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  • 51.
    Weman Josefsson, Karin
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI). University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Halila, Fawzi
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL).
    Johnson, Urban
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI).
    Lindwall, Magnus
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Wickström, Nicholas
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR Centrum för tillämpade intelligenta system (IS-lab).
    Wärnestål, Pontus
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Människa och Informationsteknologi (MI-lab).
    Digital innovations and self-determined exercise motivation: a person-centred perspective2014Inngår i: Vitalis – Nordens ledande eHälsomöte 2014: Vetenskapliga papers presenterade vid Vitalis konferens, Svenska Mässan, Göteborg, 8-10 april 2014, Göteborg: Vitalis & Sahlgrenska akademin, Göteborgs universitet , 2014, s. 22-25Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Health care costs are increasing twice as fast as wealth, making health promotion and development of cost-effective care increasingly important in order to generate sustainable health care solutions. E-health, applications and interactive tools for exercise promotion flourish; but despite this and an overflow of information regarding health benefits of regular physical activity, exercise adherence has proven to be a significant challenge. This article concerns a project aimed to design an interactive tool based on comprehensive knowledge from the field of psychology combined with expertise from information technology and innovation, based on e-health industrial requirements and user needs. The research group will, together with the expertise and infrastructure of the collaborating companies Health Profile Institute AB and Tappa Service AB, support and progress an existing PhD-project on digital interventions in exercise motivation. This will be done by designing; applying and evaluating a person-centred digital intervention prototype for exercise motivation and adherence enhancement based on Self-Determination Theory.

  • 52.
    Weman Josefsson, Karin
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI).
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI).
    Johnson, Urban
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI).
    Lindwall, Magnus
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Effects of a digital intervention program on motivational regulation patterns in an exercise context: A latent transition analysis of the “motivational soup”2017Inngår i: Sport Psychology: Linking theory to practice: Proceedings of the XIV ISSP World Congress of Sport Psychology / [ed] Gangyan, S., Cruz, J. & Jaenes, J.C., Sevilla: International Society of Sport Psychology , 2017, s. 319-320Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the self-determination theory of motivation the concept “motivational soup” refers to motivational regulations forming profiles of accumulated drives towards behavior. Few studies have examined the probability of intervention effects to change such motivational profiles over time, knowledge that might inform future program design to promote sustainable exercise motivation. Participants (N=318) were 279 women and 40 men, aged 23-67 years (Mage=46.7; SD=9.4) consisting of adult members of a web-based step contest provided by their employers. Of the 166 individuals randomly assigned to the experimental group, 85 logged in to the digital intervention platform at least once and were considered treated as intended. This group had access to a web-based digital exercise motivation intervention based on SDT for three weeks. The trial had three measure points; T1 baseline, T2 (3 weeks) and a follow up T3 (6 weeks). To investigate the potential effect of the intervention on the odds of participants to change motivational profiles between T1 and T3 we used Latent Transition Analysis. The intervention had positive main effects on exercise level. A four profile solution showed good quality of classification into the separate profiles (entropy = .92). The profiles were labeled high-high (n=262), high-low (n=26), low-high (n=8), and low-low (n=12), where the label high reflected a more autonomous regulation pattern (missing n=10). Participants in the autonomous profile at T1 had high probabilities of remaining there at T3, but slightly lower probability in the control (82%) than the intervention (95%) condition. Participants in the control condition also had a statistically significant increased probability to belong to the profile with a decreased level autonomy T3 (high-low profile) (OR=4.0, p=.008).These results indicate that this digital exercise motivation intervention can increase the likelihood for participants to sustain autonomous motivation profiles over time.

