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  • 51.
    Siek, Jeremy
    et al.
    University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309, United States.
    Taha, Walid
    Rice University, Houston, TX 77005, United States.
    Gradual typing for objects2007Ingår i: ECOOP 2007 – Object-Oriented Programming: 21st European Conference, Berlin, Germany, July 30 - August 3, 2007. Proceedings / [ed] Erik Ernst, Berlin: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2007, s. 2-27Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Static and dynamic type systems have well-known strengthsand weaknesses. In previous work we developed a gradual type system fora functional calculus named λ?→. Gradual typing provides the benefits ofboth static and dynamic checking in a single language by allowing theprogrammer to control whether a portion of the program is type checkedat compile-time or run-time by adding or removing type annotations onvariables. Several object-oriented scripting languages are preparing toadd static checking. To support that work this paper develops Ob?<:,a gradual type system for object-based languages, extending the Ob<:calculus of Abadi and Cardelli. Our primary contribution is to show thatgradual typing and subtyping are orthogonal and can be combined in aprincipled fashion. We also develop a small-step semantics, provide amachine-checked proof of type safety, and improve the space efficiencyof higher-order casts.

  • 52.
    Swadi, Kedar
    et al.
    Rice University, Houston, TX, USA.
    Taha, Walid
    Rice University, Houston, TX, USA.
    Kiselyov, Oleg
    The Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center (FNMOC), Monterey, CA, USA.
    Pasalic, Emir
    Rice University, Houston, TX, USA.
    A Monadic Approach for Avoiding Code Duplication when Staging Memoized Functions2006Ingår i: PEPM '06 Proceedings of the 2006 ACM SIGPLAN symposium on Partial evaluation and semantics-based program manipulation, New York, NY: ACM Press, 2006, s. 160-169Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Building program generators that do not duplicate generated code can be challenging. At the same time, code duplication can easily increase both generation time and runtime of generated programs by an exponential factor. We identify an instance of this problem that can arise when memoized functions are staged. Without addressing this problem, it would be impossible to effectively stage dynamic programming algorithms. Intuitively, direct staging undoesthe effect of memoization. To solve this problem once and for all, and for any function that uses memoization, we propose a staged monadic combinator library. Experimental results confirm that the library works as expected. Preliminary results also indicate that the library is useful even when memoization is not used.

  • 53.
    Taha, Walid
    Department of Computer Science, Rice University, Houston, TX, United States.
    A Gentle Introduction to Multi-stage Programming, Part II2008Ingår i: Generative and Transformational Techniques in Software Engineering II: International Summer School, GTTSE 2007, Braga, Portugal, July 2-7, 2007. Revised Papers / [ed] Ralf Lämmel, Joost Visser, João Saraiva, Berlin: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2008, s. 260-290Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    As domain-specific languages (DSLs) permeate into mainstream software engineering, there is a need for economic methods for implementing languages. Following up on a paper with a similar title, this paper focuses on dynamically typed languages, covering issues ranging from parsing to defining and staging an interpreter for an interesting subset of Dr. Scheme. Preliminary experimental results indicate that the speedups reported in previous work for smaller languages and with smaller benchmarks are maintained. © 2008 Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

  • 54.
    Taha, Walid
    Department of Computing Science, Chalmers University of Technology and the University of Göteborg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    A Sound Reduction Semantics for Untyped CBN Multi-Stage Computation: Or, the Theory of MetaML is Non-trivial (Extended Abstract)2000Ingår i: PEPM '00: Proceedings of the 2000 ACM SIGPLAN workshop on Partial evaluation and semantics-based program manipulation, New York, NY: ACM Press, 2000, Vol. 34, s. 34-43Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A multi-stage computation is one involving more than one stage of execution. MetaML is a language for programming multi-stage computations. Previous studies presented big-step semantics, categorical semantics, and sound type systems for MetaML. In this paper, we report on a confluent and sound reduction semantics for untyped call-by name (CBN) MetaML. The reduction semantics can be used to formally justify some optimization performed by a CBN MetaML implementation. The reduction semantics demonstrates that non-trivial equalities hold for object-code, even in the untyped setting. The paper also emphasizes that adding intensional analysis (that is, taking-apart object programs) to MetaML remains an interesting open problem. © 2000 ACM, Inc.

  • 55.
    Taha, Walid
    Department of Computer Science, Rice University, Houston, TX, USA.
    Domain-Specific Languages2008Ingår i: The 2008 International Conference on Computer Engineering & Systems (ICCES '08) / [ed] Hossam M. A. Fahmy, Ayman M. Wahba, M. Watheq El-Kharashi, Ayman M. Bahaa El-Din, Mohamed A. Sobh & Mohamed Taher, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Press, 2008, s. XXV-XXVIIIKonferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, there has been a growing interest in what have come to be known as domain-specific languages (DSLs). This paper introduces a definition for DSLs, explains how DSLs can have a far-reaching impact on our lives, and discusses why DSLs are here to stay. © 2008 IEEE.

  • 56.
    Taha, Walid
    Oregon Graduate Institute of Science and Technology.
    Multi-Stage Programming: Its Theory and Applications1999Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    MetaML is a statically typed functional programming language with special support for programgeneration. In addition to providing the standard features of contemporary programminglanguages such as Standard ML, MetaML provides three staging annotations. These staging annotationsallow the construction, combination, and execution of object-programs.Our thesis is that MetaML's three staging annotations provide a useful, theoretically soundbasis for building program generators. This dissertation reports on our study of MetaML's stagingconstructs, their use, their implementation, and their formal semantics. Our results include anextended example of where MetaML allows us to produce ecient programs, an explanation ofwhy implementing these constructs in traditional ways can be challenging, two formulations ofMetaML's semantics, a type system for MetaML, and a proposal for extending MetaML with atype construct for closedness.The dissertation consolidates a number of previous publications by the author, includingMetaML's type systems and big-step semantics. The presentation is new. The proposed solutionto an implementation problem and the reduction semantics for MetaML's three staging constructsare also new.

