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  • 6051.
    Svensson, Göran
    et al.
    Oslo School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Sværi, Sander
    Oslo School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Einarsen, Kari
    Oslo School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    'Scientific identity' of scholarly journals in hospitality and tourism research: Review and evaluation2009In: International Journal of Hospitality Management, ISSN 0278-4319, E-ISSN 1873-4693, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 631-634Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study is to describe the 'scientific identity' of scholarly journals in hospitality and tourism research by reviewing and evaluating the approaches and the geographical affiliations of authors published in selected journals. The compiled results are analysed for patterns that appear to reveal the 'scientific identity' of each of the selected journals. In particular, scholars can note the particular features of individual journals while acknowledging the width and variety of research designs that are published in these scholarly journals. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 6052.
    Svensson, Göran
    et al.
    Oslo School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Tronvoll, Bård
    Oslo School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Helgesson, Thomas
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Slåtten, Terje
    Oslo School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    The 'geographical affiliations' in 'top' research journals of general marketing2009In: Australasian Marketing Journal, ISSN 1441-3582, E-ISSN 1839-3349, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 154-159Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective is to explore the geographical affiliation of author(s), ad hoc reviewer(s), editorial board(s) and editor(s) of selected journals in marketing. The sample used in our study was restricted to papers published in six research-oriented journals in general marketing, which were selected to represent the 'top' publications in this field. The 'geographical affiliations' of authors, ad hoc reviewers, editorial boards and editors, reveals a predominance of the North American affiliations in all the selected 'top' research journals of general marketing. The 'geographical affiliations' of author(s), ad hoc reviewer(s), editorial board(s) and editor(s) is a subject so far unexplored across top marketing journals. It is however an important issue that needs to be raised in literature, due to the influences that they may have on the journal and its content, and the characteristics of published papers. The study provides insights into the 'top' research journals in general marketing. We intend to complement the current knowledge and insights in literature by studying four components of the 'geographical affiliations' of 'top' journals in general marketing. © 2009 Australian and New Zealand Marketing Academy.

  • 6053.
    Svensson, Göran
    et al.
    Oslo School of Management, Norway.
    Tronvoll, Bård
    Oslo School of Management, Norway.
    Slåtten, Terje
    Oslo School of Management, Norway.
    An assessment of the empirical characteristics of top journals in services marketing2008In: Managing Service Quality, ISSN 0960-4529, E-ISSN 1758-8030, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 289-304Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to describe the “empirical characteristics” of the “top” journals in services marketing by assessing selected journals with respect to: the proportion of “empirical” versus “non-empirical” contributions; the proportion of national versus international research data; the geographical origin of research data; and the geographical affiliations of the authors whose articles are published. Design/methodology/approach – A sample of “top” journals in services marketing is selected on the basis of expert opinion. The selection includes the International Journal of Service Industry Management (IJSIM), the Journal of Services Marketing (JSM), the Journal of Service Research (JSR), Managing Service Quality (MSQ), and the Service Industries Journal (SIJ). The study considers all contributions (a total of 1,189) published in these journals over a six-year period from 2000 to 2005, with particular emphasis on the “empirical” studies (a subtotal of 870). Findings – The authors contend that there is in part a troublesome and challenging “ethnocentricity” in some of the examined journals. Research limitations/implications – This is the first assessment of the “empirical characteristics” of “top” journals in services marketing. Practical implications – The study provides valuable insights into the nature of academic publishing in the area of services marketing. Originality/value – Scholars will benefit from insights into the “empirical characteristics” of the “top” journals in services marketing. In particular, scholars can note the particular features of individual journals. Further studies of the “empirical characteristics” of individual research journals are required in other sub-disciplines of marketing.

  • 6054.
    Svensson, Göran
    et al.
    Oslo School of Management, Norway.
    Tronvoll, Bård
    Oslo School of Management, Norway.
    Slåtten, Terje
    Lillehammer University College, Norway.
    “Empirical characteristics” and “geocentricity” in “top” journals of logistics management2008In: International Journal of Logistics Management, ISSN 0957-4093, E-ISSN 1758-6550, Vol. 19, no 3, p. 436-450Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to describe selected journals in logistics management in terms of: the proportion of different “empirical” contributions; the proportion of national versus international research data; the geographical origin of research data; and the authors' geographical affiliations. Design/methodology/approach – A sample of “top” scholarly journals in logistics management is selected on the basis of previous research, expert opinion and journal ranking lists. The selection includes the International Journal of Logistics Management (IJLM), the International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management (IJPDLM), and the Journal of Business Logistics (JBL). The research considers all available papers (a total of 657) published in these journals over an eight-year period from 2000 to 2007. Findings – The “empirical characteristics” and “geocentricity” were found to be variable across the studied journals in logistics management. Research limitations/implications – The present research is limited to the “empirical characteristics” and “geocentricity” of “top” journals in logistics management. It provides opportunity for further research. Practical implications – The present research provides valuable insights into the nature of academic publishing in the area of top journals of logistics management. The findings presented may be used by authors to direct their submissions to the proper journal. Originality/value – Scholars will benefit from insights into the “empirical characteristics” and “geocentricity” of the “top” journals in logistics management. Specifically, scholars can note the particular features of individual journals. Further studies of the “empirical characteristics” and “geocentricity” of individual research journals are required in other related journals to the field of logistics management.

  • 6055.
    Svensson, Göran
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER). Oslo School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Wagner, Beverly
    Strathclyde Graduate Business School, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, United Kingdom.
    A Process Directed towards Sustainable Business Operations and a Model for Improving the GWP-Footprint (CO2e) on Earth2011In: Management of environmental quality, ISSN 1477-7835, E-ISSN 1758-6119, Vol. 22, no 4, p. 451-462Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to describe: a process to achieve sustainable business operations; and a sustainable business model of Global Warming Potential (GWP) footprint on Earth, GWP being the measure of how much a given amount of greenhouse gas is estimated to contribute to global warming. It is a relative scale which compares the effect of a given gas (e.g. methane or nitrous oxide) with that of the same amount of carbon dioxide.

    Design/methodology/approach – A Swedish fast food chain selling hamburger meals is examined in a case study. Data were collected from available corporate internal and external documentation, by site observations as well as from non‐structured interviews with top managers and company employees.

    Findings – The company's efforts to accomplish its target of “zero mission” GWP‐footprint (CO2e) on Earth consist of both an iterative and continuous process and business model. Both underpin the corporate notion and desire to reduce fossil fuel dependency and greenhouse gas emissions.

    Research limitations/implications – The findings stress the importance of addressing corporate GWP‐footprints (CO2e) from a business perspective, rather than relying on political or governmental legislation and regulation. It also opens opportunities for further research.

    Practical implications – The case shows the possibility of implementing successful sustainable operations and sustainable business models in national “for‐profit” organisations without governmental subsidies in a highly competitive market, dominated by powerful multinational fast food chains.

    Social implications – Changing consumer behaviour and purchasing patterns, as well as governmental intervention imposed at top political levels worldwide, will most likely increase the necessity for companies to create sustainable business models linked to GWP‐footprint (CO2e).

    Originality/value – The principal contribution based on the presented case study is an illustration of how one can achieve sustainable business operations and create a sustainable business model in an industry that often has been heavily criticised in the past for harming the natural environment. It also shows how to create awareness of the GWP‐footprint (CO2e) of a company's products so that in turn customers may be able to make conscious and deliberate product choices.

  • 6056.
    Svensson, Göran
    et al.
    Oslo School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Wagner, Beverly
    University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, United Kingdom.
    Business Sustainability and E-footprints on Earth’s Life and Ecosystems: Generic Models2012In: European Business Review, ISSN 0955-534X, E-ISSN 1758-7107, Vol. 24, no 6, p. 543-552Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Companies and their business networks impact on Earth's life and ecosystems must be seriously addressed and minimized. The purpose of this paper therefore proposes and describes a generic model as well as a network model of business sustainability.

    Design/methodology/approach: "Business sustainability" is defined as a company's or an organization's efforts to manage its impact on Earth's life- and eco-systems and its whole business network. The work concentrates on one research question, namely: how can business sustainability and E-footprints be conceptualised?

    Findings: The model introduced emphasises not only the importance of business networks adopting an E-footprint and an Earth-to-Earth (EE) cradle-to-cradle approach, but also a transformative Earth (E) footprint-model derived and inspired from a causal framework in complexity sciences. Research limitations/implications: Research is rare that simultaneously focuses on EE-approaches, E-footprint stakeholders and zero-sum cycles. The authors have striven to address this gap by introducing a business sustainability model in an EE-approach and with an interconnecting transformative E-footprint-model.

