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  • 51.
    Eriksson, Erik
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Stress, återhämtning och coping under tävlings- och icke-tävlingsinriktad diet.2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to examine differences in stress, recovery and coping between individuals who had dieted for competitive reasons compared to non-competitive reasons. 86 individuals (64 men, 21 women, mean age 25) participated. The selected quantitative method consisted of a three part questionnaire containing the Swedish translated instruments Recovery-Stress Questionnaire for Athletes (RESTQ-Sport) (Kellmann & Kallus, 2001), Brief COPE (Muhonen & Torkelson, 2005) and a self-made questionnaire for categorizing participants as specific dietary types: I) Bodybuilding (BB, n=26), Other Competitive Context (OCC, n=32) and Non-Competitive Context (NCC, n=28). Results showed statistically significant differences in stress between dietary types, where BB experienced more stress compared to NCC, and that BB experienced more of the stress subscale Fatigue than NCC. Highlighted implications were aimed at spreading a better understanding of recovery to nutritional advisors within public health care as well as to diet coaches within bodybuilding.

  • 52.
    Eriksson, Linn
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Baigi, Amir
    Primary Health Care Research and Development, Council Halland, Falkenberg, SwedenPrimary Health Care Research and Development, Council Halland, Falkenberg, Sweden.
    Lindgren, Eva-Carin
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Ambition of a perfect body: a risk factor of body dissatisfaction2009Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 53.
    Eriksson, Linn
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Baigi, Amir
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Marklund, Bertil
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Lindgren, Eva-Carin
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Obsession with diet among fitness center participants in relation to body ideal and social physique anxiety2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several studies indicate that women are more likely than men to exercise for appearancerelated reasons, but today, even men have become more concerned about how they look. Exercise and/or diets are sometimes used in an attempt to develop a more attractive physique. Strict diets such as an obsession with healthy food, sometimes termed orthorexia nervosa (ON), are controversial and have been questioned by researchers. This study investigates how scores on the Social Physique Anxiety Scale (SPAS) and the Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire (SATAQ) relate to Bratman’s orthorexia test (BOT) scores with regard to age, sex, and self-reported exercise frequency and duration. The fitness participants (n=251, 166 women and 85 men, 21% dropout) were consecutively selected from five fitness centers in Sweden. They completed the BOT, SPAS, SATAQ, and a questionnaire focusing on exercise frequency and duration. Multiple stepwise regression analysis was used and the significance level set at 5%. In men, the results indicated that the SATAQ subdomain internalization could itself explain the variation in BOT results. In women, the results demonstrated that exercise frequency, in combination with the SPAS score and the SATAQ subdomains of internalization and awareness, could explain the variation in BOT results. Internalization of a slimness ideal (for women) and a muscular body (for men) can be a risk factor for obsession with diet. In the same way, higher exercise frequency, a higher level of social physique anxiety and awareness of Western body ideals seem to be predictors of obsession with diet among women. It is possible that the fitness center environment emphasizes a body ideal that leads to an increased obsession with diet. On the other hand, it may be that people who are aware of the body ideal and are obsessed with diet are the ones who engage in fitness center activities.

  • 54.
    Eriksson, Madeleine
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    The effect of Post activation potentiation on triceps brachii and latissimus dorsi on the aerobic performance of elite freestyle swimmers2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Competitive swimming is a sport that require high muscle strength to overcome the forces in the water. A phenomenon called post activation potentiation (PAP) is known to acutely increase power output. PAP can be defined as an increase in muscle performance after muscle contraction. Previous research on PAP has shown positive effects on different sports, including swimming. However, a limited amount of studies exists on PAP associated with swimming and distances longer than 100 meters. Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate if PAP for triceps brachii and latissimus dorsi with elastic bands can improve the aerobic performance, V4-speed, of elite freestyle swimmers. Methods: 13 elite swimmers participated in this study (mean ±SD: age 18 ±1.15). The participants performed three test sessions on two different days. The first occasion evaluated aerobic performance, V4-speed, where the participants performed a 400-m freestyle swim race and lactate and time were collected. At the second occasion, a 10-repetition maximum (RM) elastic resistance band test was done to get the right resistance band for each individual participant for the PAP exercise. At the third occasion, a PAP exercise, that mimics freestyle swim, with elastic resistance band was performed with 10 repetitions in two sets. After, a rest of six minutes was performed and then the same 400-m freestyle swim test as the first occasion. A paired samples t-test was used to evaluate significant differences between the swim test performed with and without a PAP exercise. Results: The study showed no statistical difference between the V4-speed with or without PAP exercise (p=0.93). An increase in lactate was seen after the PAP exercise (p=0.02). Conclusion: This study could not ensure an improvement of the aerobic performance, V4-speed, of elite swimmers when a PAP exercise, similar to a freestyle stroke, was performed before a 400-m submaximal freestyle swim race with elastic resistance band. Further research must be done in this area before coaches and athletes can apply this in training programs.

  • 55.
    Esping, Tobias
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    A comparison of isokinetic and isoinertial squats on strength, power and speed in male ice hockeyplayers2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    An athlete’s performance is partly determined by his or hers ability to exert force in order toachieve a desired movement and velocity. By increasing force output during a specific timeframe, while mass is constant, will in turn increase the so called rate of force developmentand potentially improve speed. Isokinetic training is designed to increase force productionthrough the full range of motion in an exercise but has traditionally been done in a singlejointdevice limiting its applicability to sports. To date there is little research done on theeffects of isokinetic training used in more sport specific movements to improve on iceperformance parameters. PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to investigate theeffects of 8 weeks of two different training protocols volume matched for concentric loadingincluding; (1) isokinetic squats versus (2) isoinertial squats on strength, power, speed (on andoff-ice) and agility on ice in young male ice hockey players. METHOD: 15 ice hockey playersfrom division 1 in the Swedish junior hockey league were included in this study. They werestratified by 1RM strength test values into either the isokinetic (IKT) or the isoinertialtraining group (TRT) in order to control for equal total volume. The training was done for 8-weeks with 2-3 sessions each week consisting of 4 different squat exercise variations. Testsfor strength (1RM squat), power under heavy load (loaded squat jumps) and power underlight load (unloaded jump variations), speed (30 m sprint on and off ice) and agility(Cornering S test on ice) were conducted pre-and post intervention. A 2 between(treatment) x 2 within (time) analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to detect anymain effects or interactions. RESULTS: Significant main effects for time were found for squat1RM (p ˂0.01) loaded vertical jumps for 20 kg (p 0.01), 40 kg (p ˂0.01), 60 kg (p ˂0.01), 80 kg(p ˂0.01), sprint 30 m on ice (p ˂0.01) and sprint 30 m off ice (p= 0.01). There were nostatistical significant differences between the two groups for any of the measuredperformance variables. CONCLUSION: Although a training effect was present in mostvariables measured, isokinetic training had no greater effect on strength, power, speed oragility variables among adolescent ice hockey players than traditional isoinertial barbelltraining after 8 weeks lower body of resistance training. Further research is needed toelucidate both the effects of isokinetics training on power and strength but also on icehockey performance parameters.

  • 56.
    Farias, Marcelo
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Petersson, Rasmus
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Idrottsliga avhopp: Anledningar och konsekvenser hos ungdomar2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of present study was to investigate the reasons why adolescents in the age between 16-19 years dropout from sport and what consequences this may entail. Retrospective interviews were made on eleven adolescents from a sportgymnasium in Southwest Sweden. The two models used in the study were Push/pull/anti-push/anti-pull framework (Fernandez, Stephan & Fouquereau, 2006) and the holistic athletic career model (Wylleman, Reints & De Knop, 2013). The results showed that the most common dropout reasons were injuries, lack of time, social problems outside the sport, social problems inside the sport and the sport culture. The results also showed that the most frequent consequences for dropping out from sport were mainly concerning psychosocial- and sports factors. Almost all participants described that they lost friends from the sport as a result of the dropout, many also indicated that they had changed their type of exercise after the dropout. The participants reported that after the dropout they had more time for school and they were more focused once they were in school, some even pointed out that they got better grades.

