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  • 51.
    Johnson, Urban
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI), Hälsa och idrott.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI), Hälsa och idrott.
    Managing injuries among young athletes2017Ingår i: Sport Psychology for young athletes / [ed] Camilla J. Knight, Chris G. Harwood, Daniel Gould, Abingdon: Routledge, 2017, s. 174-184Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 52.
    Johnson, Urban
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle (HOS), Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI).
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle (HOS), Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI).
    Otillräcklig återhämtning ökar skaderisken2010Ingår i: Svensk Idrottsmedicin, ISSN 1103-7652, Vol. 29, nr 1, s. 22-24Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 53.
    Johnson, Urban
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI).
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI).
    Psychological predictors of sport injuries among junior soccer players2011Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 21, nr 1, s. 129-136Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous researches have established models that specifypsychological factors that could predict sport injuries. One example is Williams and Andersen’s stress–injury modelstressing factors such as anxiety, negative life stress and few coping resources. The purpose of the current study was to find psychological factors that could lead to an increased injury risk among junior soccer players, in addition to construct an empirical model of injury risk factors for soccer players. The participants were 108 male and female soccer players (m = 17,6) studying at soccer high schools in southwest Sweden. Five questionnaires were used, State Trait Anxiety Inventory, Sport Anxiety Scale, Life Events Survey for Collegiate Athletes, Athletic Coping Skills Inventory-28 and Swedish universities Scales of Personality. Injury record was collected by athletic trainers at the schools during a period of 8 months. The result suggested four significant predictors that together could explain 23% of injury occurrence.The main factors are life event stress, somatic trait anxiety, mistrust and ineffective coping. These findings partly support Williams and Andersen’s stress–injury model and are organized into an empirical model. Recommendations are given to sport medicine teams and coaches concerning issues in sport injury prevention.

  • 54.
    Johnson, Urban
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI), Hälsa och idrott.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI), Hälsa och idrott.
    Psychosocial factors and sport injuries: prediction, prevention and future research directions2017Ingår i: Current Opinion in Psychology, ISSN 2352-250X, Vol. 16, s. 89-92Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This review provides an overview of recent theoretical and empirical developments regarding psychosocial factors related to the prediction and prevention of sport injuries, and highlights some of the most interesting areas of investigation that have been carried out in the past few years. For instance, a systematic review of the most cited and used theoretical framework in the field has recently been performed, which supports the model's suggestion that psychosocial variables, as well as psychologically based interventions, can influence injury risk among athletes. Based on substantial empirical evidence it is also shown that changes in stress and perceived recovery appear to predict injury occurrence in sport. Current studies, focusing on overuse injuries, also suggest that cultural norms and rules can be seen as factors that can indirectly influence the risk of becoming injured. Future research directions are presented such as the need for interdisciplinary injury prevention programs based on a combination of physiological and psychological interventions. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

  • 55.
    Johnson, Urban
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle (HOS), Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI).
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle (HOS), Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI).
    Stressors as Antecedents to Sport Injuries: A Psychological Perspective2013Ingår i: Advances in Psychology Research: Volume 97 / [ed] Alexandra M. Columbus, New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2013, s. 83-102Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 56.
    Johnson, Urban
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle (HOS), Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI).
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle (HOS), Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI).
    Stressors as antecedents to sport injuries: A psychological perspective2013Ingår i: Psychology of Injuries: Risk factors, perspectives andlong-term implications / [ed] Alexandra M. Columbus, New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2013, s. 88-102Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 57.
    Johnson, Urban
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI), Idrott, hälsa och fysisk aktivitet.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI), Idrott, hälsa och fysisk aktivitet.
    Karlsson, Jón
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden; University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Football Research Group, Linköping, Sweden.
    Hägglund, Martin
    Football Research Group, Linköping, Sweden & Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Waldén, Markus
    Football Research Group, Linköping, Sweden & Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Börjesson, Mats
    The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden & Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rehabilitation after first-time anterior cruciate ligament injury and reconstruction in female football players: a study of resilience factors2016Ingår i: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation, ISSN 2052-1847, Vol. 8, artikel-id 20Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Most of the research in the area of psychosocial factors in rehabilitation after sports injuries has focused on risk behaviors, while relatively few studies have focused on behaviors that facilitate rehabilitation. The objective of our study was to understand the psychosocial features that characterize elite female football players who express a resilient behaviour during rehabilitation after a first-time anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury and reconstruction.

    Methods

    A qualitative method was used based on individual in-person interviews and video communication of players who incurred a first-time ACL tear during the 2012 season of the Swedish Women’s Elite Football League. In total, 13 players had a first-time ACL and were interviewed post-season. The interviews were followed by a thematic content analysis. Based on this, eight players were identified as showing resilient behaviors during their rehabilitation and were included in the final analysis.

    Results

    Three core themes representing psychosocial factors that help players cope successfully with rehabilitation were identified: (I) constructive communication and rich interaction with significant others; (II) strong belief in the importance and efficacy of one’s own actions; and (III) the ability to set reasonable goals.

    Conclusions

    The findings suggest three core themes of psychosocial factors that characterize first-time ACL-injured elite female football players showing resilience during rehabilitation after ACL reconstruction. Suggestions for medical teams about ways to support communication, self-efficacy, and goal-setting during the rehabilitation process, are provided. © 2016 The Author(s).

  • 58.
    Johnson, Urban
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI), Idrott, hälsa och fysisk aktivitet.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI), Idrott, hälsa och fysisk aktivitet.
    Walden, Markus
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Ekstrand, Jan
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Hägglund, Martin
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Towards removing performance barriers: Prediction of burnout in female elite soccer players2013Ingår i: International Week of Sport Psychology FEPSAC: Conference Proceedings, May 18th-19th 2013, 2013, s. 24-24Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on the study by Stambulova and Johnson* from 2010 it is reported that applied sport psychology (ASP) literature reveals several publications on reflective practice and professional philosophies. Still, few studies focus how novice consultants make the first steps in their careers. The objective of this lecture is to discuss lessons learned by students during their one-year ASP education and supervised practice in Sweden. In total thirty-seven ASP students took part in the study. Information was gathered from the students' final reports on their six-month interventions with athlete clients. Four categories were created named professional tools, consultant & client relationship, learning process and experiences, and professional philosophy and organized into three levels reflecting the students' learning process with the shifts from analysis to synthesis and from concrete to more generalized and strategic lessons learned. In the lecture results are discussed using career development, scientist-practitioner and cultural sport psychology perspectives.

  • 59.
    Johnson, Urban
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI), Idrott, hälsa och fysisk aktivitet.
    Kenttä, Göran
    The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences (GIH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI), Idrott, hälsa och fysisk aktivitet.
    Alvmyren, Ingela
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd.
    Karlsson, Marcus
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd.
    An ultra-runner's experience of physical and emotional challenges during a 10-week continental run2016Ingår i: International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, ISSN 1612-197X, E-ISSN 1557-251X, Vol. 14, nr 1, s. 72-84Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate relationships between self-report measures such as mood state, emotional recovery, and perceived exertion for a runner during a continental run. Second, the purpose was to examine psychological factors that enable an ultra-distance runner during an event. A case study report from a 49-year-old female ultra-distance runner, running a 3641 kilometre adventure event during a 10-week period was made. Data were collected during 15 weeks with three self-report questionnaires – more specifically, an initial report 3 weeks prior to the run, a weekly report during the 10 weeks of running, and, finally, a report 2 weeks after the run. In addition, a follow-up narrative interview was performed nine months after the run was completed. The main result showed that perceived exertion level had a statistically significant negative relationship with negative mood and a positive statistically significant relationship with positive mood. Results also showed a statistically significant difference between the three measurement points based on the variable perceived exertion level. In addition, the runner's narration suggested four main categories of psychologically assisting attributes: motivation, group cohesiveness, self-awareness, and mental stamina. The findings highlight the complex balance between extreme physical load and feelings of comfort and elevated mood. Another finding is that the joint effect of different psychological factors – especially the runner's high self-awareness, strong-minded attitude, and ability to use humour in problematic situations – was helpful during the run. Practical and methodological implications, as well strategies for further research, are provided. © 2015 International Society of Sport Psychology

  • 60.
    Johnson, Urban
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI).
    Parker, James
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI).
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI).
    Andersen, Mark
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI).
    Svetoft, Ingrid
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL).
    Connection in the Fresh Air: A Study on the Benefits of Participation in an Electronic Tracking Outdoor Gym Exercise Programme2019Ingår i: Montenegrin Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, ISSN 1800-8755, E-ISSN 1800-8763, Vol. 8, nr 1, s. 61-67Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed to explore whether a six-week intervention, based on participation in outdoor exercise, including activity-tracking devices and combined with individual consulting sessions, can both increase physical activity and yield positive changes in physiological and psychological health measures. A total of six participants, with a mean age of 41.2 (range 33-50 years), completed the ten-week study and the six-week intervention. The full study consisted of a four-week control/baseline and a six-week intervention period in which each participant acted as their own controls. Continuous measures of physical activity data were collected using a wrist-worn activity sensor during the ten-week study, along with pre- and post-measures of cardiovascular fitness, upper-body strength, BMI, general health, and motivation to exercise. The intervention consisted of a resistance-training programme for an outdoor gym and three motivational interviewing sessions. Eff ect sizes (percentage) for changes pre- to post-training were calculated. The results, because of the small sample size, are presented as individual cases, but the group, as a whole, showed average increases from baseline (pre-) to post-measures in strength (maximum row; 15.33%), time to exhaustion (3.58%), number of steps per day (4%), and autonomous motivation (12%) and average decreases in body weight (-1.08%), fat percentage (-7.58%), strength (chest; -2.5%), and stress symptoms (-2.17%). Th e six-week intervention programme showed promising results regarding physical activity changes. This study contributes to the limited evidence of the impact of resistance training programmes using outdoor gyms, electronic tracker, and motivational interviewing on physical activity outcomes. © 2019 by the authors.