    Practical implications: It is crucial to embed appropriate routines and processes within the company in the first instance with the aim of business sustainability. This may cause a ripple effect in the company's business network as raw material producers, value-adding suppliers and customers become drawn into make appropriate strategic, tactical and operative adaptations in their own business dealings. This stresses the importance of E-footprint stakeholders fostering networks of both interdependent and collaborative corporate efforts aimed at business sustainability.

    Originality/value: The main contribution should be a business sustainability model of life and ecosystems from an EE-approach with a transformative E-footprint.model. Each company within a business network must endeavour to minimise its E-footprint through its zero-sum cycles. These should be seen as interdependent and interconnected thereby contributing to the total E-footprint of the business network. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

  • 6057.
    Svensson, Göran
    et al.
    Oslo School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Wagner, Beverly
    Department of Marketing, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK.
    Implementation of a Sustainable Business Cycle: The Case of a Swedish Dairy Producer2012In: Supply chain management, ISSN 1359-8546, E-ISSN 1758-6852, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 93-97Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The objective of this paper is to describe a corporate implementation and application of a "sustainable business cycle". Design/methodology/approach: The study is based on a single case study of a regional producer of dairy products in Sweden. The data were collected from non-structured interviews with managers and available corporate documentation. Findings: The company's "sustainable business cycle" may be divided into nine stages beginning with the arable land through to the dairy and transportation of products to market, where the final two stages involve external retailers and consumers, all of which is important to fulfilment of the earlier seven internal stages. Research limitations/implications: The findings stress the importance of connecting and reconnecting not just to immediate environmental concerns of business, but also to planet Earth, which is under non-sustainable pressure and evidently faces an unpleasant destiny. Practical implications: The case highlights advantages and challenges facing a small to medium-sized enterprise (SME) tasked with implementing a sustainable business cycle for a commodity product in a highly competitive market, dominated by powerful retailers. Social implications: Changing consumer behaviours and purchasing patterns, as well as state interventions imposed at top political levels worldwide, will gradually increase the necessity to create sustainable business cycles. Originality/value: The main contribution of this article is to present a rare detailed case study of a sustainable, organic milk supply chain. It highlights the areas where sustainability is effective. It also illustrates the challenge for an SME trying to extend the reach and to create awareness of added value to the consumer. Hopefully some lessons will be learned and emphasized in this case study. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

  • 6058.
    Svensson, Göran
    et al.
    Oslo School of Management, Norway.
    Wagner, Beverly
    University of Strathclyde, Scotland, UK.
    Sustainable supply chain practices: research propositions for the future2010In: International Journal of Logistics Economics and Globalisation, ISSN 1741-5373, E-ISSN 1741-5381, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 176-186Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6059.
    Svensson, Göran
    et al.
    Oslo School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Wagner, Beverly
    University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, United Kingdom.
    Transformative Business Sustainability: Multi-Layer Model and Network of E-Footprint Sources2011In: European Business Review, ISSN 0955-534X, E-ISSN 1758-7107, Vol. 23, no 4, p. 334-352Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the concept of "transformative business sustainability". "Business sustainability" refers the total effort of a company - including its demand and supply chain network - to reduce the impact on the Earth's life- and eco-systems -, i.e. the total e-footprint. "Transformative" highlights the need for an open minded, dynamic and flexible approach to "business sustainability" not governed by blinkers.

    Design/methodology/approach: This paper discusses a conceptual development of transformative business sustainability, derived from a frame of reference. The essence is the introduction of a multi-layer model of units (i.e. different businesses or other stakeholders), a network of e-footprint sources and a "recovery pool and redistribution buffer" at the interface.

    Findings: Transformative business sustainability is both a theoretical and managerial concept. It could also be seen as a roadmap to plan, implement and evaluate business sustainability.

    Research limitations/implications: Transformative business sustainability provides opportunities for development. Suggestions for further research are presented.

    Practical implications: E-footprint sources in business, applying an Earth-to-Earth approach, are described. The concept of transformative business sustainability contributes by achieving genuine and continuous business sustainability and awareness at strategic, tactical and operative levels of business, avoiding use of buzzwords and window dressing.

    Originality/value: Well-being of the planet Earth has to be at the core of business sustainability. The authors contend that the "recovery pool and redistribution buffer" is crucial in the planning, implementation and evaluation of transformative business sustainability.

    © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

  • 6060.
    Svensson, Göran
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Wood, G
    Deakin University, Warrnambool, Australia .
    Codes of Ethics Best Practice in the Swedish Public Sector: a PUBSEC-Scale2004In: International Journal of Public Sector Management, ISSN 0951-3558, E-ISSN 1758-6666, Vol. 17, no 2-3, p. 178-195Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines the results of a study conducted of the top 100 public sector units in Sweden. The aim of the study was to examine and describe the codes of ethics in these Swedish public sector units. Reports on the responses of 27 public sector units that possessed a code of ethics. The content analyses of these codes indicate that they have only recently become an interest in public Sweden. Many public sector units are in the early stages of development and assimilation of codes of ethics artefacts into overall ethics policies in the organization. A customized PUBSEC-scale was used to measure and evaluate the content of the codes. The code of ethics best practice in the Swedish public sector has been used to develop a public sector scale consisting of seven dimensions and 41 items. The PUBSEC-scale differs from the current private sector scales in literature, owing to the specific characteristics of the public sector. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

  • 6061.
    Svensson, Göran
    et al.
    Oslo School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Wood, Greg
    Deakin University, Warrnambool, Australia.
    A Conceptual Framework of Corporate and Business Ethics across Orgainzations: Structures, Processes and Performance2011In: Learning Organization, ISSN 0969-6474, E-ISSN 1758-7905, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 21-35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The objective of this paper is to introduce and describe a conceptual framework of corporate and business ethics across organizations in terms of ethical structures, ethical processes and ethical performance. Design/methodology/approach: A framework is outlined and positioned incorporating an ethical frame of reference in the field of organizational chain management.

    Findings: A number of areas and sub-areas of corporate and business ethics are framed in the context across organizations. Research limitations/implications: The introduced framework should be seen as a seed for further development and refinement. It provides opportunities for further research of ethical concerns across organizations.

    Practical implications: Organizations may benefit from the findings and insights presented and they may be used to enhance their ability to manage, monitor and evaluate ethical business practices across organizations.

    Social implications: Changing societal and market patterns may enforce organizations to address ethical concerns across organizations. A myopic approach restricted to the judicial system may become insufficient and unsatisfactory from the perspective of other stakeholders of the organization.

    Originality/value: The framework makes a contribution bringing in ethical concerns across organizations, providing a basis for their ethical values and culture, as well as asymmetric relationships in terms of power and dependence. The authors believe that a true learning organization needs to realise the importance of an extended view of its endeavors of corporate and business ethics in terms of ethical structures, ethical processes and ethical performance across organizations.

    © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

  • 6062.
    Svensson, Göran
    et al.
    Oslo school of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Wood, Greg
    Deakin University, Australia.
    A Cross-Continental Examination and Comparison of Descriptive Criteria in Marketing Journals – AMJ, EJM and JM2007In: Revista de Negócios, ISSN 1980-4431, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 74-87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective is to perform a cross-continental examination and comparison of non-traditional descriptive criteria in a selection of leading academic journals in marketing. The sample of journals is restricted to the examination and comparison of three academic journals in marketing. The journal sample consists of the Australasian Marketing Journal (AMJ), the European Journal of Marketing (EJM) and the Journal of Marketing (JM). Empirical research manuscripts dominate in the selected marketing journals. In addition, in the selected journals regular issues dominate in favour of special issues. The descriptive criteria examined and compared in AMJ, EJM and JM are based upon the content analysis of 811 manuscripts published during a six-year period, namely 2000-2005. Manuscripts of types other than empirical research, such as general reviews, literature reviews, conceptual papers, commentaries and book reviews are less likely to get published. Special issues or special sections are less frequent in these journals. This may lead to the situation that specialized journals in sub-areas of marketing may provide better and more comprehensive leading edge coverage and knowledge. The insights provided are in particular valuable for those scholars that do not usually get involved in academic publishing and consequently have a limited understanding and experience of the publication arena of manuscripts in leading academic journals. These insights also will be informative for more experienced academic publishers as they highlight certain characteristics of these journals that enlighten one as to the journals that one should target for publication and the difficulty, just on a numbers basis alone, of getting published in one of these three journals. The principal contribution of this research is the examination and comparison of descriptive criteria in AMJ, EJM and JM – a cross-continental sample of journals and criteria that have not been explored or reported previously in literature.