  • 57.
    Farley, Oliver R.L.
    et al.
    School of Exercise and Health Science, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, Western Australia, Australia & Hurley Surfing Australia High Performance Center, Casuarina Beach, New South Wales, Australia & SPRINZ, Auckland University of Technology, Auckland, New Zealand.
    Secomb, Josh L.
    School of Exercise and Health Science, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, Western Australia, Australia & Hurley Surfing Australia High Performance Center, Casuarina Beach, New South Wales, Australia & Queensland Academy of Sport, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.
    Raymond, Ellen R.
    Hurley Surfing Australia High Performance Center, Casuarina Beach, New South Wales, Australia & Department for Health, University of Bath, Bath, United Kingdom.
    Lundgren, Lina E.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). School of Exercise and Health Science, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, Western Australia, Australia & Hurley Surfing Australia High Performance Center, Casuarina Beach, New South Wales, Australia.
    Ferrier, Brendon K.
    School of Exercise and Health Science, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, Western Australia, Australia & England School of Applied Sciences, Edinburgh Napier University, Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom.
    Abbiss, Chris R.
    School of Exercise and Health Science, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, Western Australia, Australia.
    Sheppard, Jeremy M.
    School of Exercise and Health Science, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, Western Australia, Australia & Hurley Surfing Australia High Performance Center, Casuarina Beach, New South Wales, Australia & Canadian Sport Institute, Pacific Region, Richmond, British Columbia, Canada.
    Workloads of Competitive Surfing: Work-to-Relief Ratios, Surf-Break Demands, and Updated Analysis2018In: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, ISSN 1064-8011, E-ISSN 1533-4287, Vol. 32, no 10, p. 2939-2948Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study provides an in-depth descriptive and quantitative time-motion analysis of competitive surfing, using Global Positioning System (GPS) units and video synchronization, which serves to extend upon the results of Farley, Harris, and Kilding (Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 26, 7 [2012]). In addition, comparisons between locations and surfers competing in the same heats were performed. Global Positioning System and video data were collected from 41 male competitive surfers (23.2 6 6.1 years, 71 6 10.3 kg, 177.2 6 6.4 cm) participating in 3 professional domestic surfing events, with competitive heats of 20-minute duration. Fifty data sets were analyzed across the 3 competitions, with velocities and distances covered, proportion of time spent performing various surfing activities, and total work-to-relief ratio determined. Results revealed surfers paddled 44% of the total time, followed by stationary periods (42%). Surfers performed at a significantly (p < 0.05) higher work-to- relief ratio (1.7:1) at the Beach-break (an exposed beach) com- pared with point-break 1 and 2 (waves breaking around a rocky point). Point-breaks 1 and 2 had longer continuous durations of paddling, with significantly longer rides at point-break 1 over the Beach-break (p < 0.01) and point-break 2 (p < 0.01). The average maximal speed (24.8 km/h) from point-break 2 was significantly faster than point-break 1 (p < 0.01) and Beach- break (p < 0.05). This information should influence surfing drills and conditioning methods to prepare these athletes for the dis- parate demands, such as training for a point-break competition involving longer durations of continuous paddling and short, high-intensity workloads for a Beach-break. 

  • 58.
    Felding, Michael
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Becoming Established in Applied Sport Psychology Practice – Reflections of established practitioners in Denmark2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This qualitative study focused on how Danish practitioners made the transition into established professionals in the Danish field of applied sport psychology. This was done by: (1) examining demands, resources, barriers, coping strategies experienced during this transition into an established practitioner, and (2) to highlight the most important learning experiences made by the participants after having become established members of the Danish applied field of sport psychology. There were 6 participants in this study, 4 male- and 2 female. All considered established and accomplished within the Danish field of applied sport psychology. The level of experience ranged from 8-30 years of working with individual clients and teams. A semi-structured interview guide was created with help of the theoretical model by Stambulova (2003) i.e. the athletic carrier transition model. The interviews were coded using thematic content analysis and uncovered 256 raw data units which were categorized into five profiles; demands, barriers, resources, coping strategies and lessons learned during the transition. Rønnestad and Skovholt's (2003) theory of therapist development was used to determine what was required in order to consider an established professional. The results are discussed in relation to previous research and theoretical models. Lastly, the author has attempted to use the results to provide guidance and give advice to the new generation of novice practitioners in Danish field of applied sport psychology as well as Danish educational institutions.

  • 59.
    Felding, Michael
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Early transitions in Applied Sport Psychology Practice – Reflections of established practitioners in Denmark2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 60.
    Fernández, M. L.
    et al.
    Centro de Estudios Universitarios San Isidoro, Centro Adscrito A la Universidad Pablo de Olavide, Spain.
    Pérez, R. C.
    Centro de Estudios Universitarios San Isidoro, Centro Adscrito A la Universidad Pablo de Olavide, Spain.
    Jiménez, A. M. L.
    Universidad de Sevilla, Spain.
    Hertting, Krister
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    "Entrenando a familias". Evaluación de un programa de optimización de actitudes parentales en un club de fútbol2018In: Revista de Psicologia del Deporte, ISSN 1132-239X, E-ISSN 1988-5636, Vol. 27, no Supplement 3, p. 37-42Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 61.
    Fleetwood, Lina
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Bilateral differences and relationship between rotational power and hand strength in young golf players2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Strength and power are important factors in many sports, and rotational power of the trunk and upper body are important components of golf performance. Trunk and pelvis cooperated in the rotation movement and strength in the muscles surrounding these segments is contributing to a successful and powerful rotation. Side-to-side asymmetry is often discussed in the field of injury prevention and it is suggested that bilateral imbalances affects the performance. Hand strength is a measure of diverse use when testing physical requirements in athletes. It has previously been concluded that hands strength correlates strongly with strength in both lower and upper extremity in youths, but the correlation among adults and athletes are unknown. In golf, hand strength has been stated to be one of the most important components for golf performance and it strongly correlates with golf specific variables such as ball speed and drivers distance. The relationship between hand strength and rotational power is unknown. Aim: The aim was to study rotational peak power and hand strength in young golf players to compare side-to-side differences and the relationship between rotational peak power and hand strength. Methods: Twenty-seven subjects, 22 men and 5 women, with a golf handicap of ≤5 participated in the study. The two tests performed was a hand strength test using a T.K.K handheld dynamometer and a rotational peak power test in Quantum. The tests were performed at the same session, first hand strength and then rotational peak power. In order to test the rotational peak power a 1RM test was performed. In order to study the relationship between hand strength and rotational power a Spearman´s range of correlation (rs) was used. A Wilcoxon signed-ranked test was used to study the side-to-side differences between dominant and non-dominant hand strength and rotational power. Results: No statistical significant differences were found between dominant and non-dominant hand strength (p = 0.28) or between dominant and non-dominant rotational power (p = 0.97). A strong correlation between dominant hand strength and dominant rotational power was found (rs = 0.636) and a moderate correlation between non-dominant hand strength and non-dominant rotational power (rs = 0.589). Conclusion: There are no side-to-side differences in hand strength or rotational power in young healthy golf players. Dominant hand strength correlates strongly with dominant rotational power.

