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  • 51.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Evangelista, Felicitas
    School of Marketing and International Business, University of Western Sydney, Sydney, Australia.
    The entrepreneur in the Born Global firm in Australia and Sweden2006Ingår i: Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, ISSN 1462-6004, E-ISSN 1758-7840, Vol. 13, nr 4, s. 642-659Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this research is to identify and analyse the common characteristics and behaviour of entrepreneurs that affect the establishment of Born Global firms. The differences between the Australian and Swedish contexts will be scrutinized.

    Design/methodology/approach – This study was designed to be qualitative in nature so that rich insights can be obtained directly from the entrepreneurs themselves. The sample consists of three Born Global firms each from Australia and Sweden.

    Findings – This study shows the importance of entrepreneurs for the rapid internationalization of firms in Australia and Sweden. Different types of entrepreneurs were identified and small but important differences were identified between the two countries and different industries.

    Research limitations/implications – This study shows that analysis on an individual level enhances the understanding of internationalisation in new firms. By using the concept marketing and technical entrepreneur in different industrial contexts a more detailed understanding of different internationalization patterns can be obtained. This study is limited to two countries and six case studies. The findings may be limited to the chosen firms and studies across more countries and industries are needed.

    Practical implications – This study shows that the entrepreneur should be in focus when analysing new firms' possibilities to expand abroad. Entrepreneurs can use their international experience, visions, ambitions and networks as crucial competencies in an international expansion. Different types of entrepreneurs can use different international strategies.

    Originality/value – The focus and detailed analysis on the individual level across different countries make this study original.

  • 52.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Evers, Natasha
    J.E. Cairnes School of Business and Economics, NUI Galway, Galway, Ireland.
    International opportunity recognition in international new ventures—a dynamic managerial capabilities perspective2015Ingår i: Journal of International Entrepreneurship, ISSN 1570-7385, E-ISSN 1573-7349, Vol. 13, nr 3, s. 260-276Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article aims to advance theoretical knowledge of the international opportunity recognition in international new ventures (INVs) from a dynamic capabilities perspective with particular focus on the emergent perspective of dynamic managerial capabilities. Building the extant literature on international opportunity recognition, dynamic capabilities theory, this paper presents a conceptual framework explaining how dynamic capabilities of the firm can be created and enacted through the entrepreneur’s dynamic managerial capabilities and actions for international opportunity identification for international firm growth. Drawing on the dynamic capabilities theory and more recent dynamic managerial capabilities perspective, this article enriches understanding of how opportunities are identified for the venture’s international development and growth. The article concludes with theoretical and research implications. © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media New York

  • 53.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Evers, Natasha
    J.E. Cairnes School of Business and Economics, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland.
    The development of dynamic managerial capabilities and their influence of rapid international growth2013Ingår i: The 16th Annual McGill International Entrepreneurship Conference: Researching New Frontiers, 2013, s. 17-17Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article aims to advance theoretical knowledge of the development of dynamic managerial capabilities in international growing firms by reviewing and synthesizing available research into a conceptual framework. The framework explains how dynamic managerial capabilities, through international entrepreneurial actions, affect international growth. By including concepts from managerial dynamic capabilities theory, this article enriches understanding of a firm’s international development and growth.

    This article’s findings contribute to the emerging field of capability development (Ambrosini et al., 2009; Gavetti, 2005) and to the international entrepreneurship area (Jones et al., 2011). This study advances the resource-based and dynamic capability research agenda by paying greater attention to the role of managers in strategic and organizational change. In particular, this study focuses on managerial capability development at the individual level. The focus on development over time provides a richer understanding of the interplay among managerial social capital, managerial human capital, and managerial cognition. This study also develops a model that shows how dynamic managerial capabilities through international entrepreneurial actions affect international growth. That is, contributions are given to provide understanding of why firms are able to grow rapidly internationally. 

  • 54.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Evers, Natasha
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER). National University of Ireland (NUI), Galway, Ireland.
    Chen, Xuelin
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap.
    Zhang, Yini
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap.
    Business and Social Networking for Rapid SME Market Entry and Development in China2017Ingår i: / [ed] Natasha Evers, 2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores how the firm’s business and social relationships influence how adolescent Swedish born globals and Born Again Globals develop their customer base following post market entry into China. Using the network perspective and extant research on Chinese Guanxi, this study shows how Swedish manufacturing exporters leverage their network relationships in different phases the internationalisation process, in term of the extension, penetration and integration upon entry and post-market entry into China. A qualitative case study approach of three Swedish manufacturing adolescent born global and born again firms, on the Chinese market is employed. A framework developed from a network perspective is used to analyze the data. The study demonstrates the importance, and the degrees of impact, of business and social networks in market and post market entry into China. Business networks emerge as most important in the first part of the market entry process and when networks were integrated between China and other markets. However, social relationships had greater impact in facilitating the firm’s commitment of resources and its market penetration into China. The study also shows that business and social networks were interpreted as synonymous in the Chinese business context, in that social relationships (Guanxi) were considered just as important as business relationships from the Chinese perspective. Hence managing social dimensions of the relationship (Guanxi) were just as important as the business dimensions when conducting relationships with their Chinese customer and business partners.

  • 55.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Evers, Natasha
    The Marketing Discipline, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland.
    Gliga, Gabriela
    The Marketing Discipline, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland.
    Entrepreneurial marketing and born global internationalisation in China2018Ingår i: Qualitative Market Research, ISSN 1352-2752, E-ISSN 1758-7646, Vol. 21, nr 2, s. 202-231Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This study aims to explore the entrepreneurial marketing (EM) behaviour of Swedish born globals entering the Chinese market through their international networks. Drawing from the network theory of small firm internationalisation, this study is positioned in the domain of EM, and thus captures the relevance of EM behaviour to explain how born globals internationalise through their networks.