  • 6063.
    Svensson, Göran
    et al.
    Oslo School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Wood, Greg
    Bowater School of Management and Marketing, Deakin University, Warrnambool, Australia.
    A Model of Business Ethics2008In: Journal of Business Ethics, ISSN 0167-4544, E-ISSN 1573-0697, Vol. 77, no 3, p. 303-322Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It appears that in the 30 years that business ethics has been a discipline in its own right a model of business ethics has not been proffered. No one appears to have tried to explain the phenomenon known as 'business ethics' and the ways that we as a society interact with the concept, therefore, the authors have addressed this gap in the literature by proposing a model of business ethics that the authors hope will stimulate debate. The business ethics model consists of three principal components (i.e. expectations, perceptions and evaluations) that are interconnected by five sub-components (i.e. society expects; organizational values, norms and beliefs; outcomes; society evaluates; and reconnection). The introduced model makes a contribution to the creation of a conceptual framework for business ethics. A few tentative conclusions may be drawn from the introduced model of business ethics. The model aspires to be highly dynamic. The ultimate outcome is dependent upon the evolution of time and contexts. It is also dependent upon and provides reference to the behaviours and perceptions of people. The model proposes business ethics to be a continuous and an iterative process. There is no actual end of the process, but a constant reconnection to the initiation of successive process iterations of the business ethics model. The principals and sub-components of the model construct the dynamics of this continuous process. They provide guidance on what and how to explore our common efforts to understand the phenomenon known as business ethics. The model provides opportunities for further research in the field of business ethics.

  • 6064.
    Svensson, Göran
    et al.
    Oslo School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Wood, Greg
    Bowater School of Management and Marketing, Deakin University, Warrnambool, Australia.
    A Model of Cause Related Marketing for ‘Profit-Driven’ and ‘Non-Profit’ Organizations2011In: European Business Review, ISSN 0955-534X, E-ISSN 1758-7107, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 203-214Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe a model of cause-related marketing (CRM) for both profit-driven (PD) and non-profit (NP) organizations. Design/methodology/approach:The model consists of two parallel internal and external organizational processes - one representing the process of a NP organization and the other a PD organization. They are interlinked as the outcome of a CRM-partnership is dependent upon their mutual efforts.

    Findings: The authors argue that it is essential to remember that a CRM-partnership is a challenge and risk for both the PD and NP organizations that may harm their reputation and position in the marketplace and/or society. CRM has benefits as well as downsides that should not be underestimated nor neglected.

    Research limitations/implications: Will the involvement of the PD or NP organizations in the resultant partnership be perceived as commercialism, altruism or a combination of both, in the marketplace and society? A focus on both processes opens up opportunities for further research.

    Practical implications: A contribution is that the CRM-model may be used as a guide for both PD and NP organizations in order to reveal whether a CRM-partnership is appropriate for them with a potential partner or not. It may also indicate whether the motives are based upon commercial reasons or altruistic reasons or a combination of both.

    Originality/value: The model enables these organizations to think through the process prior to engaging in CRM. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

  • 6065.
    Svensson, Göran
    et al.
    Oslo school of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Wood, Greg
    Bowater School of Management and Marketing, Deakin University, Warrnambool, Australia.
    Are university students really customers? When illusion may lead to delusion for all!2007In: International Journal of Educational Management, ISSN 0951-354X, E-ISSN 1758-6518, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 17-28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The marketing concept is an idea that has been adopted in non-marketing contexts, such as the relationships between universities and their students. This paper aims to posit that marketing metaphors are inappropriate to describe the student-university relationship.

    Design/methodology/approach - The authors provide a conceptual discussion of the topic.

    Findings - The use of marketing metaphors appears sometimes to be indiscriminate and the appropriateness to use them in student-university relationships is questioned in this article. Research limitations/implications - This notion of students as customers has caused a misinterpretation of the relationship between universities and students.

    Practical implications - Students should not be viewed as customers of the university, but as citizens of the university community. The contention contained within this paper is that the customer metaphor is inappropriate to describe students' relationships to universities.

    Originality/value - The use of marketing buzzwords does not contribute to a correct description or an accurate understanding of the student-university relationship. On the contrary, misconceptions and misunderstandings flourish due to misleading terminology and contradictory vocabulary. These frameworks tend to be illusionary if used in non-marketing contexts, such as universities.

    © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

  • 6066.
    Svensson, Göran
    et al.
    Oslo School of Management, Norway.
    Wood, GregDeakin University, Australia.
    Business Ethics – Through Time and Across Contexts 2009Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 6067.
    Svensson, Göran
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Wood, Greg
    Bowater School of Management and Marketing, Deakin University, Warrnambool, Victoria, Australia.
    Business ethics in TQM: the qualities and spectrum zones of a case illustration2005In: TQM Magazine, ISSN 0954-478X, E-ISSN 1758-6887, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 19-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The conceptual framework of business ethics in total quality management is described based on a case study in the Swedish retail industry. The study shows that business ethics is significantly important as in the long run, TQM will not succeed in business operations unless business ethics is considered in the core values to support the techniques and tools applied for TQM. TQM insists that business operations must be performed without delay, minimizing the damage and with the agreed quality. The business organizations must maintain proactive values in their business processes to ensure maximum customer satisfaction.

  • 6068.
    Svensson, Göran
    et al.
    Oslo School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Wood, Greg
    Bowater School of Management and Marketing, Deakin University, Warrnambool, Australia.
    Cause related marketing – commercialism or altruism: Finding the balance?2007In: International Journal of Electronic Customer Relationship Management, ISSN 1750-0664, E-ISSN 1750-0672, Vol. 1, no 3, p. 231-241Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this paper is to describe a framework of questions that may provide guidance as to whether a company (i.e., a for-profit organisation) should engage in Cause Related Marketing (CRM) or not. CRM is an intriguing concept in which one finds a cause and intertwines one's marketing push to sell both the cause and one's products. The reality is that some companies do focus solely on the profit returns from socially responsible ventures and others do not, therefore, a framework of questions are provided that may guide companies as to whether to pursue a CRM relationship with a non-profit organisation (i.e., the cause).

  • 6069.
    Svensson, Göran
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Wood, Greg
    Bowater School of Management and Marketing, Deakin University, Warrnambool, Victoria, Australia .
    Corporate ethics and trust in intra-corporate relationships: an in-depth and longitudinal case description2004In: Employee relations, ISSN 0142-5455, E-ISSN 1758-7069, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 320-336Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Theoretically, a contribution of this article is the pinpointed connection between corporate ethics and trust in intra-corporate relationships. Furthermore, it contributes to a conceptual framework that distinguishes between the constructs of business ethics and corporate ethics. The authors also provide a grounded conceptual framework of corporate ethics and trust. The principal dyadic determinants of corporate ethics in intra-corporate relationships are interpreted to be management behaviour versus employee perception of that behaviour. Empirically, the contribution is an in-depth and longitudinal case description that underpins the topic and the discussion provided in the article.

  • 6070.
    Svensson, Göran
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Wood, Greg
    Bowater School of Management and Marketing, Deakin University, Warrnambool, Australia.
    Corporate ethics in TQM: management versus employee expectations and perceptions2005In: TQM Magazine, ISSN 0954-478X, E-ISSN 1758-6887, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 137-149Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of a conceptual framework of corporate ethics in total quality management (TQM) is presented by a case description. The case description illustrates the evolution of management versus employee expectations and perceptions of corporate ethics. Four parameters of corporate ethics are used to incorporate ethics into TQM, namely management versus employee expectations and perceptions. The case description shows that TQM may be running well and accomplishing the hard goals. It is a business approach that should penetrate all activities inside and outside that are related to the company, including the soft issues.

  • 6071.
    Svensson, Göran
    et al.
    Oslo School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Wood, Greg
    Faculty of Business and Law, Deakin University, Warrnambool, Australia.
    Ethical performance evaluation (EPE) in business practices: framework and case illustrations2007In: European Business Review, ISSN 0955-534X, E-ISSN 1758-7107, Vol. 19, no 5, p. 420-430Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: A set of principal parameters (i.e. time, context, gap, outcome, and consequence) influences the ethical performance evaluation (EPE) of business practices in the marketplace and society. The purpose of this paper is to describe a managerial framework of EPE based upon these parameters.

    Design/methodology/approach: Case illustrations are used to underpin the introduced managerial framework of EPE. Findings - The EPE of business practices is not only dependent upon the ethical values and principles of today, but those principles of tomorrow may be equally, or even more, crucial. The EPE of business practices is also dependent upon the surrounding context and its specific ethical values and principles. Furthermore, it is dependent upon the gap between different perceptions of ethical values and principles and if the outcome of the corporation's ethical values and principles are proactive or reactive in relation to the reigning ethical values and principles in the marketplace and society. Finally, it is also dependent upon the potential and eventual consequences of ethical values and principles.