  • 57.
    Taha, Walid
    Rice University, Houston, TX, United States.
    Resource-Aware Programming - Invited paper2004Ingår i: Embedded software and systems: first international conference, ICESS 2004, Hangzhou, China, December 9-10, 2004 ; revised selected papers, Berlin: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2004, s. 38-43Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditional wisdom in programming language design suggests that there is a trade-off between expressive power and static guarantees. We describe a novel schema for designing a class of languages that we call Resource-aware Programming (RAP) languages. By taking into account the natural distinction between the development platform and the deployment platform for embedded software, RAP languages can alleviate the need for drastic trade-offs between expressive power and static guarantees. We describe our preliminary experience designing and programming in a RAP language for hardware design, and give a brief overview of directions for future work.

  • 58.
    Taha, Walid
    Rice University, Houston, TX, USA.
    ‘Semantics, Applications, and Implementation of Program Generation’2003Ingår i: Journal of functional programming (Print), ISSN 0956-7968, E-ISSN 1469-7653, Vol. 13, nr 3, s. 453-454Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This special issue of the Journal of Functional Programming follows up on the First International ACM SIGPLAN Workshop on the Semantics, Applications, and Implementation of Program Generators (SAIG 2000). The special issue contains eight full length papers, which were received based on an open call for papers. Six of these papers are substantially extended revisions of papers presented at the workshop itself. © 2003 Cambridge University Press

  • 59.
    Taha, Walid
    Rice University.
    Semantics, Applications and Implementation of Program Generation: International Workshop, SAIG 2000 Montreal, Canada, September 20, 2000 Proceedings2000Proceedings (redaktörskap) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the International Workshop on Semantics Applications, and Implementation of Program Generation, SAIG 2000, held in Montreal, Canada in September 2000. The seven revised full papers and four position papers presented together with four invited abstracts were carefully reviewed and selected from 20 submissions. Among the topics addressed are multi-stage programming languages, compilation of domain-specific languages and module systems, program transformation, low-level program generation, formal specification, termination analysis, and type-based analysis. ©Springer

  • 60.
    Taha, Walid
    Rice University.
    Semantics, applications, and implementation of program generation: second international workshop, SAIG 2001, Florence, Italy, September 6, 2001 00 : proceedings2001Proceedings (redaktörskap) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the Second International Workshop on Semantics, Applications, and Implementation of Program Generation, SAIG 2001, held in Florence, Italy in September 2001. The seven revised full papers and two position papers presented together with an invited survey paper and two abstracts of invited talks were carefully reviewed and selected for inclusion in the book. Among the topics covered are generative programming, meta-programming, aspect-oriented programming, transition compression, goal-directed evaluation, partial evaluation, functional programming, meta-computation, and program optimization.

  • 61.
    Taha, Walid
    et al.
    Oregon Graduate Institute, Hillsboro, Oregon, United States.
    Benaissa, Zine El-Abidine
    Oregon Graduate Institute, Hillsboro, Oregon, United States.
    Tim, Sheard
    Oregon Graduate Institute, Hillsboro, Oregon, United States.
    Multi-Stage Programming: Axiomatization and Type-Safety1998Ingår i: Automata, Languages and Programming: 25th International Colloquium, ICALP'98 Aalborg, Denmark, July 13–17, 1998 Proceedings / [ed] Kim G. Larsen, Sven Skyum & Glynn Winksel, Berlin: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 1998, s. 918-929Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Multi-stage programming provides a new paradigm for constructing efficient solutions to complex problems. Techniques such as program generation, multi-level partial evaluation, and run-time code generation respond to the need for general purpose solutions which do not pay run-time interpretive overheads. This paper provides a foundation for the formal analysis of one such system.

    We introduce a multi-stage language and present its axiomatic and reduction semantics. Our axiomatic semantics is an extension of the call-by-value λ-calculus with staging constructs. We show that staged-languages can “go Wrong” in new ways, and devise a type system that screens out such programs. Finally, we present a proof of the soundness of this type system with respect to the reduction semantics. © Springer 1998

  • 62.
    Taha, Walid
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centrum för forskning om inbyggda system (CERES).
    Brauner, Paul
    Rice University Houston, TX, USA.
    Cartwright, Robert
    Rice University Houston, TX, USA.
    Gaspes, Veronica
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centrum för forskning om inbyggda system (CERES).
    Ames, Aaron
    University of Texas A&M College Station, TX, USA.
    Chapoutot, Alexandre
    ENSTA ParisTech Paris, France.
    A Core Language for Executable Models of Cyber Physical Systems: work in progress report2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently we showed that an expressive class of mathemat-ical equations can be automatically translated into simula-tion codes. Focusing on the expressivity of equations oncontinuous functions, this work considered only minimal in-teraction with discrete behaviors and only a static numberof statically connected components. However, the interac-tion between continuous and hybrid components in manycyber physical domains is highly coupled, and such systemsare often highly dynamic in both respects. This paper givesan overview of a proposed core language for capturing ex-ecutable hybrid models of highly dynamic cyber physicalsystems.

  • 63.
    Taha, Walid
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centrum för forskning om inbyggda system (CERES).
    Brauner, Paul
    Rice University, Houston, TX, USA.
    Zeng, Yingfu
    Rice University, Houston, TX, USA.
    Cartwright, Robert
    Rice University, Houston, TX, USA.
    Gaspes, Veronica
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centrum för forskning om inbyggda system (CERES).
    Ames, Aaron
    University of Texas A&M, College Station, TX, USA.
    Chapoutot, Alexandre
    ENSTA ParisTech, Paris, France.
    A Core Language for Executable Models of Cyber-Physical Systems (Preliminary Report)2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently we showed that an expressive class of mathematical equations can be automatically translated into simulation codes. By focusing on the expressivity of equations formed from continuous functions, this work did not accommodate a wide range of discrete behaviors or a dynamic collection of components. However, the interaction between continuous and hybrid components in many cyber-physical domains is highly coupled, and such systems are often highly dynamic in both respects. This paper gives an overview of a proposed core language for capturing executable hybrid models of highly dynamic cyber-physical systems. © 2012 IEEE.

  • 64.
    Taha, Walid
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för Informationsvetenskap, Data– och Elektroteknik (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centrum för forskning om inbyggda system (CERES). Computer Science, Rice University, Houston, USA.
    Cartwright, Robert
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för Informationsvetenskap, Data– och Elektroteknik (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS). Computer Science, Rice University, Houston, USA.
    Some Challenges for Model-Based Simulation2013Ingår i: Proceedings of the 4th Analytic Virtual Integration of Cyber-Physical Systems Workshop: December 3, Vancouver, Canada / [ed] David Broman & Gabor Karsai, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2013, s. 1-4Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Comprehensive analytical modeling and simulation of cyber-physical systems is an integral part of the process that brings novel designs and products to life. But the effort needed to go from analytical models to running simulation code can impede or derail this process. Our thesisis that this process is amenable to automation, and that automating it will accelerate the pace of innovation. This paper reviews some basic concepts that we found interesting or thought-provoking, and articulates some questions that may help prove or disprove this thesis. While based on ideas drawn from different disciplines, we observe that all these questions pertain in a profound way to how we can reason and compute with real numbers.