    Design/methodology/approach: A qualitative case study approach of two Swedish born global companies active in the Chinese market is used. The network theory helps analyse the data in the three phases of firm internationalisation processes.

    Findings: The study shows the importance of networks for the enactment of EM for born globals. The study traces the evolution of network development in the market entry process of born globals and highlights the importance of aligning network leverage with contextual factors for market performance.

    Research limitations/implications: The generalisation of the findings is limited due to the exploratory nature of the study and the size of the research sample.

    Practical implications: Management of different types of networks is essential in the entry process and further growth of born globals in the Chinese market. In addition, born globals operating in psychically distant and complex institutionally contexts can especially gain support from intermediary networks.

    Originality/value: This study extends knowledge of international entrepreneurship by demonstrating that born global managers can enact EM behaviour by leveraging networks to gain rapid entry into the Chinese market. It further highlights the role of firms’ networks in the EM activities in their internationalisation. The conceptual underpinnings of EM and network theory provide greater understanding of how born globals enter and grow their psychically distant markets.

     © 2018, Emerald Publishing Limited.

  • 56.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Evers, Natasha
    National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland.
    Griot, Clemence
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Local and Global Networks in Small Firm Internationalisation – Cases from the Rhone-Alp Medical Technology Cluster2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Although networks have been shown in many studies to be critical for the international development of firms, surprisingly few studies have focused on the influence of local networks and global networks in the internationalisation of firms operating in industrial clusters. This study explores the internationalisation processes of small and medium sized firms operating in the medical technology cluster in the Rhone-Alp region in France. Firstly, we find that local and global networks influence the internationalisation processes of the case firms but in different ways. The influence of such networks were determined by the regional location, industry dynamics and the life-cycle of firms in the cluster. Second, internationalising firms found were Born Globals, led by entrepreneurs globally market-orientated from inception and Born Again Globals, late but rapid internationalisers. The internationalisation of Born Again Globals was triggered by a critical event that redirected the firm rapidly on to global markets late in their life-cycle. Thirdly, local networks were important for initiating internationalisation for the Born Global firm yet held limited importance for the Born Again Globals in the cluster. Local networks in the cluster were however, important for both Born Global and Born Again Globals for developing and internationalising their innovations.

  • 57.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Evers, Natasha
    Marketing Discipline, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland.
    Griot, Clémence
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2). La Redoute Sverige AB, Borås, Sweden.
    Local and international networks in small firm internationalization: Cases from the Rhône-Alpes medical technology regional cluster2013Ingår i: Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, ISSN 0898-5626, E-ISSN 1464-5114, Vol. 25, nr 9-10, s. 867-888Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores the internationalization processes of small firms operating in the medical technology cluster in the Rhône-Alpes region in France. The study demonstrates that both the location and the sectoral type of industry cluster influence the internationalization and network dynamics in the cluster. In addition, both local and international networks influence firm internationalization processes in different ways. First, the firm life-cycle, industry and locational cluster dynamics determine the extent of network influence on firms' internationalization processes. Second, two types of internationalizing firms emerge in this study: born global firms, led by proactive entrepreneurs and globally market-orientated firms from inception, and born-again globals, which engage in late but rapid internationalization as a result of new management or foreign acquisition. Third, local networks in the cluster are important for influencing the internationalization of the born global firm at inception. In contrast, international networks serve as the main impetus for re-launching internationalization for the born-again globals. Fourth, the local research institutions and their connections abroad help both born globals and born-again global firms develop and internationalize their innovations rapidly in the global marketplace.

  • 58.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Evers, Natasha
    National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland.
    Kuivalainen, Olli
    Lappeenranta University of Technology, Lappeenranta, Finland.
    International new ventures – rapid internationalization across different industry contexts2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The nature of the industry, or the environment in which the firm operates, can have a significant impact on the internationalization of the new venture. The impact of industry factors has received limited attention in the context of international entrepreneurship, however. The goals of this conceptual paper are the following: First, we present some insights into the industry idiosyncrasies and INVs and present a conceptual framework identifying key industry variables to aid further examination of the role industry factors on new venture internationalization processes and strategies, and hence, this paper can be seen as an early version of the conceptual review. Second, we build up propositions how industry affects the internationalization process of the INVs. In this we provide a platform for further studies in the domain of international entrepreneurship.

  • 59.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Evers, Natasha
    National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland.
    Kuivalainen, Olli
    Lappeenranta University of Technology, Lappeenranta, Finland.
    International new ventures: rapid internationalization across different industry contexts2014Ingår i: European Business Review, ISSN 0955-534X, E-ISSN 1758-7107, Vol. 26, nr 5, s. 390-405Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this article is to, first, offer insights into the relationship between industry idiosyncrasies and international new ventures (INVs), and then present a research conceptual framework that identifies the role of industry factors in new venture internationalization processes and strategies. Second, the authors introduce the content of this special issue. Design/methodology/approach – This conceptual article builds on extant studies on INVs operating in different industrial contexts. Particular attention is given to the role of industry influences in the processes of new venture internationalization, in terms of speed, geographical scope and entry strategy. Such factors are discussed to formulate a conceptual framework as a basis for further research. Findings – The conceptual framework identifies key industry factors as well as emergent factors that influence the new venture internationalization process, in terms of speed, geographical scope and entry strategy. Such key influencing factors are competition and structure, industry life cycle, industry concentration, knowledge intensity, local cluster internationalization and global industry integration. Emergent factors are identified as new business models, technology and industry network dynamics. Research limitations/implications – This article is conceptual in nature, and thus empirical research is recommended in diverse contexts. Practical implications – Further analysis of industry factors is a valid research avenue for understanding INVs. Originality/value – This special issue offers new insights into how industry factors influence INVs’ internationalization processes in terms of speed, scope and entry strategy.