    Research limitations/implications: The only way that we can "objectively" evaluate past ethical values and principles is through the use of ethical values and principles at the time and in respect to the context at hand. Research tends to fail when considering the longitudinal and evolutionary dimensions in the exploration of ethical values and principles in business practices. There is too much focus upon on-the-spot-accounts in the past and in current research efforts. An important area for further research is how to deal with the durability and variability of ethical values and principles in business practices in the marketplace and society. The key may be a stronger emphasis on longitudinal research efforts that may explore them over time and as contexts evolve. Ethical values and principles are connected and re-connected over time and across contexts in one way or another. They have a past, a current status and a future.

    Practical implications: The decision as to whether business practices are ethical or unethical is - relatively speaking - easy to determine from a narrow perspective, however, the decision whether business practices are ethical or unethical becomes complicated as the perspective is widened and deepened. An introduced managerial framework of EPE provides a generic foundation and structure to examine the acceptability versus unacceptability of business practices.

    Originality/value: The paper introduces a managerial framework of EPE, followed by case illustrations. It addresses the impact of time on ethical values and principles in any context on the potential and eventual gaps, outcomes and consequences in business practices. The managerial framework of EPE may also be used in non-business areas whenever found applicable and convenient to use.

    © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

  • 6072.
    Svensson, Göran
    et al.
    Oslo School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Wood, Greg
    Bowater School of Management and Marketing, Deakin University, Australia.
    Ethnocentricity in Academic Marketing Journals: Authors, Reviewers, Editorial Boards and Editors2007In: Marketing Intelligence & Planning, ISSN 0263-4503, E-ISSN 1758-8049, Vol. 25, no 3, p. 252-270Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – This paper aims to examine and compare a set of key characteristics of ethnocentricity that influence the policy of academic marketing journals, and hence the provenance, authorship and nature of articles in academic marketing journals.

    Design/methodology/approach – The “fundamental” characteristics of three major marketing journals, published in the USA, the UK and New Zealand, were examined for the six‐year period from the start of 2000 to the end of 2006. Data were collected from editorials and web homepages. Analysis was conducted of 811 articles, 1,676 authors, three editorial teams and three sets of reviewers.

    Findings – There is a challenging academic ethnocentricity in the management and implied policy of the three journals. The extent varies, but the inescapable conclusion is that the world‐wide research community in marketing is not properly represented by leading journals.

    Research limitations/implications – The sample was intentionally small, and unrepresentative of any category except “leading quality”. The findings are intended to add momentum to a debate and point ways forward, not to provide generalisable answers.

    Practical implications – The findings suggest that: the editorial boards and reviewing teams should be made more representative geographically; editorships should be organized around the concept of a team of geographically differentiated editors; editorial and review teams should be ethnographically representative of individuals who do research and wish to publish it, particularly beyond the English‐speaking world. In general, the world‐wide research community in marketing would benefit from less ethnocentricity in academic journals, and these leading examples should strive to reduce it.

    Originality/value – The impact of ethnocentricity is underestimated in this context. The issue needs to be discussed, because of paradigmatic influences that it can have on a journal and the profile of its authors, and hence on journal ranking and perceptions of journal quality.

  • 6073.
    Svensson, Göran
    et al.
    Oslo School of Management, Norway.
    Wood, Greg
    Deakin University, Australia.
    Ética empresarial teleológica: formativa, racionalista y transformativa – ilustraciones y analogías2010In: ESIC Market, ISSN 0212-1867, E-ISSN 1989-3574, Vol. 138, p. 63-90Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [es]

    Los niveles estratégicos, tácticos y operativos de una organización pueden tener diferentes percepciones y convicciones sobre cómo las conductas y prácticas de ética empresarial de la organización deberían gestionarse en el mercado y la sociedad que lo rodea. Examinamos las conductas y prácticas de ética empresarial de las organizaciones en el mercado y la sociedad que lo rodea con la ayuda de las ciencias de la complejidad. El objetivo es describir las conductas y prácticas de ética empresarial de las organizaciones utilizando diferentes enfoques teleológicos. Las conductas y prácticas poco éticas pueden ser el resultado de acciones conscientes, pero también pueden ser subconscientes. Analizaremos las razones de ambas posibilidades: conductas y prácticas poco éticas de las organizaciones, sus directivos y empleados. Una idea importante basada en las ilustraciones y analogías presentadas es que los diferentes enfoques teleológicos a la ética empresarial en las conductas y prácticas pueden ser consecutivas y simultáneas dentro de una organización. Un tema esencial para la investigación futura es cómo hacer frente a la durabilidad y variabilidad de las conductas y prácticas de ética empresarial de las organizaciones en el mercado y la sociedad que lo rodea.

  • 6074.
    Svensson, Göran
    et al.
    Oslo School of Management, Norway.
    Wood, Greg
    Deakin University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Implementation, communication and benefits of public sector codes of ethics: A longitudinal study of Sweden2009In: International Journal of Public Sector Management, ISSN 0951-3558, E-ISSN 1758-6666, Vol. 22, no 4, p. 364-379Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the implementation, communication and benefits of codes of ethics in the public sector of Sweden. Design/methodology/approach: The research is based on a longitudinal approach. It examines the ethos of codes of ethics in the largest public sector organizations of Sweden in 2001-2002 and 2005-2006. Findings: Only a few of the largest public sector organizations in Sweden have indicated that they possess codes of ethics. This finding may be explained by the current judicial legislation that governs Swedish society. The public codes of ethics have been established both recently and, in part, years ago. Research limitations/implications: A suggestion for further research would be to examine the implementation, communication and perceived benefits of public sector codes of ethics in other countries. Another area of further research would be to replicate the reported surveys in the future to examine the existence of potential trends. Practical implications: When it comes to the perceived benefits of public sector codes of ethics there appears to be only minor acknowledgement of the code being used to resolve ethical problems in society. However, there is a strong conviction that the code of ethics positively influences the operations of public sector organizations. Originality/value: The paper examines the ethical implementation, communication and benefits put in place by private companies to embed codes of ethics into their organizations. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

  • 6075.
    Svensson, Göran
    et al.
    Oslo School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Wood, Greg
    Deakin University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Inculcating the Ethos of Public Sector Codes of Ethics in Sweden: a Longitudinal Approach2009In: Corporate Governance : The International Journal of Effective Board Performance, ISSN 1472-0701, E-ISSN 1758-6054, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 175-188Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to examine the measures put in place by the largest public sector organizations in Sweden in order to communicate the ethos of their codes of ethics to their employees. Design/methodology/approach - This paper is based upon a longitudinal survey approach. Findings - In the public sector organizations of Sweden the use of regulations and staff support is rather modest in respect to the inculcation of codes of ethics artefacts into the organisations. This longitudinal approach indicates an overall increase across the examined areas in the usage of measures to support the ethos of public sector codes of ethics. Research limitations/implications - The artefacts to support the ethos inherent in public sector codes of ethics are rarely explored in the literature. This paper helps to fill this gap with the present longitudinal approach. Practical implications - One could speculate that society at large and its public sector organizations may have been influenced not only by the scandalous happenings of recent years in Swedish business, but also by the impact of an Anglo-Saxon style of "corporatisation", whereby public authorities take on the form of a corporation or business brought on by globalisation. Originality/value - The present paper may be used as a point of reference for further research efforts. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

  • 6076.
    Svensson, Göran
    et al.
    Oslo School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Wood, Greg
    Bowater School of Management and Marketing, Deakin University, Warrnambool, Australia.
    International Standards of Business Conduct: Framework and Illustration2008In: European Business Review, ISSN 0955-534X, E-ISSN 1758-7107, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 260-274Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to describe the insights and a proposal into the structure of standards of business conduct and its intended applications. Design/methodology/approach – The case study is based upon an inductive content analysis of corporate ethics artefacts. Findings – It is concluded that the standards of business conduct may be highly prescriptive in world wide corporations, but that there should be an explicit commitment to a flexible and dynamic approach to the application of standards of business conduct. Research limitations/implications – An examination of the actual behaviour of a corporation's operations was beyond the scope of the present research, but such a study has potential for future research. This would open up the wider question of how corporations can minimise the gap between corporate intentions and actual outcomes in business operations across national and cultural boundaries. Practical implications – These diverse national and cultural contexts that world wide corporations encounter must be taken into consideration in the content of their standards of business conduct. Originality/value – The authors emphasise the concern of recognising that the contexts surrounding standards of business conduct are dynamic. Corporate codes of ethics should be regarded as dynamic artefacts. A framework of application is proposed.