  • 62.
    Flenner, Elinore
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Front, Emelie
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Den psykosociala miljön i relation till psykisk hälsa, skillnader mellan elitidrottare och icke elitidrottare. En studie om fotbollsungdomar.2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med föreliggande studie var att (1) undersöka om det fanns någon skillnad i upplevd psykisk hälsa hos elitfotbollsspelare och en jämförelsepopulation bestående av gymnasieelever; (2) undersöka om upplevelsen av socialt stöd från föräldrar skiljde sig mellan grupperna samt (3) undersöka om det fanns något samband mellan variablerna psykisk hälsa, socialt stöd och positiv sinnesstämning bland elitspelarna. Totalt deltog 280 ungdomar (ålder 16-20) där 122 var fotbollsspelare ifrån fyra olika fotbollsakademier och 158 ingick i en jämförelsepopulation. Instrumentet som använde var ett frågeformulär utvecklat av svenska folkhälsoinstitutet. Resultatet visade en signifikant skillnad mellan grupperna vad gäller upplevd psykisk hälsa där elitidrottarna upplevde psykisk hälsa än jämförelsepopulationen. Resultatet visade även att elitidrottarna upplever mer socialt stöd från föräldrar än jämförelsepopulationen. Ett ytterligare resultat var att det fanns ett samband mellan socialt stöd och positiv sinnesstämning. Rekommendationer som ges är att skapa ett nätverk mellan förening-föräldrar-skola i syfte att öka ungdomarnas välmående. Föreningar rekommenderas även att nå en förståelse för den enskilda individens behov av socialt stöd.

  • 63.
    Fredriksson, Daniel
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Effekter av ett 12 veckors träningsprogram på vertikal hopphöjd och acceleration hos unga fotbollsspelande tjejer2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Background: Soccer is the world’s most popular team sport with over 240 million players around the world. About 20 million of the 240 million players are women and 80% of these women are adolescence or juniors. Acceleration speed is one of the most important physical qualities for a soccer player.

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to design, perform and evaluate a training program for young female soccer players with focus on increasing the acceleration speed.

    Methods: 22 females (14,61 ± 1,03 years, 50,33 ± 5,05 kg, 160,16 ± 3,04 cm) from two different teams were split in 2 groups, one test group (TG) (n=8) and control group (KG) (n=14). The amount of training were 3 times/week for 12 weeks. One workout/week was designed to increase the acceleration speed for TG. KG trained soccer all 12 weeks.

    Results: TG showed a tendency to increased acceleration at the sprint test (p=0,08) and significant improvement at the jump test (p=0,03) after 12 weeks of training. The acceleration training also showed significant correlations between the sprint- and jump test in the TG after completed the 12 week training period (p=0,02). KG showed decreased acceleration at the sprint test (p=0,02) and the vertical jump height decreased at the jump test (p=0,12). There was a significant correlation between the sprint- and jump test in KG at both evaluation 1 and 2. There were no significant differences between the two groups.

    Conclusion: A 12 week training program can increase the acceleration speed and the vertical jump height on young female soccer players

  • 64.
    Fridlund, Alexander
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Comparison in linear speed and non-reactive agility between male youth football players selected or not selected for the national team.2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Background: Football is among the world’s most popular sports. It is played all over the world. The sport is an intermittent team sport with demands on technical, tactical, psychological and physical abilities. This study focused on the physical ability and more specifically sprinting and agility. Youth national teams are selected every year from the age of 15 and the Swedish Football Association are funding camps and friendly matches were this selected few youth players are being educated in technique, tactics, psychology and physical training. Due to the selections for the national teams taking place at the age of 15, youth players can be affected on how far they have come in the biological maturation.

    Aim: The aim of this study was to compare linear speed and non-reactive agility between youth football players selected or not selected for the national team.

    Method: The study was an observatory cross-sectional study. Twenty-three subjects from an elite club in Sweden were divided into two groups. Eleven subjects had been to a national team gathering (n=11) and twelve players from the same teams had not been invited and was one group (n=12). The subjects performed a linear sprint test and a non-reactive agility test to compare differences between the two groups. The linear sprint test consisted of a 20-meter sprint with split times at 5 and 10 meters. The non-reactive agility test was a zigzag-test over a total of 15 meter. Both tests used timing gates to record time. SPSS was used for the statistical analysis.

    Results: There was a statistically significantly difference (p<0.050) between the groups in the linear sprint. The national team group ran 6.6% (p=0.003) faster in the 5-meter sprint test, 2.4% (p=0.020) faster in the 5-meter sprint test and 3.4% (p=0.007) faster in the 20-meter sprint test. There were no statistically significant differences (p>0.050) in the non-reactive agility test.

    Conclusion: This study found a difference in sprinting ability and it could be due to the difference in the maturation phases. The biggest difference was in the shortest distance, indicating that shorter sprints are more important to develop over longer sprints. The non-reactive agility test showed no statistically significant differences. Future studies could investigate speed and agility separate with larger groups of participants and follow them over time to see if the difference in both speed and agility evens out over time, when all participants have gone trough the final stages of maturation. 

  • 65.
    Fröberg, Andreas
    et al.
    Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Linus
    Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Physical Activity and Academic Achievement in a Swedish Elementary School2015In: Journal of School Health, ISSN 0022-4391, E-ISSN 1746-1561, Vol. 85, no 5, p. 277-278Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 66.
    Gottlieb, Hanna
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Test-retest reliability of the 300-yard Shuttle Run Test2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Several field-based team sports contain repeated, maximal effort sprints with varying rest lengths in between. This puts high demands on athletes’ metabolic and neuromuscular systems. Testing the anaerobic capacity of athletes is essential to improve and evaluate the progression. One test being utilised for assessing anaerobic capacity is the 300-yard shuttle run test. The test is field-based with stopwatches as the sole equipment. However, the test has not been properly tested for reliability.   Aim: The aim of this bachelor thesis was therefore to investigate the reliability of the 300-yard shuttle run test. Methods: The study was performed with a test-retest method and included a familiarisation meeting, test session and retest session.  Test subjects performed the 300-yard shuttle run test at two different occasions with seven or fourteen days in between. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and 95% confidence interval (CI) was utilised to quantify the reliability. An ICC>0.8 was considered acceptable. Results: 17 American football players participated in the study (median age 20, min. =18, max. =38 y; median weight 83, min. =67, max. =133 kg; median height 184, min. =169, max. =194 cm). The ICC for the test-retest was 0.97 (95% CI  0.91-0.99). Conclusion: Based on the results of this study 300-yard shuttle test is proposed as a test providing reliable results. 

  • 67.
    Grönlund Karlström, Johannes
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Olsson, Christoffer
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Lagsammanhållning och motivationsklimat inom fotboll hos flickor och pojkar2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relation between cohesion and perceived motivational climate in football, and if male and female football players differs in cohesion and perceived motivational climate. In total 101 football players between 15 to 19 years (m=17.05, sd=0.93) from different high schools with a football academi participated. Cohesion was measured with, Group Environment Questionarie and the motivational climate with “The Perceived Motivational Climate in Sport Questionaire-3”. The results showed both positive and negative relations between cohesion and the perceived motivational climate, and some differences between men and women in team cohesion and motivational climate. The result is discussed from previous research on the area.

  • 68.
    Gullberg, Jonas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and sports.
    Stressresponsens påverkan på prestation samt copingstrategiers påverkan innan och underprestation2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 69.
    Gunnarsson, Daniel
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Karlsson, Malkolm
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Socialt stöd som moderator i relation mellan neuroticism och prestationsångest2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att undersöka (a) samband mellan variablerna neuroticism, socialt stöd och prestationsångest samt att (b) undersöka om socialt stöd modererar sambandet mellan neuroticism och prestationsångest. Insamlingen av data skedde via ett icke slumpmässigt bekvämlighetsurval. Studien var en kvantitativ tvärsnittsstudie där 120 manliga tipselitfotbollsspelare, i åldrarna 15-18 år (M=16.71, SD=0.74), deltog. Resultatet visade ett positivt statistiskt signifikant samband mellan neuroticism och prestationsångest (r = .62, p <.01) samt ett negativt statistiskt signifikant samband mellan socialt stöd och prestationsångest (r = -.21, p<.05). Däremot visade resultatet ingen statistiskt signifikant modererande effekt av socialt stöd på sambandet mellan neuroticism och prestationsångest. Resultatet belyser vikten av socialt stöd hos ungdomar i tipselitföreningar samt diskuteras utifrån ett neuropsykologiskt perspektiv. Det föreslås fler kvalitativa studier kring området och dess bakomliggande faktorer, samt hur spelare, ledare, föräldrar, föreningar och förbund kan applicera kunskapen i praktiken för att kunna förebygga förekomsten av höga nivåer av prestationsångest.