  • 61.
    Johnson, Urban
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI), Idrott, hälsa och fysisk aktivitet.
    Tranaeus, Ulrika
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI), Idrott, hälsa och fysisk aktivitet. Stockholm Sports Trauma Research Center, Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI), Idrott, hälsa och fysisk aktivitet. Department of Psychology, Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Current Status and Future Challenges in Psychological Research of Sport Injury Prediction and Prevention: A Methodological Perspective2014Ingår i: Revista de Psicología del Deporte, ISSN 1132-239X, Vol. 23, nr 2, s. 401-409Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this critical review was to propose methodological developments in sport injury prediction and prevention research. Altogether, 24 studies (e.g., quantitative, qualitative, and prevention intervention studies) conducted from 2006 forward were analysed, related to the “stress-injury model.” The injury prediction studies were mostly based on prospective designs, using regression analysis, and studied trait anxiety and life stress. The qualitative studies used mainly thematic analysis, and the intervention studies showed some promising effects, but also inconclusive results. We proposed five specific needs for future research: (a) focus on separate research cohorts, (b) variation in preventive intervention designs, including sound protocols conducting experimental studies, (c) focus on behaviours in relation to cognition, (d) application of repeated-measure designs, and (e) use of statistics that could test complex interactions and intraindividual differences. Future research attention should also be oriented towards the psychology of overuse injuries, biopsychosocial perspectives, and health economic evaluations. While progress has been made in research on psychological antecedents of sport injury, prevention, and intervention in the last 10-15 years, several methodological issues still remain to be further developed, as outlined in this article.

  • 62.
    Jordalen, Gro
    et al.
    Department of Coaching and Psychology, Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Norway.
    Lemyre, Pierre-Nicolas
    Department of Coaching and Psychology, Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Norway.
    Solstad, Bård E.
    Department of Coaching and Psychology, Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Norway.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI), Hälsa och idrott.
    The Role of Self-Control and Motivation on Exhaustion in Youth Athletes: A Longitudinal Perspective2018Ingår i: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 9, artikel-id 2449Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The depletion of self-control competencies has been explained by an external shift in motivation, and recent research has emphasized that controlled types of motivation and self-control competencies are positively associated with exhaustion in youth athletes. Using the self-determination theory and self-control theories, this study examined associations between athletes’ motivation, self-control competencies, and exhaustion experiences throughout a competitive season. A total of 321 winter sport youth athletes (173 males, 98 females, and 50 unknown gender; aged 16 to 20 years, M = 17.98, SD = 0.89) participated in this 10-week longitudinal study, including three time points. Using Bayesian structural equation modeling, associations between athletes’ reported level of motivation regulations, self-control, and exhaustion throughout their competitive season were examined in two mediation models. Constructs were associated in a conceptual and consistent manner. Simple mediation models showed credible indirect and direct effects of motivation on exhaustion via self-control within amotivation, and intrinsic, integrated, identified, and external regulation analyses. These credible effects were not replicated in the focused mediation model, when controlling for self-control and exhaustion autoregressive effects. However, direction of effects in both models was consistent and congruent. Findings consistently supported the interplay between motivation and exhaustion via self-control in youth athletes over an important competition period of the year. Autonomous and controlled motivation interacted with self-control and respectively predicted perceived exhaustion negatively and positively. Thus, autonomous self-control motives are important in preventing negative sport participation development over time. However, simple and focused mediation models showed different results, suggesting a necessity for accurate considerations of analytical methods chosen to investigate longitudinal mediation. Specifically, future studies need to carefully consider the time interval between measurement time points when investigating changes in dynamic psychological constructs, and include autoregressive longitudinal effects in order to predict change in levels of the outcome over time. © 2018 Jordalen, Lemyre, Solstad and Ivarsson.

  • 63.
    Josefsson, Karin Anna
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle (HOS), Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI).
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle (HOS), Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI).
    Exercise motivation and improvement of web based health promotion services2011Ingår i: Proceedings of the 13th FEPSAC European Congress of Sport Psychology, Madeira, Portugal: Sport and Exercise Psychology: Human Performance, Well-Being and Health / [ed] Sidónio Serpa, Nelson Teixeira, Maria Joao Almeida, AnotónioRosado, Madeira: Institute of Sport of the Autonomous Region of Madeira , 2011, s. 418-418Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of the study was to examine exercise behavior and motivation in customers of a web based exercise service institution. The study also aimed to derive implications for optimizing the web services regarding exercise motivation enhancement. The respondents (n=1262) were active members of www.tappa.se and data was collected through a web based survey containing a number of exercise oriented questionnaires; e.g. The Basic Psychological Needs in Exercise Scale, Barriers Self-Efficacy Scale, Physical Activity Stages of Change Questionnaire 2:1, The Behavioral Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire-2, etc. The results revealed respondents to have a generally self-determined motivation profile and to utilize goals focused on health management and image. Also, there were correlations between demographical aspects and several psychological variables. Conclusions involve recommendations to apply a theory foundation in the web service, preferably using self-determination, self-efficacy and stages of change references. Challenges in order to develop this kind of web service, as well as exercise promotion in general, are to reach Pre-contemplators, whom could be hard to reach. Furthermore, a refocus of the studied web service from weight control to health related aspects could have positive impact on motivation and could also attract more men. Regarding workplace health promotion, it is essential to invest in motivational and engagement supporting methods. Finally, it is generally recommended to use qualified exercise psychology competence in exercise promotion.

  • 64.
    Josefsson, Karin Anna
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle (HOS), Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI).
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle (HOS), Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI).
    Motivation till motion och utveckling av webbaserad hälsopromotion2010Ingår i: Årsbok (Svensk idrottspsykologisk förening), Örebro: Svensk idrottspsykologisk förening (SIPF) , 2010Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 65.
    Josefsson, Karin
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle (HOS), Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI).
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle (HOS), Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI), Idrott, hälsa och fysisk aktivitet.
    Rapportering av Projekt "Motionsbeteenden": Exercise motivation and improvement of web based health promotion services2010Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det övergripande syftet med projektet var att undersöka motionsbeteenden, målsättning och motivation till motion bland Tappas medlemmar. Ett delsyfte var att skapa underlag till implikationer för att kunna optimera webbtjänsten ur ett motivationsorienterat perspektiv. Deltagarna (n= 1262) var aktiva medlemmar i www.Tappa.se och datainsamling skedde i form av ett webbaserat frågeformulär bestående av flera motionsrelaterade instrument, bl.a The Basic Psychological Needs in Exercise Scale, Barriers Self-Efficacy Scale, Physical Activity Stages of Change Questionnaire 2:1, The Behavioral Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire-2, m.fl. Resultaten visade att Tappas medlemmar generellt har en självbestämmande motivationsprofil, att de vanligaste målsättningarna är kopplade till hälsohantering och utseende och att deltagarna inte upplever någon större förändring av faktorer som kondition, självkänsla och humör efter inträdet i Tappa. Vidare visar resultaten demografiska skillnader på flera undersökta variabler. Slutsatsen är att det sannolikt vore framgångsrikt att teoribasera Tappas verksamhet och tjänster, företrädesvis utifrån självbestämmande, självtillit och stegbaserad förändringsbenägenhet. I sin nuvarande form når Tappa sannolikt inte individer som befinner sig i förnekelsestadiet vilket är en utmaning för vidare utveckling av tjänsten, likväl som för motionsfrämjande verksamhet i allmänhet. En omfokusering av Tappas tjänster från viktkontroll till hälsoupplevelser och hälsoeffekter kan ha gynnsam inverkan på medlemmarnas motivation samt locka fler män till Tappa. För att framgångsrikt implementera motionsinterventioner på arbetsplatsen krävs strategiska satsningar på motivations- och engagemangsskapande metoder. Slutligen rekommenderas bruk av kvalificerad kompetens inom beteendevetenskap för motionsfrämjande insatser.

  • 66.
    Josefsson, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI), Hälsa och idrott.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI), Hälsa och idrott.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    Faculty of Health, Science, and Technology, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Tornberg, Rasmus
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI).
    Böröy, Jan
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI), Hälsa och idrott.
    Effects of Mindfulness-Acceptance-Commitment (MAC) on Sport-Specific Dispositional Mindfulness, Emotion Regulation, and Self-Rated Athletic Performance in a Multiple-Sport Population: an RCT Study2019Ingår i: Mindfulness, ISSN 1868-8527, E-ISSN 1868-8535, Vol. 10, nr 8, s. 1518-1529Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives

    The aim of the study was to examine mediating effects of emotion regulation and sport-specific dispositional mindfulness on self-rated athletic training performance, following the Mindfulness-Acceptance-Commitment (MAC) intervention, compared to a Psychological Skills Training (PST) control group.