  • 6077.
    Svensson, Göran
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER). School of Business and Economics, Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Wood, Greg
    School of Management and Marketing, Deakin University, Australia.
    Proactive versus Reactive Business Ethics Performance: A Conceptual Framework of Profile Analysis and Case Illustrations2004In: Corporate Governance : The International Journal of Effective Board Performance, ISSN 1472-0701, E-ISSN 1758-6054, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 18-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The topic of this paper focuses on proactive versus reactive business ethics performance in the marketplace. The internal perception of a corporation and the external perception of the same corporation are used as generic determinants of business ethics performance. In turn, they are underpinned by evolutionary and contextual issues in the marketplace. The authors provide a generic conceptual framework of proactive and reactive business ethics performance. Case illustrations underpin the positives and negatives of proactive and reactive business ethics in the marketplace. A profile analysis process of proactive and reactive business ethics performance is also outlined. The gap between the internal and external perceptions of a corporation's actions becomes crucial to achieve successful business ethics performance in the marketplace. Therefore, a corporation's current business ethics performance should always be regarded as an on-the-spot-account that is either proactive or reactive. An important insight of this research is that business ethics performance requires the ongoing re-connection with reality by corporations. © 2004, Emerald Group Publishing Limited

  • 6078.
    Svensson, Göran
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Wood, Greg
    Bowater School of Management and Marketing, Deakin University, Warrnambool, Australia.
    Public Sector Ethics in Sweden: a 4P-Model of Internal and External Determinants in Codes of Ethics2004In: Corporate Governance : The International Journal of Effective Board Performance, ISSN 1472-0701, E-ISSN 1758-6054, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 54-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article summarizes and aggregates the results of a study conducted of the largest 100 public sector organizations derived from three categories in Sweden. These categories of organizations comprise 40 entities of government, 40 municipalities, and 20 county councils. The objective was to describe the determinants of codes of ethics in Swedish public sector organizations. This research reports on the responses of 27 organizations that possessed a code of ethics. The principal contribution is a 4P-model of seven internal and external determinants in public sector codes of ethics. The identified determinants relate to four principal sectors of a society, namely: public community sector, private corporate sector, private citizen sector, and political/policy conduct sector.

  • 6079.
    Svensson, Göran
    et al.
    School of Business and Economics, Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Wood, Greg
    School of Management and Marketing, Deakin University, Australia.
    Research Criteria in Marketing Journals: AMJ, EJM and JM2007In: Australasian Marketing Journal, ISSN 1441-3582, E-ISSN 1839-3349, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 83-93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to assess a selection of marketing journals in terms of: (i) the proportion of 'empirical' versus 'non-empirical' contributions; (ii) the proportion of national versus international research data; (iii) the geographic origin of research data; and (iv) the authors' geographic affiliations. The sample consists of: Australasian Marketing Journal (AMJ), European Journal of Marketing (EJM) and Journal of Marketing (JM). The empirical findings indicate that empirical contributions dominate in the selected journals. In addition, the geographic origin of research data and the authors' geographic affiliation with empirical research data varies across the selected journal titles. In addition, there are only minor differences between national and international research data.

  • 6080.
    Svensson, Göran
    et al.
    Oslo School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Wood, Greg
    Deakin University, Burwood, Australia.
    Research Designs and Scientific Identity in Marketing Journals: Review and Evaluation2007In: European Journal of Marketing, ISSN 0309-0566, E-ISSN 1758-7123, Vol. 41, no 5/6, p. 419-438Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – This research is based upon the assumption that the empirical research designs and the scientific identity of a journal are related. The objective is to review and evaluate the empirical research design of papers to determine the scientific identity of a selection of academic marketing journals.Design/methodology/approach – The journal sample consists of the Australasian Marketing Journal (AMJ), the European Journal of Marketing (EJM) and the Journal of Marketing (JM). The review and evaluation considers a six‐year period, namely 2000‐2005. The content analysis consisted of 811 papers.Findings – The scientific identity of JM may be seen as built upon quantitative research designs and the North American paradigm of research values. The scientific identity of AMJ is based upon a mix of empirical research designs and the Australian paradigm of research values. The scientific identity of EJM is also based upon a mix of empirical research designs, but a multi‐continental paradigm of research values.Research limitations/implications – The leading continental journals in marketing maintain a scientific identity based upon the continental paradigm of research values. If it is driven to the extremes, a paradigmatic myopia and inertia of research designs may evolve that limit the scientific identity to be dogmatic and narrow‐focused rather than variable and broad‐focused.Originality/value – A cross‐continental review and evaluation of research designs and scientific identity of academic marketing journals is presented.

  • 6081.
    Svensson, Göran
    et al.
    Oslo School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Wood, Greg
    Deakin University, Warrnambool, Australia.
    Strategic approaches of corporate codes of ethics in Australia: a framework for classification and empirical illustration2007In: Corporate Governance : The International Journal of Effective Board Performance, ISSN 1472-0701, E-ISSN 1758-6054, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 93-101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    – Research has so far not approached the contents of corporate code of ethics from a strategic classification point of view. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to introduce and describe a framework of classification and empirical illustration to provide insights into the strategic approaches of corporate code of ethics content within and across contextual business environments.

    Design/methodology/approach

    – The paper summarizes the content analysis of code prescription and the intensity of codification in the contents of 78 corporate codes of ethics in Australia.

    Findings

    – The paper finds that, generally, the studied corporate codes of ethics in Australia are of standardized and replicated strategic approaches. In particular, customized and individualized strategic approaches are far from penetrating the ethos of corporate codes of ethics content.

    Research limitations/implications

    – The research is limited to Australian codes of ethics. Suggestions for further research are provided in terms of the search for best practice of customized and individualized corporate codes of ethics content across countries.

    Practical implications

    – The framework contributes to an identification of four strategic approaches of corporate codes of ethics content, namely standardized, replicated, individualized and customized.

    Originality/value

    – The principal contribution of this paper is a generic framework to identify strategic approaches of corporate codes of ethics content. The framework is derived from two generic dimensions: the context of application and the application of content. The timing of application is also a crucial generic dimension to the success or failure of codes of ethics content. Empirical illustrations based upon corporate codes of ethics in Australia's top companies underpin the topic explored. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

  • 6082.
    Svensson, Göran
    et al.
    Oslo School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Wood, Greg
    Bowater School of Management and Marketing, Deakin University, Warrnambool, Australia.
    Sustainable components of leadership effectiveness in organizational performance2006In: Journal of Management Development, ISSN 0262-1711, E-ISSN 1758-7492, Vol. 25, no 6, p. 522-534Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    – The objective is to describe a selection of sustainability components of leadership effectiveness in organizational performance.

    Design/methodology/approach

    – The paper is based on a conceptual discussion.

    Findings

    – The paper contributes to descriptive models that address sustainability components of leadership effectiveness in organizational performance. The study highlights some common views that exist in the management literature and in prosperous management practice related to the direct impact of the relationship in organizational performance between leadership and effectiveness. In fact, it also highlights the critical or sceptical views of leadership effectiveness in organizational performance raised in the literature.

    Research limitations/implications

    – The paper contends that the actual leadership effectiveness in organizational performance varies over time and across contexts. At times, the achievement in organizational performance is the outcome of prosperous and conscious leadership, while it at other times may be the outcome of poor and deficient leadership. The topic at hand is positioned and limited to the interface that may describe and explain the connection between these two views. Furthermore, it is limited to corporate decision making and business behaviour in relation to leadership effectiveness and organizational performance.

    Practical implications

    – The leadership of an organization need not only to be successful today, but they also need to be successful tomorrow to stay in control and to flourish. Quality control and quality assurance are no longer enough for most organizations. They need to build an awareness of the sustainability components into processes of their management and business practices (i.e. internal and external ones) in order to be judged as successful in corporate decision‐making and business behaviour in organizational performance in the long term.

    Originality/value

    – The principal contributions of the study are a model of timely leadership effectiveness, a model of contextual leadership effectiveness, and a typology of leadership effectiveness in corporate decision‐making and business behaviour. These contributions provide theoretical and managerial ideas and insights into the sustainability components of leadership effectiveness in organizational performance. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

  • 6083.
    Svensson, Göran
    et al.
    Oslo School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Wood, Greg
    Bowater School of Management and Marketing, Deakin University, Warrnambool, Australia.
    Sustainable leadership ethics: a continuous and iterative process2007In: Leadership & Organization Development Journal, ISSN 0143-7739, E-ISSN 1472-5347, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 251-268Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    – The objective of this article is to develop and describe a conceptual framework of sustainable leadership ethics.