  • 70.
    Gunnarsson, Daniel
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Källstrand, Markus
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    BORDTENNISSPELARES MÅLSÄTTNINGSPREFERENSER BEROENDE PÅ MÅLINRIKTNING2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    The purpose of this study was to examine the differences in goal preferences of table tennis players, depending on goal orientation. The participants were 103 (60 male and 43 female) table tennis players competing in division one to three. The method used in the study was a quantitative study consisted of questionnaires Collegiate Goal Setting in Sport Questionnaire CGSSQ (Weinberg, Burton, Yukelson, Weigand, 1993) and Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire TEOSQ (Duda & Nicholls, 1992; ref in Duda, 1998). The results showed several significant results between table tennis players with a high ego orientation and table tennis players with a lower ego orientation in goal setting. For example the result showed that table tennis players with a high ego orientation used more often outcome goals and performance goals than table tennis players with a lower ego orientation. The result also showed that a table tennis player with a lower ego orientation means that it is more important with fellowship than tennis players with a high ego orientation. The results have been analyzed and discussed in relation to previous research.

  • 71.
    Gunnarsson, Kristian
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Lindqvist, Hanna
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Fotbollstränares pedagogik – handlar det om lärande eller inlärning?: Ungdomstränares utsagor om arbetsmetoder och kommunikationsformer inom TipsElitverksamheten2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att försöka kartlägga fotbollstränares pedagogiska grundsyn, huruvida det är lärande eller inlärning som bedrivs vid utbildning och utveckling av fotbollsspelare. Samhället och utbildningsväsendet har en utpräglad lärandefilosofi och har i mångt och mycket förkastat inlärningsbegreppet, dock upplevs det som om denna mentalitet fortfarande återfinns i idrottsrörelsen.                                                                                 Undersökningens metod bestod av kvalitativa intervjuer med tio TipsElittränare, där frågeställningarna utgick från begrepp som lärande, inlärning, kommunikation, instruktion och feedback.                                                 Mycket utav deras arbete grundar sig i Svenska Fotbollsförbundets utarbetade styrdokument, där lärandet i första hand beskrivs i termer av inlärning som ett resultat av instruktion. I tränarnas utsagor återfanns dock en antydan till andra perspektiv på lärande som utgick från tvåvägskommunikation samt en syn på spelaren som en  självständig individ med eget ansvar för sitt lärande.                                                                                                  Ytterligare forskning på hur lärande miljöer kan främja utbildning och utveckling på fotbollsplanen rekommenderas, dels för att kunna utveckla tränaren pedagogiskt men även för att kunna utveckla Svenska Fotbollsförbundets utbildningsmaterial

  • 72.
    Gunnesson, Amanda
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Andersson, Ida
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    PÅVERKAS HOPPHÖJD OCH RÖRLIGHET HOS RYTMISKA GYMNASTER AV ETT KOMPLETTERANDE PLYOMETRISKT TRÄNINGSPROGRAM UTFÖRT EN GÅNG I VECKAN?2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka om ett kompletterande plyometriskt träningsprogram för rytmiska gymnaster, utfört 1 gång i veckan, påverkar hopphöjden till det bättre utan att rörligheten försämras. Metod: Åtta (n=8) rytmiska gymnaster i åldern 12±1,1 från gymnastikföreningen Energo i Göteborg fick under 10 veckor utföra ett plyometriskt träningsprogram 1 gång i veckan. Träningsprogrammet bestod av 5 övningar; snabbstart, enbenshopp, jämfotahopp mellan bänkar, hoppa över rep och långa steg. Före-och efter test utfördes, där mättes deltagarnas rörlighet i fot-och höftled med en myrinmätare. Counter movement jump (CMJ) samt enbens- hopp och hjorthopp på både höger och vänster ben mättes med hjälp av mätutrustningen IVAR-jump (SH Sport & Fitness, Mora). Resultat: Inga signifikanta skillnader kunde påvisas då p=0,05. Slutsats: Ett specifikt träningsprogram utfört en gång i veckan visade sig inte vara tillräckligt för att påverka hopphöjden och rörligheten hos unga rytmiska gymnaster. Mer forskning krävs inom detta område.

  • 73.
    Gunterberg, Sofia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Nyqvist, Jennifer
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Bergström, Cecilia
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    EFFEKTEN AV DROP JUMP PÅ VOLLEYBOLLSPELARES EFTERFÖLJANDE HOPPHÖJD2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Hopphöjden är en viktig faktor inom volleyboll och kan vara direkt avgörande i spelsituationer. Drop jump (DJ) är en vanligt förekommande plyometrisk övning som används för att förbättra hopphöjden. Ett fåtal studier har påvisat den omedelbara effekten utav att implementera DJ i ett träningsupplägg. Syfte: Syftet med studien var att undersöka om ett set med fem repetitioner av DJ kan förbättra hopphöjden efter tre minuters aktiv vila. Avsikten med studiens upplägg var att det med enkelhet ska kunna implementeras i en matchsituation. Metod: Nio kvinnliga volleybollspelare på elitnivå deltog i studien i åldern 25±7 år, med vikt 73±6 kg och längd 172±8 cm. Deltagarnas hopphöjd testades med tre countermovement jump (CMJ) och 72 timmar senare utfördes fem DJ innan liknande CMJ utfördes. Hopphöjden uppmättes med Ivar jump system.   Resultat: Resultatet påvisade ingen signifikant förbättring i hopphöjd (p = 0,6) efter utförandet av fem DJ. Dock noterades en positiv trend då åtta av nio deltagare förbättrade sin hopphöjd med ±1,6 cm. Slutsats: Utförandet av fem DJ före en hopprestation kan ge positiv effekt. Ytterligare forskning krävs dock för att kunna fastställa slutsatsen och hur länge effekten håller i sig.

  • 74.
    Gustafsson, Claes
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Ekström, Karoline
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Self-efficacy inom individuell idrott och lagidrott2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to examine differences in self-efficacy between athletes in individual sports and team sports and if there were differences in self-efficacy between men and women. The study also examined if there were any correlations between social support, anxiety, motivation, self-efficacy and performance. The study held 117 participants whereof 53 were individual athletes and 64were athletes in team sports, 53 of them were women and 64 were men and the participants ages were between 19-52. A quantitative method was used and a questionnaire consisting of TEOSQ, GSE, SCAT and MSPSS were together with five questions regarding type of sport, age, gender and percieved performance in practice and competition put to one questionnaire. The collected data was analyzed in SPSS, using ANOVA and Pearson´s r. The result of the study showed that there was a difference between men and women regarding self-efficacy and that there were no differences regarding self-efficacy compared to which sport the athlete participated in. Furthermore, the study showed significant correlations between motivation, performance and self-efficacy. The results were discussed in relations to appropriate theoretical frameworks.

  • 75.
    Gustafsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Jeanette, Backholm
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    PÅVERKAR ÅLDER, KÖN OCH TRÄNINGSMÄNGD FMS?: En tvärsnittsstudie mellan Functional movement screen samt sf-36v2 Health survey2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Regelbunden fysisk aktivitet motverkar en rad fysiska och mentala sjukdomar. Hälsovinster av fysisk aktivitet är bland annat en högre funktionell muskulär- och kardiovaskulär kapacitet samt en högre livskvalitet. Stillasittande och inaktivitet kan leda till övervikt, kardiovaskulära sjukdomar, cancer, psykosociala problem och metaboliska sjukdomar.

    Mellan män och kvinnor finns fysiologiska skillnader som visar sig i kroppsstorlek och muskelmassa. Detta ger generellt sett kvinnor mer flexibel fysik medan män är fysiskt starkare.