  • 60.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Florén, Henrik
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Differences in managerial behavior between small international and non-international firms2011Ingår i: Journal of International Entrepreneurship, ISSN 1570-7385, E-ISSN 1573-7349, Vol. 9, nr 3, s. 233-258Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The main question raised in this article is whether there are any differences between the work activities of managers in small firms primarily operating on an international market and those managing firms doing business on a domestic market. If so, what are these differences, and what do they tell us about the internationalization of small firms? The comparative method used here is based on multiple approaches including interviews, diary studies, and direct observations. The conclusions indicate that managers in small international firms are more proactive in their networking behavior, delegate operative activities and devote more time to planned strategic activities connected with their international expansion than managers in other small firms. 

  • 61.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Florén, Henrik
    Exploring differences in the work of owner-managers in small international and non-international firms2009Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The main question raised in this article is whether there are any differences between the work activities of managers in small firms primarily operating on an international market and those managing firms doing business on a domestic market. If so, what are these differences, and what do they tell us about the internationalization of small firms? The comparative method used here is based on direct observation and analysis of about 2400 activities. The conclusions indicate that managers in small international firms are more proactive, delegate operative activities and devote more time to planned strategic activities connected with their international expansion than managers in other small firms.

  • 62.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Florén, Henrik
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Exploring managerial behavior in small international firms2008Ingår i: Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, ISSN 1462-6004, E-ISSN 1758-7840, Vol. 15, nr 1, s. 31-50Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss the research on internationalization in small firms and research on managerial behavior, and it aims to develop new research questions that can enhance the understanding of the interface between these two areas.

    Design/methodology/approach: A literature review of internationalization of small firms is carried out. It is concluded that understanding of managerial behavior in small international firms is in need of improvement. Therefore, the literature on managerial behavior is described, scrutinized and deployed in the context of small firms' internationalization.

    Findings: No previous research has combined the research on small-business internationalization and managerial behavior. Hypotheses that can be empirically tested and new research questions that can yield a better understanding of the internationalization processes in small firms are developed.

    Research limitations/implications: The hypotheses developed in this study have not yet been tested empirically. Further research is suggested to confirm and elaborate these propositions.

    Practical implications: As the propositions in this study are not tested their practical implications are limited at present. However, earlier research has shown that there is a link between managerial behavior and firm behavior. Managers may be inspired by the study to reflect upon this link and adjust their behavior in ways that can improve their firms' international development.

    Originality/value: In this paper the research on internationalization in small firms is merged with the research on managerial behavior. By adding knowledge from the latter research tradition, the understanding of small-firm internationalization should be advanced through raising novel issues and applying new methodological tools.

  • 63.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Florén, Henrik
    What do managers in small international firms really do?2006Ingår i: McGill Conference on International Entrepreneurship, 2006Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 64.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Florén, Henrik
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Tell, Joakim
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Managerial behavior and small firm's internationalization2005Ingår i: McGill Conference on international entrepreneurship, 2005Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 65.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Gabrielsson, Jonas
    CIRCLE, Lunds universitet.
    Wictor, Ingemar
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL).
    Born Globals' foreign market channel strategies2006Ingår i: International Journal of Globalisation and Small Business, ISSN 1479-3059, E-ISSN 1479-3067, Vol. 1, nr 4, s. 356-373Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Foreign entry mode choices are decisions of paramount importance for the long-term survival and growth of companies that are in a process of rapid international expansion. In this paper we seek to understand the foreign market channel strategies of Born Globals. We examine whether these companies develop a similar strategy regarding foreign entry mode choices and whether their market channel strategies differ from contemporary theories treating this problem. A comparative case study conducted on four companies meeting the criteria of Born Globals suggests that they do not show a common foreign entry mode. Instead, the companies seem to have very different market channel strategies even if they all have internationalised very rapidly. These findings are discussed against the current range of theoretical models that seek to explain the companies' foreign entry mode choice. We conclude the paper with some implications and suggestions for future research.

  • 66.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Gabrielsson, Jonas
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Wictor, Ingemar
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Born Globals' market channel strategies2003Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 67.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Gabrielsson, Jonas
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    Wictor, Ingemar
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL).
    International activities in small firms: Examining factors influencing the internationalization and export growth of small firms2004Ingår i: Canadian Journal of the Administrative Sciences, ISSN 0825-0383, E-ISSN 1936-4490, Vol. 21, nr 1, s. 22-34Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we explore internationalization and export growth over time in a sample of 135 small manufacturing firms. By using concepts and arguments from literature on international business and small firms, the paper identifies six situational, or contingency, factors that are expected to influence the international activities of small firms. Our results show that a dynamic and fast-changing environment may push small firms to go abroad, while it seems to be the experiences built up in the organization and a younger generation of CEOs that can explain why some small firms continue to expand their international activities. The findings suggest that the factors influencing small firms to go abroad and become international differ from the factors that influence them to continue and grow once they are on the international marketplace. The paper ends with a discussion of the findings, together with suggestions for further research.

