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  • 51.
    Olive, O'Driscoll
    et al.
    Liberty Safe Work Research Centre, Department of Environmental & Occupational Medicine, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, Scotland, United Kingdom & AventaMed, Rubicon Centre, Cork, Ireland, United Kingdom.
    Magnusson, Marianne L.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Henry, Pope Malcolm
    Department of Health & Physical Education, The Education University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.
    Hung-Kay, Chow Daniel
    Educ Univ Hong Kong, Dept Hlth & Phys Educ, Tai Po, 10 Lo Ping Rd, Hong Kong, Peoples R China..
    Muscle activity during low-speed rear impact2019In: Chinese Journal of Traumatology, ISSN 1008-1275, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 80-84Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Whiplash associated disorders remain a major health problem in terms of impact on health care and on societal costs. Aetiology remains controversial including the old supposition that the cervical muscles do not play a significant role. This study examined the muscle activity from relevant muscles during rear-end impacts in an effort to gauge their influence on the aetiology of whiplash associated disorders.

    Methods: Volunteers were subjected to a sub-injury level of rear impact. Surface electromyography (EMG) was used to record cervical muscle activity before, during and after impact. Muscle response time and EMG signal amplitude were analysed. Head, pelvis, and T1 acceleration data were recorded. Results: The activities of the cervical muscles were found to be significant. The sternocleidomastoideus, trapezius and erector spinae were activated on average 59 ms, 73 ms and 84 ms after the impact stimulus, respectively, prior to peak head acceleration (113 ms).

    Conclusion: The cervical muscles reacted prior to peak head acceleration, thus in time to influence whiplash biomechanics and possibly injury mechanisms. It is recommended therefore, that muscular influences be incorporated into the development of the new rear-impact crash test dummy in order to make the dummy as biofidelic as possible. ©2019 Chinese Medical Association. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V

  • 52.
    Olsson, Charlotte M.
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Fälth, Jenny
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Ahlebrand, August
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Bremander, Ann
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Sex-Differences In Bench Press Muscle Activation With Pre-Exhaustion Of Triceps Brachii2018In: Conference Abstracts, 2018, p. 67-68Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Pre-exhaustion is a resistance training method which activates a stronger single-joint muscle to momentary exhaustion directly before a multi-joint exercise including the pre-exhausted muscle. This results in greater recruitment of muscles in the multi-joint exercise to further increase muscle strength. The pre-exhaustion method in bench press has mainly been studied in men and it is uncertain if sex-differences exists. Men are stronger than women in absolute strength, especially in the upper body but if this holds true for upper body relative strength is debated. The purpose was to investigate muscle activity by surface electromyography (EMG) between women and men in bench press with and without pre-exhaustion of triceps brachii (TB) and to compare relative strength in 10RM bench press between the sexes.

    Methods: 15 women and 15 men in their 20s with weight lifting experience were recruited to the study. During the first session body composition and 10 repetition maximum (10RM) bench press were determined Participants performed both protocol A and B in a cross-over design on separate days. Protocol A began with 10 RM bench press, five minutes recovery, pre-exhaustion exercise (triceps extensions to failure) immediately followed by a second round of bench press with the same 10RM load as before pre-exhaustion. Protocol B started with triceps extensions to failure immediately before bench press at their before established 10RM, five minutes of recovery then they performed 10RM bench press again. IN both protocols, EMG electrodes were attached to TB), pectoralis major (PM) and deltoideus anterior (DA). EMG values were normalized to maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) and expressed as % MVIC.

    Results: Bench press only EMG activity in %MVIC was similar between women and men, but analysis of variance (TB interaction p=0.02) showed that women had higher %MVIC in TB after pre-exhaustion whereas muscle activity decreased in men compared to bench press without pre-exhaustion. Yet, the number of repetitions completed in bench press after pre-exhaustion of TB were the same (women 4.3 ± 2.6 vs men 3.8 ± 2.2; p=0.55). As expected, in 10RM weight men (64.0 ± 7.1 kg) were stronger than women (37.1 ± 6.5 kg; p<0.01), however when related to fat free mass no difference was evident in relative strength between women and men.

    Conclusion: Men and women have similar muscle activation patterns during a 10RM bench press, but TB pre-exhaustion followed by a bench press appears to have a greater effect on TB activation in women compared to men. Absolute strength was greater in men, but normalized to fat free mass women and men had similar upper body relative strength.

  • 53.
    Olsson, M Charlotte
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Department of Neuroscience, Clinical Neurophysiology, Ing 85 3 tr., 751 85 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Krüger, Martina
    University of Münster, Physiology and Biophysics Unit, Schlossplatz 5, D-48149 Münster, Germany .
    Meyer, Lars-Henrik
    University of Münster, Physiology and Biophysics Unit, Schlossplatz 5, D-48149 Münster, Germany .
    Ahnlund, Lena
    Rehabilitation Medicine, 75185 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Gransberg, Lennart
    Uppsala University, Department of Neuroscience, Clinical Neurophysiology, Ing 85 3 tr., 751 85 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Linke, Wolfgang A
    University of Münster, Physiology and Biophysics Unit, Schlossplatz 5, D-48149 Münster, Germany.
    Larsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Department of Neuroscience, Clinical Neurophysiology, Ing 85 3 tr., 751 85 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Fibre type-specific increase in passive muscle tension in spinal cord-injured subjects with spasticity2006In: Journal of Physiology, ISSN 0022-3751, E-ISSN 1469-7793, Vol. 577, no 1, p. 339-352Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 54.
    Olsson, M Charlotte
    et al.
    Department of Integrative Physiology, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, United States.
    Palmer, B M
    Department of Integrative Physiology, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, United States.
    Stauffer, B L
    Dept. Molec., Cell.,/Devmtl. Biol., University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, United States.
    Leinwand, L A
    Dept. Molec., Cell.,/Devmtl. Biol., University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, United States.
    Moore, R L
    Department of Integrative Physiology, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, United States.
    Morphological and functional alterations in ventricular myocytes from male transgenic mice with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy2004In: Circulation Research, ISSN 0009-7330, E-ISSN 1524-4571, Vol. 94, no 2, p. 201-207Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 55.
    Olsson, M Charlotte
    et al.
    Department of Physiology, Univ. Wisconsin Cardiovasc. Res. C., Univ. of Wisconsin Medical School, Madison, WI 53706, United States.
    Patel, J R
    Department of Physiology, Univ. Wisconsin Cardiovasc. Res. C., Univ. of Wisconsin Medical School, Madison, WI 53706, United States.
    Fitzsimons, D P
    Department of Physiology, Univ. Wisconsin Cardiovasc. Res. C., Univ. of Wisconsin Medical School, Madison, WI 53706, United States.
    Walker, J W
    Department of Physiology, Univ. Wisconsin Cardiovasc. Res. C., Univ. of Wisconsin Medical School, Madison, WI 53706, United States.
    Moss, R L
    Department of Physiology, Univ. Wisconsin Cardiovasc. Res. C., Univ. of Wisconsin Medical School, Madison, WI 53706, United States.
    Basal myosin light chain phosphorylation is a determinant of Ca2+ sensitivity of force and activation dependence of the kinetics of myocardial force development2004In: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology, ISSN 0363-6135, E-ISSN 1522-1539, Vol. 287, no 6, p. H2712-H2718Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 56.
    Panosyan, Luiza
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
      Impact of vehicle exhaust emitted by the combustion of biofuels on human health2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

     

    Introduction: Significant changes in the global ecosystem, together with a potential shortfall in oil resources, have stimulated intense interest in the development of other sources of energy, and most particularly biofuels since these are basically considered to be less harmful to human health than petroleum-based fuels. However, information about the impact of biofuel-derived vehicle emissions on human health is limited and incomplete.