    WHOs rekommendationer om daglig fysisk aktivitet är 150 min/vecka av moderat aerobisk träning eller 75 min mer ansträngande aerobisk träning. Styrketräning som involverar större muskelgrupper rekommenderas i åldrarna 18-64.  

    Till hjälp att undersöka hypotesen har två oberoende test används. En skriftlig enkät, SF-36v2 Health Survey, samt ett fysiskt test, Functional Movement Screen.

    I denna studie undersöks huruvida det finns ett samband mellan en ökad träningsmängd och ett högre FMS-resultat samt om en högre ålder ger lägre FMS-resultat, oavsett kön. Vi tror oss även se ett samband mellan högre FMS-poäng och ett högre uppskattat mentalt och fysiskt mående.

    Testpersonerna (N:30) som deltog i studien var arbetande eller studerande män (N:15) och kvinnor (N:15) i åldrarna 20-65år.

    FMS-resultaten visade ingen signifikant skillnad mellan kön eller stigande ålder. Däremot ser vi signifikanta skillnader mellan könen vid specifika styrke- eller rörlighetstester i FMS. Kvinnorna visar tydligt via resultaten att de generellt har en mer flexibel fysik medan männen är starkare.

    Som slutsats av denna studie kan vi konstatera att FMS som testmetod är könsneutralt och kan användas på blandade populationer. Detta ger testmetoden en bred användbarhet på just en blandad population.

    Fler studier krävs för att få fram normerande poängsättning om FMS skall användas på medelmotionären. 

  • 76.
    Hagberg, Magnus
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Lund, Staffan
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Explosivitet och skating: Explosiv styrketräning kontra plyometri2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 77. Hallberg Lyggemark, Hulda
    A comparison between a reactive- and a non-reactive agility test performed by adolescent handball players2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Agility is the ability to change direction rapidly in response to a stimulus. Agility is made up of many physiological qualities, such as change of direction speed, straight sprinting speed, leg muscle qualities and anthropometry, but also factors like perceptual decision-making factors, visual scanning and knowledge of situations. Agility can be divided into reactive agility and non-reactive agility where reactive agility involves a response to an unpredictable stimulus whereas non-reactive agility is a response to a predictable stimulus. Handball is a team sport that has both physical and physiological demands such as agility, strength, endurance and cognition. AIM: The aim of this study was to compare and investigate the relationship between two agility test in order see if reactive and non-reactive agility can be seen as two different qualities in adolescent handball players. METHOD: This study included 15 adolescent handball players (median age: 13 years; median/mean height: 168.5/170.4 cm; median/mean weight: 57.3/58.76 kg). The participants were tested in a non-reactive agility test, the Agility T-test, and a reactive agility test, FiTRO Agility Check. The Agility T-test was evaluated using a stopwatch and the software FiTRO Agility Check was used to determine the reaction time. The data colletion occured during a training session. For the statistical analysis Spearmans correlation test was used. RESULTS: This study showed a weak correlation between the two tests (r= -0.33, p=0.23). CONCLUSION: The result indicates that there is a weak correlation between the two tests and this could imply that reactive and non-reactive agility might be two different qualities in team-handball, however more studies are warrented.

  • 78.
    Hansson, Sebastian
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Vingeskog, Malin
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Skadefrekvens och skadeförebyggande beteenden bland elitidrottsutövare inom idrotterna golf och volleyboll2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att undersöka skadefrekvens hos elitidrottsutövare, samt att undersöka om autonomistöd, autonom motivation, och intention mot skadeförebyggande beteenden, och utförda skadeförebyggande beteenden har ett samband med skadefrekvens. I studien undersöks hur skadeförebyggande beteenden påverkar skadefrekvens med utgång i Bahr och Krosshaugs modell (2005). Bahr och Krosshaug (2005) menar att för att kunna förebygga skador är det viktigt att förstå varför skadan uppstår. Studien undersöker även i vilken utsträckning autonomistöd (Williams et al., 1996), autonom motivation (Chan & Hagger, 2012b) och intention (Chan & Hagger, 2012a) påverkar utförandet av skadeförebyggande beteenden samt skadefrekvens. Insamlingen av data gjordes genom ett icke-slumpmässigt bekvämlighetsurval. Studien var en kvantitativ longitudinal design. I studien deltog 69 elitidrottsutövande golf- och volleybollspelare, med åldrarna 15 år till 30 år (M= 21.06 SD=3.88). Studien visade en hög skadefrekvens bland de deltagande elitidrottsutövarna. 61% av deltagarna registrerade symptom på överträning och 54% registrerade symptom som klassas som allvarlig överträningsproblematik vid minst ett svarstillfälle under de fem veckor studien genomfördes. Inget signifikant samband visades i flernivåanalysen mellan skadefrekvens och de skadeförebyggande beteenden eller mellan skadefrekvens och variablerna autonomistöd, autonom motivation och intention mot skadeförebyggande beteenden. Utifrån studiens resultat rekommenderas det en mer detaljerad undersökning av skadeförebyggande beteenden.

  • 79.
    Hedin, Dennis
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Relationships of pain experience and aerobic capacity in individuals with chronic pain2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Chronic pain is defined as pain for at least 3 months and is highly prevalent in society (10-30%). Individuals with chronic pain are more sensitive to pressure pain and have a disturbed pain perception. Physical activity (PA) has been shown to be a helpful method to treat and decrease disability in these individuals, but the knowledge about the relationship between chronic pain, PA and aerobic capacity is less understood. The aim of this study was to investigate if pain experience is associated with aerobic capacity and physical activity in a population with chronic pain in comparison to a pain free reference group.

    Method: 146 men and women between 40 and 70 years old participated. Pressure pain sensitivity was measured with an Algometer on eight points and aerobic capacity was measured with Ekblom-Bak submaximal test on a bicycle ergometer. A questionnaire was used to gather information about self-reported PA, pain regions and fear-avoidance.

    Result: Individuals with chronic pain had significantly lower pain thresholds (p=0.028) and higher fear-avoidance score (p=0.001), but no difference in aerobic capacity compared to pain-free individuals (p=0.344). Women had lower thresholds compared to men in both chronic pain and pain-free group (p<0.001 and p=0.008). There were no association between aerobic capacity and self-reported moderate PA (r=0.001) or in vigorous PA (r=0.173). Low VO2max has more pain regions (p=0.017) and lower pain thresholds (p=0.001) compared with high VO2max, but no difference in fear-avoidance score (p=0.234).

    Conclusion: Individuals with chronic pain had a higher sensitivity to pressure pain and a higher fear-avoidance compared to pain-free individuals, but no difference in aerobic capacity. There were no associations between self-reported PA and aerobic capacity, and individuals with low VO2max had more pain regions and lower pain thresholds compared with individuals with high VO2max, but no differences in fear-avoidance was found.

  • 80.
    Helland, Christian
    et al.
    The Norwegian Olympic and Paralympic Committee and Confederation of Sports, Oslo, Norway.
    Hole, Eirik
    The Norwegian Olympic and Paralympic Committee and Confederation of Sports, Oslo, Norway.
    Iversen, Erik
    The Norwegian Olympic and Paralympic Committee and Confederation of Sports, Oslo, Norway.
    Olsson, Monica Charlotte
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Seynnes, Olivier
    Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway.
    Solberg, Paul Andre
    Defense Institute, Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway.
    Paulsen, Gøran
    The Norwegian Olympic and Paralympic Committee and Confederation of Sports, Oslo, Norway & Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway.
    Training Strategies to Improve Muscle Power: Is Olympic-style Weightlifting Relevant?2017In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 49, no 4, p. 736-745Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: This efficacy study investigated the effects of (1) Olympic-style weightlifting (OWL), (2) motorized strength and power training (MSPT), and (3) free weight strength and power training (FSPT) on muscle power.