  • 68.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Gabrielsson, Jonas
    Wictor, Ingemar
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    International activities in small firms: Examining factors influencing the internationalization and export growth of SMEs2009Ingår i: Entrepreneurship and Globalization / [ed] Rob B. McNaughton and Jim Bell, London: Sage Publications, 2009, s. 288-306Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 69.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Gabrielsson, Jonas
    Wictor, Ingemar
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    International activities in small firms: Examining factors influencing the internationalization and export growth of SMEs2002Ingår i: McGill Conference on International Entrepreneurship, 2002Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 70.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Ghannad, Navid
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    The role of entrepreneurs’ imprinting in the creation of born global firms2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study shows how imprinting episodes in entrepreneurs’ childhood and prior life story influence their mind-sets, which influence the entrepreneur’s venture creation and their firms international behaviour. Depending on the imprinting experiences, entrepreneurs develop skills and mind-sets with preferences and especially desires that will affect the total behaviour of their future organization.  The study also shows how firms’ international growth can be an important part of a firm’s strategy, but also a consequence of strategy that not per se include internationalization.

  • 71.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL).
    Hedelin, Anna
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    Nilsson, Anna
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    Welander, Charlotte
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    Violent advertising in fashion marketing2004Ingår i: Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management, ISSN 1361-2026, E-ISSN 1758-7433, Vol. 8, nr 1, s. 96-112Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, violent advertising is discussed. An empirical study, using picture analysis, is carried out. The intent of the advertisers' message is compared with the interpretation of a male and a female consumer group. It is concluded that the consumers' interpretations not are the ones that the advertisers had intended. The violence was interpreted in a much more negative way than expected. It is also concluded that there are differences in interpretations between men and women. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

  • 72.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Servais, Per
    Department of Marketing and Management, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    Combining industrial buyer and seller strategies for international supply and marketing management2010Ingår i: European Business Review, ISSN 0955-534X, E-ISSN 1758-7107, Vol. 22, nr 1, s. 64-81Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to review international industrial purchasing and marketing literature with a focus on portfolio models, to develop portfolio models for buyers' and sellers' international strategies, and to combine the models so that both the buyer and seller perspectives are dealt with simultaneously. Design/methodology/approach: Literature on international industrial purchasing and marketing is discussed. Dimensions that are important for the buyers' and sellers' strategies are identified. Portfolio models for buyers and sellers are developed and the two perspectives are matched together. Findings: The paper contributes a specification of features that are important for industrial buyers' and sellers' international purchasing and marketing strategies. These dimensions are used to develop a model of supplier relationship management and a marketing management model for supplier strategies. The consequences for the firm's international activities are discussed. A model combining industrial buyers' and sellers' international supply and marketing management strategies is developed. Research limitations/implications: This paper provides a deeper understanding of international exchange processes by combining literature on international industrial purchasing and international marketing. Situations are identified where different areas of theory are applicable. The paper also contributes to the discussion on what should be the conceptual domain of international business. Here, it is argued that international exchange is the product of joint decisions made by two or more actors based in different countries. Earlier academic literature reveals a striking imbalance: while one side of the coin - the exporter side - has been extensively studied, the importer side has largely been neglected. In this paper, it is tried to present a balanced view of both sides. Practical implications: This paper introduces portfolio management models that can be used for both industrial purchasing and marketing management. The paper stresses the importance of finding a fit between the marketing and purchasing strategies within a relationship. If both parties have positioned the relationship in a similar way, there are much greater possibilities for the relationship to create value for both parties. Originality/value: The paper combines international industrial purchasing and international marketing perspectives as few studies have done before. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

  • 73.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Servais, Per
    Combining Industrial Buyer's and Sellers International Strategies2005Ingår i: EIBA Conference, 2005Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 74.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Servais, Per
    Linneus University, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Different types of International New Ventures Based on Different Commercialization Processes in a Business-to-Business Context2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    An emerging topic in the field of International Entrepreneurship (IE) is currently focused on international new ventures (INVs) and/or born-globals (Oviatt and McDougall, 1997; Madsen and Servais, 1997; Knight and Cavusgil, 1996) which are, by theoretic definition, start-ups that become international at inception or very shortly thereafter. More concretely, INVs have been previously defined as “a business organization that, from inception, seeks to derive significant competitive advantage from the use of resources and the sale of outputs in multiple countries” (Oviatt and McDougall, 1994: 49; McDougall et al., 1994:470). Quite similarly, Knight and Cavusgil (1996:11) conceptualise the born-global firm as ““small, [usually] technology-oriented companies that operate in international markets from the earliest days of their establishment”.

    Even if the born global research has grown rapidly during the last decades, most studies have focused on entrepreneurs, resources and networks and only a few researchers are observant about the context in which the born global firms are established and thrives. Literature reviews in international entrepreneurship has shown that most research in this area is based on business to business firms (Jones et al, 2012). However, we have not found any studies which go deeper in the different customer-supplier relationships that exist in a B2B context.

    Adaptation on B2B markets is important to make a relationship more productive, according to Hagberg-Anderson (2006).  There are structural factors, in the relationship between sellers and buyers which make different internationalization strategies more likely to succeed (Andersson, 2000).In this article we thoroughly discuss and review scientific articles that highlights the variation, differentiation and typology of international new venture. We complement this review with literature dealing with buyer-seller relationship in a B2B context. Based on these two strands on literature we develop a framework of different types of international new ventures in a business to business context. The framework gives theoretical contributions to the area of international entrepreneurship research but also managerial implication, showing how different types of relationships with customers make different internationalization strategies more or less likely to succeed.