     

    Aim of the study: To identify those biofuels that are less detrimental to human health on the basis of published results from toxicological and chemical studies of vehicle emission products.

     

    Tasks of the study: To review systematically all conventional and alternative fuels used in internal combustion engines, to identify all known toxic emission products formed by such fuels, to review their toxic effects on human health, and to analyse the data collected in order to develop conclusions concerning the possible health benefits deriving from the use of alternative fuels.

     

    Materials and methods: In order to fulfil the requirements of a complete, comprehensive and up-to-date review of the toxic effects of automotive exhaust, an extensive search of official scientific data sources has been performed. Relevant publications were retrieved from public domain databases with a toxicological focus such as Toxcenter and CAplus, as well as from the websites of the US Environmental Protection Agency and the US Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Keywords employed in the literature search were: petrol, gasoline, diesel exhaust, emission, biofuel, biogas, biodiesel, bioethanol, bioalcohol, toxicity, methanol and ethanol. A total of 295 references were initially selected relating to the period 1962 to 2008, and 142 of these presented titles and abstracts that met the main inclusion criteria, i.e. describing toxicological and epidemiological studies in humans. In cases where eligible studies relating to the goals and tasks of the review were limited or not available, some in vitro or in vivo toxicological studies involving animal models were included.

     

    Results: In comparison with petroleum diesel, the emissions derived from biodiesel contain less particulate matter, carbon monoxide, total hydrocarbons and other toxic compounds including vapour-phase C1-C12 hydrocarbons, aldehydes and ketones (up to C8), selected semi-volatile and particle-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Whilst sulphur-containing compounds appear to be undetectable in biodiesel, nitrogen oxide and a soluble organic fraction comprising unregulated pollutants including the “aggregated toxics” (i.e., formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, benzene, 1,3-butadiene, ethylbenzene, n-hexane, naphthalene, styrene, toluene and xylene) are present at elevated levels. Toxicological studies have shown that the mutagenicity of exhaust particles from biodiesel is normally lower than those obtained from petroleum diesel, however, rapeseed oil-derived biodiesel exhibits toxic effects that are 4-fold greater than petroleum diesel. Such enhanced toxicity is probably caused by the presence of carbonyl compounds and unburnt fuel. The toxicity of highly volatile components of biofuel exhaust has not yet been evaluated accurately. A substantial portion of these compounds was apparently lost in the process of preparing the test samples used for the assays (during the evaporation). The overall recoveries of these compounds have not been evaluated and the accuracy of the sample preparation method has not been validated. Hence, it could be that the cytotoxic effect of biodiesel exhaust is higher than that reported. Moreover, compared with fossil diesel, fuel derived from rapeseed oil emits particulate matter with increased mutagenic effects. Epidemiological investigations of the effects of biofuels on humans are very sparse but have revealed dose-dependent respiratory symptoms following exposure to rapeseed oil biodiesel, although the observed differences between this fuel and petroleum diesel are not significant. Such data, however, give rise to serious concerns about the future usage of this plant material as a replacement for established diesel fuels. Combustion of alcohol-based fuels leads to a reduced formation of photochemical smog in comparison with gasoline or diesel, however, the emission of aldehydes (officially classified as carcinogenic or potentially carcinogenic) is several times higher. The toxicity of the exhaust emissions of gasoline-fuelled engines is generally significantly greater than that of alcohol-burning engines. However, some harmful effects from ethanol blends might be expected, such as enhanced emissions of carcinogenic PAHs and increased ozone-related toxicity associated with the high level of aldehydes emitted. The use of ethanol–diesel fuel blends gives rise to increases in regulated exhaust emissions and, possibly, to greater emissions of aldehydes and unburnt hydrocarbons. The most promising fuels, in terms of reduced toxicity and genotoxicity of exhaust emissions, are methanol-containing blends. However, the emission from these fuels still contains formaldehyde, which is a carcinogen. The use of biogas can significantly reduce emissions of total PAHs and formaldehyde and, consequently, the risk of lung toxicity. On the other hand, the emissions of particulate matter by compressed natural gas, and the mutagenic potencies of the exhaust, are similar to those associated with gasoline and diesel fuels.

     

    Conclusions: The use of biofuel is currently viewed very favourably and there are suggestions that the exhaust emissions from such fuel are less likely to present risks to human health in comparison with gasoline and diesel emissions. However, the expectation of a reduction in health effects based on the chemical composition of biodiesel exhaust is far from reality. Thus, although toxicological evidence relating to the effects of biofuels on humans is sparse, it is already apparent that emissions from the combustion of biofuel and blends thereof with petroleum-based fuels are toxic. In addition to the regulated toxic compounds, such as total hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, biofuel emissions contain significant amounts of various other harmful substances that are not regulated, e.g. carbonyls (including formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, benzene, 3-butadiene, acrolein, etc.). Whilst biofuels may be potentially less damaging to human health than petroleum fuels, considerable harmful effects must still be expected. Substitution of conventional fuel by biofuel decreases the concentration of regulated toxic pollutants in vehicle exhaust, but increases the concentration of some unregulated toxic pollutants emitted from on-road engines. Generally, the toxicity of biofuels decreases in the order biodiesel>biogas>ethanol>=methanol. In this respect, methanol produced by the oxidation of biogas appears to represent an alternative fuel that exhibits the least potential for damage to human health, however, this alcohol represents a source of formaldehyde pollution and is carcinogenic.

    .