  • 65.
    Taha, Walid
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för Informationsvetenskap, Data– och Elektroteknik (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centrum för forskning om inbyggda system (CERES).
    Cartwright, Robert
    Rice University, Houston, Texas, USA.
    The Trouble with Real Numbers2011Ingår i: INFORMATIK 2011: Informatik schafft Communities: Proceedings der 41. GI-Jahrestagun: 4.-7. Oktober 2011: Berlin / [ed] Hans-Ulrich Heiß, Peter Pepper, Holger Schlingloff, Jörg Schneider, Bonn: Bonner Köllen Verlag , 2011, s. 325-Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 66.
    Taha, Walid
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centrum för forskning om inbyggda system (CERES). Rice University, Houston, USA.
    Cartwright, Robert
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS). Rice University, Houston, USA.
    Philippsen, Roland
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR Centrum för tillämpade intelligenta system (IS-lab).
    Zeng, Yingfu
    Rice University, Houston, USA.
    A First Course on Cyber Physical Systems2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Effective and creative CPS development requires expertise in disparate fields that have traditionally been taught in distinct disciplines. At the same time, students seeking a CPS education generally come from diverse educational backgrounds. In this paper we report on our recent experience developing and teaching a course on CPS. The course can be seen as a detailed proposal focused on three three key questions: What are the core elements of CPS? How can these core concepts be integrated in the CPS design process? What types of modeling tools can assist in the design of cyber-physical systems? Experience from the first two offerings of the course is promising, and we discuss the lessons learned. All materials including lecture notes and software used for the course are openly available online.

  • 67.
    Taha, Walid
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centrum för forskning om inbyggda system (CERES). Rice University, Houston, TX, USA.
    Cartwright, Robert
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS). Rice University, Houston, TX, USA.
    Philippsen, Roland
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR Centrum för tillämpade intelligenta system (IS-lab).
    Zeng, Yingfu
    Rice University, Houston, TX, USA.
    Developing A First Course on Cyber-Physical Systems2014Ingår i: Proceedings of the WESE'14: Workshop on Embedded and Cyber-Physical Systems Education / [ed] Martin Edin Grimheden, New York, NY: ACM Press, 2014, artikel-id 6Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Effective and creative cyber-physical systems (CPS) development requires expertise in disparate fields that have traditionally been taught in several distinct disciplines. At the same time, students seeking a CPS education generally come from diverse educational backgrounds. In this paper, we report on our recent experience developing and teaching a course on CPS. The course addresses the following three questions: What are the core elements of CPS? How should these core concepts be integrated in the CPS design process? What types of modeling tools can assist in the design of cyber-physical systems? Our experience with the first three offerings of the course has been positive overall. We also discuss the lessons we learned from some issues that were not handled well. All material including lecture notes and software used for the course are openly available online. © 2014 ACM.

  • 68.
    Taha, Walid
    et al.
    Department of Computer Science, Rice University, Houston, TX, USA.
    Crosby, Scott
    Department of Computer Science, Rice University, Houston, TX, USA.
    Swadi, Kedar
    Department of Computer Science, Rice University, Houston, TX, USA.
    A New Approach to Data Mining for Software Design2004Ingår i: Proceedings of the International Conference on Computer Science, Software Engineering, Information Technology, e-Business, and Applications (CSITeA-04) / [ed] Debnath, N. C. & El-Gendy, H., 2004Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose Exact Software Design Mining (ESDM) as a new approach to managing large software systems. ESDM is concerned with automatically extracting a program generator capable of exactly reconstructing the full code base. To illustrate the potential effectiveness of this approach, we propose, implement, and test a basic algorithm extracting such generators. Experimental results on various benchmarks (including the Linux kernel) are encouraging.

  • 69.
    Taha, Walid
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centrum för forskning om inbyggda system (CERES).
    Duracz, Adam
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centrum för forskning om inbyggda system (CERES).
    Zeng, Yingfu
    Rice University, Houston TX, USA.
    Atkinson, Kevin
    Rice University, Houston TX, USA.
    Bartha, Ferenc Ágoston
    Rice University, Houston TX, USA.
    Brauner, Paul
    Rice University, Houston TX, USA.
    Duracz, Jan
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centrum för forskning om inbyggda system (CERES).
    Xu, Fei
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centrum för forskning om inbyggda system (CERES).
    Cartwright, Robert
    Rice University, Houston TX, USA.
    Konečný, Michal
    Computer Science Group, Aston University, Birmingham, United Kingdom.
    Moggi, Eugenio
    University of Genova, Genoa, Italy.
    Masood, Jawad
    Rice University, Houston TX, USA.
    Andreasson, Björn Pererik
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi.
    Inoue, Jun
    Rice University, Houston TX, USA.
    Sant'Anna, Anita
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR Centrum för tillämpade intelligenta system (IS-lab).
    Philippsen, Roland
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR Centrum för tillämpade intelligenta system (IS-lab).
    Chapoutot, Alexandre
    ENSTA ParisTech - U2IS, Paris, France.
    O'Malley, Marcia
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Rice University, Houston TX, USA.
    Ames, Aaron
    School of Mechanical Eng., Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta GA, USA.
    Gaspes, Veronica
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centrum för forskning om inbyggda system (CERES).
    Hvatum, Lise
    Schlumberger, Houston TX, USA.
    Mehta, Shyam
    Schlumberger, Houston TX, USA.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Dependable Systems, SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Borås, Sweden.
    Grante, Christian
    AB Volvo, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Acumen: An Open-source Testbed for Cyber-Physical Systems Research2016Ingår i: Internet of Things. IoT Infrastructures: Second International Summit, IoT 360° 2015, Rome, Italy, October 27-29, 2015. Revised Selected Papers, Part I / [ed] Benny Mandler, Johann Marquez-Barja, Miguel Elias Mitre Campista, Dagmar Cagáňová, Hakima Chaouchi, Sherali Zeadally, Mohamad Badra, Stefano Giordano, Maria Fazio, Andrey Somov & Radu-Laurentiu Vieriu, Heidelberg: Springer, 2016, Vol. 169, s. 118-130Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Developing Cyber-Physical Systems requires methods and tools to support simulation and verification of hybrid (both continuous and discrete) models. The Acumen modeling and simulation language is an open source testbed for exploring the design space of what rigorous-but-practical next-generation tools can deliver to developers of Cyber-Physical Systems. Like verification tools, a design goal for Acumen is to provide rigorous results. Like simulation tools, it aims to be intuitive, practical, and scalable. However, it is far from evident whether these two goals can be achieved simultaneously.

