firms’ value chain activities and the role of the entrepreneur and management in the value chain, which few previous studies have investigated.

  • 986.
    Wictor, Ingemar
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Charismatic leadership and empowerment in born globals2010In: McGill International Entreprenurship Conferences Series / [ed] Hamid Etemad, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 987.
    Wictor, Ingemar
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    The Importance of Leadership and Vision in Born Globals2012In: Business and Management Research, ISSN 1927-6001, E-ISSN 1927-601X, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 13-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the beginning of the 1990s studies of Born Global companies has become a major topic in internationalizationliterature. Earlier research has pointed out the importance of the entrepreneur in the born global firm’s internationaldevelopment. Even if many studies have been done which identify the impact of entrepreneurs and management onfirms’ internationalisation and behaviour few studies have focused on leadership in Born Global Companies. Followingearlier research, the aim of this paper is to investigate how the entrepreneur uses his/her vision in Born Globalcompanies. The main findings and conclusions are that the entrepreneur and his/ her vision have an important role inthese companies. The vision is like an umbrella and affects many important parts of the company, such as organisation,communication, recruitment, knowledge transfer and other parts that will form the company’s culture. The born globalentrepreneurs create the company values and motivate the employees in the organisation. The Born Global leaders sharethe power with subordinates. It is crucial to delegate operational decisions to subordinates so the entrepreneur can workwith strategic issues fostering the firms’ international expansion. Communication is open and straight with an openatmosphere in the culture. Good communication is important when building goals, values and conveying the leader’svision. Even if the entrepreneurs motivate their employees in a positive way the entrepreneurs still have a tight control ofthe company. The main implications from this study are that the entrepreneurs in The Born Global firms have been ableto create an innovative culture in the firm that creates international growth.

  • 988.
    Wictor, Ingemar
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    The Importance of vision in born global companies2011In: Research on Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management 2009‐2011: Introducing the Research Area of Innovation Science / [ed] Sven-Åke Hörte, Halmstad: Högskolan i Halmstad , 2011, p. 37-53Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate how the entrepreneur uses his vision in Born Global companies. Design/methodology/approach – In this qualitative study, data has been collected by carrying out case studies of three companies. The main approach has been to study the role ofvision, leadership and communication in these companies. Findings – The entrepreneur and his vision is very important in a Born Global company. The vision is like an umbrella and affects many important parts of the company, such as communication,r ecruitment, knowledge transfer and other parts that will form the company’s culture. After a few years these items will help to create the company’s handbook, which will form the guidelines for how employees in the company work and act. Even if the entrepreneurs motivate their employees in a positive way, so that they can develop and do a good job, the entrepreneurs still must control the company. Research implications – This is an area where much more research needs to be done. In this study the entrepreneurs have been interviewed. To get more information the employees need to be interviewed. Practical implications – Implications for traditional small to medium‐sized enterprise (SME) companies could help to understand what happens in Born Global companies. Originality/value – This paper uses a view of the visionary perspective to study the three companies. This could be used by more traditional companies to discover new areas of potential.