    METHODS: Thirty-nine young athletes (20±3 yr.; ice hockey, volleyball and badminton) were randomized into the three training groups. All groups participated in 2-3 sessions/week for 8 weeks. The MSPT and FSPT groups trained using squats (two legs and single leg) with high force and high power, while the OWL group trained using clean and snatch exercises. MSPT was conducted as slow-speed isokinetic strength training and isotonic power training with augmented eccentric load, controlled by a computerized robotic engine system. FSPT used free weights. The training volume (sum of repetitions x kg) was similar between all three groups. Vertical jumping capabilities were assessed by countermovement jump (CMJ), squat jump (SJ), drop jump (DJ), and loaded CMJs (10-80 kg). Sprinting capacity was assessed in a 30 m sprint. Secondary variables were squat 1-repetition-maximum, body composition and quadriceps thickness and architecture.

    RESULTS: OWL resulted in trivial improvements, and inferior gains compared to FSPT and MSPT for CMJ, SJ, and DJ. MSPT demonstrated small, but robust effects on SJ, DJ and loaded CMJs (3-12%). MSPT was superior to FSPT in improving 30 m sprint performance. FSPT and MSPT, but not OWL, demonstrated increased thickness in the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris (4-7%).

    CONCLUSION: MSPT was time-efficient and equally or more effective than FSPT training in improving vertical jumping and sprinting performance. OWL was generally ineffective and inferior to the two other interventions. Copyright © 2016 by the American College of Sports Medicine.

  • 81.
    Henriksen, Kristoffer
    et al.
    University of Southern Denmark.
    Roessler, Kirsten Kaya
    University of Southern Denmark.
    Stambulova, Natalia
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Talent development environment in sport: An explorative case study based on the system's theory framework2007In: Book of abstracts / [ed] Yannis Theodorakis, Marios Goudas & Athanasios Papaioannou, Volos: University of Thessaly , 2007, p. 192-192Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims at presenting a holistic description of environmental conditions and psychosocial competencies associated with successful talent development in sport. Most of the research conducted on psychological aspects of athletic talent development has been retrospective and accepted an athlete-centred approach (Bloom, 1985; Ericsson, 1996; see Durand-Bush & Salmela, 2001 for review) This study shifts its focus from an individual athlete to all kinds of psychosocial environmental conditions working as resources and/or barriers for the athletic talent development. The system’s theory (Patton & McMahon, 2006) is used as a theoretical framework for this multi-case study. It emphasizes the wholeness of intra-individual and contextual influences on a person and interrelations between these influences. A talented athlete is seen as fully embedded into this context. The project is supposed to compare four athletic environments (sport clubs in Denmark and Sweden) renowned for successful athletic talent development. This paper will focus on the results of the first case study where the research methodology is going to be tested. The study has a qualitative and explorative nature seeking to develop and refine hypothesis on optimal talent development environments. Methods of data collection include interviewing of club administrators, coaches, young prospect athletes, their parents, and also observations of daily life in the environments to obtain systematic and detailed knowledge of athletic talent development as it occurs in the real world.

  • 82.
    Hernmo, Annika
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    ANSPÄNNING OCH SJÄLVFÖRTROENDE HOS LAGIDROTTANDE OCH INDIVIDUELLT IDROTTANDE MÄN OCH KVINNOR.2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att undersöka skillnaderna mellan män och kvinnor samt mellan lag och individuella idrottare, i deras nivåer av anspänning och självförtroende. Studien undersökte också samband mellan anspänning och självförtroende. Totalt deltog 102 idrottare, 54 lagidrottare och 48 individuella idrottare. Hälften av idrottarna var kvinnor och hälften män. För att mäta anspänning och självförtroende användes CSAI-2. Det fanns ingen signifikant skillnad i kognitivanspänning, somatisk anspänning eller i självförtroende hos lagidrottare och individuella idrottare. Signifikanta könsskillnader erhölls, där kvinnorna hade högre kognitiv anspänning och somatisk anspänning än männen, medan männen generellt hade ett högre självförtroende än kvinnorna. Studien visade även på tre samband. Det kan konstateras att typ av idrott inte är relaterat till individens anxiety och självförtroende, utan skillnaderna finns mellan könen. Resultatet diskuteras utifrån tidigare forskning och utifrån detta har förslag på framtida forskning behandlats.

  • 83.
    Hertting, Krister
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Kostenius, Catrine
    Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    The Youth Soccer Coaches’ Visions and Thoughts of Leader Support2016In: Physical Culture and Sport. Studies and Research, ISSN 2081-2221, E-ISSN 1899-4849, Vol. 70, no 1, p. 69-78Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Objectives: The European Commission has highlighted the use of sports as an important venue for engaging citizens in health-enhancing activities, physical activity, volunteerism and active citizenship. Coaching is a central component of sports for children and youth, but there is little research on the promotion of sports coaches’ health. In the light of this gap, the aim of this paper was to elucidate youth soccer coaches’ visions and thoughts regarding leadership support from clubs and soccer associations.

    Design and method: The study was based on an online questionnaire conducted with Swedish soccer coaches who coached children and young people between 6 and 18 years of age. In total, 1514 coaches received the online questionnaire via email and 764 coaches (50.5% of the sample) answered. Three hundred and seventy-five coaches answered the open question: ‘How would you describe the support you, as a coach, would like to receive from clubs and associations?’ Responses were analysed using method.

    Results: Four main themes emerged from the analysis: financial and other resources support, recognition of contribution, sense of belonging to a value-based association and positive coach development.

    Conclusion: We discuss the factors that support soccer coaches and how these can serve as health-promoting supports for coaches working with children and youth.

  • 84.
    Herö, Johan
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    The effects on knee angular velocity after a 6-weeks training period with the new training device ProPrioPlate- a pilot study2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    AbstractBackground: ACL injuries is common and can result in long term disability or even have a career ending outcome for the athlete. Women are more exposed to ACL injuries than men are and several factors increase the risk of ACL injuries for women where one is the knee angle velocity. It seems that prevention programs involving plyometric- and strength training has been most effective on altering these risk factors for knee injuries. But many programs involve several exercises which makes it very time consuming. Since the gluteus muscles is our main hip abductor and hip stabilizer it is of great importance for controlling the knee. The ProPrioPlate (PPP) is a device that has been validated and shown to activate the gluteus medius 40% more in a squat compared to a regular bodyweight squat.Purpose: To investigate if a 6 week long training period, 3 sessions/ week, 5minutes/session with the PPP could decrease the mean abduction angular velocity (°/sec) of the knee joint in a Drop jump (DJ) in women with poor knee stabilityMethod: An experimental study design was used. Twelve female athletes with poor knee stability and signs of knee valgus in a drop jump conducted a 6 weeks training program to investigate any changes in abduction angular velocity in a DJ. 3D motion analyzes were performed before and after the training period. Wilcoxon signed ranked test was used to investigate if there were any changes in results between the different test occasions.Results: Median abduction angular velocity of the test performed before the intervention was -34. 34 (min -70. 65 max -11. 53) deg/sec and after the intervention median -34. 22 deg/sec (min -51. 97 max -3. 28). The P value was 0.24 which indicate that there were no statistical significant differences between the three testing occasions. Compliance to the intervention was low, 15%.Conclusion: A 6 weeks training period with the PPP did not decrease the abduction angular velocity. Due to low compliance rate amongst of subjects no conclusion regarding the effect of the device can be made.

  • 85.
    Herö, Johan
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Andersson, Niklas
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    A New Training Device To Optimize Muscle Activation Of The Gluteus Medius During Progressive Hip Flexion2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Background: The Gluteus Medius (GM) muscle has an important role in stabilizing the pelvis and controlling the knees during athletic activities. Weakness in the GM can affect performance negatively and increase the risk of lower extremity (LE) injuries. During functional activities different parts of the muscle becomes activated depending on the degree of hip flexion. However, many GM strength exercises only train the GM in one fixed degree of hip flexion. Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to develop and validate a new training device designed to increase the muscle activation of the GM during progressive hip flexion in squats. Methods: The new device was developed to offer resistance training against hip abduction during squats. To be able to validate the new device in activating the GM, 32 female athletes (mean age 20 ± 3) with various athletic backgrounds was included in the study. All subjects performed squats on and off the device while surface electromyographical (SEMG) activity was recorded from GM on both sides of the body.