    This paper explains the primary design goals for Acumen, the core challenges that must be addressed in order to achieve these goals, the "agile research method" taken by the project, the steps taken to realize these goals, the key lessons learned, and the emerging language design. © ICST Institute for Computer Sciences, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering 2016.

  • 70.
    Taha, Walid
    et al.
    Rice University, Houston, TX, USA.
    Ellner, Stephan
    Rice University, Houston, TX, USA.
    Xi, Hongwei
    Boston University, Boston, MA, USA.
    Generating Heap-bounded Programs in a Functional Setting2003Ingår i: Embedded Software: Third International Conference, EMSOFT 2003, Philadelphia, PA, USA, October 13-15, 2003. Proceedings / [ed] Rajeev Alur & Insup Lee, Berlin: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2003, s. 340-355Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    High-level programming languages offer significant expressivity but provide little or no guarantees about resource utilization. Resource-bounded languages provide strong guarantees about the runtime behavior of programs but often lack mechanisms that allow programmers to write more structured, modular, and reusable programs. To overcome this basic tension in language design, this paper advocates taking into account the natural distinction between the development platform and the deployment platform for resource-sensitive software.

    To illustrate this approach, we develop the meta-theory for GeHB, a two-level language in which first stage computations can involve arbitrary resource consumption, but the second stage can only involve functional programs that do not require new heap allocations. As an example of a such a second-stage language we use the recently proposed first-order functional language LFPL. LFPL can be compiled directly to malloc-free, imperative C code. We show that all generated programs in GeHB can be transformed into well-typed LFPL programs, thus ensuring that the results established for LFPL are directly applicable to GeHB. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2003.

  • 71.
    Taha, Walid
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centrum för forskning om inbyggda system (CERES).
    Gaspes, Veronica
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centrum för forskning om inbyggda system (CERES).
    Page, Rex
    University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK, USA.
    Accurate Programming: Thinking about programs in terms of properties2011Ingår i: Proceedings IFIP Working Conference on Domain-Specific Languages / [ed] Olivier Danvy & Chung-chieh Shan, Open Publishing Association , 2011, Vol. 66, s. 236-260Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Accurate programming is a practical approach to producing high quality programs. It combines ideas from test-automation, test-driven development, agile programming, and other state of the art software development methods. In addition to building on approaches that have proven effective in practice, it emphasizes concepts that help programmers sharpen their understanding of both the problems they are solving and the solutions they come up with. This is achieved by encouraging programmers to think about programs in terms of properties.

  • 72.
    Taha, Walid
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centrum för forskning om inbyggda system (CERES). Rice University, Houston, Texas, United States.
    Hedström, Lars-Göran
    Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Xu, Fei
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centrum för forskning om inbyggda system (CERES).
    Duracz, Adam
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centrum för forskning om inbyggda system (CERES).
    Bartha, Ferenc A.
    Rice University, Houston, Texas, United States.
    Zeng, Yingfu
    Rice University, Houston, Texas, United States.
    David, Jennifer
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Gunjan, Gaurav
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Flipping a First Course on Cyber-Physical Systems – An Experience Report2016Ingår i: Proceedings Of The 2016 Workshop On Embedded And Cyber-Physical Systems Education (Wese), New York: ACM Press, 2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The flipped classroom format involves swapping activities traditionally performed inside and outside the classroom. The expected effects from this swap include increased student engagement and peer-to-peer interaction in the classroom, as well as more flexible access to learning materials. Key criteria for successful outcomes from these effects include improved test scores and enhanced student satisfaction. Unfortunately, while many researchers have reported positive outcomes from the approach, some instructors can still encounter difficulties in reproducing this success.

    In this paper we report our experiences with flipping a first course on Cyber-Physical Systems at Halmstad University. The course is required for a Masters level program and is available as an elective for undergraduates. The focus of this report is on three separate editions of the course taught over three years. In the first year, lectures were recorded. In the second, the same instructor taught the course using the flipped format. In the third, new instructors taught it using the flipped classroom format.

    Our experience suggests that flipping a classroom can lead to improved student performance and satisfaction from the first edition. It can also enable new instructors to take over the course and perform at a level comparable to an experienced instructor. On the other hand, it also suggests that the format may require more effort to prepare for, and to teach, than the traditional format, and that a higher level of attention to detail is needed to execute it with positive outcomes. Thus, the format can be demanding for instructors. It is also the case that not all students preferred this format.

  • 73.
    Taha, Walid
    et al.
    Department of Computer Science, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA.
    Hudak, Paul
    Department of Computer Science, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA.
    Wan, Zhanyong
    Department of Computer Science, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA.
    Directions in Functional Programming for Real(-Time) Applications2001Ingår i: Embedded software: First international workshop, EMSOFT 2001, Tahoe City, CA, USA, October 8-10, 2001 : proceedings / [ed] Thomas A Henzinger, Christoph M Kirsch, Berlin: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2001, s. 185-203Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We review the basics of functional programming, and give a brief introduction to emerging techniques and approaches relevant to building real-time software. In doingso we attempt to explain the relevance of functional programming concepts to the real-time applications domain. In particular, we address the use of types to classify properties of real-time computations.