     

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  • 57. Ribbestam, Martin
    Trampfrekvensens inverkan på energetisk kostnad under submaximalt arbete på cykel: En litteraturstudie2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 58.
    Sardar, Samra
    et al.
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Alish, Kerr
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark & Pfizer Pharmaceuticals, Dublin, Ireland.
    Vaartjes, Daniëlle
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark & Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Voetmann, Mathilde Emilie
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark & Biogen Denmark A/S, Hillerød, Denmark.
    Moltved, Emilie Riis
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark & QuintilesIMS, North Carolina, USA.
    Andersson, Åsa
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    A novel candidate for genetic control of Collagen Induced Arthritis is involved in transcriptional regulation of B-cell proliferation2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Download full text (pdf)
    Abstract IFRA
  • 59.
    Sardar, Samra
    et al.
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark & Nordic Bioscience A/S, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Kanne, Katrine
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark & Novartis International AG, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Andersson, Åsa
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Analysis of polymorphisms in the mediator complex subunit 13-like (Med13L) gene in the context of immune function and development of experimental arthritis2018In: Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis, ISSN 0004-069X, E-ISSN 1661-4917, Vol. 66, no 5, p. 365-377Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Mediator complex subunit 13-like (MED13L) protein is part of the multi-protein mediator complex and plays an important role in gene transcription. Polymorphisms in the MED13L gene have been linked to congenital heart anomalies and intellectual disabilities. Despite recent evidence of indirect links of MED13L to cytokine release and inflammation, impact of genetic variations in MED13L on immune cells remains unexplored. The B10.RIII and RIIIS/J mouse strains vary in susceptibility to induced experimental autoimmune disease models. From sequencing data of the two mouse strains, we identified six polymorphisms in the coding regions of Med13l. By using congenic mice, we studied the effect of these polymorphisms on immune cell development and function along with susceptibility to collagen-induced arthritis, an animal model for Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA). Combining in vivo disease data, in vitro functional data, and computational analysis of the reported non-synonymous polymorphisms, we report that genetic polymorphisms in Med13l do not affect the immune phenotype in these mice and are predicted to be non-disease associated. © The Author(s) 2018

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  • 60.
    Sardar, Samra
    et al.
    Nordic Bioscience A/S, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Kerr, Alish
    Nuritas, Dublin, Ireland.
    Vaartjes, Daniëlle
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Moltved, Emilie Riis
    IQVIA Denmark, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Karosiene, Edita
    Novo Nordisk A/S, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Gupta, Ramneek
    Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark.
    Andersson, Åsa
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    The oncoprotein TBX3 is controlling severity in experimental arthritis2019In: Arthritis Research & Therapy, ISSN 1478-6354, E-ISSN 1478-6362, Vol. 21, no 1, article id 16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Development of autoimmune diseases is the result of a complex interplay between hereditary and environmental factors, with multiple genes contributing to the pathogenesis in human disease as well as in experimental models for disease. The T-box protein 3 is a transcriptional repressor essential during early embryonic development, in the formation of bone and additional organ systems, and in tumorigenesis.

    Methods: With the aim to find novel genes important for autoimmune inflammation, we have performed genetic studies of collagen-induced arthritis, a mouse experimental model for Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    Results: We show that a small genetic fragment on mouse chromosome 5, including Tbx3 and three additional protein-coding genes, is linked to severe arthritis and high titers of anti-collagen antibodies. Gene expression studies have revealed differential expression of Tbx3 in B-cells, where low expression was accompanied by a higher B-cell response upon B-cell receptor stimulation in vitro. Furthermore, we show that serum TBX3 levels rise concomitantly with increasing severity of CIA.

    Conclusions: From these results, we suggest that TBX3 is a novel factor important for the regulation of gene transcription in the immune system and that genetic polymorphisms, resulting in lower expression of Tbx3, are contributing to a more severe form of collagen-induced arthritis and high titers of autoantibodies. We also propose TBX3 as a putative diagnostic biomarker for rheumatoid arthritis.

  • 61.
    Sardar, Samra
    et al.
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Vartjes, Daniëlle
    Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Voetmann, Mathilde
    University of Copenhagen.
    Andersson, Åsa
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Novel candidates for genetic control of Collagen INduced Arthritis are involved in transcriptional regulation of B-cell proliferation2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Download full text (pdf)
    Publ abstract FOCIS 2017
  • 62.
    Schmelz, M.
    et al.
    Department of Physiology and Experimental Pathophysiology, University of Erlangen/Nuremberg, D-91054 Erlangen, Germany; Department of Anesthesiology, Medical Faculty Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, 61087 Mannheim, Germany.
    Schmidt, R.
    Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, University of Uppsala, S-75185 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Weidner, C.
    Department of Physiology and Experimental Pathophysiology, University of Erlangen/Nuremberg, D-91054 Erlangen, Germany.
    Hilliges, Marita
    Department of Basic Oral Sciences, Karolinska Institute, S-14104 Huddinge, Sweden.
    Torebjörk, H. E.
    Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, University of Uppsala, S-75185 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Handwerker, Hermann Otto
    Department of Physiology and Experimental Pathophysiology, University of Erlangen/Nuremberg, D-91054 Erlangen, Germany.
    Chemical response pattern of different classes of C-nociceptors to pruritogens and algogens2003In: Journal of Neurophysiology, ISSN 0022-3077, E-ISSN 1522-1598, Vol. 89, no 5, p. 2441-2448Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vasoneuroactive substances were applied through intradermal microdialysis membranes and characterized as itch- or pain-inducing in psychophysical experiments. Histamine always provoked itching and rarely pain, capsaicin always pain but never itching. Prostaglandin E[2] (PGE[2]) led preferentially to moderate itching. Serotonin, acetylcholine, and bradykinin induced pain more often than itching. Subsequently the same substances were used in microneurography experiments to characterize the sensitivity profile of human cutaneous C-nociceptors. The responses of 89 mechanoresponsive (CMH, polymodal nociceptors), 52 mechanoinsensitive, histamine-negative (CMi[H][i][s][-]), and 24 mechanoinsensitive, histamine-positive (CMi[H][i][s][+]) units were compared. CMi[H][i][s][+] units were most responsive to histamine and to PGE[2] and less to serotonin, ACh, bradykinin, and capsaicin. CMH units (polymodal nociceptors) and CMi[H][i][s] units showed significantly weaker responses to histamine, PGE[2], and acetylcholine. Capsaicin and bradykinin responses were not significantly different in the two classes of mechano-insensitive units. We conclude that CMi[H][i][s][+]units are "selective," but not "specific" for pruritogenic substances and that the pruritic potency of a mediator increases with its ability to activate CMi[H][i][s][+] units but decreases with activation of CMH and CMi[H][i][s] units.