  • 75.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Sundermeier, Janina
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    Firms’ use of networks to get access to resources for internationalization2013Ingår i: The 16th Annual McGill International Entrepreneurship Conference: Researching New Frontiers: The Conference Program and Collection of Short Summaries, 2013, s. 18-18Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    To get access to resources for internationalization many studies have acknowledged the importance of different types of networks. Therefore, this study intends to explore how different types of networks are beneficial for firms’ international growth. Three types of networks are identified in this study: Self established business networks, business networks established by a third party and social networks. A web-based survey is conducted among companies operating in the health technology industry in order to gain additional insights related to the accessibility of resources through different types of networks. The participating companies consists of members of the non-profit organization Health Technology Alliance (HTA) located in Southwest Sweden as well as several companies that are closely related to and take part in the activities of the HTA. Questionnaires have been sent out to 89 respondents of which 13 returned because of ambiguous or non-existing email addresses. Of the 76 firms that have received the questionnaire, 21 participated in the survey what equals a response rate of 36%. The findings reveal which resources are accessed through different types of networks. It is found that self-established business networks offer most access to resources whereas third-party founded business networks and social networks provide only limited access. Financial resources are not provided through any of the discussed networks. 

  • 76.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL).
    Sundermeier, Janina
    Department of Information Systems, Digital Entrepreneurship Hub, Freie Universität Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
    Firms' use of organizational, personal, and intermediary networks to gain access to resources for internationalization2019Ingår i: Thunderbird International Business Review, ISSN 1096-4762, E-ISSN 1520-6874, Vol. 61, nr 4, s. 609-621Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores which networks are beneficial for gaining resources for firms' internationalization. Little is known about firms' use of organizational, personal, and intermediary networks to gain access to resources for internationalization. Firms are seeking resources through their organization's relationships (organizational networks) and individuals' personal contacts (personal networks). Governmental and industry actors are implementing networks to promote international growth and act as an intermediary between business actors (intermediary networks). We conduct in-depth interviews with firms and representatives for intermediary networks complemented with a survey. The findings reveal which resources are accessed through the different networks. We find organizational networks provide considerable access to most resources (except financial resources) that are beneficial for internationalization, whereas intermediary networks provide access to reputational, human, and market resources. Personal networks primarily provide access to human resources. This study contributes to theory by giving a more fine-grained understanding of how different types of networks give access to different resources valuable for internationalization. © 2019 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. 

  • 77.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Svensson, Göran
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    A Glocal marketing model2009Ingår i: Glocal Marketing: think globally and act locally / [ed] Svante Andersson & Göran Svensson, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2009, 1, s. 391-396Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 78.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Svensson, Göran
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Anti-climate Change Management in Marketing2009Ingår i: Glocal Marketing: think globally and act locally / [ed] Svante Andersson & Göran Svensson, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2009, 1, s. 373-390Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 79.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Svensson, Göran
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Early Internationalizing Firms2009Ingår i: Glocal marketing: think globally and act locally / [ed] Svante Andersson & Göran Svensson, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2009, 1, s. 45-64Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 80.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Svensson, Göran
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Global versus Glocal strategy and Marketing Think2009Ingår i: Glocal marketing: think globally and act locally / [ed] Svante Andersson & Göran Svensson, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2009, 1, s. 27-44Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 81.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Svensson, GöranHögskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Glocal Marketing: think globally and act locally2009Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Refereegranskat)
  • 82.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Svensson, Göran
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    The International Entrepreneur2009Ingår i: Glocal Marketing: think globally and act locally / [ed] Svante Andersson & Göran Svensson, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2009, 1, s. 257-276Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 83.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Svensson, Göran
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Think Globally and Act Locally2009Ingår i: Glocal Marketing: think globally and act locally / [ed] Svante Andersson and Göran Svensson, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2009, 1, s. 13-26Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 84.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Svensson, Göran
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Wood, Greg
    Deakin University, Australia .
    International Corporate and Business Ethics2009Ingår i: Glocal Marketing: think globally and act locally / [ed] Svante Andersson, Göran Svensson, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2009, s. 319-338Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 85.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Tell, Joakim
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    The relationship between the manager and growth in small firms2009Ingår i: Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, ISSN 1462-6004, E-ISSN 1758-7840, Vol. 16, nr 4, s. 586-598Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The purpose of this paper is to improve the understanding of the relationship between the manager and growth in small firms, through a review of earlier research.

    Design/methodology/approach

    A review of articles published during the last 25 years is carried out in order to answer the question: How does the top manager influence growth in small firms?

    Findings

    Three key relationships are identified: between growth and, respectively, managerial traits and characteristics, managerial intentions, and managerial behavior or roles. The diverse findings in the literature are contradictory and give a paradoxical picture of the impact of the manager. A deeper analysis of the results from the review, supplemented with leadership theory, yields a better understanding of small-firm growth with a special focus on the behavior of the manager.

    Research limitations/implications

    This paper problematizes the complexity in managing small-firm growth, and can be further empirically validated by using multiple methods including qualitative ones such as observational studies.

    Practical implications

    The findings have a bearing on education and policy implications. If a behavior can be identified that promotes small firms' growth, education and policy implications can be developed in line with these results.

    Originality/value

    In small firms there seems to be a general consensus that managers do influence the performance of small firms, but so far there has not been a systematic review of earlier empirical research, that is done in this paper. From this review, a more complete picture of how managers influence growth in small firms is presented.