  • 74.
    Taha, Walid
    et al.
    Department of Computer Science, Rice University, Houston, TX, USA.
    Johann, Patricia
    Department of Computer Science, Rutgers University, Camden, New Jersey, USA.
    Staged Notational Definitions2003Ingår i: Generative Programming and Component Engineering: Second International Conference, GPCE 2003, Erfurt, Germany, September 22-25, 2003. Proceedings / [ed] Frank Pfenning & Yannis Smaragdakisd, Berlin: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2003, s. 97-116Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent work proposed defining type-safe macros via interpretation into a multi-stage language. The utility of this approach wasillustrated with a language called MacroML, in which all type checking is carried out before macro expansion. Building on this work, thegoal of this paper is to develop a macro language that makes it easy forprogrammers to reason about terms locally. We show that defining thesemantics of macros in this manner helps in developing and verifyingnot only type systems for macro languages but also equational reasoning principles. Because the MacroML calculus is sensetive to renamingof (what appear locally to be) bound variables, we present a calculus ofstaged notational definitions (SND) that eliminates the renaming problem but retains MacroML’s phase distinction. Additionally, SND incorporates the generality of Griffin’s account of notational definitions. Weexhibit a formal equational theory for SND and prove its soundness.

  • 75.
    Taha, Walid
    et al.
    Department of Computer Science, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA.
    Makholm, Henning
    DIKU, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Hughes, John
    Department of Computing Sciences, Chalmers, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Tag Elimination and Jones-Optimality (Preliminary Report)2001Ingår i: Programs as Data Objects: Second Symposium, PADO2001 Aarhus, Denmark, May 21–23, 2001 Proceedings / [ed] Olivier Danvy & Andrzej Filinski, Berlin: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2001, s. 257-275Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Tag elimination is a program transformation for removing unnecessary tagging and untagging operations from automatically generated programs. Tag elimination was recently proposed as having immediate applications in implementations of domain specific languages (where it can give a two-fold speedup), and may provide a solution to the long standing problem of Jones-optimal specialization in the typed setting. This paper explains in more detail the role of tag elimination in the implementation of domain-specific languages, presents a number of significant simplifications and a high-level, higher-order, typed self-applicable interpreter. We show how tag elimination achieves Jones-optimality. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2001.

  • 76.
    Taha, Walid
    et al.
    Department of Computer Science, Rice University, Houston, TX, USA.
    Nielsen, Michael Florentin
    Department of Computer Science, IT University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Environment Classifiers2003Ingår i: POPL '03: Proceedings of the 30th ACM SIGPLAN-SIGACT symposium on Principles of programming languages, New York, NY: ACM Press, 2003, Vol. 38, s. 26-37Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes and develops the basic theory for a new approach to typing multi-stage languages based a notion of environment classifiers. This approach involves explicit but lightweight tracking - at type-checking time - of the origination environment for future-stage computations. Classification is less restrictive than the previously proposed notions of closedness, and allows for both a more expressive typing of the "run" construct and for a unifying account of typed multi-stage programming. The proposed approach to typing requires making cross-stage persistence (CSP) explicit in the language. At the same time, it offers concrete new insights into the notion of levels and in turn into CSP itself. Type safety is established in the simply-typed setting. As a first step toward introducing classifiers to the Hindley-Milner setting, we propose an approach to integrating the two, and prove type preservation in this setting.

  • 77.
    Taha, Walid
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för Informationsvetenskap, Data– och Elektroteknik (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centrum för forskning om inbyggda system (CERES).
    Philippsen, Roland
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för Informationsvetenskap, Data– och Elektroteknik (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Intelligenta system (IS-lab).
    Modeling Basic Aspects of Cyber-Physical Systems2012Ingår i: 3rd International Workshop on Domain-Specific Languages and models for ROBotic systems (DSLRob-12), 2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Designing novel cyber-physical systems entails significant, costly physical experimentation. Simulation tools can enable the virtualization of experiments. Unfortunately, current tools have shortcomings that limit their utility for virtual experimentation. Language research can be especially helpful in addressing many of these problems. As a first step in this direction, we consider the question of determining what language features are needed to model cyber-physical systems. Using a series of elementary examples of cyber-physical systems, we reflect on the extent to which a small, experimental domain-specific formalism called Acumen suffices for this purpose.

  • 78.
    Taha, Walid
    et al.
    Dept. of Comp. Sci. and Engineering, Oregon Graduate Institute, P.O. Box 91000, Portland, OR 97291, United States.
    Sheard, Tim
    Dept. of Comp. Sci. and Engineering, Oregon Graduate Institute, P.O. Box 91000, Portland, OR 97291, United States.
    MetaML and multi-stage programming with explicit annotations2000Ingår i: Theoretical Computer Science, ISSN 0304-3975, E-ISSN 1879-2294, Vol. 248, nr 1-2, s. 211-242Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We introduce MetaML, a practically motivated, statically typed multi-stage programming language. MetaML is a “real” language. We have built an implementation and used it to solve multi-stage problems. MetaML allows the programmer to construct, combine, and execute code fragments in a type-safe manner. Code fragments can contain free variables, but they obey the static-scoping principle. MetaML performs type-checking for all stages once and for all before the execution of the first stage. Certain anomalies with our first MetaML implementation led us to formalize an illustrative subset of the MetaML implementation. We present both a big-step semantics and type system for this subset, and prove the type system's soundness with respect to a big-step semantics. From a software engineering point of view, this means that generators written in the MetaML subset never generate unsafe programs. A type system and semantics for full MetaML is still ongoing work. We argue that multi-stage languages are useful as programming languages in their own right, that they supply a sound basis for high-level program generation technology, and that they should support features that make it possible for programmers to write staged computations without significantly changing their normal programming style. To illustrate this we provide a simple three-stage example elaborating a number of practical issues. The design of MetaML was based on two main principles that we identified as fundamental for high-level program generation, namely, cross-stage persistence and cross-stage safety. We present these principles, explain the technical problems they give rise to, and how we address with these problems in our implementation.

  • 79.
    Taha, Walid
    et al.
    Oregon Graduate Institute of Science & Technology, Hillsboro, OR, United States.
    Sheard, Tim
    Oregon Graduate Institute of Science & Technology, Hillsboro, OR, United States.
    Multi-Stage Programming with Explicit Annotations1997Ingår i: PEPM '97: Proceedings of the 1997 ACM SIGPLAN Symposium on Partial Evaluation and Semantics-based Program Manipulation, New York, NY: ACM Press, 1997, Vol. 32, s. 203-217Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We introduce MetaML, a statically-typed multi-stage programming language extending Nielson and Nielson's two stage notation to an arbitrary number of stages. MetaML extends previous work by introducing four distinct staging annotations which generalize those published previously [25, 12, 7, 6]. We give a static semantics in which type checking is done once and for all before the first stage, and a dynamic semantics which introduces a new concept of cross-stage persistence, which requires that variables available in any stage are also available in all future stages. We illustrate that staging is a manual form of binding time analysis. We explain why, even in the presence of automatic binding time analysis, explicit annotations are useful, especially for programs with more than two stages. A thesis of this paper is that multi-stage languages are useful as programming languages in their own right, and should support features that make it possible for programmers to write staged computations without significantly changing their normal programming style. To illustrate this we provide a simple three stage example, and an extended two-stage example elaborating a number of practical issues.