  • 63.
    Silwer, Louise
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Johansson, Eskil
    Laurentius Centre, Falkenberg, Sweden.
    Stålsby Lundborg, Cecilia
    Karolinska Institute, Department of Public Health Sciences, Stockholm Sweden .
    Drug prescribing in public primary care centres: Results from prescription studies 1988-1997 in the county of Halland, Sweden2002In: Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care, ISSN 0281-3432, E-ISSN 1502-7724, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 236-241Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To present the prescribing patterns of general practitioners (GPs) at public primary care centres (PPCCs) in Halland, a county in the south-west of Sweden. GP share of the total prescribing of different drug groups 1988-1997 is presented, as well as changes in patterns. DESIGN: A descriptive prescription study performed 3 months each year in 10 consecutive years. SETTING: Medical service and pharmacies in Halland. SUBJECTS: Prescriptions from about 100 GPs of PPCCs and 550 physicians of various other specialties. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Percentages and absolute numbers of GPs prescribing. RESULTS: GPs prescribed 45% and 51% of the prescriptions from physicians in 1988 and 1997, respectively, while the cost shares were 40% and 42%. An increase in prescriptions was seen both in relative and in absolute numbers (from 117414 in 3 months in 1988 to 161012 in 1995). The increase in cost per DDD (defined daily dose) during the study period was 47% for GPs and 72% for other doctors. CONCLUSIONS: GP prescribing increased in both absolute and relative numbers, while the cost increase per DDD was moderate compared to other physicians.

  • 64.
    Silwer, Louise
    et al.
    Nordic School of Public Health, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Lundborg, Cecilia Stålsby
    Department of Public Health Sciences, IHCAR, Karolinska Institutet Stockholm, Sweden.
    Patterns of drug use during a 15 year period: data from a Swedish county, 1988--20022005In: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety, ISSN 1053-8569, E-ISSN 1099-1557, Vol. 14, no 11, p. 813-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: To present and interpret drug prescription patterns, related to various groups of the population in a Swedish county, in order to estimate the prevalence of drug use in different age groups. METHODS: Data on prescriptions, dispensed March-May 1988-2002, were combined with population statistics of Halland, a county in the south of Sweden, and analysed. Number of defined daily doses (DDD) per 100 inhabitants and day and prescriptions per 100 inhabitants and 3 months were used as indicators of drug prevalence. RESULTS: The total drug exposure in the population of Halland nearly doubled during the 15-year period. The most frequently used drugs overall, in 2002, were psycholeptics (N05), analgesics (N02), antibacterials (J01) and sex hormones (G03). Nearly 30% of the women of 15-69 years were exposed to sex hormones. Multiplied drug prevalence among people above 60 was found for antithrombotic drugs (B01), agents acting on the renin-angiotensin system (C09), sex hormones (G03), serum lipid reducing agents (C10), antidepressants (N06) and drugs for peptic ulcer and GORD (A02B). CONCLUSIONS: The increase in drug prescribing over the 15 years concerned both symptom-related treatments, like hormone replacement therapy, analgesics, antidepressants and drugs for acid-related disorders, as well as preventive treatments, like antithrombotics, lipid-lowering drugs and antihypertensives. The unit DDD/100 inhabitants and day gives a fairly correct measure of the percentage treated for chronic disorders. However, for short-term treatment courses and especially for drug use in children, number of prescriptions/100 inhabitants and adequate period of time, is easier to interpret.

  • 65.
    Silwer, Louise
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Lundborg, Cecilia Stålsby
    Nordiska Högskolan för folkhälsovetenskap, Göteborg, Sverige.
    Petzold, Max
    Nordiska Högskolan för folkhälsovetenskap, Göteborg, Sverige.
    Prevalence of purchase of antihypertensive and serum lipid-reducing drugs in Sweden: individual data from national registers2008In: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety, ISSN 1053-8569, E-ISSN 1099-1557, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 37-42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence of purchase of prescribed antihypertensive and/or serum lipid-reducing pharmaceutical preparations among different age groups, from the age of 45, in the Swedish population. Further, to calculate the percentage of the population, from the age of 60, who purchased these pharmaceuticals without having had a circulatory diagnosis in the Hospital Discharge Register the last 7 years, or having purchased nitrate vasodilators, as an attempt to estimate the proportion of primary preventive treatments. METHODS: A cross-sectional study, of individual data on prescriptions for antihypertensives (C02-C03, C07-C09) and serum lipid-reducing agents (C10), dispensed from July to December 2005 for the Swedish population. Data were obtained from the new Swedish Prescribed Drugs Register. The data were related to population statistics, and linked to data on diagnoses of cardiovascular disease (I00-I99), from the Swedish Hospital Discharge Register 1998-2004. Data on individuals with purchase of antihypertensive or serum lipid-reducing agents, but without a diagnosis of cardiovascular disease, were also linked to purchase of nitrate vasodilators (C01D). RESULTS: Among Swedes of 60 years and above, 53% purchased antihypertensive or serum lipid-reducing pharmaceuticals, and 30% purchased the pharmaceuticals without having been hospitalized for a coronary or cerebrovascular event during the previous 7 years, or having purchased prescribed nitrate vasodilators during 6 months. CONCLUSION: Over half of the Swedish senior population purchased prescribed antihypertensive or serum lipid-reducing drugs during 6 months in 2005. The magnitude of the prevalence points to the importance of intensified follow-up of both adverse effects and of effectiveness of these drugs.

  • 66.
    Silwer, Louise
    et al.
    Nordic School of Public Health, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Petzold, Max
    Nordic School of Public Health, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hallas, Jesper
    Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Syddansk Universitet, Odense, Denmark.
    Stålsby-Lundborg, Cecilia
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Division of International Health (IHCAR), Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Statins and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: an analysis of prescription symmetry2006In: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety, ISSN 1053-8569, E-ISSN 1099-1557, Vol. 15, no 7, p. 510-511Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 67.
    Silwer, Louise
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Stålsby Lundborg, Cecilia
    Nordiska Högskolan för folkhälsovetenskap, Göteborg.
    Drug prescribing in primary care related to patient age: trends in a ten-year repeated prescription study in a Swedish province2005In: European Journal of General Practice, ISSN 1381-4788, E-ISSN 1751-1402, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 23-24, 28Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 68.
    Silwer, Louise
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Wahlström, Rolf
    Div of Global Health (IHCAR), Dep of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Stålsby Lundborg, Cecilia
    Nordic School of Public Health, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Views on primary prevention of cardiovascular disease: an interview study with Swedish GPs2010In: BMC Family Practice, ISSN 1471-2296, E-ISSN 1471-2296, Vol. 11, no 44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: General practitioners (GPs) have gradually become more involved in the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD), both through more frequent prescribing of pharmaceuticals and by giving advice regarding lifestyle factors. Most general practitioners are now faced with decisions about pharmaceutical or non-pharmaceutical treatment for primary prevention every day. The aim of this study was to explore, structure and describe the views on primary prevention of cardiovascular disease in clinical practice among Swedish GPs.

    Methods: Individual interviews were conducted with 21 GPs in southern Sweden. The interview transcripts were analysed using a qualitative approach, inspired by phenomenography.

