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  • 51.
    Möller, Bernd
    et al.
    Centre for Sustainable Energy Systems, Europa-Universität Flensburg, Flensburg, Germany & Department of Planning, Aalborg University, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Wiechers, Eva
    Centre for Sustainable Energy Systems, Europa-Universität Flensburg, Flensburg, Germany.
    Persson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Grundahl, Lars
    Department of Planning, Aalborg University, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Søgaard Lund, Rasmus
    Department of Planning, Aalborg University, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Vad Mathiesen, Brian
    Department of Planning, Aalborg University, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Heat Roadmap Europe: Towards EU-Wide, local heat supply strategies2019In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 177, p. 554-564Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present paper describes a quantitative method for preparing local heat supply strategies. Detailed spatial data on heat demand and supply are generated using combined top-down and bottom-up modelling for 14 member states of the European Union, which constitute 91% of its heat demand in buildings. Spatial analysis is used for zoning of heat supply into individual and collective heating. Continuous cost curves are used to model economically feasible district heating shares within prospective supply districts. Excess heat is appraised and allocated to prospective district heating systems by means of a two-stage network allocation process. Access to renewable energy sources such as geothermal, large-scale solar thermal, as well as sustainable biomass, is analysed. The result is a comprehensive and detailed set of heat supply strategies in a spatially discrete manner. The findings indicate that in the 14 European Union member states, up to 71% of building heat demand in urban areas can be met with district heating. Of this, up to 78% can be covered with excess heat, while the remainder can be covered with low enthalpy renewable energy sources. The conclusion shows the possibility of a largely de-carbonised heat sector as part of a smart energy system for Europe.  © 2019 Elsevier Ltd

  • 52.
    Nicholas, Allen Christo
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energy Science. allnic15@student.hh.se.
    A stochastic analysis of Turbulence Intensity influence over various sizes of HAWT: Study of hypothetical relationship between Rotor Diameter and influence level of Turbulence Intensity2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This disquisition aims for the study of turbulence intensity influence over the power performance of different sizes of turbines with the intent to validate a hypothesis. The hypothesis formulated for the analysis is the relationship between the rotor diameter (turbine size) and turbulence intensity. The hypothetical relationship is that the smaller turbines tend to experience more influence on the power performance from the turbulence in comparison with larger ones. For this examination, three different wind turbines of models Vestas V90, V100, V126 were chosen from three Swedish wind farms. The power performance of turbines at various levels of turbulence intensity were analyzed and the power deviation from the mean value due to influence of turbulence were assessed. The power deviation values of different turbines were compared at same level of wind speeds and also the power coefficients at same level of tip speed ratios were compared to validate the hypothesis. It was observed that the hypothesis seemed to appear true as higher influence on power curves were observed on V90 compared to others. Nevertheless, there were some obscene results which might be due to several factors such as influence of variation in hub height, site and inadequacy of data.

  • 53.
    Nilsson, Helge
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Solvärme i fjärrvärmesystem2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 54.
    Paardekooper, Susana
    et al.
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Søgaard Lund, Rasmus
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Vad Mathiesen, Brian
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Chang, Miguel
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Petersen, Uni Reinert
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Grundahl, Lars
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    David, Andrei
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Dahlbæk, Jonas
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Kapetanakis, John
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Lund, Henrik
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Bertelsen, Nis
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Hansen, Kenneth
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Drysdale, David
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Persson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Heat Roadmap Europe 4: Quantifying the Impact of Low-Carbon Heating and Cooling Roadmaps: Deliverable 6.42018Report (Other academic)
  • 55.
    Palmer, Simon
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Sjöberg Åkerlundh, Theodor
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Lomander, Mikael
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Lågtempererad fjärrvärme i bostadsområdet Tullkammarkajen2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    District heating plays a major part of the energy system used for heat supply in Sweden. The starting point of this parameter study have been to investigate the possibilities to provide the area Tullkammarkajen with efficient district heating supply in help of low temperature residual heat and waste heat from a nearby industry. The area is located in the city center of Halmstad and is currently in its planning phase. Facilities and apartments are planned to be built.The study is based on three different parameters: type of system, system temperatures and energy demand. The different type of systems that is analyzed is conventional districtheating, low-temperature district heating with a heat pump as a complement as well as low-temperature district heating with the primary network’s feed line as a complement. Further comparison was made between these parameters, both from an energy wise perspective as well as from an economic perspective.The underlying idea to this study has been to obtain an energy efficient solution that at the same time suits the principle of sustainable development. However, it can clearly be seen in the presented results that it is more profitable to use more conventional methods that are not adapted to sustainable development, based on today’s market. Thus, the question becomes whether the future of innovative solutions or economical funds should be prioritized.