  • 53.
    Weman Josefsson, Karin
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI).
    Johnson, Urban
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI).
    Lindwall, Magnus
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Zooming in on the effects – Psychological need satisfaction mediates the effects of a digital exercise intervention on motivational regulations and exercise behavior2017Inngår i: Sport Psychology: Linking theory to practice: Proceedings of the XIV ISSP World Congress of Sport Psychology / [ed] Gangyan, S., Cruz, J. & Jaenes, J.C., Sevilla: International Society of Sport Psychology , 2017, s. 309-310Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Examination of the mediating mechanisms within the self-determination theory process model will provide deeper insight in the mechanisms of motivational regulations and psychological need satisfaction. Optimally, such studies should also include examination of action theory links and conceptual theory links to consider theory capacity (Cerin & MacKinnon, 2009). We studied 318 participants (aged 23-67 years) included in a controlled trial testing a digital intervention tool aiming to promote self-determined exercise motivation using 3 wave measurement over the course of 6 weeks. The participants (279 women and 40 men) were randomized into experimental and control group and completed a web-based test battery with the SDT-related measures (Psychological needs in exercise scale, Behavioral regulations in exercise scale -2, and Leisure time exercise questionnaire) at baseline, post intervention (3 weeks) and follow up (6 weeks). Mediation analyses were conducted using the SPSS macro Process by Hayes (2013). Results showed indirect effects of psychological need satisfaction regarding the effect of the intervention on motivation and exercise behavior at follow up measures. In the group of participants exposed to the intervention, higher levels of autonomy need satisfaction at follow-up predicted lower levels of amotivation and external regulation. In these models we found positive significant action theory links and negative conceptual theory links, showing the intervention to impact autonomy in positive direction, while higher autonomy need satisfaction in turn decreased controlled motivation and amotivation. Higher scores of autonomy need satisfaction at follow-up also predicted higher scores of identified regulation, intrinsic regulation and autonomous motivation. Lower levels of amotivation were linked with higher levels of total exercise. In sum, the results reflect expectations from a a self-determination theory perspective and are in favor of intervention efficacy.

  • 54.
    Weman Josefsson, Karin
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI). Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Johnson, Urban
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI).
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Zooming in on the Effects: a Controlled Trial on Motivation and Exercise Behaviour in a Digital Context2018Inngår i: Current psychology (New Brunswick, N.J.), ISSN 1046-1310, E-ISSN 1936-4733, Vol. 37, nr 1, s. 250-262Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is a description of a short-term digital exercise intervention based on the theoretical framework self-determination theory and tested in a controlled trial. The sample consisted of 318 adult women (n = 279) and men (n = 40) aged 23–67 years (M = 46.7; SD = 9.4) participating in a digital step contest provided by their employer. All participants completed study baseline measures via validated web-based versions of the following instruments: Basic Psychological Needs in Exercise Scale, Behavioural Regulations in Exercise Questionnaire-2, and Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire. These measures were repeated twice, 3 weeks (post-intervention) and 6 weeks (follow-up) after study baseline. The experimental group had access to the intervention platform for three weeks. Data were analysed by analyses of covariance and mediation variable analysis. Results showed the intervention to affect exercise level and intensity as well as basic psychological need satisfaction and behavioural regulations. Intervention effects on amotivation post-intervention were found to mediate total exercise behaviour at follow-up. Moderation analyses showed intervention effects on light exercise to be stronger for those participants engaging in moderate or high levels of light activities at study baseline. Also, the effect on identified regulation was stronger for those with low levels of identified regulation at study baseline. This study adds to the knowledge on exercise motivation based on short-term intervention effects on level and intensity of exercise and physical activity. The use of mediating and moderating analyses uncover processes underlying the main intervention effects. Findings are discussed in relation to self-determination theory and previous research. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New York

  • 55.
    Weman Josefsson, Karin
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI), Idrott, hälsa och fysisk aktivitet.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Fröberg, Kristina
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Sara
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Exercise Motivation and Behaviour: A Brief Theory-based Intervention2014Inngår i: Book of Abstracts of the 19th Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science – 2nd - 5th July 2014, Amsterdam – The Netherlands / [ed] De Haan, A., De Ruiter, C. J., Tsolakidis, E., Cologne: European College of Sport Science , 2014, s. 501-501Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    The need for adequately designed and well-delivered interventions successfully increasing physical activity and exercise has long been highlighted [1]. Furthermore, interventions based on adequate theory and examined by proper analyses enable researchers to identify central mechanisms of change [2], important for successful intervention design [3].