    Results: Two main categories of description emerged during the analysis. One was the degree of reliance on research data regarding the predictability of real risk and the opportunities for primary prevention of CVD. The other was the allocation of responsibility between the patient and the doctor. The GPs showed different views, from being convinced of an actual and predictable risk for the individual to strongly doubting it; from relying firmly on protection from disease by pharmaceutical treatment to strongly questioning its effectiveness in individual cases; and from reliance on prevention of disease by non-pharmaceutical interventions to a total lack of reliance on such measures.

    Conclusions: The GPs' different views, regarding the rationale for and practical management of primary prevention of CVD, can be interpreted as a reflection of the complexity of patient counselling in primary prevention in clinical practice. The findings have implications for development and implementation of standard treatment guidelines, regarding long-time primary preventive treatment.

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  • 69.
    Stelzer, J E
    et al.
    Department of Physiology, Univ. of Wisconsin Medical School, Madison, WI 53706, United States.
    Patel, J R
    Department of Physiology, Univ. of Wisconsin Medical School, Madison, WI 53706, United States.
    Olsson, M Charlotte
    Department of Physiology, Univ. of Wisconsin Medical School, Madison, WI 53706, United States.
    Fitzsimons, D P
    Department of Physiology, Univ. of Wisconsin Medical School, Madison, WI 53706, United States.
    Leinwand, L A
    Dept. Molec., Cell., Devmtl. Biol., University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309, United States.
    Moss, R L
    Department of Physiology, Univ. of Wisconsin Medical School, Madison, WI 53706, United States.
    Expression of cardiac troponin T with COOH-terminal truncation accelerates cross-bridge interaction kinetics in mouse myocardium2004In: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology, ISSN 0363-6135, E-ISSN 1522-1539, Vol. 287, no 4, p. H1756-H1761Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 70.
    Sundström, Tomas
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Ronkainen, Fanny
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Brorsson, Sofia
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Olsson, M. Charlotte
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Five Weeks of Plyometric Training Improve Vertical Jump Height in Female Handball Players During In-Season2010In: Nordic Conference 2010: Abstracts / [ed] Karen Søgaard, Karsten Froberg & Mette Krogh Christensen, Odense: University of Southern Denmark , 2010, p. 112-113Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Handball is a sport requiring many different physical qualities in order to perform well, one of which is good jumping ability. For handball players available time to enhance power during in-season is often restricted due to an already high training load emphasizing other aspects of the sport than jumping ability. Therefore, one aim of this study was to examine if a small amount of additional plyometric training during in-season, combining drop jumps and box jumps, could give significant improvements in vertical jump height in female handball players after five weeks of training. Generally, vertical jump height is evaluated with two-legged tests, however, the question arises if the tests are relevant in sports that predominantly use several steps and one-leg jumps such as handball. A second aim of this study was thus to develop, evaluate and validate a handball-specific test performed on one leg.

    Methods: Two Swedish female handball-teams playing in the third division were recruited. Players from one team made up the intervention-group (n = 9) and players from the other team functioned as the control-group (n = 4). Plyometric training was added to the regular handball training session twice per week during five weeks, lasting approximately 15 minutes per session, consisting of two sets of eight repetitions of drop jumps and box jumps respectively, while the control-group continued their training as normal. Jumping performance was evaluated through the squat jump test (SJ), countermovement jump test (CMJ) and the handball-specific one leg jump test (OLJ) developed for this study in order to offer a more sport-specific evaluation tool when testing sports that predominantely jump on one leg.

    Results: The intervention-group improved their jumping height significantly with 2,7 cm in the SJ, 3,6cm in the CMJ and 3,6 cm in the OLJ (p < 0,01 for all). The control-group had an opposite trend with diminishing results in all three jumps, -1,5 cm in the SJ (p < 0,05), -1,7 cm in the CMJ (p < 0,05) and -0,9 cm in the OLJ (not significant). The one-legged jump test (OLJ) correlated well with both SJ (r= 0,79, p <0,01 ), and CMJ (r=0,75, p < 0,01).

    Discussion: The present study found significant improvements in jumping height after only five weeks of plyometric training for female handball players. Interestingly, the intervention-group improved to the same extent in both the one and the two-leg jumps test, which might be explained by the accumulation of handball specific training drills performed on one-leg, together with the two-legged plyometric exercises. The same assumption could also explain why the control-group showed no change in the one-leg jump test between the pre and post-tests, but displayed significant lower scores in the two-legged jumping tests after 5 weeks with only regular handball training.

    Conclusion: The improvements seen in this study with a small amount of additional plyometric training is relevant for coaches that need to provide gains in jumping performance during in-season when there is not a lot of time for additional training. Moreover, an evaluation test needs to be as specific as possible to the performance in the sport. The one-leg vertical jump test, developed in this study, could be a first step to a future handball-test that better resembles the jumping performance in handball than already established two-leg jumping tests.

  • 71.
    Sällström, Benjamin
    et al.
    Halmstad University. Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Kareliussén, Tobias
    Halmstad University. Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Hur påverkas muskelaktiviteten vid styrketräning med en tjock stång i jämförelse med en standardolympisk stång?: En EMG- studie2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Many everyday tasks and also many sports require good grip and forearm strength. Everything from carrying boxes and lifting a child to grab the arms and legs in various martial arts, or holding a tennis racket involving the hand and forearm muscles in various ways. It is therefore important to train these muscles to prevent injuries and congestion and to perform well in sport. A well known way to train functional strength in the hand and forearm muscles is weight training with thick handles. The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences in muscle activity in the upper arm and forearm muscles as well as the deltoids between two bars of different diameter (28mm and 57mm) in two different weight training exercises using electromyography (EMG). The weight training exercises consisted of a pulling exercise in the form of a bench row and a pressing exercise in the form of close-grip bench press. The study also examines whether there is a connection between hand strength and muscle activity, and if there is any connection between hand size and muscle activity. Results show that muscle activity between the thick bars remained unchanged in the close-grip bench press. In the bench row exercise, however, significant increases were seen in the forearm flexors and m. biceps brachii while lifting the thicker bar. The forearm extensors showed an indication of muscle activity increases while lifting the thicker bar. However, there was no connection between hand strength and muscle activity and no correlation between hand size and muscle activity. The conclusion is that the pulling exercise with the thicker bar results in higher muscle activity in comparison to a standard Olympic bar in several muscles involved, not just those directly affected by the thicker bar.