  • 989.
    Wictor, Ingemar
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Mullern, Tomas
    Jönköping International Business School, Jönköping, Sverige.
    Leadership and organization in born globals2013In: Current Issues in International Entrepreneurship / [ed] Hamid Etemad, Tage Koed Madsen, Erik S. Rasmussen, Per Servais, Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2013, p. 38-69Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 990.
    Wictor, Ingemar
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Müllern, Tomas
    Jönköping International Business School, Sweden .
    Leadership and Organisation in Born Globals2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 991.
    Widén, Kristian
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Sustainability, Innovation and Management in Building (SIMB).
    Innovation roles for clients: implementing building information modelling2017In: Clients and Users in Construction: Agency, Governance and Innovation / [ed] Kim Haugbølle & David Boyd, Abingdon: Routledge, 2017, p. 214-228Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 992.
    Widén, Kristian
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Sustainability, Innovation and Management in Building (SIMB).
    Winkler, Charlotta
    WSP Environmental, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Identifying bottlenecks in the photovoltaic systems innovation ecosystem – an initial study2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Solar energy is likely to play a major role in future renewable energy systems. One important part in that is the integration of photovoltaic (PV) systems into the built environment. Earlier studies show that the institutional framework plays a major role for achieving a broad implementation of PV systems. It has however also shown that the value network of PV systems needs to be understood and developed further. In that respect, earlier research on innovation diffusion into the built environment shows the necessity of involving and understanding key stakeholders. Stakeholder analysis may help in identifying key stakeholders but fail in assessing the stakeholders’ role in the value network as it does not, for example, take into account the relational effects. Innovation Eco Systems is an approach that has the potential to do this as it addresses the alignment structure of the partners needed for the value proposition to occur. The aim with this initial study is to address the use of innovation ecosystem as a way of assessing implementation of PV systems in the built environment. Two structured workshops with two key stakeholder categories, Clients and Suppliers, were held to identify the main barriers for a broader implementation of PV systems into the built environment in Sweden. The main results show that the earlier studies were right in that the institutional framework is a major factor, but also that the value network is important and that the problems in the value network is perceived somewhat different between the two categories. This suggests that it will be necessary to address the value network from the perspective of the actors by applying an innovation ecosystem analysis. It also helped in identifying other important stakeholders in the value network that will be needed to include in the future studies. To summarize, the findings of this initial study suggest that innovation ecosystem will address a more comprehensive picture on the implementation of PV systems in the built environment. However, to be able to identify bottlenecks and subsequent solutions to these bottlenecks further studies of the complete innovation ecosystem, with its stakeholders, is necessary. The ongoing project is currently carrying out these studies in a Swedish context.

  • 993.
    Winborg, Joakim
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Pengar är inte allt: sociala nätverk skapar viktiga resurser2004In: Lokal ekonomi för hållbar tillväxt, Stockholm: Verket för näringslivsutveckling (NUTEK) , 2004, p. 93-98Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Utbildningen av potentiella och etablerade företagare bör ge dessa kreativa finansieringsmöjligheter mer utrymme. Idag läggs mycket tid och energi på att lära företagare hur man skriver och presenterar en affärsplan riktad till externa finansiärer. Genom att från början utgå från företagets aktiviteter och de resursbehov dessa skapar kan alternativa lösningar identifieras innan extern finansiering blir aktuellt. Finansiärer som inriktar sig på nya och små företag har mycket att vinna på att beakta värdet av olika bootstrappingmetoder för ett företags utveckling. att beakta värdet av olika bootstrappingmetoder för ett företags utveckling. Finansiell bootstrapping innebär att företaget kommer åt och utnyttjar andras resurser utan att detta syns i företagets balansräkning. Detta innebär att ett före-resurser utan att detta syns i företagets balansräkning. Detta innebär att ett företag i många fall är starkare än vad som framgår av dess balansräkning. Vid värderingen av nya och små företag bör finansiärer om möjligt beakta före-Vid värderingen av nya och små företag bör finansiärer om möjligt beakta företagets position i olika nätverk av företag. Företagets nätverksposition är näm-tagets position i olika nätverk av företag. Företagets nätverksposition är nämligen mycket viktig för möjligheterna att anskaffa de resurser företaget behöver. ligen mycket viktig för möjligheterna att anskaffa de resurser företaget behöver. Företagets position i olika nätverk inverkar också på möjligheterna att dra till sig resurser på förmånliga villkor. Företag som återfinns i centrum av ett nätverk har, allt annat lika, bättre möjligheter att bli framgångsrika.

  • 994.
    Winborg, Joakim
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Use of financial bootstrapping in new businesses: a question of last resort?2009In: Venture Capital: an International Journal of Entrepreneurial Finance, ISSN 1369-1066, E-ISSN 1464-5343, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 71-83Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines motives for using financial bootstrapping in new businesses. First, it identifies and labels groups of new business founders based on their motives for using bootstrapping. Second, it examines the relation between variables referring to the founder and the business and the motives. The data were collected in a questionnaire sent by post to 120 new business founders in Swedish business incubators. The results show that 'lower costs' is the most important motive, followed by 'lack of capital', and, surprisingly, 'fun helping others and getting help from others'. On the basis of a cluster analysis three groups of founders were identified, based on differences in their motives for using bootstrapping. The groups were labeled cost-reducing bootstrappers, capital-constrained bootstrappers and risk-reducing bootstrappers. The relative experience of the founder is the most significant influence for using bootstrapping. As experience is gained the new business founder learns more about the advantages and motives for using bootstrapping. The resource acquisition behavior changes from initially focusing on reducing costs towards a proactive focus on reducing the risk in the business.