    Methods

    Sixty-nine competitive elite athletes who did not have any prior experience with mindfulness- and acceptance-based exercises, were recruited and randomly assigned into either a MAC group or a traditional PST group. Latent growth curve analyses were performed to examine longitudinal relationships among the study variables. Mediation analyses were conducted to test if the growth trajectory of each of the proposed mediators mediated the relationship between the intervention and perceived performance (measured at T3).

    Results

    Findings showed that the MAC intervention had an indirect effect on self-rated athletic training performance through changes in dispositional mindfulness and emotion regulation respectively. Further, the MAC-group obtained greater post-test improvements in athletic mindfulness, emotion regulation abilities, and perceived performance compared to the PST group.

    Conclusions

    Overall, findings suggest that dispositional athletic mindfulness and emotion regulation may function as important mechanisms in MAC, and that the MAC approach is a more effective intervention compared to the PST condition in reducing emotion regulation difficulties, as well as enhancing sport-relevant mindfulness skills and perceived athletic training performance in elite sport.

  • 67.
    Josefsson, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI).
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI).
    Lindwall, Magnus
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Böröy, Jan
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd.
    Mattsson, Emil
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd.
    Carnebratt, Jakob
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd.
    Sevholt, Simon
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd.
    Falkevik, Emil
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd.
    Mindfulness Mechanisms in Sports: Mediating Effects of Rumination and Emotion Regulation on Sport-Specific Coping2017Ingår i: Mindfulness, ISSN 1868-8527, E-ISSN 1868-8535, Vol. 8, nr 5, s. 1354-1363Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of the project was to examine a proposed theoretical model of mindfulness mechanisms in sports. We conducted two studies (the first study using a cross-sectional design and the second a longitudinal design) to investigate if rumination and emotion regulation mediate the relation between dispositional mindfulness and sport-specific coping. Two hundred and forty-two young elite athletes, drawn from various sports, were recruited for the cross-sectional study. For the longitudinal study, 65 elite athletes were recruited. All analyses were performed using Bayesian statistics. The path analyses showed credible indirect effects of dispositional mindfulness on coping via rumination and emotion regulation in both the cross-sectional study and the longitudinal study. Additionally, the results in both studies showed credible direct effects of dispositional mindfulness on rumination and emotion regulation. Further, credible direct effects of emotion regulation as well as rumination on coping were also found in both studies. Our findings support the theoretical model, indicating that rumination and emotion regulation function as essential mechanisms in the relation between dispositional mindfulness and sport-specific coping skills. Increased dispositional mindfulness in competitive athletes (i.e. by practicing mindfulness) may lead to reductions in rumination, as well as an improved capacity to regulate negative emotions. By doing so, athletes may improve their sport-related coping skills, and thereby enhance athletic performance. © The Author(s) 2017.

  • 68.
    Josefsson, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI).
    Tornberg, Rasmus
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI).
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI).
    Practitioners’ reflections of working with the Mindfulness-Acceptance-Commitment (MAC) approach in team sport settingsIngår i: Journal of Sport Psychology in Action, ISSN 2152-0704, E-ISSN 2152-0712Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article was to describe the implementation of a team-based MAC intervention, and discuss important aspects to consider when implementing the MAC protocol in elite team sports. The MAC program contains seven modules in which core concepts such as mindfulness, acceptance, and values-driven behavior are being taught and practiced. We experienced conceptual as well as practical challenges in the application of the MAC protocol. A general recommendation in implementing MAC concepts and exercises for teams is to make the content of the program sport-specific.

  • 69.
    Kentää, Göran
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen för idrottspsykologi.
    Podlog, Leslie
    University of Utah, USA.
    Johnson, Urban
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI), Idrott, hälsa och fysisk aktivitet.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI), Idrott, hälsa och fysisk aktivitet.
    Athletic identity as a predictor of overtraining and injury among elite Swedish athletes2015Ingår i: Proceedings, 14th European Congress of Sport Psychology, 14-19 July 2015 in Bern, Switzerland / [ed] Schmid, Olivier; Seiler, Roland, Bern: University of Bern, Institut of Sport Science , 2015, s. 326-Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The overtraining syndrome (OTS) is a complex multidimensional construct encompassing alterations in biochemistry, physiology, and mental states. Evidence indicates that overtrained athletes are at an increased risk for outcomes such as injury and illness (Vetter & Symonds, 2010). Limited research however, has examined psychosocial factors associated with OTS. One psychosocial factor that has been linked to an increased likelihood of deleterious states such as burnout and injury is athletic identity (Black & Smith, 2007; Coakley, 1992). Given these findings, there is reason to believe that athletes who strongly identify with the athlete role may also be more susceptible to overtraining syndrome, which may in turn increase the risk for chronic injury. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between athletic identity, overtraining syndrome, and injury occurrence/frequency. To evaluate our study purposes, 628 Swedish athletes competing at the highest national level, completed a validated measure of athletic identity (AIMS; Brewer et al., 1993), a "training practice inventory" used in previous overtraining research (Kentta et al. 2001), and injury occurrence/frequency. Linear regression analyses revealed that athletic identity significantly predicted the physiological aspect of overtraining syndrome (β = 0.118, p = .003, adjusted R2 = .012), a greater likelihood of injury occurrence (β = 0.078, P = .05, adjusted R2 = .004), and a greater injury frequency (β = 0.119, P = .03, adjusted R2 = .013). Although the results are statistically significant, the shared variances between the variables are small (approx. 1%), suggesting caution in interpreting results from the present study. Our findings do however, provide a preliminary link between a high athletic identity, excessive training, and injury. Careful consideration by coaches and sport leaders should therefore be given in promoting too strong an identification with the athlete role.

  • 70.
    Kristiansen, Elsa
    et al.
    University of South-Eastern Norway, Notodden, Norway.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI), Hälsa och idrott.
    Solstad, Bård
    The Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway.
    Roberts, Glyn
    The Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway.
    Motivational processes affecting the perception of organizational and media stressors among professional football players: A longitudinal mixed methods research study2019Ingår i: Psychology of Sport And Exercise, ISSN 1469-0292, E-ISSN 1878-5476, Vol. 43, s. 172-182Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine professional football players’ perceptions of organizational and media stressors over a season using Achievement Goal Theory (AGT) as the overarching motivational framework. We elaborated upon the experience of the extant motivational climate and how playersperceived and coped with a number of organizational and media stressors during the season.

    Design: A mixed-methods approach was used in this longitudinal investigation with the quantitative testing of hypotheses (strand 1) complemented with interviews (strand II) exploring the perceptions of players of the target variables within their role in the team (captains, starters, and marginal players).

    Method: 27 players from one men's team in a Scandinavian Premier Division completed a series of questionnaires at ten occasions during the season. We used the Bayesian dynamic p-technique analysis to investigate the relationships between AGT constructs and stressors. At the end of the season, 11 players were interviewed. The qualitative data were coded and narratives were used when presenting the findings.

    Results: The quantitative results showed that a perceived mastery climate created by the coach was associated with low perceived magnitude of organizational stressors. The qualitative results revealed the main categories of organizational stressors were the selected line-up for games, injuries, and losing games. The results for media stressorsrevealed that task orientation was associated with low perceived magnitude of media stressors the following month, while ego orientation had the opposite relationship. The qualitative findings revealed that injured and marginal players were more sensitive to media questioning in a season where the team was acknowledged for their team performance.

    Conclusions: There are benefits of being task-involved through task orientation and perception of a mastery climate to combat the quantity, frequency, and/or intensity of the perception of organizational and media stressors in professional football. © 2019 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 71.
    Kristén, Lars
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI), Idrott, hälsa och fysisk aktivitet.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI), Idrott, hälsa och fysisk aktivitet.
    Parker, James
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI), Idrott, hälsa och fysisk aktivitet.
    Ziegert, Kristina
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI).
    Challenges for Intervention Research in Health and Lifestyle Research – A Systematic Meta-literature Review2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    Health and well-being are two concepts that are widely discussed within today’s society. A major perspective in health and lifestyle research is to investigate what determinants are associated with health. When it comes to the delivery of health interventions several different approaches have been suggested.

    Methods

    The meta-synthesis was chosen for synthesis of research studies using a health and lifestyle the review format and analyse meta-questions. The process included the following five phases:

    1. Literature search for articles.

    2. Selection of relevant articles after repeated reading and appraisal of the articles.

    3. Extraction of data from each article and creating a list of findings as key phrases, ideas and concepts for each individual study.

    4. Determining how the findings of the selected studies are related and translating findings into one another.

    5. Synthesizing the translations to produce a new theoretical interpretation.

    Results

    The search yielded a total of 561 unique citations and finally 24 citations remained. Of those 11 studies focused on health determinants, while 13 focused on interventions for health promotion. The meta-synthesis led to four recommendations for the design of future intervention studies. (1) scientific disciplines should collaborate in the design, implementation and evaluation of the study. (2) to use theoretical frameworks that focus on health determinants and to apply longitudinal studies with a repeated measures design.(3) involve behavioral interventions. (4) to design face-to-face intervention studies.