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  • 72.
    Teneberg, Susanne
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology. Institute of Medical Biochemistry, Göteborg University, P. O. Box 440, SE 405 30 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Leonardsson, I.
    Department of Clinical Microbiology and Immunology, Örebro Medical Centre Hospital, SE 701 85 Örebro, Sweden.
    Karlsson, H.
    Department of General Surgery, Örebro Medical Centre Hospital, SE 701 85 Örebro, Sweden.
    Jovall, P.-A.
    Department of Medical Microbiology, Dermatology, and Infection, University of Lund, SE 223 62 Lund, Sweden.
    Ångström, J.
    Institute of Medical Biochemistry, Göteborg University, P. O. Box 440, SE 405 30 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Danielsson, D.
    Institute of Medical Biochemistry, Göteborg University, P. O. Box 440, SE 405 30 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Näslund, I.
    Institute of Medical Biochemistry, Göteborg University, P. O. Box 440, SE 405 30 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Ljungh, A.
    Institute of Medical Biochemistry, Göteborg University, P. O. Box 440, SE 405 30 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Wadström, T.
    Institute of Medical Biochemistry, Göteborg University, P. O. Box 440, SE 405 30 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Karlsson, K.-A
    Institute of Medical Biochemistry, Göteborg University, P. O. Box 440, SE 405 30 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Lactotetraosylceramide, a novel glycosphingolipid receptor for Helicobacter pylori, present in human gastric epithelium2002In: Journal of Biological Chemistry, ISSN 0021-9258, E-ISSN 1083-351X, Vol. 277, no 22, p. 19709-19719Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The binding of Helicobacterpylori to glycosphingolipids was examined by binding of 35S-labeled bacteria to glycosphingolipids on thin-layer chromatograms. In addition to previously reported binding specificities, a selective binding to a non-acid tetraglycosylceramide of human meconium was found. This H. pylori binding glycosphingolipid was isolated and, on the basis of mass spectrometry, proton NMR spectroscopy, and degradation studies, were identified as Galβ3GlcNAcβ3-Galβ4Glcβ1Cer (lactotetraosylceramide). When using non-acid glycosphingolipid preparations from human gastric epithelial cells, an identical binding of H. pylori to the tetraglycosylceramide interval was obtained in one of seven samples. Evidence for the presence of lactotetraosylceramide in the binding-active interval was obtained by proton NMR spectroscopy of intact glycosphingolipids and by gas chromatography-electron ionization mass spectrometry of permethylated tetrasaccharides obtained by ceramide glycanase hydrolysis. The lactotetraosylceramide binding property was detected in 65 of 74 H. pylori isolates (88%) Binding of H. pylori to lactotetraosylceramide on thin-layer chromatograms was inhibited by preincubation with lactotetraose but not with lactose. Removal of the terminal galactose of lactotetraosylceramide by galactosidase hydrolysis abolished the binding as did hydrazinolysis of the acetamido group of the N-acetylglucosamine. Therefore, Galβ3GlcNAc is an essential part of the binding epitope.

  • 73.
    Thorén, Lina A.
    et al.
    Lunds Universitet, Lund, Sverige.
    Liuba, Karina
    Lunds Universitet, Lund, Sverige.
    Bryder, David
    Lunds Universitet, Lund, Sverige.
    Nygren, Jens Martin
    Lunds universitet, Lund, Sverige.
    Jensen, Christina T
    Lunds Universitet, Lund, Sverige.
    Qian, Hong
    Lunds Universitet, Lund, Sverige.
    Antonchuk, Jennifer
    Lunds Universitet, Lund, Sverige.
    Jacobsen, Sten-Eirik W
    Lunds Universitet, Lund, Sverige.
    Kit regulates maintenance of quiescent hematopoietic stem cells2008In: Journal of Immunology, ISSN 0022-1767, E-ISSN 1550-6606, Vol. 180, no 4, p. 2045-2053Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) numbers are tightly regulated and maintained in postnatal hematopoiesis. Extensive studies have supported a role of the cytokine tyrosine kinase receptor Kit in sustaining cycling HSCs when competing with wild-type HSCs posttransplantation, but not in maintenance of quiescent HSCs in steady state adult bone marrow. In this study, we investigated HSC regulation in White Spotting 41 (Kit(W41/W41)) mice, with a partial loss of function of Kit. Although the extensive fetal HSC expansion was Kit-independent, adult Kit(W41/W41) mice had an almost 2-fold reduction in long-term HSCs, reflecting a loss of roughly 10,000 Lin(-)Sca-1(+)Kit(high) (LSK)CD34(-)Flt3(-) long-term HSCs by 12 wk of age, whereas LSKCD34(+)Flt3(-) short-term HSCs and LSKCD34(+)Flt3(+) multipotent progenitors were less affected. Whereas homing and initial reconstitution of Kit(W41/W41) bone marrow cells in myeloablated recipients were close to normal, self-renewing Kit(W41/W41) HSCs were progressively depleted in not only competitive but also noncompetitive transplantation assays. Overexpression of the anti-apoptotic regulator BCL-2 partially rescued the posttransplantation Kit(W41/W41) HSC deficiency, suggesting that Kit might at least in the posttransplantation setting in part sustain HSC numbers by promoting HSC survival. Most notably, accelerated in vivo BrdU incorporation and cell cycle kinetics implicated a previously unrecognized role of Kit in maintaining quiescent HSCs in steady state adult hematopoiesis.