  • 80.
    Taha, Walid
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centrum för forskning om inbyggda system (CERES).
    Zeng, Yingfu
    Rice University, Houston, TX, USA.
    Duracz, Adam
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centrum för forskning om inbyggda system (CERES).
    Xu, Fei
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centrum för forskning om inbyggda system (CERES).
    Atkinson, Kevin
    Rice University, Houston, TX, USA.
    Brauner, Paul
    Rice University, Houston, TX, USA.
    Cartwright, Robert
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS). Rice University, Houston, TX, USA.
    Philippsen, Roland
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR Centrum för tillämpade intelligenta system (IS-lab).
    Developing a first course on cyber-physical systems2016Ingår i: ACM SIGBED Review, E-ISSN 1551-3688, Vol. 14, nr 1, s. 44-52Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Effective and creative Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) development requires expertise in disparate fields that have traditionally been taught in several distinct disciplines. At the same time, students seeking a CPS education generally come from diverse educational backgrounds. In this paper, we report on our recent experience of developing and teaching a course on CPS. The course addresses the following three questions: What are the core elements of CPS? How should these core concepts be integrated in the CPS design process? What types of modeling tools can assist in the design of Cyber-Physical Systems? Our experience with the first four offerings of the course has been positive overall. We also discuss the lessons we learned from some issues that were not handled well. All material including lecture notes and software used for the course are openly available online.

  • 81.
    Wadler, Philiip
    et al.
    Bell Laboratories, Lucent Technologies.
    Taha, Walid
    Oregon Graduate Institute.
    MacQueen, David
    Bell Laboratories, Lucent Technologies.
    How to add laziness to a strict language without even being odd1998Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 82.
    Wan, Zhanyong
    et al.
    Department of Computer Science, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA.
    Taha, Walid
    Department of Computer Science, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA.
    Hudak, Paul
    Department of Computer Science, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA.
    Event-Driven FRP2002Ingår i: Practical Aspects of Declarative Languages: 4th International Symposium, PADL 2002 Portland, OR, USA, January 19–20, 2002 Proceedings / [ed] Shriram Krishnamurthi & C. R. Ramakrishnan, Berlin: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2002, s. 155-172Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Functional Reactive Programming (FRP) is a high-level declarative language for programming reactive systems. Previous work on FRP has demonstrated its utility in a wide range of application domains, including animation, graphical user interfaces, and robotics. FRP has an elegant continuous-time denotational semantics. However, it guarantees no bounds on execution time or space, thus making it unsuitable for many embedded real-time applications. To alleviate this problem, we recently developed Real-Time FRP (RT-FRP), whose operational semantics permits us to formally guarantee bounds on both execution time and space.

    In this paper we present a formally verifiable compilation strategy from a new language based on RT-FRP into imperative code. The new language, called Event-Driven FRP (E-FRP), is more tuned to the paradigm of having multiple external events. While it is smaller than RT-FRP, it features a key construct that allows us to compile the language into efficient code. We have used this language and its compiler to generate code for a small robot controller that runs on a PIC16C66 micro-controller. Because the formal specification of compilation was crafted more for clarity and for technical convenience, we describe an implementation that produces more efficient code.

  • 83.
    Wan, Zhanyong
    et al.
    Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA.
    Taha, Walid
    Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA.
    Hudak, Paul
    Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA.
    Real-Time FRP2001Ingår i: ICFP '01: Proceedings of the sixth ACM SIGPLAN international conference on Functional programming, New York, NY: ACM Special Interest Group on Computer Science Education, 2001, Vol. 36, s. 146-156Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Functional reactive programming (FRP) is a declarative programming paradigm where the basic notions are continuous, time-varying behaviors and discrete, event-based reactivity. FRP has been used successfully in many reactive programming domains such as animation, robotics, and graphical user interfaces. The success of FRP in these domains encourages us to consider its use in real-time applications, where it is crucial that the cost of running a program be bounded and known before run-time. But previous work on the semantics and implementation of FRP was not explicitly concerned about the issues of cost. In fact, the resource consumption of FRP programs in the current implementation is often hard to predict. As a first step towards addressing these concerns, this paper presents Real-Time FRP (RT-FRP), a statically-typed language where the time and space cost of each execution step for a given program is statically bounded. To take advantage of existing work on languages with bounded resources, we split RT-FRP into two parts: a reactive part that captures the essential ingredients of FRP programs, and a base language part that can be instantiated to any generic programming language that has been shown to be terminating and resource-bounded. This allows us to focus on the issues specific to RT-FRP, namely, two forms of recursion. After presenting the operational explanation of what can go wrong due to the presence of recursion, we show how the typed version of the language is terminating and resource-bounded. Most of our FRP programs are expressible directly in RT-FRP. The rest are expressible via a simple mechanism that integrates RT-FRP with the base language. Copyright 2001 ACM.

  • 84.
    Westbrook, Edwin
    et al.
    Rice University, USA.
    Ricken, Mathias
    Rice University, USA.
    Inoue, Jun
    Rice University, USA.
    Yao, Yilong
    Rice University, USA.
    Abdelatif, Tamer
    Rice University, USA.
    Taha, Walid
    Rice University, USA.
    Mint: Java Multi-stage Programming Using Weak Separability2010Ingår i: PLDI '10: proceedings of the 2010 ACM SIGPLAN Conference on Programming Language Design and Implementation : June 5-10, 2010, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, New York, N.Y.: ACM Press, 2010, s. 400-411Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Multi-stage programming (MSP) provides a disciplined approach to run-time code generation. In the purely functional setting, it has been shown how MSP can be used to reduce the overhead of abstractions, allowing clean, maintainable code without paying performance penalties. Unfortunately, MSP is difficult to combine with imperative features, which are prevalent in mainstream languages. The central difficulty is scope extrusion, wherein free variables can inadvertently be moved outside the scopes of their binders. This paper proposes a new approach to combining MSP with imperative features that occupies a "sweet spot" in the design space in terms of how well useful MSP applications can be expressed and how easy it is for programmers to understand. The key insight is that escapes (or "anti-quotes") must be weakly separable from the rest of the code, i.e. the computational effects occurring inside an escape that are visible outside the escape are guaranteed to not contain code. To demonstrate the feasibility of this approach, we formalize a type system based on Lightweight Java which we prove sound, and we also provide an implementation, called Mint, to validate both the expressivity of the type system and the effect of staging on the performance of Java programs. © 2010 ACM.