    Design/methodology/approach

    – The paper provides a description of the inputs, actions and outputs of sustainable leadership ethics.

    Findings

    – Sustainable leadership ethics is a process. In addition, it is continuous and iterative. The inputs, actions and outputs construct the dynamics of this continuous process.

    Research limitations/implications

    – The conceptual framework aspires to be highly dynamic. The ultimate outcome is dependent upon the evolution of time and contexts. It is also dependent upon and provides reference to the behaviours and perceptions of people. It provides guidance on what and how to address sustainable leadership ethics in research. It provides a descriptive framework.

    Practical implications

    – The framework proposes sustainable leadership ethics to be a continuous and an iterative process. There is no actual end of the process, but a constant reconnection to the initiation of successive process iterations of the sustainable leadership ethics. The conceptual framework also provides guidance on what and how to address sustainable leadership ethics in practice. It serves as a managerial framework.

    Originality/value

    – It contributes to create a structure for sustainable leadership ethics in both research and practice.

  • 6084.
    Svensson, Göran
    et al.
    School of Management and Economics, Växjö University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Wood, Greg
    Bowater School of Management and Marketing, Deakin University, Warrnambool, Victoria, Australia.
    The Dynamics of Business Ethics: a Function of Time and Culture – Cases and Models2003In: Management Decision, ISSN 0025-1747, E-ISSN 1758-6070, Vol. 41, no 4, p. 350-361Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Examines the construct of ethics in general and of business ethics in particular. Provides a conceptual discussion of the dynamics of ethics in society and the dynamics of business ethics in the marketplace. Ethics and business ethics constructs are dependent upon two principal parameters – time and culture. Eventually, ethics and business ethics are about what is perceived as acceptable or unacceptable at a specific time and in a specific cultural setting. What was ethical yesterday may not be ethical today, and what is ethical today may not be ethical tomorrow. Furthermore, both the company’s view and the views of others may determine what is acceptable or unacceptable in business ethics. This is a social construction that may differ between the parties involved in a specific context. The discussion is supported by two brief and different cases from the automobile industry. This research contributes a set of generic models that examine business ethics dynamics.

  • 6085.
    Svensson, Göran
    et al.
    Oslo School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Wood, Greg
    Deakin University, Warrnambool, Australia.
    The Pareto Plus Syndrome in Top Marketing Journals: Research and Journal Criteria2006In: European Business Review, ISSN 0955-534X, E-ISSN 1758-7107, Vol. 18, no 6, p. 457-467Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - Pareto's Law often refers to the theory that a small percentage of a total is responsible for a large proportion of the total outcome. It is commonly known as the 80/20 law or principle. The objective is to review and debate whether there is a "Pareto syndrome" in the distribution of crucial research and journal criteria in top marketing journals.

    Design/methodology/approach - The authors provide a review and a debate based upon previous research on top marketing journals. For this purpose, the Pareto syndrome concept is introduced, based upon a set of research and journal criteria. Their distribution is examined. Findings - The review of research and journal criteria in top marketing journals generated an extremely skewed outcome. When it comes to the criteria, the top journals in marketing tend to be governed by narrow concerns of research rather than broad ones.

    Research limitations/implications - The research and journal criteria that have a skewed outcome may reinforce the rigidity and the lack of innovativeness of the marketing discipline. The evolutionary speed of the discipline may at best be reduced or it may at worst grind to a halt. The authors argue that there are a number of serious concerns to be addressed in the future review and debate of top journals in marketing.

    Practical implications - Editors and editorial boards need seriously to address the concerns reviewed and debated, namely the skewed distribution of criteria, such as affiliation, data and methodology.

    Originality/value - The authors debate that there is evidence that confirms the existence of a Pareto plus syndrome in key research and journal criteria of top marketing journals.

    © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

  • 6086.
    Svensson, Göran
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Wood, Greg
    Bowater School of Management and Marketing, Deakin University, Warrnambool, Australia.
    The serendipity of leadership effectiveness in management and business practices: conceptual paper2005In: Management Decision, ISSN 0025-1747, E-ISSN 1758-6070, Vol. 43, no 7-8, p. 1001-1009Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose:

    The objective of this paper is to conceptualize the serendipity of leadership effectiveness in management and business practices. The term "serendipity" is defined as the mix of leadership effectiveness by accident and sagacity in management and business practices.

    Design/methodology/approach:

    The paper provides a conceptual discussion of the serendipity of leadership effectiveness in management and business practices.

    Findings:

    This paper contributes a number of models and a matrix that are introduced to address the underlying criteria of the cause-effect relationship between leadership effectiveness and organizational achievements.

    Research limitations/implications:

    This paper challenges the idealistic picture that flourishes in the management literature and in management practice of the direct, positive impact of leadership on prosperous management and business practices. In fact, it reinforces and underpins the critical or sceptical views of leadership effectiveness raised in the literature.

    Practical implications:

    Normally, views of organizational achievements are based on the assumption that contextual, timely and skilful precisions in leadership effectiveness are high. Shareholders and stakeholders may benefit from a thorough examination of these issues in organizational achievements. It would not be surprising to find that leadership effectiveness in management and business practices to a minor or major extent is derived from pure luck and coincidence in contextual and timely precisions: right place, right time. This means that such leadership effectiveness may be based on serendipity rather than skilfulness in terms of organizational achievements.

    Originality/value:

    The authors contend that the term "serendipity" contributes to enhance the ongoing discussion in the literature of the link between leadership effectiveness and organizational achievements. It also provides a fundament of understanding, explanation and prediction of leadership effectiveness in management and business practices.

  • 6087.
    Svensson, Göran
    et al.
    Oslo School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Wood, Greg
    Bowater School of Management and Marketing, Deakin University, Warrnambool, Australia.
    Top versus Leading Journals in Marketing: Some Challenging Thoughts2008In: European Journal of Marketing, ISSN 0309-0566, E-ISSN 1758-7123, Vol. 42, no 3/4, p. 287-298Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The objective of this paper is to discuss some criteria in order to distinguish between top versus leading journals in marketing. The aim is to stimulate the debate of the adequacy of those issues that dominate in the top marketing journals.

    Design/methodology/approach – The authors discuss three groups of criteria, namely journal, article, and research. Each is discussed based on a set of dimensions: journal criteria – the editor, the editorial board, the editorial objective and the author affiliations; article criteria – research implication, practice implication, readability and originality; and research criteria – process, paradigm, representation, readership and contribution.

    Findings – While the top journals in marketing are named, the analysis is meant to be of a more general nature rather than to question or lambaste a specific journal.

    Research limitations/implications – There is an underlying quest for identifying and verifying the top academic journals in different research disciplines. As an extension to the discussion of top versus non-top journals, the authors raise another crucial issue, namely criteria to differentiate between top and leading journals in marketing.

    Practical implications – These criteria are based on the authors' examination of the editorial descriptions and overall contents of six top journals in marketing. The criteria are also derived from a review of the literature on academic journals and academic publishing.

    Originality/value – The discussion may stimulate and widen debate with respect to what constitutes a leading academic journal in marketing. The suggested list of criteria should be seen as a trigger for further discussion. It does not aspire to be complete, but a complement to the ongoing discussion of academic journals and academic publishing in marketing.

  • 6088.
    Svensson, Göran
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Wood, Greg
    Bowater School of Management and Marketing, Deakin University, Australia.
    Callaghan, Michael
    Bowater School of Management and Marketing, Deakin University, Australia.
    A comparison between corporate and public sector business ethics in Sweden2004In: Business Ethics. A European Review, ISSN 0962-8770, E-ISSN 1467-8608, Vol. 13, no 2-3, p. 166-184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This research examines and reports upon the results of a study conducted in 2002 of the top 100 corporate sector organizations and the top 100 public sector organizations in Sweden. The aim of the study was to examine, via a self-administered mail questionnaire, the commitment to business ethics of these top 200 Swedish organizations. This research reports on the responses of those organizations that possessed a code of ethics. It would appear that in corporate Sweden business ethics has only recently become a topic of interest and that many organizations are in the early stages of code development and assimilation into organization policies. In the Swedish public sector, organizations are less developed in their business ethics artifacts causing them to appear to be lagging behind the corporate sector. This disparity between the two sectors in Sweden currently, and each sector's intended future implementation of codes of ethics, could mean that these two sectors of business may become highly divergent in their acceptance of business ethics practices as a norm.