  • 56.
    Patel, Keval
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Prospective of Tidal Energy2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 57.
    PATEL, KINJALKUMAR
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science. Halmstad University.
    INDUCTION HEATING: TO DESIGN AND SIMULATE SMALL PROTOTYPE OF INDUCTION HEATING2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Induction heating is a process of heating a material which is electrically conductive, but the innovative thing in this process is that there is no any physical contact to the material to be heated with the flame or burner or anything. This process just uses the high frequency electric current to heat the material that‟s why the material to be heated must be electrically conductive. So here the high frequency electric current will pass through the work coil and the material to be heated should put within this work coil so there will be no physical contact with the material, whereas in any other heating methods the flame or burner will be in the direct contact with the material to be heated which can spoil the surface of the material and also cause the metal contamination. But in induction heating, contamination is avoided because there is no physical touch between material and heater. Also one more thing to be noted is that in induction heating process the heat is directly generated inside the material not on the surface of the material so it affects more than any other heating methods. Just due to these several reasons the induction heating is more unique heating method in industrial applications. Ref [1]. The main objective of this project is to realize Induction Heating phenomenon and also to compare the same with conventional heating. Based on this work feasibility of this heating can verify for different heating applications. The main principle of this topology can also help to understand high frequency transformer, resonant circuit and also high frequency inverter. In this project, design and realization of small but complex prototype is proposed. So in this project work the author has tried to design, simulate and analyze the very high frequency Induction Heating of small prototype with the use of MatLAB simulations and Quick Field Simulation. Also another main thing has been done in this thesis is to analyze the gas fire furnaces for industrial applications and induction furnaces for the same industrial applications and comparison of them. 

  • 58.
    Pedersen, Eja
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Johansson, Maria
    Environmental Psychology, Department of Architecture and Built Environment, Lund University, Sweden.
    Wind power or uranium mine: Appraisal of two energy-related environmental changes in a local context2012In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 44, p. 312-319Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores factors associated with the individual’s appraisal of anticipated environmental changes caused by energy production facilities. The study took place in a Swedish village where exploratory drilling, that could eventually lead to a uranium mine, was being conducted at the same time as a wind farm was approved. Results from the survey, which included the total population, were interpreted in the light of cognitive stress theory. Most residents thought that the wind farm would have a positive impact on the village but that the uranium drilling would have a negative impact; these opinions were closely related to attitudes towards wind and nuclear power. Perceiving the wind farm as positive was further predicted by young age, high education, being an ordinary rather than a committed recycler and having attended a meeting about the wind farm. A negative view of uranium drilling was predicted by the individual valuing closeness to nature, being a recycler, and having attended the uranium meeting. Psychological factors such as concerns for the environment (manifested as pro-environmental behaviour), valuing closeness to nature, and involvement impinge on the appraisal process and should be considered when new developments are presented. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 59.
    Pentakota, Uday Kumar
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energy Science.
    Cost estimation and procedure to setup 1MW waste-to-energy gasification plant in India2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With an increasing demand for electrical energy, it is certain that the production will also increase,especially in rapid developing countries like India. Rapid industrialization is carving for more electrical energy, investment and suitable space for its infrastructure. But this development has to be sustainable keeping in mind the increasing global temperature due to pollution.

    India is the second largest population in the world and hence produces a lot of waste daily. As of now, most of the waste goes to the landfills and gets burnt there or decomposed, either way releasing greenhouse gases in the process and degrading the environment. The municipal waste management is a challenging process in developing countries because of non-availability of proper infrastructure. There are some methods to manage this waste, such as scientific landfills,Incineration, Biomethanation, Gasification, Pyrolysis and Plasma Arc Gasification.By Gasification the solid waste is converted into synthesis gas which can be used for chemical industries, power generation, transportation and industrial heating etc. This process shrinks the solid waste to slag or ash which can either be used to manufacture eco bricks or can be disposed of on landfill. Thus saving a lot of place from land filling and if used for power generation it does not release any considerable harmful gases into the environment making it a sustainable process and partially renewable source of energy.