  • 86.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Wictor, Ingemar
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Innovative international strategies in new firms - born globals2001Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 87.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL).
    Wictor, Ingemar
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL).
    Innovative International Strategies in new firms: Born Globals - the Swedish case2001Ingår i: 4th McGill Conference on International Entrepreneurship : researching new frontiers : 21-23 September 2001, Strathclyde International Business Unit, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, Scotland / [ed] Dimitratos, P. and Jones, M.V., eds., 2001, s. 39-63Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 88.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Wictor, Ingemar
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL).
    Innovative Internationalisation in New firms: Born Globals–the Swedish Case2003Ingår i: Journal of International Entrepreneurship, ISSN 1570-7385, E-ISSN 1573-7349, Vol. 1, nr 3, s. 249-275Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    During the past few years, the phenomenon of Born Globals has been highlighted in many studies. Such firms adopt a global approach right from their inception or very shortly thereafter. This behaviour challenges the traditional internationalisation models of slow and gradual development with respect to geographical markets and market entry modes. In this paper a conceptual framework is developed from earlier research and includes the factors: globalisation, entrepreneurs, networks, and industry. A survey showed that Born Globals were still very uncommon in Sweden. However, four Born Global firms were identified and analysed with the framework. It was concluded that the ongoing globalisation has made it easier to conduct Born Global strategies. However, active entrepreneurs, who recognised the global opportunities, were crucial for the implementation of these strategies, in which personal networks were used as tools.

  • 89.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Wictor, Ingemar
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Knowledge transfer in Born Globals2004Ingår i: McGill Conference on International Entrepreneurship, 2004Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 90.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Wictor, Ingemar
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    The Internationalization of Born Globals: the Swedish case2001Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Principal Topic

    Born Global firms adopt an international approach right from their birth or very shortly thereafter. This behavior challenges the traditional models of internationalization that propose that internationalization is developed in a slow and gradual manner with respect to geographical markets and market entry modes. The “slow and gradual view” of internationalization is very strong in Scandinavia as the creator of one of the most well known models in this area, the Uppsala Internationalization model, is developed in Sweden. The aim of the study is to explore the Born Global phenomena, and to compare it with earlier studies from other nations to further enhance the theory development in this area. Do the already developed framework fit on Swedish Born Globals? Do the framework have to be adopted according to the Swedish environment and culture? Can the general framework be further developed?

    Method

    To be able to compare our results with earlier studies in the USA, Denmark and Australia the same definitions and methods are used. Born Globals are defined as firms that have reached a share of foreign sales of at least 25% after having started export activities within three years after their birth. Data from a survey is used, followed by qualitative case studies. The database is used to present descriptive statistics and to identify Swedish Born Globals. The case studies are built mainly on personal interviews, but secondary data, such as such as business magazines, annual reports and internal documents have also been used to complement our primary data source. The cases are confronted with each other and with theories used in the framework but also compared with traditional internationalization theory. The framework includes institutional, network, resource-based and entrepreneurship theory.

    Results and Implications

    The results show that, although still a relatively uncommon phenomenon, the ongoing globalization has made it easier for small firms to conduct Born Global strategies. Active entrepreneurs and personal networks were important tools for implementing these strategies. The findings may have implications for practice as well as policy. Maybe can successful behaviors, found in the Born Global firms, be transferred to other firms? Can policy-makers change the firms institutional environment so it will be easier for firms to became Born Globals?

  • 91.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Wictor, Ingemar
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Gabrielsson, Jonas
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Born Globals - the Swedish case2001Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 92.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL).
    Wikström, Niclas
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap.
    Why and how are social media used in a B2B context, and which stakeholders are involved?2017Ingår i: The journal of business & industrial marketing, ISSN 0885-8624, E-ISSN 2052-1189, Vol. 32, nr 8, s. 1098-1108Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – This study aims to explore why and how business-to-business (B2B) companies use social media and which users and stakeholders they communicate with.

    Design/methodology/approach – The study employs a case study approach because of its exploratory nature. Data from three companies consisted of interviews and observation of websites. The analysis includes within-case and cross-case displays to find patterns and themes in the data.

    Findings – The study shows that companies in a B2B contexts use social media as communication to enhance customer relationships, support sales and build their brands, in line with prior research. However, they also use social media as a recruiting tool, a seeking tool and a product information and service tool.

    Research limitations/implications – The findings confirm extant literature showing that B2B companies can directly influence content through corporate user accounts. Furthermore, firms in early stages of social media do not target any special stakeholders with broader messages, while more experienced social media users develop special messages for different stakeholders.

    Practical implications – This study contributes by shedding light on how B2B companies use social media. It also shows how different channels are effective with different stakeholders.

    Originality/value – Few studies have investigated the use of social media in a B2B context. This study goes beyond prior work by detailing how different social media tools are used, identifying different users and stakeholders, and explaining why different tools are used for different purposes targeted towards different stakeholders. New applications of the use of social media are also identified. © Emerald Publishing Limited 2017