  • 74.
    Urrutia-Cordero, Pablo
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science. Univ Autonoma Madrid, Dept Biol, Madrid 28049, Spain..
    Agha, Ramsy
    Univ Autonoma Madrid, Dept Biol, Madrid 28049, Spain..
    Cires, Samuel
    Univ Autonoma Madrid, Dept Biol, Madrid 28049, Spain..
    Angeles Lezcano, Maria
    Univ Autonoma Madrid, Dept Biol, Madrid 28049, Spain..
    Sanchez-Contreras, Maria
    Univ Autonoma Madrid, Dept Biol, Madrid 28049, Spain..
    Waara, Karl-Otto
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Utkilen, Hans
    Norwegian Inst Publ Hlth, Dept Water Hyg, N-0403 Oslo, Norway..
    Quesada, Antonio
    Univ Autonoma Madrid, Dept Biol, Madrid 28049, Spain..
    Effects of harmful cyanobacteria on the freshwater pathogenic free-living amoeba Acanthamoeba castellanii2013In: Aquatic Toxicology, ISSN 0166-445X, E-ISSN 1879-1514, Vol. 130, p. 9-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Grazing is a major regulating factor in cyanobacterial population dynamics and, subsequently, considerable effort has been spent on investigating the effects of cyanotoxins on major metazoan grazers. However, protozoan grazers such as free-living amoebae can also feed efficiently on cyanobacteria, while simultaneously posing a major threat for public health as parasites of humans and potential reservoirs of opportunistic pathogens. In this study, we conducted several experiments in which the freshwater amoeba Acanthamoeba castellanii was exposed to pure microcystin-LR (MC-LR) and six cyanobacterial strains, three MC-producing strains (MC-LR, MC-RR, MC-YR, MC-WR, [Dha7] MC-RR) and three strains containing other oligopeptides such as anabaenopeptins and cyanopeptolins. Although the exposure to high concentrations of pure MC-LR yielded no effects on amoeba, all MC-producing strains inflicted high mortality rates on amoeba populations, suggesting that toxic effects must be mediated through the ingestion of toxic cells. Interestingly, an anabaenopeptin-producing strain caused the greatest inhibition of amoeba growth, indicating that toxic bioactive compounds other than MCs are of great importance for amoebae grazers. Confocal scanning microscopy revealed different alterations in amoeba cytoskeleton integrity and as such, the observed declines in amoeba densities could have indeed been caused via a cascade of cellular events primarily triggered by oligopeptides with protein-phosphatase inhibition capabilities such as MCs or anabaenopeptins. Moreover, inducible-defense mechanisms such as the egestion of toxic, MC-producing cyanobacterial cells and the increase of resting stages (encystation) in amoebae co-cultivated with all cyanobacterial strains were observed in our experiments. Consequently, cyanobacterial strains showed different susceptibilities to amoeba grazing which were possibly influenced by the potentiality of their toxic secondary metabolites. Hence, this study shows the importance of cyanobacterial toxicity against amoeba grazing and, that cyanobacteria may contain a wide range of chemical compounds capable of negatively affect free-living, herbivorous amoebae. Moreover, this is of high importance for understanding the interactions and population dynamics of such organisms in aquatic ecosystems. (c) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 75.
    Walsh, Stuart
    et al.
    Lund Strategic Research Center for Stem Cell Biology and Cell Therapy, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Nygren, Jens
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Pontén, Annica
    Lund Strategic Research Center for Stem Cell Biology and Cell Therapy, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Jovinge, Stefan
    Lund Strategic Research Center for Stem Cell Biology and Cell Therapy, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Myogenic reprogramming of bone marrow derived cells in a W⁴¹Dmd(mdx) deficient mouse model2011In: PLoS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 6, no 11, p. e27500-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lack of expression of dystrophin leads to degeneration of muscle fibers and infiltration of connective and adipose tissue. Cell transplantation therapy has been proposed as a treatment for intractable muscle degenerative disorders. Several reports have demonstrated the ability of bone-marrow derived cells (BMDC) to contribute to non-haematopoietic tissues including epithelium, heart, liver, skeletal muscle and brain following transplantation by means of fusion and reprogramming. A key issue is the extent to which fusion and reprogramming can occur in vivo, particularly under conditions of myogenic deterioration.To investigate the therapeutic potential of bone marrow transplantation in monogenetic myopathy, green fluorescent protein-positive (GFP+) bone marrow cells were transplanted into non-irradiated c-kit receptor-deficient (W⁴¹) mdx mice. This model allows BMDC reconstitution in the absence of irradiation induced myeloablation. We provide the first report of BMDC fusion in a W⁴¹Dmd(mdx) deficient mouse model.In the absence of irradiation induced injury, few GFP+ cardiomyocytes and muscle fibres were detected 24 weeks post BMT. It was expected that the frequency of fusion in the hearts of W⁴¹Dmd(mdx) mice would be similar to frequencies observed in infarcted mice. Although, it is clear from this study that individual cardiomyocytes with monogenetic deficiencies can be rescued by fusion, it is as clear that in the absence of irradiation, the formation of stable and reprogrammed fusion hybrids occurs, with the current techniques, at very low levels in non-irradiated recipients.

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  • 76.
    Wang, Jun
    et al.
    The Belt and Road Joint Laboratory for Winter Sports, Department of Exercise Physiology, Beijing Sport University, Beijing, ChinaBeijing Sport Univ, Dept Exercise Physiol, Belt & Rd Joint Lab Winter Sports, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Ji, Yunhui
    Department of Physical Education, Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan, China.
    Zhou, Li
    The Belt and Road Joint Laboratory for Winter Sports, Department of Exercise Physiology, Beijing Sport University, Beijing, China.
    Xiang, Yang
    School of Physical Education, Yan’an University, Yan’an, China.
    Heinonen, Ilkka
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Turku PET Centre, Department of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Zhang, Peng
    Department of Exercise Science, East Stroudsburg University of Pennsylvania, East Stroudsburg, PA, United States.
    A New Method to Improve Running Economy and Maximal Aerobic Power in Athletes: Endurance Training With Periodic Carbon Monoxide Inhalation2019In: Frontiers in Physiology, ISSN 1664-042X, E-ISSN 1664-042X, Vol. 10, article id 701Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Altitude training stimulates erythropoietin hormone (EPO) release and increases blood hemoglobin (Hb) mass, which may result in improved oxygen (O-2) transport capacity. It was hypothesized in the present study that periodic inhalation of carbon monoxide (CO) might elicit similar physiological adaptations compared to altitude training.

    Methods: Twelve male college student athletes, who were well-trained soccer players, participated. They performed a 4-week treadmill-training program, five times a week. Participants were randomly assigned into an experimental group with inhaling CO (INCO) (1 mL/kg body weight for 2 min) in O-2 (4 L) before all training sessions and a control group without inhaling CO (NOCO). CO and EPO concentrations in venous blood were first measured acutely at the 1st, 2nd, 4th, 6th, and 8th hour after INCO, and total hemoglobin mass (tHb), running economy and VO(2)max were measured before and after the 4 weeks training intervention.

    Results: HbCO% increased from 0.7 to 4.4% (P < 0.05) after 1 h of CO inhalation and EPO increased from 1.9 to 2.7 mIU/mL after 4 h post CO inhalation (P < 0.05) acutely before the intervention. After the training, the tHb and VO(2)max in the INCO group increased significantly by 3.7 and 2.7%, respectively, while no significant differences were observed in the NOCO condition. O-2 uptake at given submaximal speeds declined by approximately 4% in the INCO group.

    Conclusion: Acutely, EPO increased sharply post CO inhalation, peaking at 4 h post inhalation. 4-weeks of training with CO inhalation before exercise sessions improved tHb and VO(2)max as well as running economy, suggesting that moderate CO inhalation could be a new method to improve the endurance performance in athletes. © 2019 Frontiers Media S.A. All Rights Reserved.

  • 77.
    Westerberg, Martin
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    MUSKULÄR STYRKA VID MULTIPLA REPETITIONER:: SKILLNADER VID STYRKETEST I BÄNKPRESS OCH LIGGANDE BÄNKRODD MED SKIVSTÄNGER AV OLIKA DIAMETEROMFÅNG2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: A complex interaction between muscles, tendons, bones, joints and nerves are required for optimal function of the human hand. It is known that an individual’s grip strength is vital for performance of physical demanding tasks such as strength training with free weights. Strength training including a thicker grip around the bar may enhance the strength of the grip in the athlete without other special routines for grip strength development. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the difference in performance in multiple repetitions in two strength training exercises using two different sizes on the bar, to look for correlations between grip strength of the subjects hand and the amount of repetitions executed with two different size of the bar and finally the correlation of hand size and the amount of repetitions executed with two different size of the bar.