    This project will estimate the capital requirement and procedure to setup a 1 MW gasification plant in Indian state of Telangana. In the study, the generation, composition, treatment and energy potential of solid waste have been studied. The technologies for waste-to-energy conversion have also been studied and the feasibility comparison of two leading technologies has been done.

  • 60.
    Persson, Urban
    Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    District heating in future Europe: Modelling expansion potentials and mapping heat synergy regions2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis presents a set of methodologies and approaches to investigate and determine the extent by which district heating can contribute to improved energy system efficiency and reduced carbon dioxide emissions in future Europe. The main motivation for suggesting large-scale implementation of district heating as a structural energy efficiency measure to obtain these objectives originates essentially in the predicament that a majority of European buildings today remain highly dependent on fossil fuels to provide energy needed for space heating and hot water preparation. In parallel, vast annual volumes of rejected excess heat from European power plants and industries are mainly neglected and lost unutilised to the ambient surroundings, why extended recovery and utilisation of such secondary energy assets realistically could replace significant shares of current inefficient supplies by fuel substitution. A prerequisite, however, for the viability of this logical prospect, is that infrastructures by which to facilitate excess heat recovery and subsequent network heat distribution are in place, which by no means is the average case in contemporary Europe.

    Hereby, the investigation is structured orderly by first establishing whether district heating can be a competitive alternative on current urban European heat markets, facilitated by a distribution capital cost model, where after the energy systemic benefits of expanding district heating are characterised and used to estimate a plausible expansion potential based on comparative analysis. Next, energy system modelling of continental EU27 by the year 2050, with district heating expanded in alignment with this potential, is performed to assess the total energy system cost benefits relative an alternative scenario focusing mainly on individual energy efficiency measures. Finally, spatial mapping to identify current primary target regions from which large-scale implementation of district heating could emanate is conceived and performed by use of a geographical information systems interface.

    The findings are generally supportive of a realisation of the objectives, mainly so by establishing a three-fold directly feasible expansion potential for district heating in city areas, but recognise also several additional, mainly non-technical, issues and challenges necessary to address in a successful transition to more energy efficient supply structures in future Europe.

  • 61.
    Persson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Quantifying the Excess Heat Available for District Heating in Europe: Work Package 2, Background Report 7 2015Report (Other academic)
  • 62.
    Persson, Urban
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Averfalk, Helge
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Accessible urban waste heat: Deliverable 1.42018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents the work performed in Task T1.2 of the ReUseHeat project to assess the accessible EU28 urban excess heat recovery potential from four unconventional excess heat sources: data centres, metro stations, service sector buildings, and waste water treatment plants. The report presents in overview and detail the concepts, data, basic premises, and methods, used to produce the results from this work. In all, excess heat potentials are modelled and spatially mapped for a total of some 26,400 unique activities, but by application of two new concepts: available excess heat and accessible excess heat, by which total potentials are distinguished from practical utilisation potentials, a significantly reduced count of some 6800 unique facilities represent the final cut. Common for these facilities are that they all are located inside or within 2 kilometres of urban district heating areas. For the total count of activities, the full available excess heat potential is assessed at some 1.56 EJ per year. At the restrained conditions, thus representing a conservative estimate, the final available excess heat potential from the four unconventional sources is estimated at 0.82 EJ per year, which here corresponds to a final accessible excess heat potential anticipated at 1.24 EJ annually.