  • 995.
    Winborg, Joakim
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Knowledge Entrepreneurship and Enterprise Research (KEEN).
    Why do they use financial bootstrapping?: a quantitative study of new business managers2008In: Entrepreneurship, Sustainable Growth and Performance: Frontiers in European Entrepreneurship Research / [ed] Hans Landström, Hans Crijns, Eddy Laveren & David Smallbone, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2008, p. 77-90Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 996.
    Winborg, Joakim
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Knowledge Entrepreneurship and Enterprise Research (KEEN).
    Landström, Hans
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Financial bootstrapping in small businesses - A resource-based view on small business finance1997In: Frontiers of entrepreneurship research 1997: proceedings of the Seventeenth Annual Entrepreneurship Research Conference / [ed] Reynolds, PD; Bygrave, WD; Carter, NM; Davidsson, P; Gartner, WB; Mason, CM; McDougall, PP, Babson Park: Center for Entrepreneurial Studies, Babson College , 1997, p. 471-485Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It seems fair to argue that a major parr of the research in small business finance has been focused on the supply of capital, departuring from a rather narrow definition of finance referring mainly to "capital" as such. In our opinion research in small business finance has to originate from the small business manager's own logic, and the definition of finance has to be extended to include the different resources needed in the business. In line with this reasoning this study focuses on small business managers' use of measures in order to meet the need for resources without using external capital from institutional sources, called financial bootstrapping measures. The focus on resources needed makes us believe that the resource-based theory can be fruitful in order to help us understand small business finance. The research process was initiated with a number of exploratory interviews. On the basis of this empirical framework, together with a literature study, a questionnaire was constructed and sent to 900 small business managers in Sweden. From the explorative interviews a total of 32 different bootstrapping measures were identified. The bootstrapping measures were separated into two comprehensive groups of measures; (i) measures with the aim of reducing need for capital, and (ii) measures used in order to meet need for capital. The cluster analysis undertaken resulted in the identification of six clusters of bootstrappers, differing fundamentally from each other with respect to the use of bootstrapping measures. Further, independent variables discriminating between the six clusters were isolated in order to get a picture of the typical business in each cluster. On the basis of these pictures the six clusters were labelled: (1) delaying bootstrappers, (2) relationship oriented bootstrappers, (3) subsidy bootstrappers, (4) minimizing bootstrappers, (5) non-bootstrappers and finally, (6) the private owner financed bootstrappers. For future research and policy making we would like to emphasize the importance of broadening the focus when discussing small business finance, to include the small business manager's own logic encompassing the resource acquisition process as such, in order to better understand the way small business managers handle capital requirements.