    Methods

    The present study examined potential effects of a short theory based intervention on exercise motivation and behaviour in a randomized controlled trial design. Self-Determination Theory, Cognitive Behavioural Therapy, Motivational Interviewing and Relapse-Prevention Model were used as guiding frameworks. The research questions concerned whether the intervention would influence (a) exercise level and intensity, (b) motivation quality, (c) autonomy and competence need satisfaction, and (d) potential indirect effects of self-determined motivation on exercise were also examined. The participants (N=64) completed self-reported measures of exercise level and intensity (Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire; LTEQ), of motivational quality (Behavioral Regulations in Exercise Questionnaire-2; BREQ-2) and of autonomy and competence need satisfaction (Psychological Needs in Exercise Scale; PNSE) at baseline and after the six weeks of intervention.

    Results

    The results showed significant intervention effects for both exercise level and intensity, as well as in motivation quality. Furthermore, the effect of the intervention on exercise was   mediated by motivational profile, in particular identified regulation.

    Discussion

    Despite the short-term and small scale nature of the intervention, effects were found on exercise behaviour and this effect was mediated by self-determined motivation. The results are generally in line with theoretical expectations from an SDT perspective. Furthermore, the study adds interesting findings of potential mechanisms behind exercise behaviour and motivation. Future research should further explore the theoretical mechanisms of behaviour change in order to facilitate tailoring of effective exercise interventions and enhancing motivation.

    References

    1. WHO, Global recommendations on physical activity for health. 2010, World Health Organization.: Geneva.
    2. Rhodes, R.E. and L.A. Pfaeffli, Mediators of physical activity behaviour change among adult non-clinical populations: a review update. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act, 2010. 7: p. 37.
    3. Fortier, M.S., et al., Promoting physical activity: development and testing of self-determination theory-based interventions. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 2012. 9(20).
  • 56.
    Weman Josefsson, Karin
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI), Idrott, hälsa och fysisk aktivitet. University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI).
    Considering moderators and mediators in self-determined motivation and exercise behaviour2014Inngår i: Association for Applied Sport Psychology – 2014 Conference Proceedings & Program / [ed] Daniel Weigand, Indianapolis, IN: Association for Applied Sport Psychology , 2014, s. 75-76Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to successfully enhance exercise motivation and behaviour change, it is of particular importance to explore and understand theoretical mechanisms underpinning exercise behaviours. Research based on adequate theory and using appropriate mediating variable analyses (MVA) could inform practice by identifying the active ingredients of successful exercise promotion intervention designs and distinguishing elements that could (or should) be excluded. Such an approach could not only promote cost-effectiveness, but also contribute to the understanding of sustainable behavior change and provide valuable practical implications for intervention design. This study aimed to examine the abovementioned mechanisms based on Self-Determination Theory (SDT; Deci & Ryan, 1985; 2000). Adult active members of an Internet-based exercise program (n = 1,091) between 18 and 78 years of age completed a test battery including the Basic Psychological Needs in Exercise Scale (BPNES); the Behavioural Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire-2 (BREQ-2) and Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire (LTEQ). Data was analysed by structural equation modelling (SEM) and mediation analyses using bootstrapping resampling approach. Mplus version 7.1 was used to analyse the data with the maximum likelihood (ML) and robust maximum likelihood (MLM) estimators. Need satisfaction was found to predict self-determined motivation, which in turn predicted exercise, especially for women. Self-determined motivation mediated the association between need satisfaction and exercise, and these associations were moderated by gender and age. The results highlight the potential impact of considering moderating effects for a better understanding of how and for whom exercise interventions could influence behavioural outcomes. Future research would benefit practice by further exploration of underlying mechanisms in terms of mediating and moderating effects in order to be able to make adequate recommendations on how to tailor SDT intervention designs, e.g. by addressing age and gender issues.