    Discussion

    Determinants was related to a physical active lifestyle, more specifically high quality school programs for physical education. It could be a starting point for a nationwide approach of daily physical activity in whole society. In all intervention studies physical activity behaviors were included as outcome or intervention program. It is therefore speculated that physical activity behavior could be discussed as one mediator between health determinants and health outcomes.

    References

    Bailey, R. (2006). Physical education and sport in schools: a review of benefits and outcomes. Journal of School Health, 76, 397-401.

    Dodge, R., Daly, A., Huyton, J., & Sanders, L. (2012). The challenge of defining wellbeing. International Journal of Wellbeing, 2, 222-235.

    Kahn, E. B., Ramsey, L. T., Brownson, R. C., Heath, G. W., Howze, E. H., Powell, K. E., & Corso, P. (2002). The effectiveness of interventions to increase physical activity: A systematic review. American journal of preventive medicine, 22, (4), 73-107.

    Paterson, B.L., Thorne, S., Canam, C., Jilings, C., (2001). Meta-Study of Qualitative Health Research: A Practical Guide to Meta-Analysis and Meta-Synthesis. Sage, Thousand Oaks,CA.

    Södergren, M. (2013). Lifestyle predictors of healthy ageing in men. Maturitas, 75, 113-117.

    Corresponding author email: Lars.Kristen@hh.se

  • 72.
    Kristén, Lars
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI), Idrott, hälsa och fysisk aktivitet.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI), Idrott, hälsa och fysisk aktivitet.
    Parker, James
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI), Idrott, hälsa och fysisk aktivitet.
    Ziegert, Kristina
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI), Hälsofrämjande processer.
    Future challenges for intervention research in health and lifestyle research: A systematic meta-literature review2015Ingår i: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, ISSN 1748-2623, E-ISSN 1748-2631, Vol. 10, artikel-id 27326Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of this systematic meta-literature review was to (1) summarize the findings of review studies focusing on health determinants, (2) give an overview of intervention studies that have been used to facilitate health and lifestyle, and (3) provide recommendations for future studies in health promotion. A literature review, using a meta-method, was conducted to identify health and lifestyle research based on research articles related to health changes. The search yielded a total of 561 unique citations and finally 24 citations remained. Of those, 11 studies focused on health determinants, whereas 13 focused on interventions for health promotion. Results from this meta-synthesis led to four recommendations for the design of future intervention studies. (1) To increase the likelihood of capturing different biopsychosocial aspects of health, researchers from different scientific disciplines should collaborate in the design, implementation, and evaluation of the study. (2) It is recommended to use theoretical frameworks that focus on health determinants in longitudinal studies with a repeated measures design. (3) Studies should involve behavioral interventions. (4) Design face-to-face intervention studies where the participant can interact with other persons.

  • 73.
    Leo, Francisco M.
    et al.
    Faculty of Teacher Training, University of Extremadura, Cáceres, Spain.
    González-Ponce, Inmaculada
    Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Extremadura, Cáceres, Spain.
    Sánchez-Miguel, Pedro A.
    Faculty of Teacher Training, University of Extremadura, Cáceres, Spain.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI).
    García-Calvo, Tomás
    Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Extremadura, Cáceres, Spain.
    Role Ambiguity, Role Conflict, Team Conflict, Cohesion and Collective Efficacy in Sport Teams: A Multilevel Analysis2015Ingår i: Psychology of Sport And Exercise, ISSN 1469-0292, E-ISSN 1878-5476, Vol. 20, s. 60-66Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines how perceptions of role ambiguity, role conflict, team conflict, and cohesion can predict collective efficacy in sports teams. The participants were professional female and male football players, who participated in the First and Second Divisions in Spain. We adopted a longitudinal perspective, taking measures at the beginning, the middle, and the end of a sport season. Multilevel modelling analysis showed that perceptions of team conflict and cohesion, at the interpersonal and interteam levels, can predict changes in collective efficacy. However, individual perceptions of role ambiguity and role conflict were not relevant in establishing a team’s confidence. These results suggest interesting practical applications for coaches and sports psychologists in the professional sphere. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 74.
    Li, Chunxiao
    et al.
    Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, Singapore.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI).
    Lam, Lawrence
    Faculty of Health, University of Technology Sydney, Australia & Tung Wah College, Hong Kong, Hong Kong.
    Sun, Jian
    Guangzhou Sport University, Guangzhou, China.
    Basic Psychological Needs Satisfaction and Frustration, Stress, and Sports Injury among University Athletes: A Four-Wave Prospective Survey2019Ingår i: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 10, artikel-id 665Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The prevalence of sports injury among athletes is rather high, suggesting the need to better understand the causes of sports injury, including the risk factors, for preventive purposes. Grounded in Basic Psychological Needs Theory (BPNT) and the Model of Stress and Athletic Injury, the aim of this four-wave prospective survey study was to investigate the relationships among basic psychological needs satisfaction and frustration, stress responses, and sports injury. Study variables, including basic psychological need satisfaction/frustration, and perceived stress, were measured using a survey from 112 university athletes at the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd months of the study. Sports injury was assessed using a self-report form at the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th months of study. Results of the Bayesian multilevel analysis showed that basic psychological need satisfaction negatively predicted sports injuries, whereas stress was a positive predictor. In addition, basic psychological need satisfaction had an indirect effect on injury occurrence via stress. However, basic psychological need frustration did not predict sports injury. BPNT is a viable model to provide additional explanations to psychological risk factors of injury. Intervention programs may be formulated based on the evidence obtained on the model. © 2019 Li, Ivarsson, Lam and Sun.

  • 75.
    Li, Chunxiao
    et al.
    The Education University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI), Hälsa och idrott.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI). Umeå Universitet, Umeå, Sweden.
    Wu, Yandan
    Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou, China.
    The dynamic interplay between burnout and sleep among elite blind soccer players2018Ingår i: Psychology of Sport And Exercise, ISSN 1469-0292, E-ISSN 1878-5476, Vol. 37, s. 164-169Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The dynamic pattern between burnout and sleep among athletes is unknown. This longitudinal survey examined the interplay between burnout and sleep among blind elite soccer players. China national blind soccer team players (n = 10) completed measures on burnout and sleep quality through interview at baseline (month 1), and followed at months 2, 3, 4, and 5. The results of dynamic p-technique analysis, using Bayesian estimation, showed a credible relationship between burnout and sleep quality. Also, burnout had a credible lagged effect on subsequent sleep quality whereas sleep quality did not have a credible lagged effect on burnout. The results suggest that burnout and sleep are not reciprocally related and burnout may be a risk factor of sleep problems among athletes. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 76.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI).
    Weman Josefsson, Karin
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI).
    Jonsson, Linus
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ntoumanis, Nikos
    Curtin University, Bentley, Western Australia, Australia.
    Patrick, Heather
    Envolve PeopleCare, Farmington, USA.
    Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Cecilie
    Curtin University, Bentley, Western Australia, Australia.
    Markland, David
    Bangor University, Bangor, United Kingdom.
    Teixeira, Pedro
    Technical University of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Stirring the motivational soup: within-person latent profiles of motivation in exercise2017Ingår i: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, ISSN 1479-5868, E-ISSN 1479-5868, Vol. 14, nr 4Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    The purpose of the present study was to use a person-oriented analytical approach to identify latent motivational profiles, based on the different behavioural regulations for exercise, and to examine differences in satisfaction of basic psychological needs (competence, autonomy and relatedness) and exercise behaviour across these motivational profiles.

    Methods

    Two samples, consisting of 1084 and 511 adults respectively, completed exercise-related measures of behavioural regulation and psychological need satisfaction as well as exercise behaviour. Latent profile analyses were used to identify motivational profiles.

    Results

    Six profiles, representing different combinations of regulations for exercise, were found to best represent data in both samples. Some profiles were found in both samples (e.g., low motivation profile, self-determined motivation profile and self-determined with high introjected regulation profile), whereas others were unique to each sample. In line with the Self-Determination Theory, individuals belonging to more self-determined profiles demonstrated higher scores on need satisfaction.

    Conclusions

    The results support the notions of motivation being a multidimensional construct and that people have different, sometimes competing, reasons for engaging in exercise. The benefits of using person-oriented analyses to examine within-person interactions of motivation and different regulations are discussed.