  • 85.
    Xiang, Yang
    et al.
    Deakin University, Burwood VIC, Australia.
    Taha, Walid
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centrum för forskning om inbyggda system (CERES).
    Wang, Hua
    University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba QL, Australia.
    EUC 2011: Message from the program committee chairs2011Ingår i: Proceedings - 2011 IFIP 9th International Conference on Embedded and Ubiquitous Computing, EUC 2011, s. xiii-xiiiArtikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Presents the welcome message from the conference proceedings.

  • 86.
    Zeng, Yingfu
    et al.
    Rice University, TX, United States.
    Bartha, Ferenc
    Rice University, TX, United States.
    Taha, Walid
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centrum för forskning om inbyggda system (CERES).
    Compile-Time Extensions to Hybrid ODEs2017Ingår i: Electronic Proceedings in Theoretical Computer Science, ISSN 2075-2180, E-ISSN 2075-2180, s. 52-70Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Reachability analysis for hybrid systems is an active area of development and has resulted in many promising prototype tools. Most of these tools allow users to express hybrid system as automata with a set of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) associated with each state, as well as rules for transitions between states. Significant effort goes into developing and verifying and correctly implementing those tools. As such, it is desirable to expand the scope of applicability tools of such as far as possible. With this goal, we show how compile-time transformations can be used to extend the basic hybrid ODE formalism traditionally supported in hybrid reachability tools such as SpaceEx or Flow*. The extension supports certain types of partial derivatives and equational constraints. These extensions allow users to express, among other things, the Euler-Lagrangian equation, and to capture practically relevant constraints that arise naturally in mechanical systems. Achieving this level of expressiveness requires using a binding time-analysis (BTA), program differentiation, symbolic Gaussian elimination, and abstract interpretation using interval analysis. Except for BTA, the other components are either readily available or can be easily added to most reachability tools. The paper therefore focuses on presenting both the declarative and algorithmic specifications for the BTA phase, and establishes the soundness of the algorithmic specifications with respect to the declarative one.

  • 87.
    Zeng, Yingfu
    et al.
    Rice University, Houston, USA.
    Chad, Rose
    Rice University, Houston, USA.
    Taha, Walid
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centrum för forskning om inbyggda system (CERES). Rice University, Houston, USA.
    Duracz, Adam
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centrum för forskning om inbyggda system (CERES).
    Atkinson, Kevin
    Rice University, Houston, USA.
    Philippsen, Roland
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR Centrum för tillämpade intelligenta system (IS-lab).
    Cartwright, Robert
    Rice University, Houston, USA.
    O'Malley, Marcia
    Rice University, Houston, USA.
    Modeling Electromechanical Aspects of Cyber-Physical Systems2016Ingår i: Journal of Software Engineering for Robotics, ISSN 2035-3928, E-ISSN 2035-3928, Vol. 7, nr 1, s. 100-119Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Model-based tools have the potential to significantly improve the process of developing novel cyber-physical systems (CPS). In this paper, we consider the question of what language features are needed to model such systems. We use a small, experimental hybrid systems modeling language to show how a number of basic and pervasive aspects of cyber-physical systems can be modeled concisely using the small set of language constructs. We then consider four, more complex, case studies from the domain of robotics. The first, a quadcopter, illustrates that these constructs can support the modeling of interesting systems. The second, a serial robot, provides a concrete example of why it is important to support static partial derivatives, namely, that it significantly improves the way models of rigid body dynamics can be expressed. The third, a linear solenoid actuator, illustrates the language’s ability to integrate multiphysics subsystems. The fourth and final, a compass gait biped, shows how a hybrid system with non-trivial dynamics is modeled. Through this analysis, the work establishes a strong connection between the engineering needs of the CPS domain and the language features that can address these needs. The study builds the case for why modeling languages can be improved by integrating several features, most notably, partial derivatives, differentiation without duplication, and support for equations. These features do not appear to be addressed in a satisfactory manner in mainstream modeling and simulation tools.

  • 88.
    Zeng, Yingfu
    et al.
    Rice University, Houston, USA.
    Rose, Chad
    Rice University, Houston, USA.
    Brauner, Paul
    Rice University, Houston, USA.
    Taha, Walid
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för Informationsvetenskap, Data– och Elektroteknik (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centrum för forskning om inbyggda system (CERES). Rice University, Houston, USA.
    Masood, Jawad
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för Informationsvetenskap, Data– och Elektroteknik (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR Centrum för tillämpade intelligenta system (IS-lab). Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för Informationsvetenskap, Data– och Elektroteknik (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centrum för forskning om inbyggda system (CERES).
    Philippsen, Roland
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för Informationsvetenskap, Data– och Elektroteknik (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR Centrum för tillämpade intelligenta system (IS-lab).
    O’Malley, Marcia
    Rice University, Houston, USA.
    Cartwright, Robert
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för Informationsvetenskap, Data– och Elektroteknik (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS). Rice University, Houston, USA.
    Modeling Basic Aspects of Cyber-Physical Systems, Part II2013Ingår i: Proceedings DSLRob 2013 / [ed] Christian Schlegel, Ulrik Pagh Schultz, Serge Stinckwich, 2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We consider the question of what language features are needed to effectively model cyber-physical systems (CPS). In previous work, we proposed a core language called Acumen as a way to study this question, and showed how several basic aspects of CPS can be modeled clearly in a language with a small set of constructs. This paper reports on the result of our analysis of two more complex case studies from the domain of rigid body dynamics. The first one, a quadcopter, illustrates that Acumen can support larger, more interesting systems than previously shown. The second one, a serial robot, provides a concrete example of why explicit support for static partial derivatives can significantly improve the expressivity of a CPS modeling language.