  • 93.
    Awuah, Gabriel
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Andersson, Svante
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL).
    Amal, Mohamed
    Raboch, Henrique
    The Internationalization of Multinational Companies (MNCs): An intra-sector comparison among firms from developing and developed countries2010Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    According to the international statistic data of the United Nations Conference of Trade and Development (Unctad, 2008), the majority of Multinational Companies (MNCs) are from developed countries. However, in the last decade the participation of MNCs from emerging economies in the international flows of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) increased significantly, making them important global players. Although several scholars have addressed the internationalization process of emerging MNCs, no attempt has been made in the sense of directly comparing the internationalization process of firms from both developed and developing countries. To fill this gap, the aim of the present paper is to highlight the differences and similarities of the determinants and patterns of their internationalization. The integrated analytical model used in this study, which draws on insights from the Eclectic Paradigm and the Uppsala Internationalization approaches, has proved useful by helping to shed some light on the literature about MNCs’ internationalization process. The model in question has been structured in order to explore the differences and similarities of the internationalization processes of MNC from a developed and a developing country. This research uses a qualitative method with an exploratory nature, which allows deeper cross- cultural understanding. Multiple case studies of MNCs from countries with different levels of development (Brazil and Sweden) were carried out; this type of research allows addressing questions related to the determinants and patterns of internationalization. The results of the study show that there are strong evidences, which point out differences in term of ownership advantage development. However, the firms did not show substantial differences regarding internalization advantages. On the other hand, learning and experience of internationalization have been factors that have influenced the pattern and structure of the MNCs in both contexts. However, as the MNC from the developed country is more international and has longer experience, location decisions are no longer heavily influenced by these factors. The international network the MNC is part of and access to technology and knowledge partners are nowadays influencing the MNCs internationalization processes more. These findings are in line with earlier research that has pointed out that learning is most important in the early phases of MNCs international development while networks and location advantages are more important in later stages.

  • 94.
    Callaghan, Michael
    et al.
    Deakin University, Geelong, Vic, Australia.
    Wood, Greg
    Deakin University, Geelong, Vic, Australia.
    Svensson, Göran
    Oslo School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Singh, Jang
    University of Windsor, Windsor, ON, Canada.
    Andersson, Svante
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Codes of ethics artifacts in Australia, Canada and Sweden: A longitudinal study2013Ingår i: Looking Forward, Looking Back: Drawing on the Past to Shape the Future of Marketing: Proceedings of The 16th Biennial World Marketing Congress / [ed] Colin Campbell & Junzhao (Jonathon) Ma, Ruston, LA: Academy of Marketing Science , 2013, s. 108-108Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on the Partnership Model of Corporate Ethics (Wood 2002), this longitudinal study examined the measures in place to communicate the ethos of the corporate codes of ethics to internal stakeholders in three countries: Australia, Canada and Sweden. This paper reports the comparative codification of ethics amongst the top companies in these countries over three time periods: 2001-2002, 2005-2006 and 2010-2011.

  • 95.
    Correa da Cunha, Henrique
    et al.
    Universidade Regional de Blumenau, Blumenau, Brazil.
    Amal, Mohammed
    Universidade Regional de Blumenau, Blumenau, Brazil.
    Floriani, Dinora Eilete
    Universidade do Vale do Itajaí, Itajaí, Brazil.
    Andersson, Svante
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Institutional Distance Moderating Effects on Cultural Distance and Performance Relationship: Asymmetry of Distance and the Case of Foreign Multinational Subsidiaries in Latin America2019Ingår i: International Business in an Unsettling Political and Economic Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark, June 24-17, 2019, 2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate how Cultural and Formal Institutional distances affect the performance of foreign multinational subsidiaries in Latin America. We measure distance in opposite directions separately in a way that allows verifying its asymmetrical properties. Data is from Orbis database and includes 1466 foreign subsidiaries and 168 combinations of home and host countries for a period ranging from 2013 to 2015. Findings reveal that not all formal institutional distances affect the performance of developed country subsidiaries in a negative manner when operating in less developed countries as these firms know how to interpret and respond to different regulatory quality conditions in the host countries. We show that Latin American firms are in advantage dealing with formal institutional distances while they are affected in the same manner by cultural distances when compared to emerging market firms from outside Latin America. Subsidiaries from emerging markets are affected in a positive manner when operating in less developed countries and in a negative way when in more developed host countries. Results show that formal institutional distances may be easier to convert into firm specific advantages when compared to cultural distances. Formal institutional distances moderate in a positive manner the relationship between cultural distance and performance.

  • 96.
    Correa da Cunha, Henrique
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER). Universidade de Blumenau, Blumenau, Santa Catarina, Brazil.
    Amal, Mohammed
    Universidade de Blumenau, Blumenau, Santa Catarina, Brazil.
    Floriani, Dinorá Eliete
    Universidade do Vale do Itajaí, Itajaí, Brazil.
    Andersson, Svante
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    The moderating effects of formal institutional distance on the relationship between cultural distance and performance: The case of foreign subsidiaries in Latin America2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates how Cultural and Formal Institutional distances and their interaction affect the performance of subsidiary firms in Latin America. We show that using Kogut and Singh (1988) index or attributing the positive and negative signals for distances in opposite directions fail to capture asymmetry as it treats distance as either symmetric or opposing symmetric. In order to overcome this limitations distance in opposite directions are measured separately and independently in a way that allows verifying its asymmetrical effects. Tests include 1466 subsidiaries and 168 combinations of home and host countries for a period ranging from 2013 to 2015. Findings confirm that formal and cultural distances are asymmetric as the effects depend on the direction. Moreover not all formal institutional distances affect in a negative manner the performance of developed country subsidiaries operating in less developed countries as these firms know how to interpret and respond to different regulatory quality conditions in the host countries. We show that Latin American firms are in advantage dealing with formal institutional distances while they are affected in the same manner by cultural distances when compared to other emerging market firms from outside Latin America. Findings indicate that emerging market firms are affected in a positive manner when operating in less developed countries and in a negative way when institutions in the host country are superior to its home country. Finally, results show that formal institutional distances moderate in a positive manner the relationship between cultural distance and performance. 