  • 77.
    Lundkvist, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; University of St Andrews, St Andrews, United Kingdom & Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Davis, Paul
    Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Holmström, Stefan
    Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Lemyre, Nicolas
    Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI), Hälsa och idrott.
    The temporal relations across burnout dimensions in athletes2018Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 28, nr 3, s. 1215-1226Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Burnout is a construct that has garnered considerable attention in sport psychology within recent years. Several hypothesized models regarding how the three dimen-sions (exhaustion, devaluation, and reduced sense of accomplishment) temporally relate to each other have been advanced. One proposal outlined by Maslach and Leiter suggests that exhaustion predicts devaluation which predicts reduced sense of accomplishment. However, there is no consensus among researchers as it has been argued that exhaustion predicts devaluation and reduced accomplishment separately. The aim of this study was to test multiple alternative hypotheses regarding the rela-tionships of the burnout dimensions in athletes. Two samples of Swedish youth elite athletes with differing time spans between measurements were used. Specifically, one sample involved time- intensive measures collected every week over an eight- week period, and the other sample included four measurement points across an 18- month period. Results showed that none of the previously proposed models outlining the temporal relations of burnout dimensions were supported. Statistical analysis of the models including the cross- lagged predictions of dimensions did not have any statistically significant impact except when exhaustion negatively predicted devalu-ation between time 1 (month 0) and time 2 (month 6) in the 18- month sample; this relation faded in the following time points. Further, issues regarding the stability of devaluation and reduced sense of accomplishment emerged as their autocorrelation were very weak in the time- intensive sample. These findings raise a number of points for further theoretical and practical discussions about the athlete burnout construct. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  • 78.
    Nylandsted Jensen, Stine
    et al.
    Copenhagen Centre of Team Sport and Health, Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, University of Copenhagen, Denmark, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI), Hälsa och idrott.
    Fallby, Johan
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI).
    Dankers, Silke
    Copenhagen Centre of Team Sport and Health, Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, University of Copenhagen, Denmark, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Elbe, Anne-Marie
    Leipzig University, Leipzig, Germany.
    Depression in Danish and Swedish elite football players and its relation to perfectionism and anxiety2018Ingår i: Psychology of Sport And Exercise, ISSN 1469-0292, E-ISSN 1878-5476, Vol. 36, s. 147-155Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the relation of perfectionism and anxiety to depressive symptoms in Danish and Swedish male elite football players. Additionally, the relationship between age and the study variables, and differences between elite junior and professional players were examined. Design and Methods. A cross-sectional design was used to survey 323 A-squad and U19 players (M age = 22.08 years, SD = 5.15). The survey included biographical information as well as measures of depressive symptoms, perfectionism (strivings and concerns), competitive anxiety, and social phobia. Results. Results revealed an overall prevalence rate for depressive symptoms among the participants of 16.7%. Moreover, correlation analyses showed evidence of the relationships between depression and perfectionistic concerns, competitive anxiety and social phobia. The results of a mediation analysis demonstrated that there was a positive indirect effect of perfectionistic concerns on depression via competitive anxiety. Significant negative correlations between age and anxiety, social phobia, and perfectionistic concerns were found. Depression, however, was not significantly correlated with age even though elite junior players’ depression levels were significantly higher than those of professional players and they showed higher levels in competitive anxiety and social phobia. Conclusions. Findings of the study indicate that more awareness of mental health in elite football is needed, and that the investigated psychological factors may be a starting point for establishing preventive programs and supportive interventions for footballers suffering from depressive symptoms. © 2018 Elsevier Ltd

  • 79.
    Nylandsted Jensen, Stine
    et al.
    Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI), Hälsa och idrott.
    Fallby, Johan
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI).
    Elbe, Anne-Marie
    Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Gambling behaviours among Danish and Swedish elite football players2019Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology, ISSN 1932-9261, Vol. 13, nr 1, s. 95-102Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated gambling among Danish and Swedish male elite football players. A cross-sectional design was used to survey 323 players (Mage = 22.08, SD = 5.15). The survey included a screening tool for gambling, as well as measures for depression and sport anxiety. The overall rate of players identified as at-risk gamblers was 16.1%. Linear regression analyses revealed that depression and sport anxiety significantly predicted gambling behaviours, and explained 2% and 6% of variance, respectively. The age of the players and the age at which they specialize did not moderate these relationships. Further research on gambling in football and its relation to mental disorders is needed.

  • 80.
    Parker, James
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS). Scandinavian College of Sport, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hellström, John
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap. Swedish Golf Federation, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI).
    Johnson, Urban
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI).
    Olsson, Charlotte
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS).
    The Variability in Kinematics and Carry in a Longitudinal Intra-individual Study of Elite Golfers2016Ingår i: Abstracts: July 18-22, 2016, 2016, s. 47-48Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To hit further and with high accuracy is important for success in the long game in golf. Even for very accomplished golfers a certain degree of between shot variance is evident even when trying to consistently repeat a successful shot. The consistency is determined by the biomechanics of the golfer, which influences club head speed (CHS) and position, and initial ball launch conditions, which in combination with environmental factors determine shot outcome. Previous research has identified several biomechanical variables associated with variance in CHS, including thorax rotation speed  and lead arm speed (LAS). Pilot data from our laboratory have indicated moderate non-significant relationship between CHS and carry in elite male golfers when studied over time. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore the relationship between peak speed of the pelvis, thorax, and lead upper arm and carry over time, investigating both within and between session variability in elite male golfers.

    Methods: Six elite male golfers (handicap range -3 to +0.5) (age range 21-23 years) were included in this study. The golfers were studied on four separate occasions over a year.  Each test occasion included a golf specific warm-up of the golfers’ choice, then subjects were instructed to hit five balls with their driver and use the swing that was as ‘normal ‘as possible. Data on swing kinematics was collected using a four sensor electromagnetic motion capture system at 120Hz (Polhemus Inc. USA). Nine landmarks were digitized to define segment lengths, orientations and joint axes. CHS and carry were collected using a launch monitor (Trackman3e, v.3.2, Trackman, Denmark). The swing events were determined from sensors on the club; top of backswing was determined when the club changes direction from backswing to downswing. Impact was determined when the clubhead reaches the horizontal position equivalent to where it was at address. Angular velocities and displacements of the pelvis, thorax, and lead arm were calculated using standard biomechanics principles in conjunction with advanced motion measurement software (AMM 3D, USA). No data smoothing techniques were used before data analysis. IBM SPSS v.22 was used to analyse the data through hierarchical multilevel modelling (MLM). First a baseline model without predictors was run, then MLM was repeated with predictors where the first level of the data contained carry and kinematic data from each shot (within session level). At the second level, the carry scores were nested within sessions and analysed between sessions. Lastly, at the third level, the sessions were nested within players (between players). Carry was used as outcome variable and kinematics as predictor variables with a probability level of 0.05.

    Results: Initially MLM baseline model for carry only, was tested) without predictors. The results showed a statistical significant intercept (Estimate = 226.24, p<.001). Intraclass correlations (ICC) suggested that 32.5% of the variance in carry were present within sessions (level 1), whilst 38.0% were attributed to differences in carry between sessions (level 2). Results from the second MLM generated an improved model fit (-2 LL & BIC) where peak speeds of the pelvis, thorax, and lead upper arm were included as fixed effect covariates on level 1. The result showed that peak LAS was a statistically significant predictor of carry (β=.17, p=.001) whereas peek speed of neither thorax (β=-.04, p=.364) nor pelvis (β=.02, p=.673) had any statistically significant relationship with carry.

    Discussion: The present study found that 32.5% of variation in shot consistency can be explained at the within session level (influenced by for example variance in centeredness of impact), and 38% of variation in shot consistency can be explained at the between session level (influenced by for example environmental factors). Furthermore, LAS was the only significant predictor of within session variance in carry. Our results indicated peak LAS speed as a predictor of within session variance in carry and this is partly supported by previous research who found golfers with higher arm speed had higher ball velocity than golfers with lower arm speed(Healy et al., 2011). However, results from our pilot study differ from previous research which reports a relationship between peak thorax speed and driver performance. The difference could be due to our results being based on longitudinal data at intra-individual level, whereas previous studies have used a cross-sectional study design, different analysis methods and reported at an inter-individual level. In conclusion, our preliminary data show that within session LAS is a predictor of carry distance when the objective is shot consistency. Practitioners may consider training strategies to optimize arm speed when improve driving consistency among elite golfers. 

    References

    Healy, A., Moran, K. A., Dickson, J., Hurley, C., Smeaton, A. F., O'Connor, N. E., . . . Chockalingam, N. (2011). Analysis of the 5 iron golf swing when hitting for maximum distance. Journal of sports sciences, 29(10), 1079-1088. 

  • 81.
    Parker, James
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS). Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI), Hälsa och idrott.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI), Hälsa och idrott.
    Johnson, Urban
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI), Hälsa och idrott.
    Svetoft, Ingrid
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL).
    Andersen, Mark
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI), Hälsa och idrott.
    Schough, Camilla
    Eleiko Sports AB, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Blomberg, Erik
    Eleiko Sports AB, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Viberg, Erik
    Swedish Adrenaline, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Bärwald, Anton
    Swedish Adrenaline, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Warpman, Sofia
    Halmstad Municipality, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Is self-determined motivation associated with the effects of an intervention aimed to increase physical activity and exercise levels? An 80-day follow-up2019Ingår i: Abstract book for the ISBNPA 2019 Annual Meeting in Prague, International Society of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity , 2019, s. 488-488Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: State-of-the-art technologies, for instance smart watches and smartphones, have the potential to positively influence physical activity and exercise in sedentary populations. Psychological factors, such as self-determined (SD) motivation, might influence the impact state-of-the-art technologies have on level of physical activity and exercise. The aim of this study was to investigate if self-determined motivation influences an intervention on both physical activity (PA) and exercise in a sedentary population.