  • 63.
    Persson, Urban
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Möller, Bernd
    Europa-Universität Flensburg, Flensburg, Germany.
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Heat Roadmap Europe: Identifying strategic heat synergy regions2014In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 74, p. 663-681Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study presents a methodology to assess annual excess heat volumes from fuel combustion activities in energy and industry sector facilities based on carbon dioxide emission data. The aim is to determine regional balances of excess heat relative heat demands for all third level administrative regions in the European Union (EU) and to identify strategic regions suitable for large-scale implementation of district heating. The approach is motivated since the efficiency of current supply structures to meet building heat demands, mainly characterised by direct use of primary energy sources, is low and improvable. District heating is conceived as an urban supply side energy efficiency measure employable to enhance energy system efficiency by increased excess heat recoveries; hereby reducing primary energy demands by fuel substitution. However, the importance of heat has long been underestimated in EU decarbonisation strategies and local heat synergies have often been overlooked in energy models used for such scenarios. Study results indicate that 46% of all excess heat in EU27, corresponding to 31% of total building heat demands, is located within identified strategic regions. Still, a realisation of these rich opportunities will require higher recognition of the heat sector in future EU energy policy. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 64.
    Persson, Urban
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Möller, Bernd
    Europa-Universität Flensburg, Flensburg, Germany.
    Wiechers, Eva
    Europa-Universität Flensburg, Flensburg, Germany.
    Methodologies and assumptions used in the mapping: Deliverable 2.3: A final report outlining the methodology and assumptions used in the mapping2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is the main account for the methodologies, assumptions, data, and tools used in the WP2 mapping of the fourth Heat Roadmap Europe (HRE) project during its first reporting period (March 2016 to August 2017). During this period, the work with the major tasks assigned to WP2 in the project, including e.g. highly resolved spatial demand and resource atlases for the 14 MS´s of the EU under study, has resulted in a wide array of intermediate, complementary, and final outputs. Mentionable among these are for example hectare level projections of demand densities (residential and service sector heating and cooling demands) and investment costs for district heating and cooling systems, as well as feature polygon representations of current district heating cities in these countries. However, since the core focus here is to describe the methodological approaches and data sets used in the work, and not explicitly to present the results of the application of these, only a limited representative selection of study results are included in this report. For more exhaustive output presentations of the WP2 productions (apart from deliverables D2.1 and D2.2), all final output datasets generated are made available as operational layers in the online web map application Peta4 (the fourth Pan-European Thermal Atlas).

  • 65.
    Persson, Urban
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Möller, Bernd
    Europa-Universität Flensburg, Flensburg, Germany.
    Wiechers, Eva
    Europa-Universität Flensburg, Flensburg, Germany.
    Grundahl, Lars
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Map of the heat synergy regions and the cost to expand district heating and cooling in all 14 MS: Accessing the outputs of D2.22017Report (Other academic)
  • 66.
    Persson, Urban
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Möller, Bernd
    Europa-Universität Flensburg, Flensburg, Germany.
    Wiechers, Eva
    Europa-Universität Flensburg, Flensburg, Germany.
    Grundahl, Lars
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Connolly, David
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Demand and Resource Atlases for all 14 MS: Accessing the outputs of D2.12016Report (Other academic)
  • 67.
    Persson, Urban
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Möller, Bernd
    Europa-Universität Flensburg, Flensburg, Germany.
    Wiechers, Eva
    Europa-Universität Flensburg, Flensburg, Germany.
    Rothballer, Carsten
    ICLEI Europe, Freiburg, Germany.
    Maps Manual for Lead-Users: Deliverable 2.4: A report, based on the template from D7.4, describing how these maps can be used by lead-users2017Report (Other academic)
  • 68.
    Persson, Urban
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energy Science.
    Münster, Marie
    DTU Management Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark.
    Current and future prospects for heat recovery from waste in European district heating systems: a literature and data review2016In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 110, p. 116-128Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Municipal solid waste has seen increasing annual volumes for many decades in contemporary Europe and constitutes, if not properly managed, an environmental problem due to local pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. From an energy perspective, waste is also an alternative fuel for power and heat generation; energy recovery from waste represents an effective measure to reduce landfilling and avoid disposal emissions while simultaneously reducing the equivalent demand for primary energy supply. A key factor for obtaining the full synergetic benefits of this energy recovery is the presence of local heat distribution infrastructures, without which no large-scale recovery and utilisation of excess heat is possible. In this paper, which aims to estimate municipal solid waste volumes available for heat recovery in European district heating systems in 2030, a literature and data review is performed to establish and assess current and future EU (European Union) waste generation and management. Main conclusions are that more heat can be recovered from current Waste-to-Energy facilities operating at low average heat recovery efficiencies, that efficient incineration capacity is geographically concentrated, and that waste available for heat recovery in 2030 is equally determined by total generation volumes by this year as by future EU deployment levels of district heating. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 69.
    Persson, Urban
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Nilsson, Daniel
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Möller, Bernd
    Department of Development and Planning, Aalborg University.
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Mapping local European heat resources: a spatial approach to identify favourable synergy regions for district heating2012In: / [ed] Morten Hofmeister, 2012, p. 261-270Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A major setback in standard generic energy modelling is that national conditions constitute the basis for analysis. By such an approach, heat and energy assets, demands, and distribution structures are viewed from an aggregated perspective not permitting insight into unique local circumstances and conditions. As a consequence, genuinely local synergy opportunities, e.g. recovery and utilisation of excess heat from various activities and sources by distribution in district heating systems, are often ignored or overlooked in generic forecasts.