    Results: All test subjects were able to perform the squat and to activate the GM. When the squats were performed on the new device the muscle activation in GM was significantly higher compared to bodyweight squats (Z=-4.9, p < 0.001). Correlation tests between a complete sequence of five squats and one selected repetition revealed that activation was consistent throughout the exercise, (right GM: rs = 0.93, p < 0.001, left GM: rp = 0.92, p < 0.001) . No differences in activation were found between the right and left GM when squatting on the device. Conclusion: This study showed that the newly developed training device increased the muscle activity in GM during squats. Moreover, the results showed that squatting on the device activates the left and right side of the body equally and that the GM was activated during the whole exercise, under ongoing hip flexion. This information could be used to develop new training methods with the aim to improve stabilization of the pelvis and lower extremities during functional activities.

  • 86.
    Hildingsson, Emelie
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Teacher Education (LUT).
    Josefsson, Simon
    Halmstad University, School of Teacher Education (LUT).
    Rörelse och lärande: En studie om lärarnas uppfattningar kring fysisk aktivitet och lärande2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 87.
    Hinic, Hansi
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity.
    Utvärdering av Idrottslyftet, en delrapport2010Report (Other academic)
  • 88.
    Holmén, Erika
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Motivationens grundläggande beståndsdelar: Ett verktyg för att förstå elitidrottarens motivation2015Student paper other, 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 89.
    Horwath, Oscar
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Changes in strength, power and bodycomposition following 8 weeks of isokinetic andisoinertial strength training.2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 90.
    Horwath, Oscar
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Paulsen, Gøran
    The Norwegian Olympic and Paralympic Committee and Confederation of Sports, Oslo, Norway & Department of Physical Performance, Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway.
    Esping, Tobias
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Seynnes, Olivier
    Department of Physical Performance, Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway.
    Olsson, M. Charlotte
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Isokinetic resistance training combined with eccentric overload improves athletic performance and induces muscle hypertrophy in young ice hockey players.2019In: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, ISSN 1440-2440, E-ISSN 1878-1861, Vol. 22, no 7, p. 821-826Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the combined effects of slow isokinetic resistance training and eccentric overload and compare it to traditional resistance training on strength, power, body composition and muscle hypertrophy in young ice hockey players.

    DESIGN: Experimental, randomized trial.

    METHODS: Twenty-two resistance-trained ice hockey players (18±1year) were assigned to either isokinetic resistance training and eccentric overload (ISO/ECC; n=11) or traditional resistance training (TRAD; n=11). Participants underwent supervised progressive resistance training for 8 weeks (2-3 sessions/week) involving lower body multiple-joint exercises (heavy squats and explosive jump squats). The ISO/ECC group performed their training using a computerized robotic engine system (1080 Quantum synchro, Sweden), whereas the TRAD group performed the same resistance exercises with isotonic loading. Before and after the intervention, participants were evaluated in 1RM back squat, loaded jump squats, sprint- and jump performance, body composition and muscle thickness using ultrasound measurement.

    RESULTS: Similar moderate increases in 1RM back squat and power output in the jump squats were found in both the ISO/ECC and TRAD groups (11-17%, P<0.01), whereas only the ISO/ECC group showed improvements in drop jump performance (9.8%, P=0.01). Moreover, similar trivial changes in body composition were observed in both groups, while only the ISO/ECC training group increased muscle thickness in the vastus intermedius (P=0.01) and rectus femoris muscles (P=0.03).

    CONCLUSIONS: Both modalities effectively increased maximal strength and power output, whereas isokinetic resistance training, combined with eccentric overload, improved drop jump performance and induced greater muscle hypertrophy than traditional training in young ice hockey players. © 2019 Sports Medicine Australia

  • 91.
    Hulander, Markus
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS). Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Center for Sport and Health Science (CIHF).
    PSYKOSOCIALA FAKTORERS PÅVERKAN PÅ SKADERISKEN BLAND UNGDOMSLANDSLAGSSPELARE I FOTBOLL2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to study psychosocial factors influence on injury risk among youth national team soccer players. Obsessive passion has been a key factor that has been studied in relation to injury. Also the factors number of training hours per week, number of matches played, stress, self confidence and motivation has been studied in relation to injury. A quantitative design was used in which 300 Swedish youth national team soccer players have concluded as study participants. Used instruments in this survey has been

    PANAS, PSS, Grit-scale, PCLDS, Passion Scale, SCI and SMS.. The results showed that men incur more serious injuries then women. Furthermore, results showed that players with more than one injury during the season had higher obsessive passion then other players. The results are discussed in relation to the theoretical framework and the results from previous research. Proposal for future research in the field are provided.

  • 92.
    Hurtig Kokko, Emmy
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Lindhe, Rebecca
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    SKILLNADER I UPPLEVD MOTIVATION OCH SJÄLVFÖRTROENDE HOS LANDSLAGSAPELANDE OCH ICKE LANDSLAGSSPELANDE UNGDOMAR INOM FOTBOLL2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to examine if there is any possible differences in motivation and self-confidence among young soccer national team players and non-national soccer team players between 14-19 years old. The study also examined if there were any gender differences in the same areas. 471 young soccer players participated in this study, 282 of the players were national team players and 189 were not playing in any of the soccer national teams. 270 of the participants were boys and 201 were girls. A quantitative method with the questionnaires Grit Scale, Sport Motivation Scale (SMS), The self-determination scale and Sport Confidence Inventory was used. The results showed that the non-national players perceive themselves to have a higher level of motivation than the national team players in this study. The results also showed that the national team players perceived themselves to have a higher level of self-efficacy than the non-national team players in this study. There is also a significant gender difference within self-efficacy and motivation. The results are discussed in relation to the essay’s theoretical framework.

  • 93.
    Hvatskaya, Elena
    et al.
    St.-Petersburg State University of Physical Education and Sports, St.-Petersburg, Russia.
    Stambulova, Natalia
    St.-Petersburg State University of Physical Education and Sports, St.-Petersburg, Russia.
    Perception of the first competition: Retrospective analysis made by elite athletes1997In: Innovations in sport psychology: linking theory and practice : proceedings / [ed] Bar-Eli, Michael & Lidor, Ronnie, ISSP , 1997, p. 321-323Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 94.
    Häggblom, Jenny
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Do Compression Garment Maintain Muscular Power from a Strenuous Exercise Session?: A randomized controlled trial2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background Compression garments have gained interest over the past ten years, especially when investigating the recovery from a strenuous strength session. Since compression garments have increased in popularity over the past years, scientific results regarding possible benefits are still lacking. 

     

    Aim The aim of the current study was to investigate the recovery from an eccentric exercise session with regards to physiological performance and perceived feelings of muscle soreness, fatigue and recovery in recreational athletes after wearing customized compression garments for 24-hours.

     

    Method Thirteen recreational athletes (age 24.7±4.0 years (mean ± SD), length 171.3±7.0 cm, weight 70.8±9.4 kg), participated in this randomized crossover designed study. After a familiarization trial, participants completed two rounds of testing and exercise in both a control (CON) and a compression condition (CG). Garments were worn for 24-hours post exercise in the compression condition whereas regular clothing were used in the control condition. Performance variables of Wingate Anaerobic cycle Test, agility t-test and broad jump were assessed as well as subjective feelings of muscle soreness, both at baseline and 24-hours post a lower body eccentric exercise session.

     

    Results Muscle soreness was significantly higher 24 hours post recovery (p=0.02) compared to baseline but no difference was seen between groups (p>0.05). There was a significant difference in perceived recovery (increased in CG, p=0.012) and fatigue (increased in CON, p=0.04) between conditions 24-hours post recovery. Physiological performance measured with Wingate, agility t-test and broad jumps were not different among either group or time (p>0.05). Perceived sleep quality was not different from pre-workout or between groups (p>0.05).