    Method: 15 strength training men (23,9 ± 4,1 years), underwent measurements of hand size, maximum grip strength, 1 repetition maximum (1RM), a 80 % of 1RM weight strength test with two different  bar sizes.

    Results: The results from the present investigation indicates a 21,1 % reduction of 80 % of 1 RM weight performance in repetitions executed in the bench press with the thicker diameter of the bar and a 66,2 % reduction in repetitions executed with a 80 % of 1 RM weight in the lying bench row with the thicker diameter of the bar. The size of the hand or the maximum grip strength does not influences the performance in the 80 % of 1 RM strength test.

    Conclusion: With support of the results from this present investigation the size of the bar diameter significant influences the performance in maximum repetitions executed in a set in strength training with free weights, in a rowing exercise the repetitions executed reduced with 66,2 % and in the bench press the reduction of executed repetitions were 21,1 % with the thicker diameter of the bar. The size of the hand do not influences the performance of maximal executed repetitions with the thicker bar diameter. Maximal grip strength has no influence of the performance according to the findings of this investigation.

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  • 78.
    Wheeler, Michael J.
    et al.
    School of Human Sciences (Exercise and Sport Science), The University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia, Australia & Baker Heart and Diabetes Institute, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
    Dunstan, David W.
    School of Human Sciences (Exercise and Sport Science), The University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia, Australia & Baker Heart and Diabetes Institute, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia & Mary MacKillop Institute for Health Research, Australian Catholic University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
    Smith, Brianne
    School of Human Sciences (Exercise and Sport Science), The University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Smith, Kurt J.
    School of Human Sciences (Exercise and Sport Science), The University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia, Australia & School of Kinesiology, Lakehead University, Thunderbay, Ontario, Canada.
    Scheer, Anna
    School of Physiotherapy and Exercise Science, Faculty of Health Science, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Lewis, Jaye
    School of Human Sciences (Exercise and Sport Science), The University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Naylor, Louise H.
    School of Human Sciences (Exercise and Sport Science), The University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Heinonen, Ilkka
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Turku PET Centre, University of Turku, Finland.
    Ellis, Kathryn A.
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
    Cerin, Ester
    Baker Heart and Diabetes Institute, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia & School of Public Health, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China & Mary MacKillop Institute for Health Research, Australian Catholic University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
    Ainslie, Philip N.
    School of Health and Exercise Sciences, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.
    Green, Daniel J.
    School of Human Sciences (Exercise and Sport Science), The University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Morning exercise mitigates the impact of prolonged sitting on cerebral blood flow in older adults2019In: Journal of applied physiology, ISSN 8750-7587, E-ISSN 1522-1601, Vol. 126, no 4, p. 1049-1055Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Preventing declines in cerebral blood flow is important for maintaining optimal brain health with aging. We compared the effects of a morning bout of moderate-intensity exercise, with and without subsequent light-intensity walking breaks from sitting, on cerebral blood velocity over 8 h in older adults. In a randomized crossover trial, overweight/obese older adults (n = 12, 70 +/- 7 yr; 30.4 +/- 4.3 kg/m2), completed three acute conditions (6-day washout); SIT: prolonged sitting (8 h, control); EX + SIT: sitting (1 h), moderate-intensity walking (30 min), followed by uninterrupted sitting (6.5 h); and EX + BR: sitting (1 h), moderate-intensity walking (30 min), followed by sitting (6.5 h) interrupted with 3 min of light-intensity walking every 30 min. Bilateral middle cerebral artery velocities (MCAv) were determined using transcranial Doppler at 13 time points across the day. The temporal pattern and average MCAv over 8 h was determined. The pattern of MCAv over 8 h was a negative linear trend in SIT (P < 0.001), but a positive quadratic trend in EX + SIT (P < 0.001) and EX + BR (P < 0.01). Afternoon time points in SIT were lower than baseline within condition (P <= 0.001 for all). A morning dip in MCAv was observed in EX + SIT and EX + BR (P < 0.05 relative to baseline), but afternoon time points were not significantly lower than baseline. The average MCAv over 8 h was higher in EX + SIT than SIT (P = 0.007) or EX + BR (P = 0.024). Uninterrupted sitting should be avoided, and moderate-intensity exercise should be encouraged for the daily maintenance of cerebral blood flow in older adults. The clinical implications of maintaining adequate cerebral blood flow include the delivery of vital oxygen and nutrients to the brain.

    NEW & NOTEWORTHY: This is the first study to measure the combined effects of an exercise bout with breaks in sitting on cerebral blood velocity in older adults. Using frequent recordings over an 8-h period, we have performed a novel analysis of the pattern of cerebral blood velocity, adjusting for concurrent measures of mean arterial pressure and other potential confounders in a linear mixed effects regression. 

    Copyright © 2019 the American Physiological Society.

  • 79.
    You, Liwen
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Garwicz, Daniel
    Division of Hematology and Transfusion Medicine, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Rögnvaldsson, Thorsteinn
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Comprehensive Bioinformatic Analysis of the Specificity of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Protease2005In: Journal of Virology, ISSN 0022-538X, E-ISSN 1098-5514, Vol. 79, no 19, p. 12477-12486Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rapidly developing viral resistance to licensed human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease inhibitors is an increasing problem in the treatment of HIV-infected individuals and AIDS patients. A rational design of more effective protease inhibitors and discovery of potential biological substrates for the HIV-1 protease require accurate models for protease cleavage specificity. In this study, several popular bioinformatic machine learning methods, including support vector machines and artificial neural networks, were used to analyze the specificity of the HIV-1 protease. A new, extensive data set (746 peptides that have been experimentally tested for cleavage by the HIV-1 protease) was compiled, and the data were used to construct different classifiers that predicted whether the protease would cleave a given peptide substrate or not. The best predictor was a nonlinear predictor using two physicochemical parameters (hydrophobicity, or alternatively polarity, and size) for the amino acids, indicating that these properties are the key features recognized by the HIV-1 protease. The present in silico study provides new and important insights into the workings of the HIV-1 protease at the molecular level, supporting the recent hypothesis that the protease primarily recognizes a conformation rather than a specific amino acid sequence. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the presence of 1 to 2 lysine residues near the cleavage site of octameric peptide substrates seems to prevent cleavage efficiently, suggesting that this positively charged amino acid plays an important role in hindering the activity of the HIV-1 protease.

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