  • 89.
    Zeng, Yingfu
    et al.
    Rice University, Houston, TX, USA.
    Rose, Chad
    Rice University, Houston, TX, USA.
    Brauner, Paul
    Rice University, Houston, TX, USA.
    Taha, Walid
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centrum för forskning om inbyggda system (CERES). Rice University, Houston, TX, USA.
    Masood, Jawad
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Philippsen, Roland
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR Centrum för tillämpade intelligenta system (IS-lab).
    O'Malley, Marcia
    Rice University, Houston, TX, USA.
    Cartwright, Robert
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS). Rice University, Houston, TX, USA.
    Modeling Basic Aspects of Cyber-Physical Systems, Part II (Extended Abstract)2014Ingår i: 2014 IEEE International Conference on High Performance Computing and Communications, 2014 IEEE 6th International Symposium on Cyberspace Safety and Security, 2014 IEEE 11th International Conference on Embedded Software and Systems (HPCC, CSS, ICESS) / [ed] Randall Bilof, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Computer Society, 2014, s. 550-557Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We continue to consider the question of what language features are needed to effectively model cyber-physical systems (CPS). In previous work, we proposed using a core language as a way to study this question, and showed how several basic aspects of CPS can be modeled clearly in a language with a small set of constructs. This paper reports on the result of our analysis of two, more complex, case studies from the domain of rigid body dynamics. The first one, a quadcopter, illustrates that previously proposed core language can support larger, more interesting systems than previously shown. The second one, a serial robot, provides a concrete example of why we should add language support for static partial derivatives, namely that it would significantly improve the way models of rigid body dynamics can be expressed. © 2014 IEEE.

  • 90.
    Zhu, Angela Yun
    et al.
    Department of Computer Science, Rice University Houston, TX 77005, USA.
    Inoue, Jun
    Department of Computer Science, Rice University Houston, TX 77005, USA.
    Peralta, Marisa Linnea
    Department of Computer Science, Rice University Houston, TX 77005, USA.
    Taha, Walid
    Department of Computer Science, Rice University Houston, TX 77005, USA.
    O’Malley, Marcia
    Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science Rice University, Houston, TX 77005, USA.
    Powell, Dane
    Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science Rice University, Houston, TX 77005, USA.
    Implementing Haptic Feedback Environments from High-level Descriptions2009Ingår i: Embedded Software and Systems, 2009. ICESS '09. International Conference on: proceedings, Los Alamitos, Calif.: IEEE Computer Society, 2009, s. 482-489Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Haptic feedback can be a critical component of virtual environments used in cognitive research, rehabilitation, military training, and entertainment. A limiting factor in the innovation and the acceptance of virtual environments with haptic feedback is the time and cost required tobuild them. This paper presents a development environmentcalled iAcumen that supports a new approach for programming such systems. This approach allows the developer todirectly express physical equations describing the underlying dynamics. By raising the level of abstraction for thedeveloper, we avoid many of the problems that limit the effectiveness of traditional approaches.

  • 91.
    Zhu, Angela Yun
    et al.
    Department of Computer Science, Rice University Houston, Houston, TX, USA.
    Taha, Walid
    Department of Computer Science, Rice University Houston, Houston, TX, USA.
    Cartwright, Robert
    Department of Computer Science, Rice University Houston, Houston, TX, USA.
    Martel, Matthieu
    Laboratoire ELIAUS-DALI, Universit´e de Perpignan, Perpignan Cedex, France.
    Siek, Jeremy G.
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of Colorado, Boulder, USA.
    In Pursuit of Real Answers2009Ingår i: 2009 International Conference on Embedded Software and Systems: ICESS 2009 : proceedings, 25-27 May, 2009, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, P.R. China, Los Alamitos, Calif.: IEEE Press, 2009, s. 115-122Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Digital computers permeate our physical world. This phenomenon creates a pressing need for tools that help us understand a priori how digital computers can affect their physical environment. In principle, simulation can be a powerful tool for animating models of the world. Today, however, there is not a single simulation environment that comes with a guarantee that the results of the simulationare determined purely by a real-valued model and not by artifacts of the digitized implementation. As such, simulation with guaranteed fidelity does not yet exist. Towards addressing this problem, we offer an expository account of what is known about exact real arithmetic. We argue that this technology, which has roots that are over 200 years old, bears significant promise as offering exactly the right technology to build simulation environments with guaranteed fidelity. And while it has only been sparsely studied in this large span of time, there are reasons to believe that the time is right to accelerate research in this direction.

  • 92.
    Zhu, Yun
    et al.
    Rice University, USA.
    Westbrook, Edwin
    Rice University, USA.
    Inoue, Jun
    Rice University, USA.
    Chapoutot, Alexandre
    Rice University, USA.
    Salama, Cherif
    Rice University, USA.
    Peralta, Marisa
    Rice University, USA.
    Martin, Travis
    Rice University, USA.
    Taha, Walid
    Rice University.
    O’Malley, Marcia
    Rice University, USA.
    Cartwright, Robert
    Rice University, USA.
    Ames, Aaron
    Texas A&M, USA.
    Bhattacharya, Raktim
    Texas A&M, USA.
    Mathematical Equations as Executable Models of Mechanical Systems2010Ingår i: Proceedings of the 1st ACM/IEEE International Conference on Cyber-Physical Systems, ICCPS '10, New York, NY: ACM Press, 2010, s. 1-11Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Cyber-physical systems comprise digital components that directly interact with a physical environment. Specifying the behavior desired of such systems requires analytical modeling of physical phenomena. Similarly, testing them requires simulation of continuous systems. While numerous tools support later stages of developing simulation codes, there is still a large gap between analytical modeling and building running simulators. This gap significantly impedes the ability of scientists and engineers to develop novel cyber-physical systems. We propose bridging this gap by automating the mapping from analytical models to simulation codes. Focusing on mechanical systems as an important class of physical systems, we study the form of analytical models that arise in this domain, along with the process by which domain experts map them to executable codes. We show that the key steps needed to automate this mapping are 1) a light-weight analysis to partially direct equations, 2) a binding-time analysis, and 3) symbolic differentiation. In addition to producing a prototype modeling environment, we highlight some limitations in the state of the art in tool support of simulation, and suggest ways in which some of these limitations could be overcome. © 2010 ACM.

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