    Methods: 16 participants (men = 5, women = 11) with a self-reported low level of PA over the last year and predominantly sedentary jobs volunteered to participate in the study. PA data (steps and exercise time) were collected over an 80-day period using a wrist-worn accelerometer (Apple-watch and iPhone). Motivation was measured with the Behavioral Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire-2. At the start of the study, each participant completed the questionnaire and received their Apple-watches. Data analysis: All PA and exercise data were recorded through the Apple-watch and via Health App. Data for PA (steps) and exercise time were then extracted and aggregated to daily totals. Statistical analysis: Group means and standard deviations were calculated. A linear regression analysis was used to analyze the relationship between exercise time, PA, and SD, the R2 value effect size (ES) was used to estimate the magnitude of the differences. All data analyses were performed in MatLab (software, R2016b).

    Results/findings: SD motivation (3.9±0.9) had a medium (R2 = 0.09) but not statistically significant (p = .26) effect on the amount of moderate to high-intensity exercise time (33.3±39.6 minutes) during the 80-day period. There was no statistically significant effect (R2 = 0.003, p = .84) of SD on PA (12953±7717 steps).

    Conclusions: Given the small sample size, achieving a medium effect size has meaningful significance despite not achieving statistical significance. This result suggests that self-determined motivation effects the amount of daily exercise but not PA in a sedentary population. Combining technology and other strategies (e.g., motivational interviewing, coaching) to promote behavior change is promising, and these interventions should include theoretically derived behavior change techniques and take level of SD motivation into account.

  • 82.
    Parker, James
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS).
    Johnson, Urban
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI).
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI).
    Is perceived autonomy support provided by a coach related to the frequency of injury preventative behavior among elite golfers?2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Research has shown that perceived autonomy support can have an indirect effect on behaviors via autonomous motivation (Hagger & Chatzisarantis, 2015). This indirect effect has, for example, been found in relation to injury preventive behaviors within sport (Chan & Hagger, 2012). Overuse and acute injuries are a common problem among golfers (McHardy & Pollard, 2005) and exploring factors that might increase the frequency of preventive behaviors is warranted. The aim of the study was to investigate if perceived autonomy support from the coach has an indirect effect on the self-reported frequency of injury preventive behaviors via the level of autonomous motivation. A total of 59 elite golfers, (handicap M=-1.2, SD=4.9, age M=21, SD=5.5), completed a questionnaire with questions related to autonomy support from the coach, autonomous motivation for injury prevention, and the frequency of five injury preventive behaviors (e.g., how often do you ask for advice about injury preventive exercises, how often to you train to improve your physiological status). A mediation analysis, using Hayes (2012) process macro in SPSS 20.0, was performed. The results showed that perceived autonomy support and autonomous motivation could explain 45% of the variance in the frequency of preventive behaviors, F (1,56) = 22.71, p < .001. The result showed that perceived autonomy support had a statistically significant positive indirect effect on the frequency of preventive behaviors via autonomous motivation (ab = .16, 95% CI = 0.05-0.34, p<.05). Based on the results, coaches should consider giving feedback that supports autonomous motivation among golfers when aiming to encourage injury preventative behavior. Injury prevention programs should include strategies to improve the athlete’s autonomous motivation to carry out preventive activities. Future research should investigate the relationship between estimated and the objective frequency of injury prevention behavior. 

  • 83.
    Pensgaard, Anne Marte
    et al.
    Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI), Hälsa och idrott.
    Nilstad, Agnethe
    Oslo Sports Trauma Research Center, Norwegian School of Sports Sciences, Oslo, Norway.
    Solstad, Bård
    Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway.
    Steffen, Kathrin
    Oslo Sports Trauma Research Center, Norwegian School of Sports Sciences, Oslo, Norway.
    Psychosocial stress factors, including the relationship with the coach, and their influence on acute and overuse injury risk in elite female football players2018Ingår i: BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine, ISSN 2055-7647, Vol. 4, nr 1, artikel-id e000317Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The relationship between specific types of stressors (eg, teammates, coach) and acute versus overuse injuries is not well understood.

    Objective: To examine the roles of different types of stressors as well as the effect of motivational climate on the occurrence of acute and overuse injuries.

    Methods: Players in the Norwegian elite female football league (n=193 players from 12 teams) participated in baseline screening tests prior to the 2009 competitive football season. As part of the screening, we included the Life Event Survey for Collegiate Athletes and the Perceived Motivational Climate in Sport Questionnaire (Norwegian short version). Acute and overuse time-loss injuries and exposure to training and matches were recorded prospectively in the football season using weekly text messaging. Data were analysed with Bayesian logistic regression analyses.

    Results: Using Bayesian logistic regression analyses, we showed that perceived negative life event stress from teammates was associated with an increased risk of acute injuries (OR=1.23, 95% credibility interval (1.01 to 1.48)). There was a credible positive association between perceived negative life event stress from the coach and the risk of overuse injuries (OR=1.21, 95% credibility interval (1.01 to 1.45)).

    Conclusions: Players who report teammates as a source of stress have a greater risk of sustaining an acute injury, while players reporting the coach as a source of stress are at greater risk of sustaining an overuse injury. Motivational climate did not relate to increased injury occurrence. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved.

  • 84.
    Solstad, Bård Erlend
    et al.
    Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway.
    Larsen, Torill Marie Bogsnes
    University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
    Holsen, Ingrid
    University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI), Hälsa och idrott.
    Ronglan, Lars Tore
    Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway.
    Ommundsen, Yngvar
    Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway.
    Pre- to post-season differences in empowering and disempowering behaviours among youth football coaches: a sequential mixed-methods study2018Ingår i: Sport Coaching Review, ISSN 2164-0629, Vol. 7, nr 2, s. 113-141Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate differences in self-reported behaviours among youth football (i.e. European soccer) coaches from pre- to post-season, and additionally, their evaluative reactions to participation in the Norwegian arm of the Empowering Coaching™Training Programme (ECTP). A total of 193 coaches (174 males; 19 females; M = 41.99; SD = 6.32) completed a questionnaire concerning their use of empowering and disempowering behaviours at the beginning and end of the sport season. Moreover, 12 of these coaches (10 males; 2 females; M = 41.67; SD = 5.68) were interviewed at the end of the sport season using semi-structured interviews. Whereas coaches’ empowering and disempowering behaviours did not differ from pre- to post-season, post-season interviews showed that participation in the ECTP led coaches to reflect on their coaching practises, facilitating an increased focus on enabling autonomy and involvement for the athletes and more attention paid to the athletes’ feelings of mastery. © 2017 informa UK Limited, trading as taylor & Francis group

  • 85. Solstad, Bård
    et al.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI).
    Haug, Ellen
    Ommundsen, Yngvar
    Providing empowering and disempowering coach behaviors to young athletes: Effects of coaches' late-season well-beingIngår i: International Sport Coaching Journal, ISSN 2328-918X, E-ISSN 2328-9198Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 86.
    Stenling, Andreas
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI), Hälsa och idrott.
    Hassmén, Peter
    School of Health and Human Sciences, Southern Cross University, Coffs Harbour, Australia.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Department of Psychology & Department of Food and Nutrition, and Sport Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Longitudinal associations between athletes’ controlled motivation, ill-being, and perceptions of controlling coach behaviors: A Bayesian latent growth curve approach2017Ingår i: Psychology of Sport And Exercise, ISSN 1469-0292, E-ISSN 1878-5476, Vol. 30, s. 205-214Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Although many scholars have argued that leadership is a dynamic process jointly produced by leaders and followers, leadership in sports is most often researched as a unidirectional process from coaches to athletes. Within self-determination theory (SDT), individual characteristics are suggested to influence how people perceive external events such as coaches' behaviors. In the present study, we examined this jointly produced leadership process by investigating longitudinal associations between athletes' controlled motivation, ill-being, and perceptions of coaches' controlling behaviors at the between- and within-person levels. The participants were 247 young elite skiers enrolled at Swedish sport high schools who responded to self-report questionnaires at three time points over the course of an athletic season. At the between-person level, increases in perceptions of coaches' controlling behaviors over the season positively predicted controlled motivation at the end of the season, and controlled motivation at the beginning of the season positively predicted ill-being at the end of the season. At the within-person level, athletes' controlled motivation positively predicted perceptions of coaches’ controlling behaviors. The results at the between-person level support the unidirectional perspective and the tenets of SDT. The results at the within-person level suggest that individual characteristics such as motivation can influence how athletes perceive external events, which has been proposed theoretically but seldom examined empirically. Three plausible explanations for this reversed association are presented in the discussion.

  • 87.
    Stenling, Andreas
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI), Idrott, hälsa och fysisk aktivitet.
    Hassmén, Peter
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden & Research Institute for Sport and Exercise, Faculty of Health, University of Canberra, Canberra, Australia.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden & Department of Food and Nutrition, and Sport Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Using bifactor exploratory structural equation modeling to examine global and specific factors in measures of sports coaches' interpersonal styles2015Ingår i: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 6, artikel-id 1303Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present work we investigated distinct sources of construct-relevant psychometric multidimensionality in two sport-specific measures of coaches’ need-supportive (ISS-C) and controlling interpersonal (CCBS) styles. A recently proposed bifactor exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) framework was employed to achieve this aim. In Study 1, using a sample of floorball players, the results indicated that the ISS-C can be considered as a unidimensional measure, with one global factor explaining most of the variance in the items. In Study 2, using a sample of male ice hockey players, the results indicated that the items in the CCBS are represented by both a general factor and specific factors, but the subscales differ with regard to the amount of variance in the items accounted for by the general and specific factors. These results add further insight into the psychometric properties of these two measures and the dimensionality of these two constructs.