  • 6089.
    Svensson, Göran
    et al.
    Oslo School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Wood, Greg
    School of Management and Marketing, Deakin University, Burwood, Vic., Australia.
    Callaghan, Michael
    School of Management and Marketing, Deakin University, Burwood, Vic., Australia.
    A comparison of business ethics commitment in private and public sector organizations in Sweden2010In: Business Ethics. A European Review, ISSN 0962-8770, E-ISSN 1467-8608, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 213-232Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports the results of a study of the top 500 private sector organizations and the top 100 public sector organizations in Sweden. It is a replication of the study by Svensson et al. (2004). The aim of the study was to describe and compare the business ethics commitment of organizations across the two sectors. The empirical findings indicate that the processes involved in business ethics commitment have begun to be recognized and acted upon at an organizational level in Sweden. Some support is provided to show that codes of ethics are developing in some of Sweden's largest private and public sector organizations – although this is happening to a lesser extent in the public sector. It is noted that an effect of a code of ethics on the bottom line of the business was acknowledged by respondents in both private and public sector organizations. We believe that the supporting measures of business ethics commitment appear to be underutilized in both private and public sector organizations in Sweden (among those that possess codes of ethics), thus indicating that the commitment to business ethics in Swedish organizations has potential for future development.

  • 6090.
    Svensson, Göran
    et al.
    Oslo School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Wood, Greg
    Bowater School of Management and Marketing, Deakin University, Warrnambool, Australia.
    Callaghan, Michael
    Bowater School of Management and Marketing, Deakin University, Warrnambool, Australia.
    A construct of the “ethos of codes of ethics” (ECE): the Case of Private and Public Sweden2009In: International Journal of Public Sector Management, ISSN 0951-3558, E-ISSN 1758-6666, Vol. 22, no 6, p. 499-515Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The objective of this paper is to develop and describe a construct of the "ethos of the codes of ethics" (i.e. an ECE construct) in the private and public sectors of Sweden.

    Design/methodology/approach: The paper takes a cross-sector approach to codes of ethics amongst the top private sector companies and the top public sector organisations. The paper then examines the measures put in place by the dual sample in order to describe the ethos of their codes of ethics.

    Findings: The multivariate techniques used in the statistical analysis indicated that the ECE-construct consists of five dimensions: ethical bodies, ethical tools, ethical support procedures, internal ethics usage, and external ethics usage. Research limitations/implications - It should be noted that the ECE construct has been derived from large companies and organisations in private and public Sweden, which may indicate less applicability to smaller operations. Another limitation may be the validity and reliability across other cultural samples. The dual sample contains a variety of different types of operations, but it may not be transferable to other countries.

    Practical implications: The outcome is based on data from private companies and public organisations that indicated they had corporate codes of ethics. Therefore, a suggestion for further research is to examine the ECE construct in other countries/cultures that differ from the ones in this research effort performed in the private and public sectors of Sweden.

    Originality/value: The ECE construct introduced makes a contribution to theory and practice in the field as it is based upon a dual sample. It makes a contribution to theory as it outlines a construct for the benefit of other researchers working in both the private and the public sectors. The authors also believe that it may be of managerial interest as it provides a grounded framework of areas to be considered in the implementation of the codes of ethics in both private companies and public organisations.

    © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

  • 6091.
    Svensson, Göran
    et al.
    Oslo School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Wood, Greg
    Bowater School of Management and Marketing, Deakin University, PO Box 423, Warrnambool, Victoria 3280, Australia.
    Callaghan, Michael
    Bowater School of Management and Marketing, Deakin University, PO Box 423, Warrnambool, Victoria 3280, Australia.
    A Corporate Model of Sustainable Business Practices: An Ethical Perspective2010In: Journal of world business (Print), ISSN 1090-9516, E-ISSN 1878-5573, Vol. 45, no 4, p. 336-345Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper considers contemporary business practice and its sustainable performance from the view of stakeholders and their perceived value. A company has responsibilities and commitments to many different internal and external stakeholders in the marketplace and society. This view underlines the need for organizations to, not only provide value, but do so in a sustainable and socially responsible manner. A model is developed based on five, separate but interconnected, elements. The model is iterative and acknowledges its elementary state, suggesting further development and refinement in the field of sustainable business practices from an ethical perspective.

  • 6092.
    Svensson, Göran
    et al.
    Oslo School of Management, Norway.
    Wood, Greg
    Deakin University, Warrnambool, Australia.
    Callaghan, Michael
    Deakin University, Warrnambool, Australia.
    Cross-sector organizational engagement with ethics: A comparison of the top private companies and public entities of Sweden2009In: Corporate Governance : The International Journal of Effective Board Performance, ISSN 1472-0701, E-ISSN 1758-6054, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 283-297Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract:

    Purpose – The purpose of the paper is to describe and compare similarities as well as differences in the organizational engagement with ethics between private sector companies and public sector entities.

    Design/methodology/approach – A survey was conducted in order to examine the organizational engagement with ethics in the largest private sector companies and the largest public sector entities in Sweden. Two adapted questionnaires were developed for each sector. The outcome of this research procedure is reported in this paper.

    Findings – There are both minor and major differences between the private sector and public sectors, where the private sector companies overall tend to be more engaged with ethics than the public sector entities in areas such as: ethical bodies, ethical tools, internal and external ethical usage, and ethical support measures and ethical performance measures.

    Research limitations/implications – This paper makes a contribution to theory as it outlines findings for the benefit of other researchers working in private and/or public sectors in the field. A suggestion for further research is to examine the organizational engagement with ethics in other countries/cultures that differ from the ones in this research effort performed in the private and public sectors of Sweden.

    Practical implications – The research may be of managerial interest as it provides a grounded framework of areas to be considered in the examination of organizational engagement with ethics in both private sector companies and public sector entities. It may be used as a benchmark by either sector.

    Originality/value – It reports a research effort to develop and describe a cross-sector comparison of the organizational engagement with ethics between private sector companies and public sector entities of Sweden. A framework is also introduced and illustrated. It also makes a contribution to theory and practice in the field as it is based upon a dual sample that provides insight into cross-sector organizational engagement with ethics.

  • 6093.
    Svensson, Göran
    et al.
    Oslo School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Wood, Greg
    Bowater School of Management and Marketing, Deakin University, Warrnambool, Australia.
    Callaghan, Michael
    Bowater School of Management and Marketing, Deakin University, Warrnambool, Australia.
    Masochistic Marketing: Volvo Australia’s not ‘so safe’ strategy2006In: Journal of Consumer Marketing, ISSN 0736-3761, E-ISSN 2052-1200, Vol. 23, no 7, p. 438-444Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The objective is to describe a marketing approach used by Volvo in the Australian marketplace. It appears to be a rare approach and could be perceived to some extent as being "masochistic".

    Design/methodology/ approach: The research is based upon a case study. The term "masochistic marketing" is introduced.

    Findings: The "masochistic marketing" approach applied by Volvo in Australia should be seen as a process. It is dependent upon the outcome of a series of cause and effect relationships.

    Research limitations/implications: The masochistic marketing approach may be divided into four cause-related phases, all of which create a dualistic outcome of either positive or negative effect-chains in respect to the corporate image in the marketplace and society.

    Practical implications: A masochistic marketing approach is a high-risk venture. It is a challenging and demanding marketing process, because it plays on the humiliation of the corporate image itself. The core idea of the masochistic marketing approach violates, or at least appears to oppose, the fundaments of marketing.

    Originality/value: Masochistic marketing is not recommended to be used as a common approach, unless a series of events has turned the corporate image in the marketplace into something that is highly undesirable and a stigma.

    © Emerald Group publishing Limited.

  • 6094.
    Svensson, Göran
    et al.
    Oslo School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Wood, Greg
    Deakin University, Warrnambool, Australia.
    Callaghan, Michael
    Deakin University, Warrnambool, Australia.
    Measurement and structural properties of organizational codes of ethics in private and public Sweden2010In: International Journal of Public Sector Management, ISSN 0951-3558, E-ISSN 1758-6666, Vol. 23, no 6, p. 549-566Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to test the measurement and structural properties in a model of organizational codes of ethics (OCE) in Sweden.

    Design/methodology/approach – The measurement and structural properties of four OCE constructs (i.e. surveillance/training, internal communication, external communication, and guidance) were described and tested in a dual sample based upon private and public sectors of Sweden.

    Findings – Results show that the measurement and structural models of OCE in part have a satisfactory fit, validity, and reliability.

    Research limitations/implications – The paper makes a contribution to theory as it outlines a set of OCE constructs and it presents an empirical test of and OCE model in respect to measurement and structural properties. A number of research limitations are provided.

    Practical implications – It provides a model to be considered in the implementation and monitoring of OCE. The present research provides opportunities for further research in refining, extending, and testing the proposed OCE model in other cultural and organizational settings.