     

    Conclusion Based on our findings in the current study, there seems to be no physiological benefit in performance 24-hours after wearing customized compression garments compared to a control condition. However, there seems to be a psychological benefit from wearing the garments with a reduced feeling of fatigue and an improved recovery

  • 95.
    Håman, Linn
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI). Department of Food and Nutrition, and Sport Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Barker Ruchti, Natalie
    Department of Food and Nutrition, and Sport Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Patriksson, Göran
    Department of Food and Nutrition, and Sport Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lindgren, Eva-Carin
    Department of Food and Nutrition, and Sport Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Orthorexia nervosa: An integrative literature review of a lifestyle syndrome2015In: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, ISSN 1748-2623, E-ISSN 1748-2631, Vol. 10, article id 26799Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bratman first proposed orthorexia nervosa in the late 1990s, defining it an obsession with eating healthy food to achieve, for instance, improved health. Today, in the Swedish media, excessive exercising plays a central role in relation to orthorexia. A few review articles on orthorexia have been conducted; however, these have not focused on aspects of food and eating, sport, exercise, or a societal perspective. The overall aim of this study was to provide an overview and synthesis of what philosophies of science approaches form the current academic framework of orthorexia. Key questions were: What aspects of food and eating are related to orthorexia? What role do exercise and sports play in relation to orthorexia? In what ways are orthorexia contextualized? Consequently, the concept of healthism was used to discuss and contextualize orthorexia. The method used was an integrative literature review; the material covered 19 empirical and theoretical articles published in peer-reviewed journals. This review demonstrates a multifaceted nature of orthorexia research; this field has been examined from four different philosophies of science approaches (i.e., empirical-atomistic, empirical-atomistic with elements of empirical-holistic, empirical-holistic, and rational-holistic) on individual, social, and societal levels. The majority of the articles followed an empirical-atomistic approach that focused on orthorexia as an individual issue, which was discussed using healthism. Our analysis indicates a need for (a) more empirical-holistic research that applies interpretive qualitative methods and uses a social perspective of health, e.g., healthism and (b) examining the role of sports and exercise in relation to orthorexia that takes the problematizing of “orthorexic behaviours” within the sports context into account.

  • 96.
    Håman, Linn
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI). Department of Food and Nutrition, and Sport Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Barker-Ruchti, Natalie
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Patriksson, Göran
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lindgren, Eva-Carin
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Orthorexia is framed as exercise dependence in Swedish daily newspapers2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 97.
    Håman, Linn
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI). Department of Food and Nutrition, and Sport Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Barker-Ruchti, Natalie
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Patriksson, Göran
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lindgren, Eva-Carin
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    The framing of orthorexia nervosa in Swedish daily newspapers: A longitudinal qualitative content analysis2016In: Scandinavian Sport Studies Forum, ISSN 2000-088X, E-ISSN 2000-088X, Vol. 7, p. 27-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explored and elucidated how orthorexia is framed in Swedish daily newspapers with a focus on characteristics of orthorexia. Key questions include: 1) how do the newspaper articles connect exercise with orthorexia? and 2) what trends in depicting exercise in relation to orthorexia do the newspaper articles represent over time? The method used was a longitudinal qualitative content analysis guided by the framing theory. We analyzed 166 articles published between 1998 and 2013. Our analysis revealed that orthorexia originally was framed as an eating disorder and subsequently included unhealthy exercise. Two trend shifts could be identified: in 2004, exercise was added as an element and in 2013 extreme exercise trends were described to influence the increase of orthorexia. The findings indicate that Swedish newspapers extend Bratman’s definition and depict orthorexia indiscriminately to describe a range of different behavioral characteristics. These results are discussed in terms of the idea of “healthism” and general health trends in society.

  • 98.
    Håman, Linn
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Lindgren, Eva-Carin
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport. University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Prell, Hillevi
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    “If it’s not Iron it’s Iron f*cking biggest Ironman”: personal trainers’s views on health norms, orthorexia and deviant behaviours2017In: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, ISSN 1748-2623, E-ISSN 1748-2631, Vol. 12, no Suppl. 2, article id 1364602Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Orthorexia nervosa (ON) describes a pathological obsession with healthy eating to avoid ill health. In the Swedish context, ON is also understood in terms of unhealthy exercise. Fitness gyms are popular health-promoting places, but exercise-related problems, disordered eating and ON-like behaviour are increasing. Personal trainers (PTs) play an important role in detecting unhealthy behaviours. The aim of the present study was to illuminate PTs’ understandings of healthy and unhealthy exercise and eating behaviours in relation to orthorexia nervosa in a fitness gym context. Five focus groups with 14 PTs were conducted. These were analysed using interpretative qualitative content analysis and Becker’s model “Kinds of Deviance.” In contrast to PTs’ health norms (practicing balanced behaviours and contributing to well-being), ON was expressed mainly in terms of exercise behaviour and as being excessive and in total control. The PTs maintain that extreme behaviours are legitimized by an aggressive exercise trend in society and that they fear to falsely accuse clients of being pathological. Certain sport contexts (bodybuilding, fitness competitions and elite sports) and specific groups (fitness professionals) contribute to complicating PTs’ negotiations due to a competition, performance and/or profession norm, making it difficult to determine whether or not to intervene. © 2017 The Author(s)

  • 99.
    Håman, Linn
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Lindgren, Eva-Carin
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport. Department of Department of Food and Nutrition, and Sport Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Prell, Hillevi
    Department of Department of Food and Nutrition, and Sport Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    The challenges in responding to unhealthy eating and exercise behaviours among clients: From personal trainers’ views2017In: Proceedings of the Nordic Sport Science Conference – ‘The Double-Edged Sword of Sport: Health Promotion Versus Unhealthy Environments’ / [ed] Krister Hertting & Urban Johnson, Halmstad: Halmstad University Press, 2017, p. 57-58Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 100.
    Håman, Linn
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Prell, Hillevi
    Department of Department of Food and Nutrition, and Sport Science, University of Gothenburg, POBox 300, SE-405 30 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lindgren, Eva-Carin
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI). Department of Department of Food and Nutrition, and Sport Science, University of Gothenburg, POBox 300, SE-405 30 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Personal trainer´s health advice to clients in the fitness gym2019In: AIESEP World Congress, New York, USA, June 19-22, 2019, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fitness gyms have become popular places for physical activity. Several individuals exercise at gyms and an increasing number hire a personal trainer (PT). PTs have an important role in offering advice and exercise programs as well as detecting unhealthy behaviors among their clients. Norms regarding exercise habits in the gyms appear to be strongly gendered, which may influence PTs’ advice. The purpose of this presentation is to describe PTs’ health advice to clients. In total, 19 PTs, nine women and ten men, aged 23 – 47 years were recruited through purposive sampling. An explorative design was employed and seven focus group discussions were carried out. These were analyzed using a qualitative content analysis guided by a gender perspective. The findings suggest that PTs had a gendered health advice approach towards women regarding exercise and diet. The PTs gave reactive health advice especially to women showing unhealthy exercise and eating behaviors in order to correct these unhealthy behaviors. The specific advice involved a) eating more and exercising less, b) focusing on performance rather than appearance and c) avoiding heavy weight lifting. However, the PTs avoided to advise men showing similar unhealthy training and eating behaviors. The PTs also had a transgressive health advice approach. They advised both women and men to a) adopt a relaxed attitude to exercise and diet, b) to prioritize and rationalize their exercise and diet and c) to eat a natural diet. The gendered health advice approach might give women and men different opportunities to improve their physical fitness, health and well-being. Men with unhealthy behaviors might not be supported by the PTs, which adversely can affect men's health. We recommend that gym managers and PT-educators increase their awareness about the importance of providing equal opportunities for women and men to improve their physical fitness and health.

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