  • 88.
    Stenling, Andreas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI), Idrott, hälsa och fysisk aktivitet. Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Johnson, Urban
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI), Idrott, hälsa och fysisk aktivitet.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bayesian Structural Equation Modeling in Sport and Exercise Psychology2015Ingår i: Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology (JSEP), ISSN 0895-2779, E-ISSN 1543-2904, Vol. 37, s. 410-420Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Bayesian statistics is on the rise in mainstream psychology, but applications in sport and exercise psychology research are scarce. In this article, the foundations of Bayesian analysis are introduced, and we will illustrate how to apply Bayesian structural equation modeling in a sport and exercise psychology setting. More specifically, we contrasted a confirmatory factor analysis on the Sport Motivation Scale II estimated with the most commonly used estimator, maximum likelihood, and a Bayesian approach with weakly informative priors for cross-loadings and correlated residuals. The results indicated that the model with Bayesian estimation and weakly informative priors provided a good fit to the data, whereas the model estimated with a maximum likelihood estimator did not produce a well-fitting model. The reasons for this discrepancy between maximum likelihood and Bayesian estimation are discussed as well as potential advantages and caveats with the Bayesian approach. © 2015 Human Kinetics, Inc.

  • 89.
    Stenling, Andreas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI), Idrott, hälsa och fysisk aktivitet.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Cross-lagged structural equation modeling and latent growth modeling2016Ingår i: An Introduction to Intermediate and Advanced Statistical Analyses for Sport and Exercise Scientists / [ed] Nikos Ntoumanis & Nicholas D. Myers, Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, 2016, 1, s. 131-154Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 90.
    Stenling, Andreas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI).
    Lindwall, Magnus
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    The only constant is change: analysing and understanding change in sport and exercise psychology research2017Ingår i: International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology, ISSN 1750-984X, E-ISSN 1750-9858, Vol. 10, nr 1, s. 230-251Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability to examine within-person change is essential to test process-based theories in sport and exercise psychology. Longitudinal data, whether experimental or observational, are prerequisites to be able to examine change processes, but most longitudinal studies in sport and exercise psychology focus solely on between-person/group differences, not on within-person change. In this review, we (1) provide researchers in the sport and exercise psychology field with a framework for longitudinal research that focuses on within-person change; (2) provide an overview of how researchers in sport and exercise psychology currently analyse longitudinal data, which showed that most longitudinal studies focus on between-person/group differences; and (3) provide examples of statistical models for analysing longitudinal data that correspond to the framework for longitudinal research. In the examples, we focus on latent variable modelling, such as latent growth-curve modelling and latent change-score modelling, which capture within-person change. We argue that there is a need for stronger emphasis on the match among theory of change, temporal design, and statistical models when designing longitudinal studies in sport and exercise psychology. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group

  • 91.
    Stenling, Andreas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden & University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand & University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI), Hälsa och idrott.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Gucciardi, Daniel F.
    Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Exploring longitudinal measurement invariance and the continuum hypothesis in the Swedish version of the Behavioral Regulation in Sport Questionnaire (BRSQ): An exploratory structural equation modeling approach2018Ingår i: Psychology of Sport And Exercise, ISSN 1469-0292, E-ISSN 1878-5476, Vol. 36, s. 187-196Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives

    The aims of the present study were to: (a) examine longitudinal measurement invariance in the Swedish version of the Behavioral Regulations in Sport Questionnaire (BRSQ) and (b) examine the continuum hypothesis of motivation as postulated within self-determination theory.

    Design

    Two-wave survey.

    Method

    Young competitive athletes (N = 354) responded to the BRSQ early in the season (November) and at the end of the athletic season (April). Data were analyzed using exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) and bifactor ESEM.

    Results

    We found support for strict longitudinal measurement invariance in the BRSQ. Latent mean comparisons showed an increase in external regulation and amotivation across the season. The latent factor correlations indicated some deviations from a simplex pattern related to amotivation, external regulation, and introjected regulation. In the bifactor model, intrinsic motivation items had negative factor loadings on the global factor, identified regulation items had factor loadings approaching zero, and introjected and external regulation and amotivation items all had moderate to strong positive factor loadings.

    Conclusion

    The present study adds longitudinal measurement invariance to the psychometric evidence of the BRSQ. Research on why the latent means of the behavioral regulations changed over the athletic season is warranted. The continuum hypothesis was partially supported. Latent factor correlations and factor loadings on the global factor in the bifactor ESEM highlighted that the discriminant validity of the controlled regulations and amotivation needs further investigation. © 2018 Elsevier Ltd

  • 92.
    Tranaeus, Ulrika
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI). Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI), Idrott, hälsa och fysisk aktivitet.
    Johnson, Urban
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI), Idrott, hälsa och fysisk aktivitet.
    Do psychological based intervention programs prevent sport injuries to occur?2015Ingår i: Proceedings: 14th European Congress of Sport Psychology, 14-19 July 2015 in Bern, Switzerland / [ed] Olivier Schmid, Roland Seiler, Annemarie Schumacher Dimech & André Klostermann, Bern: University of Bern , 2015, s. 174-174Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 93.
    Tranaeus, Ulrika
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI), Idrott, hälsa och fysisk aktivitet. Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI), Idrott, hälsa och fysisk aktivitet.
    Johnson, Urban
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI), Idrott, hälsa och fysisk aktivitet.
    Evaluation of the effects of psychological prevention interventions on sport injuries: A meta-analysis2015Ingår i: Science & sports, ISSN 0765-1597, E-ISSN 1778-4131, Vol. 30, nr 6, s. 305-313Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives

    The purpose was to conduct a systematic review of published articles aiming to prevent sports injuries based on psychological interventions and to perform a meta-analysis of the effects in such interventions.

    News

    Different kinds of sport injury prevention strategies have been accomplished such as neuromuscular and warm-up programs. More recently, psychological intervention studies have been completed with the purpose of preventing sports injuries. The most evident predictor is stress. Consequently, most psychological injury prevention interventions incorporate stress management and other psychological skills training.

    Prospect and projects

    The electronic databases and suitable sport psychology journals were searched for published studies. Out of 560 screened articles, 15 were potentially eligible articles. Seven of these articles, with substantial information in the papers or the authors were able to provide us with data after request, were finally included.

    Conclusion

    The result, using a random effect model, showed a total Hedges’ g effect size of 0.82 (< .001), 95% CI (0.55–1.11). The result indicates that psychological injury prevention interventions have a large effect on reducing the number of injuries in sport population. © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS.

  • 94.
    Tranaeus, Ulrika
    et al.
    Performance and Training, The Swedish School of Sport and Health, Stockholm, Sweden & Musculoskeletal & Sports Injury Epidemiology Center, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI), Hälsa och idrott.
    Johnson, Urban
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI), Hälsa och idrott.
    Stress and injuries in elite sport2018Ingår i: Handbuch Stressregulation und Sport / [ed] Reinhard Fuchs, Markus Gerber, Berlin: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2018, s. 451-466Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The chapter begins with an overview of research on psychological risk factors, “predictors”, for injury outcome focusing on competitive and elite sport populations. Based on this presentation, a summary of psychological studies with a special attention on prevention of injury outcome will be highlighted. The final part of the chapter sets the rehabilitation phase in the centre, specifically emphasising personal and situational factors influencing athletes’ injury reactions including return to sport aspects. © 2017 Springer International Publishing AG

  • 95.
    Tranaeus, Ulrika
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI), Idrott, hälsa och fysisk aktivitet. Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Stockholm Sports Trauma Research Center, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden & Capio Artro Clinic, Sophiahemmet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Johnson, Urban
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI), Idrott, hälsa och fysisk aktivitet.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI), Idrott, hälsa och fysisk aktivitet.
    Engström, Björn
    Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Stockholm Sports Trauma Research Center, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden & Capio Artro Clinic, Sophiahemmet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Skillgate, Eva
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden & Scandinavian College of Naprapathic Manual Medicine, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Werner, Suzanne
    Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Stockholm Sports Trauma Research Center, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden & Capio Artro Clinic, Sophiahemmet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sports injury prevention in Swedish elite floorball players: evaluation of two consecutive floorball seasons2015Ingår i: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy, ISSN 0942-2056, E-ISSN 1433-7347, Vol. 23, nr 3, s. 899-905Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of a psychological group-based injury prevention, which was implemented throughout the first season, after the second season, in Swedish elite floorball teams (males and females). The secondary objective was to evaluate the effect of the intervention over the two consecutive floorball seasons as a whole.

    Methods

    Twenty-three teams in the premier leagues for males and females volunteered and were allocated to an intervention group, n = 175 players, and a control group n = 171 players. The intervention group participated in psychological skills training during the first season. The control group did not receive any alternative treatment. Neither of the groups received any intervention during the second season. All injuries were registered and documented according to time-loss definition and classified into either traumatic or overuse injuries.

    Results

    Ninety-three players (27 %) sustained 119 injuries during the second season. The intervention group 0.31 (95 % CI 0.22–0.39) and the control group 0.41 (95 % CI 0.29–0.53) injuries/player. The injury incidence decreased in the intervention group and was lower than the control group. The analysis showed no statistical differences when comparing the intervention group and the control group neither after the second season nor after the two seasons together, Cohen’s d 0.2.