  • 57.
    Weman Josefsson, Karin
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI).
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI).
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI), Idrott, hälsa och fysisk aktivitet.
    Examining patterns of change in self-determined exercise motivation using latent growth curve models2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Few previous studies have targeted how self-determined motivation changes within persons across shorter periods of time (e.g., weeks). Latent growth curve models allow study of within-person change and between-person differences in within-person change over time. The purpose of the study was to study within-person change and between-person differences in change in exercise and motivation in a sample of 2797 exercisers in a natural course of events (i.e. no intervention) over a period of eight weeks. Motivational variables related to self-determination theory were measured by the Basic Psychological Needs in Exercise Scale (BPNES) and the Behavioral Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire-2 (BREQ-2) and Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire (GLTEQ) was used to assess self-reported exercise level and intensity. The data was analyzed by latent growth curve models in Mplus. The results show significant increase in the average change (mean slope) of psychological need satisfaction whereas there was significant decrease in amotivation. Furthermore, the slopes of variance were significant for all variables except for autonomy, competence and intrinsic motivation, indicating a pattern of heterogeneity in terms of within-person change. No significant changes were detected in exercise level or intensity (METS). The results will be used as reference data in a future intervention study aiming to enhance self-determined exercise motivation in a comparable population.

  • 58.
    Weman Josefsson, Karin
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI), Idrott, hälsa och fysisk aktivitet.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI).
    Sebire, Simon J.
    University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom.
    Standage, Martyn
    University of Bath, Bath, United Kingdom.
    Viewing exercise goal content through a person-oriented lens: A self-determination perspective2016Inngår i: Psychology of Sport And Exercise, ISSN 1469-0292, E-ISSN 1878-5476, nr 27, s. 85-92Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study examined profiles of exercise goal content and the associations with need satisfaction, motivation regulation and exercise behavior, combining variable-centered and person-centered analytical approaches. The participants were 1084 (279 men and 805 women) Swedish adults, aged between 18 and 78 years, that were all active members of an Internet-based exercise program. Latent profile analysis (LPA) and structural equation modeling (SEM) were used to analyze the data. In SEM analysis intrinsic goals were related to need satisfaction and autonomous motivation, whereas extrinsic goals were most strongly associated with controlled motivation. LPA revealed five unique latent classes of goal content. These five classes differed in need satisfaction, motivation regulation and exercise behavior, with classes being characterized by more intrinsic goal profiles reporting higher need satisfaction and autonomous motivation. The results are discussed from a self-determination theory perspective and the benefits of using both variable and person-centered analytical approaches are highlighted. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved

  • 59.
    Weman Josefsson, Karin
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI).
    Lindwall, Magnus
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sebire, Simon
    University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.
    Standage, Martyn
    University of Bath, Bath, UK.
    A latent profile analysis of goal content in exercise2015Inngår i: ISBNPA 2015: Advancing Behaviour Change Science : 3rd – 6th June 2015, 2015, s. 142-142Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Drawing from Self-determination theory, the main aim is to examine if there are different homogenous subgroups of people with similar latent profiles (that differ from other subgroups) regarding goal content in the exercise domain.

    Methods: Active members (n=1084) of an internet-based exercise program between 18 and 78 years of age (279 men and 805 women) completed a web survey including the Goal Content for Exercise Questionnaire (GCEQ; Sebire, Standage & Vansteenkiste, 2008). The five variables measured by the GCEQ, social affiliation (SA), health management (HM),skill development (SD), social recognition (SR) and image (IM) were used as input variables in latent profile analysis (LPA) in Mplus. Variables related to Self- determination theory, basic psychological needs and motivational regulations, as well as exercise behavior were used as distal outcome variables.

    Results: A five class model constituted the most statistically suitable and theoretically meaningful solution. Class 1 score low on all GCEQ five variables. Class 2 also scores relatively low on all variables aside from HM which was average. Class 3 is primarily driven by high scores on the external goals IM and SR. Class 4 show a reversed profile compared to class 3 with high scores on SA and SD and IM and SR being below average. Finally class 5 display high scores on all variables, in particular on SA, SR and SD. The five classes also differed in terms of distal outcome variables linked to the self-determination theory, such as basic psychological need satisfaction, motivational regulations and exercise behavior.