  • 997.
    Winborg, Joakim
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Landström, Hans
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Financial bootstrapping in small businesses: Examining small business managers' resource acquisition behaviors2001In: Journal of Business Venturing, ISSN 0883-9026, E-ISSN 1873-2003, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 235-254Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, small businesses have received much attention from policy makers and researchers, in that these businesses are considered important for economic growth and job creation. At the same time small businesses are assumed to face major problems in securing long-term external finance, which is regarded as restraining their development and growth. Small business managers are assumed to use institutional finance as a means of meeting the need for resources, and as a consequence the major part of the research on small business finance has focused on constraints in the supply of institutional (market) finance. As we see it, most small business managers handle the need for resources using means other than external finance by applying different kinds of financial bootstrapping methods. Financial bootstrapping refers to the use of methods for meeting the need for resources without relying on long-term external finance from debt holders and/or new owners. However, these other means of resource acquisition have, with few exceptions, not been focused on within earlier research on small business finance. Against this background, the purpose of this study is to describe small business managers' use of different financial bootstrapping methods, and, more importantly, to develop concepts that can help Its better understand small business managers' financial bootstrapping behaviors. The research process was initiated with a number of unstructured interviews conducted with small business managers, accountants, consultants, bank officials, and researchers, in order to identify different financial bootstrapping possibilities. On the basis of the interviews and an earlier study on financial bootstrapping, resulting in the identification of 32 bootstrapping methods, a questionnaire was constructed and sent to 900 small business managers in Sweden. Given the limited knowledge within the area of financial bootstrapping, the study is based on explorative factor analysis and cluster analysis. From the cluster analysis six clusters of bootstrappers were identified differing from each other with respect to the bootstrapping methods used and the characteristics of the business. On the basis of this information the different clusters were labeled: (I) delaying bootstrappers; (2) relationship-oriented bootstrappers; (3) subsidy-oriented bootstrappers; (4) minimizing bootstrappers; (5) non-bootstrappers; and (6) private owner-financed bootstrappers. The groups of financial bootstrappers show differences in their orientation toward resource acquisition, representing different aspects of art internal mode of resource acquisition a social mode of resource acquisition, and a quasi-market mode of resource acquisition. We find that the delaying bootstrappers, private owner-financed bootstrappers, and minimizing bootstrappers all represent an internal mode of resource acquisition. The relationship-oriented bootstrappers follow a socially oriented mode of resource acquisition, whereas the subsidy-oriented bootstrappers apply quasi-market oriented resource acquisition. This study contributes to our empirical understanding by providing knowledge about the financial bootstrapping methods used in small businesses Furthermore, by developing concepts this study contributes to the conceptual development of our knowledge about financial bootstrapping. The implication of this study is that financial bootstrapping is a phenomenon which deserves more attention in future research on small business finance. At the same time, financial bootstrapping behavior is probably a more general phenomenon appearing in different contexts, such as R&D activities in large businesses, financing startups, etc. Finally, the study points out implications for small business managers, consultants, teachers, etc. Practitioners often tend to focus on market solutions to resource needs. This study shows, however, that this strong focus cart be questioned. Resources needed in small businesses can in many situations be secured using financial bootstrapping methods, referring to internally oriented and socially oriented resource acquisition strategies.

  • 998.
    Winborg, Joakim
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Knowledge Entrepreneurship and Enterprise Research (KEEN).
    Politis, Diamanto
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Knowledge Entrepreneurship and Enterprise Research (KEEN).
    Can bootstrapping be learnt from experience?: the role of human capital for explaining bootstrapping orientation in new businesses2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 999.
    Wolfsteller, Corinna
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Wang, Yichen
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    The interactive process of mass customization2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Expressing the individual personality with the help of the products, people use, and the mass customization are getting closer to our daily life. As a result, more and more companies have begun to implement mass customization in different industries. Also, flexible production becomes a key factor to win the market after more online customization appear and connect different demanders across the borders. Between companies and customers, there exists an important connection which is the interactive process influencing mass customization. An interactive process consists of three parts which are named: information about customers, trans-formation of data and use of information to produce more products. However, there are a lot of factors that will affect the interactive process and finally set thereby requirements for mass customization. During this research, the authors use a qualitative case study and deductive ap-proach to obtain a theoretical model. Through interviewees with two managers of Dooria AB and a visit of the factory in Kungsätter, the authors identified high quality approach, experienced employees, high loyalty of employees, flexibility of human capital, flexibility of production, feedback of customers, education information flow and interaction as important factors which influence the interactive process. Hence, this investigation provides insights about the interrelations between these factors. So, manager in similar industries can identify the situation of their own company and improve the efficiency mass customization.

  • 1000.
    Wood, Greg
    et al.
    Bowater School of Management and Marketing, Deakin University, Warrnambool, Australia.
    Svensson, Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Singh, Jang
    Odette School of Business, University of Windsor, Canada.
    Carasco, Emily
    University of Windsor, Canada.
    Callaghan, Michael
    Bowater School of Management and Marketing, Deakin University, Warrnambool, Australia.
    Implementing the Ethos of Corporate Codes of Ethics: Australia, Canada and Sweden2004In: Business Ethics. A European Review, ISSN 0962-8770, E-ISSN 1467-8608, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 389-403Article in journal (Refereed)
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