    Conclusion

    This group-based training showed a small effect size after the second year resulting in fewer injuries, especially severe injuries, in the intervention group compared to the control group. It is, therefore, important not to overlook the potential of a group-based psychological injury prevention programme.

    Level of incidence: II.

    © 2014, European Society of Sports Traumatology, Knee Surgery, Arthroscopy (ESSKA).

  • 96.
    Weman Josefsson, Karin
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI).
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI).
    Johnson, Urban
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI).
    Lindwall, Magnus
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Effects of a digital intervention program on motivational regulation patterns in an exercise context: A latent transition analysis of the “motivational soup”2017Ingår i: Sport Psychology: Linking theory to practice: Proceedings of the XIV ISSP World Congress of Sport Psychology / [ed] Gangyan, S., Cruz, J. & Jaenes, J.C., Sevilla: International Society of Sport Psychology , 2017, s. 319-320Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the self-determination theory of motivation the concept “motivational soup” refers to motivational regulations forming profiles of accumulated drives towards behavior. Few studies have examined the probability of intervention effects to change such motivational profiles over time, knowledge that might inform future program design to promote sustainable exercise motivation. Participants (N=318) were 279 women and 40 men, aged 23-67 years (Mage=46.7; SD=9.4) consisting of adult members of a web-based step contest provided by their employers. Of the 166 individuals randomly assigned to the experimental group, 85 logged in to the digital intervention platform at least once and were considered treated as intended. This group had access to a web-based digital exercise motivation intervention based on SDT for three weeks. The trial had three measure points; T1 baseline, T2 (3 weeks) and a follow up T3 (6 weeks). To investigate the potential effect of the intervention on the odds of participants to change motivational profiles between T1 and T3 we used Latent Transition Analysis. The intervention had positive main effects on exercise level. A four profile solution showed good quality of classification into the separate profiles (entropy = .92). The profiles were labeled high-high (n=262), high-low (n=26), low-high (n=8), and low-low (n=12), where the label high reflected a more autonomous regulation pattern (missing n=10). Participants in the autonomous profile at T1 had high probabilities of remaining there at T3, but slightly lower probability in the control (82%) than the intervention (95%) condition. Participants in the control condition also had a statistically significant increased probability to belong to the profile with a decreased level autonomy T3 (high-low profile) (OR=4.0, p=.008).These results indicate that this digital exercise motivation intervention can increase the likelihood for participants to sustain autonomous motivation profiles over time.

  • 97.
    Weman Josefsson, Karin
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI), Idrott, hälsa och fysisk aktivitet. University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI).
    Considering moderators and mediators in self-determined motivation and exercise behaviour2014Ingår i: Association for Applied Sport Psychology – 2014 Conference Proceedings & Program / [ed] Daniel Weigand, Indianapolis, IN: Association for Applied Sport Psychology , 2014, s. 75-76Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to successfully enhance exercise motivation and behaviour change, it is of particular importance to explore and understand theoretical mechanisms underpinning exercise behaviours. Research based on adequate theory and using appropriate mediating variable analyses (MVA) could inform practice by identifying the active ingredients of successful exercise promotion intervention designs and distinguishing elements that could (or should) be excluded. Such an approach could not only promote cost-effectiveness, but also contribute to the understanding of sustainable behavior change and provide valuable practical implications for intervention design. This study aimed to examine the abovementioned mechanisms based on Self-Determination Theory (SDT; Deci & Ryan, 1985; 2000). Adult active members of an Internet-based exercise program (n = 1,091) between 18 and 78 years of age completed a test battery including the Basic Psychological Needs in Exercise Scale (BPNES); the Behavioural Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire-2 (BREQ-2) and Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire (LTEQ). Data was analysed by structural equation modelling (SEM) and mediation analyses using bootstrapping resampling approach. Mplus version 7.1 was used to analyse the data with the maximum likelihood (ML) and robust maximum likelihood (MLM) estimators. Need satisfaction was found to predict self-determined motivation, which in turn predicted exercise, especially for women. Self-determined motivation mediated the association between need satisfaction and exercise, and these associations were moderated by gender and age. The results highlight the potential impact of considering moderating effects for a better understanding of how and for whom exercise interventions could influence behavioural outcomes. Future research would benefit practice by further exploration of underlying mechanisms in terms of mediating and moderating effects in order to be able to make adequate recommendations on how to tailor SDT intervention designs, e.g. by addressing age and gender issues.

  • 98.
    Weman Josefsson, Karin
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI).
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI).
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI), Idrott, hälsa och fysisk aktivitet.
    Examining patterns of change in self-determined exercise motivation using latent growth curve models2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Few previous studies have targeted how self-determined motivation changes within persons across shorter periods of time (e.g., weeks). Latent growth curve models allow study of within-person change and between-person differences in within-person change over time. The purpose of the study was to study within-person change and between-person differences in change in exercise and motivation in a sample of 2797 exercisers in a natural course of events (i.e. no intervention) over a period of eight weeks. Motivational variables related to self-determination theory were measured by the Basic Psychological Needs in Exercise Scale (BPNES) and the Behavioral Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire-2 (BREQ-2) and Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire (GLTEQ) was used to assess self-reported exercise level and intensity. The data was analyzed by latent growth curve models in Mplus. The results show significant increase in the average change (mean slope) of psychological need satisfaction whereas there was significant decrease in amotivation. Furthermore, the slopes of variance were significant for all variables except for autonomy, competence and intrinsic motivation, indicating a pattern of heterogeneity in terms of within-person change. No significant changes were detected in exercise level or intensity (METS). The results will be used as reference data in a future intervention study aiming to enhance self-determined exercise motivation in a comparable population.

  • 99.
    Weman-Josefsson, Karin Anna
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI), Idrott, hälsa och fysisk aktivitet. University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI), Idrott, hälsa och fysisk aktivitet.
    Need satisfaction, motivational regulations and exercise: moderation and mediation effects2015Ingår i: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, ISSN 1479-5868, E-ISSN 1479-5868, Vol. 12, nr 1, s. 1-11, artikel-id 67Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Based on the Self-determination theory process model, this study aimed to explore relationships between the latent constructs of psychological need satisfaction, autonomous motivation and exercise behaviour; the mediational role of autonomous motivation in the association of psychological need satisfaction with exercise behaviour; as well as gender and age differences in the aforementioned associations.

    Methods: Adult active members of an Internet-based exercise program (n = 1,091) between 18 and 78 years of age completed a test battery on motivational aspects based on Self-determination theory. The Basic Psychological Needs in Exercise Scale and the Behavioural Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire-2 were used to measure need satisfaction and type of motivation and the Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire to measure self-reported exercise.

    Results: Need satisfaction predicted autonomous motivation, which in turn predicted exercise, especially for women. Autonomous motivation was found to mediate the association between need satisfaction and exercise. Age and gender moderated several of the paths in the model linking need satisfaction with motivation and exercise.

    Conclusions: The results demonstrated gender and age differences in the proposed sequential mechanisms between autonomous motivation and exercise in the process model. This study thus highlights a potential value in considering moderating factors and the need to further examine the underlying mechanisms between needs, autonomous motivation, and exercise behaviour. 

  • 100.
    Weman-Josefsson, Karin
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI). University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI).
    The Role of Psychological Need Satisfaction and Self-Determined Motivation for Physical Activity and Self-Esteem2013Ingår i: Nordic Advances in Health Care Sciences Research: November 13-14, 2013 in Lund: Abstract book, 2013, s. 9-9Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Regular exercise habits has proven to benefit human health. According to Self-determination Theory (SDT; Deci & Ryan, 1985, 2000; Ryan & Deci, 2002), self-determined motivation has been hypothesized to mediate the link between psychological need fulfillment and behavioral outcomes in exercise behavior. This study aimed to examine a) theoretically derived hypotheses about the relations between the latent constructs of psychological needs, self-determined motivation, physical activity behaviour and self-esteem b) the mediational role of self-determined motivation in association with psychological needs with exercise and self-esteem c) gender and age differences in the aforementioned associations.

    In a Cross-sectional design, adult active members (N=1091) of an internet-based physical activity program between 18 and 78 years of age completed a test battery consisting of The Basic Psychological Needs in Exercise Scale (BPNES; Vlachopoulos & Michailidou, 2006), The Behavioral Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire-2 (BREQ-2; Markland & Tobin, 2004), Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire (LTEQ; Godin & Shephard, 1985) and five positively worded items from Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory (Rosenberg, 1989).

    Need satisfaction predicted self-determined motivation which in turn predicted exercise and self-esteem as outcomes, especially for women and older adults. Self-determined motivation mediated the association between need satisfaction and outcomes, and this mediation effect was stronger for women and older adults.

    The results confirm the hypotheses regarding mediation and contribute to the on-going discussion of the complexity of exercise motivation and behavioural and affective outcomes.  A valuable implication is that it seems important to consider moderating factors (e.g. gender and age) when designing exercise interventions. Such findings may not only bring important information to the more theoretical understanding of SDT based models of exercise but also serve as an informative compass or guide to increase adherence in exercise and lifestyle interventions for specific populations (e.g., younger women, older adults).

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