    Conclusions: Several unique latent profiles of goal content in exercise were detected. Significant differences across these latent profiles in basic needs, motivational regulations and exercise behavior were also found. Person-centered analyses, such as LPA, may reveal interesting patterns of complex interactions that are hard to identify using traditional variable centered analyses.

  • 60.
    Weman-Josefsson, Karin Anna
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI), Idrott, hälsa och fysisk aktivitet. University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI), Idrott, hälsa och fysisk aktivitet.
    Need satisfaction, motivational regulations and exercise: moderation and mediation effects2015Inngår i: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, E-ISSN 1479-5868, Vol. 12, nr 1, s. 1-11, artikkel-id 67Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Based on the Self-determination theory process model, this study aimed to explore relationships between the latent constructs of psychological need satisfaction, autonomous motivation and exercise behaviour; the mediational role of autonomous motivation in the association of psychological need satisfaction with exercise behaviour; as well as gender and age differences in the aforementioned associations.

    Methods: Adult active members of an Internet-based exercise program (n = 1,091) between 18 and 78 years of age completed a test battery on motivational aspects based on Self-determination theory. The Basic Psychological Needs in Exercise Scale and the Behavioural Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire-2 were used to measure need satisfaction and type of motivation and the Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire to measure self-reported exercise.

    Results: Need satisfaction predicted autonomous motivation, which in turn predicted exercise, especially for women. Autonomous motivation was found to mediate the association between need satisfaction and exercise. Age and gender moderated several of the paths in the model linking need satisfaction with motivation and exercise.

    Conclusions: The results demonstrated gender and age differences in the proposed sequential mechanisms between autonomous motivation and exercise in the process model. This study thus highlights a potential value in considering moderating factors and the need to further examine the underlying mechanisms between needs, autonomous motivation, and exercise behaviour. 

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 61.
    Weman-Josefsson, Karin
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI). University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI).
    The Role of Psychological Need Satisfaction and Self-Determined Motivation for Physical Activity and Self-Esteem2013Inngår i: Nordic Advances in Health Care Sciences Research: November 13-14, 2013 in Lund: Abstract book, 2013, s. 9-9Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Regular exercise habits has proven to benefit human health. According to Self-determination Theory (SDT; Deci & Ryan, 1985, 2000; Ryan & Deci, 2002), self-determined motivation has been hypothesized to mediate the link between psychological need fulfillment and behavioral outcomes in exercise behavior. This study aimed to examine a) theoretically derived hypotheses about the relations between the latent constructs of psychological needs, self-determined motivation, physical activity behaviour and self-esteem b) the mediational role of self-determined motivation in association with psychological needs with exercise and self-esteem c) gender and age differences in the aforementioned associations.

    In a Cross-sectional design, adult active members (N=1091) of an internet-based physical activity program between 18 and 78 years of age completed a test battery consisting of The Basic Psychological Needs in Exercise Scale (BPNES; Vlachopoulos & Michailidou, 2006), The Behavioral Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire-2 (BREQ-2; Markland & Tobin, 2004), Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire (LTEQ; Godin & Shephard, 1985) and five positively worded items from Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory (Rosenberg, 1989).

    Need satisfaction predicted self-determined motivation which in turn predicted exercise and self-esteem as outcomes, especially for women and older adults. Self-determined motivation mediated the association between need satisfaction and outcomes, and this mediation effect was stronger for women and older adults.

    The results confirm the hypotheses regarding mediation and contribute to the on-going discussion of the complexity of exercise motivation and behavioural and affective outcomes.  A valuable implication is that it seems important to consider moderating factors (e.g. gender and age) when designing exercise interventions. Such findings may not only bring important information to the more theoretical understanding of SDT based models of exercise but also serve as an informative compass or guide to increase adherence in exercise and lifestyle interventions for specific populations (e.g., younger women, older adults).

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