    Originality/value – The OCE model extends previous studies that have been predominately descriptive, by using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling.

  • 6095.
    Svensson, Göran
    et al.
    School of Management and Economics, Växjö University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Wood, Greg
    Bowater School of Management and Marketing, Deakin University, Warrnambool, Victoria, Australia.
    Callaghan, Michael
    Bowater School of Management and Marketing, Deakin University, Warrnambool, Victoria, Australia.
    The commitment of public sector Sweden to codes of ethics2004In: International Journal of Public Sector Management, ISSN 0951-3558, E-ISSN 1758-6666, Vol. 17, no 4, p. 302-331Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines the results of a study conducted of the top 100 public sector units in Sweden. These units are comprised of entities of government, municipalities, and county councils. The aim of the study was to examine and describe the commitment to codes of ethics in these Swedish public sector units. This article reports on the responses of those public sector units that possessed a code of ethics. The construct of commitment was measured by a consideration of the inputs, objectives and outputs of the code across six areas. The commitment to codes of ethics has an interest for those involved in the public sector in Sweden and society in general. Most public sector units are in the early stages of development and assimilation into overall ethics policies in code artefacts. On a specific level there are customized codes of ethics that are not always documented in a generic artefact. Theoretical and managerial implications are provided. Furthermore, suggestions for further research are proposed. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

  • 6096.
    Svensson, Göran
    et al.
    Oslo School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Wood, Greg
    Deakin University, Burwood, Australia.
    Mathisen, Bror Roger
    Oslo School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Reflexive and Critical Views of Leadership Performance in Corporate Accomplishment: Framework and Illustration2008In: Journal of Management Development, ISSN 0262-1711, E-ISSN 1758-7492, Vol. 27, no 8, p. 879-899Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – This paper intends to shed some light on the relationship between leadership performance and corporate accomplishment through the aid of complexity sciences. The objective is to describe leadership performance in corporate accomplishment using different teleological approaches. Design/methodology/approach – The paper discusses the underlying criteria of the relationship between leadership performance and corporate accomplishment. Case illustration and narrative analogy are also provided. Findings – The authors believe that the discussion highlights a potential downside of leadership performance in corporate accomplishment and its precision rarely highlighted in practice and literature. Research limitations/implications – There is a reigning assumption in management practice that is based on the belief that a top-down approach of leadership performance in management and business practices is superior to the bottom-up approach. It proffers the assumed importance of strategic management issues, but neglects the knowledge, experience, competence and awareness inherent among employees at tactical and operational levels of business practices. It also proffers a mechanical view of employee performance and ignores the worth of the generation of ideas from subordinates in management and business practices that contribute to corporate achievements. Furthermore, it neglects the fact that it is not possible to know the future nor it is predictable. Practical implications – The paper contends that the importance of top management tends to be inflated in respect to corporate achievements in the management/leadership literature. It also contends that it should be questioned as to whether the top management of corporations are largely responsible for the corporate results on which they attempt to justify their salaries and other benefits. Furthermore, the paper contends that it also should be questioned as to what extent corporate accomplishment may be derived from the performance of the top management in organizations. Originality/value – The paper strives to contribute to the ongoing discussion of leadership performance in corporate accomplishment in various ways. The principal contributions are: a set of teleological sub-processes of leadership performance and a case illustration and narrative analogies of teleological leadership performance patterns, in respect to corporate accomplishment in management and business practices. These contributions provide theoretical and managerial ideas and insights to anticipate and avoid deficient or erroneous grounds of leadership performance evaluation in corporate accomplishment.

  • 6097.
    Svensson, Göran
    et al.
    Oslo School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Wood, Greg
    Deakin University, Warrnambool, VIC, Australia.
    Singh, Jang B.
    University of Windsor, Windsor, ON, Canada.
    Carasco, Emily F.
    University of Windsor, Windsor, ON, Canada.
    Callaghan, Michael
    Deakin University, Warrnambool, VIC, Australia.
    Ethical Structures and Processes of Corporations Operating in Australia, Canada and Sweden: a Longitudinal and Cross-Cultural Study2009In: Journal of Business Ethics, ISSN 0167-4544, E-ISSN 1573-0697, Vol. 86, no 4, p. 485-506Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on the ‘Partnership Model of Corporate Ethics’ (Wood, 2002), this study examines the ethical structures and processes that are put in place by organizations to enhance the ethical business behavior of staff. The study examines the use of these structures and processes amongst the top companies in the three countries of Australia, Canada, and Sweden over two time periods (2001–2002 and 2005–2006). Subsequently, a combined comparative and longitudinal approach is applied in the study, which we contend is a unique approach in the area of business ethics. The findings of the study indicate that corporations operating in Sweden have utilized ethical structures and processes differently than their Canadian and/or Australian counterparts, and that in each culture the way that companies fashion their approach to business ethics appears congruent with their national cultural values. There does, however, appear to be a convergence of views within the organizations of each culture, as the Swedish companies appear to have been more influenced in 2005–2006 by an Anglo-Saxon business paradigm than they have been in the past.

  • 6098.
    Svensson, Göran
    et al.
    Oslo School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Wood, Greg
    Deakin University, Warrnambool, Australia.
    Singh, Jang
    University of Windsor, Windsor, Canada.
    Callaghan, Michael
    Deakin University, Warrnambool, Australia.
    Implementation, communication and benefits of corporate codes of ethics: an international and longitudinal approach for Australia, Canada and Sweden2009In: Business Ethics. A European Review, ISSN 0962-8770, E-ISSN 1467-8608, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 389-407Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the implementation, communication and benefits of corporate codes of ethics by the top companies operating in Australia, Canada and Sweden. It provides an international comparison across three continents. It is also based on a longitudinal approach where three national surveys were performed in 2001–2002 and replications of the same surveys were performed in 2005–2006. The empirical findings of this research show in all three countries that large organisations indicate a substantial interest in corporate codes of ethics. There are, however, differences in the ways that the companies in each country implement and communicate their corporate codes of ethics and the benefits that they see being derived from them. The longitudinal comparison between 2001–2002 and 2005–2006 indicates changes in the implementation, communication and benefits of corporate codes of ethics in the three countries.

  • 6099.
    Svensson, Göran
    et al.
    Oslo School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Wood, Greg
    School of Management and Marketing, Deakin University, Warrnambool, Vic., Australia.
    Singh, Jang
    Odette School of Business, University of Windsor, Windsor, ON, Canada.
    Payan, Janice M.
    Monfort College of Business, University of Northern Colorado, Greeley, CO, USA.
    Callaghan, Michael
    School of Management and Marketing, Deakin University, Warrnambool, Vic., Australia.
    The Embeddedness of Codes of Ethics in Organisations in Australia, Canada and USA2011In: Business Ethics. A European Review, ISSN 0962-8770, E-ISSN 1467-8608, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 405-417Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study is to test the embeddedness of codes of ethics (ECE) in organizations on aggregated data from three countries, namely Australia, Canada and the United States. The properties of four constructs of ECE are described and tested, including surveillance/training, internal communication, external communication and guidance. The data analysis shows that the model has satisfactory fit, validity and reliability. Furthermore, the results are fairly consistent when tested on each of the three samples (i.e. cross-national validation). This cross-national study makes a contribution beyond previous descriptive or exploratory studies by using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling. Nevertheless, a number of limitations are raised, all of which provide opportunities for further research in refining, extending and testing the proposed ECE model in other cultural and corporate settings. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  • 6100.
    Svensson, Göran
    et al.
    Oslo School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Wood, Gregory
    Deakin University, Geelong, Vic, Australia.
    Singh, Jang B.
    University of Windsor, Windsor, Canada.
    Callaghan, Michael
    Deakin University, Geelong, Vic, Australia.
    A cross-cultural construct of the ethos of the corporate codes of ethics: Australia, Canada and Sweden2009In: Business Ethics. A European Review, ISSN 0962-8770, E-ISSN 1467-8608, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 253-267Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this paper is to develop and describe a construct of the ethos of the corporate codes of ethics (i.e. an ECCE construct) across three countries, namely Australia, Canada and Sweden. The introduced construct is rather unique as it is based on a cross-cultural sample seldom seen in the literature. While the outcome of statistical analyses indicated a satisfactory factor solution and acceptable estimates of reliability measures, some research limitations have been stressed. They provide a foundation for further research in the. field and testing of the ECCE construct in other cultural and corporate settings. We believe that the ECCE construct makes a contribution to theory and practice in the. field as it outlines a theoretical construct for the benefit of other researchers. It is also of managerial interest as it provides a grounded framework of areas to be considered in the implementation in organizations of corporate codes of ethics.

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