  • 97.
    Correa da Cunha, Henrique
    et al.
    Universidade Regional de Blumenau, Blumenau, Brazil.
    Andersson, Svante
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL).
    Amal, Mohammed
    Universidade Regional de Blumenau, Blumenau, Brazil.
    Floriani, Dinora Eilete
    Universidade do Vale do Itajaí, Itajaí, Brazil.
    Gomes, Giancarlo
    Universidade Regional de Blumenau, Blumenau, Brazil.
    Are we talking about country profile or distance?2019Ingår i: Balancing Globalization & Local Priorities: Challenges Facing Business in Developed and Emerging Markets, 2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Since its introduction in International Business research, Distance has been an important topic but recently there is an ever growing concern related to the country profile and distance conflation. Studies investigating the implications of distances should include a sufficiently diversified sample. In order to provide adequate assessments for the implications of country profiles and distances, it is essential to consider that firms may be affected in different ways depending on the direction of the distances. We argue that the asymmetric effects of distances might result not only from the ability of foreign subsidiary firms adapting to the host country’ conditions, but also on the characteristics of the host country environment that may be more or less receptive to foreign firms’ operations. We test these assumptions in Latin America due to its diversity in terms of cultural and formal institutional conditions and also because it includes a great number of emerging market and developed country foreign subsidiaries. Data comes from Orbis database, totaling 1466 subsidiary firms being 1216 from developed countries and 250 from emerging markets operating in 10 host countries in Latin America and a combination of 168 different home and host countries over a period of 3 consecutive years ranging from 2013 to 2015. By measuring distances in opposite directions independently we are able to verify the asymmetric effects of both Cultural and Formal Institutional Distances. Additionally, results show that the expertise in dealing with formal institutional conditions at the home country can be converted more easily into firm specific advantages in foreign host countries whereas cultural distances seem to affect firms in similar ways, depending more on the cultural characteristics at the host country than by the distances between home and the host countries.

  • 98.
    Evers, Natasha
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER). JE Cairnes School of Business and Economics, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland.
    Andersson, Svante
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Decision-making logics in international opportunity exploration and exploitation in high tech ventures2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the decision-making logics of entrepreneurs during the exploration and exploitation phases of international opportunities. Data was collected from four med-tech international new ventures in Ireland and Sweden. Adopting a longitudinal approach, we captured the processual dynamics of exploration and exploitation and identified decision-making behaviours adopted by INV entrepreneurs in different phases of the international opportunity process. This study finds that he entrepreneur’s decision-making logic falls contingent on their personal knowledge base and nature of industry dynamics surrounding the exploration and exploitation processes. The study finds that those entrepreneurs with a scientific and engineering background drew on causation decision-making logic in the exploration processes concerning technology development, whereas during the exploitation process they enacted more effectuated behaviours in decisions particulary relating to marketing experimentation and development, mainly due to their lack of prior commercial experience and business know-how. This study contributes to the domain of international entrepreneurship (IE) research with a particular focus on decision-making logic in the exploration and exploitation processes of international opportunities. It offers empirical insights into the degree of applicability of effectuation and causation logic in entrepreneurial decision-making. As IE is a young discipline, this study makes a number of inroads in advancing knowledge in the causation and effectuation theoretical perspectives on IE with specific focus on the complex entrepreneurial processes of exploration and exploitation of international opportunities in high tech contexts.

  • 99.
    Evers, Natasha
    et al.
    National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland.
    Andersson, Svante
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Dynamic Managerial Capabilities And International Opportunity Creation – Empirical Insights From Irish And Swedish Case Firms2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper builds upon and empirically tests our recently JIEN published conceptual model developed by Andersson and Evers (2015). This conceptual framework which advances the three core components of the dynamic managerial capabilities: cognitive, social and human capital (Adner and Helfat, 2003) is an attempt to conceptualise and provide theoretical understanding as to how dynamic managerial capabilities are developed within small internationalising firms for creating and capturing international opportunities.  Building upon this conceptual model and extant theoretical studies, this paper sets out to do three things. Firstly, drawing upon the recent conceptual model developed by Andersson and Evers, (JIEN 2015), this research inquiry explores the role of dynamic managerial capabilities in how international opportunities are created and exploited in Irish and Sweden small internationalising companies. Second, it examines the dichotomy between opportunity discovery and the emergent yet controversial concept of opportunity creation. Thirdly, it explores empirically the theoretical relevance of opportunity creation across the findings. Fourthly, this research pays particular attention to top managers and their top management teams (TMTs) as the primary source of dynamic managerial capabilities.  In the empirical evidence, we seek to understand how dynamic managerial capabilities are developed and utilized by INV managers to create and capture international opportunities. 

  • 100.
    Evers, Natasha
    et al.
    NUI Galway, Galway, Ireland.
    Andersson, Svante
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    The role of stakeholders in developing marketing capabilities in internationalising SMEs2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to extend the concept of dynamic capabilities in relation to the marketing function of the organisation, with particular focus on the role of stakeholders in marketing capability-building processes to deliver unique marketing assets for competitive advantage in international new ventures. Using a cross-country case approach of firms in Ireland, Sweden and Denmark, we identify and empirically examine the role of stakeholder groups in developing market-relating capabilities that enable firms to acquire and effectively respond to the dynamic international market environments. This study suggests that small internationalising firms must move beyond market orientation strategies for developing marketing capabilities to consider other stakeholder groups for driving firm performance.  This study finds that various stakeholders play a critical role in influencing the nature of the firm’s marketing capabilities. The nature of stakeholder groups can influence the learning processes of the firm and thus can determine the type of marketing capabilities and marketing assets the firm develops for competitive advantage.

    In particular, we find that managerial capabilities of entrepreneur/manager stakeholder are central in managing and leveraging the relationships between the firm and stakeholder relationships for capturing and regenerating marketing resources and capabilities for generating rents.

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