    The ambitious European targets to increase energy efficiency in future power and heat distribution and use acts as a force to address local conditions in a more systematic and thorough sense than previously elaborated. Increased utilisation of local heat assets and recovered excess heat from local activities, to provide space and tap water heating in residential and service sectors, can replace and thus substitute large shares of natural gas and electricity currently being used to satisfy low temperature heat demands. Spatial screening and identification of local conditions throughout Europe, by use of NUTS3 regions as analytical level of reference, can disclose favourable synergy regions by combining information on local heat assets and demands, and hence provide additional and pivotal information to energy modellers.

    In this study, local conditions such as excess heat from thermal power generation plants, Waste-to-Energy incineration facilities, energy intensive industrial processes, and renewable heat assets (geothermal and solar), are depicted together with heat demand concentrations, using GIS based spatial information, to visualise the possibilities of mapping local European heat resources.

  • 70.
    Persson, Urban
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    District heating in sequential energy supply2012In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 95, p. 123-131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increased recovery of excess heat from thermal power generation and industrial processes has great potential to reduce primary energy demands in EU27. In this study, current excess heat utilisation levels by means of district heat distribution are assessed and expressed by concepts such as recovery efficiency, heat recovery rate, and heat utilisation rate. For two chosen excess heat activities, current average EU27 heat recovery levels are compared to currently best Member State practices, whereby future potentials of European excess heat recovery and utilisation are estimated. The principle of sequential energy supply is elaborated to capture the conceptual idea of excess heat recovery in district heating systems as a structural and organisational energy efficiency measure. The general conditions discussed concerning expansion of heat recovery into district heating systems include infrastructure investments in district heating networks, collaboration agreements, maintained value chains, policy support, world market energy prices, allocation of synergy benefits, and local initiatives. The main conclusion from this study is that a future fourfold increase of current EU27 excess heat utilisation by means of district heat distribution to residential and service sectors is conceived as plausible if applying best Member State practice. This estimation is higher than the threefold increase with respect to direct feasible distribution costs estimated by the same authors in a previous study. Hence, no direct barriers appear with respect to available heat sources or feasible distribution costs for expansion of district heating within EU27. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 71.
    Persson, Urban
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Quantifying the Heating and Cooling Demand in Europe: Work Package 2, Background Report 4 2015Report (Other academic)
  • 72.
    Persson, Urban
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Wiechers, Eva
    Europa-Universität Flensburg, Flensburg, Germany.
    Möller, Bernd
    Europa-Universität Flensburg, Flensburg, Germany & Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Heat Roadmap Europe: Heat distribution costs2019In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 176, p. 604-622Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This analysis elaborates further the concept of physical and economic suitability for district heating in EU28 by an aggregation regarding key dimensions such as land areas, populations, heat demands, and investment volumes. This aggregation is based on a resolution on hectare level by slicing the total land area into 437 million pieces. Results show that heat demands in buildings are present in 9% of the land area. Because of high concentrations in towns and cities, 78% of the total heat demand in buildings originate from dense urban areas that constitute 1.4% of the total land area and 70% of the population. Due to these high heat densities above 50 MJ/m2 per year, the paper evaluates a setting where district heating is individually expanded in each member state for reaching a common 50% heat market proportion in EU28 at lowest cost. At this saturation rate, the aggregated EU28 district heat deliveries would increase to 5.4 EJ/a at current heat demands and represents an expansion investment volume, starting from current level of 1.3 EJ, of approximately 270 billion euro for heat distribution pipes. Given the current high heat densities in European urban areas, this study principally confirms earlier expectations by quantitative estimations. © 2019 Elsevier Ltd

  • 73.
    Perumattil Jose, Rose Mary
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    The analysis of flat plate solar collector with double-axis solar tracking2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 74.
    Rathinasamy, Sethupathy
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Comparison between wind turbines in forestall and flat areas of Sweden2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The renewable energy sources are the primary solution for energy demand in all the countries because it’s being harmless to the environment. In the short term, wind energy has the most potential among all the renewable energy technologies. In the European Union, Sweden is largely based on renewable energy for their energy demand. Sweden is one of the leading country in the EU where wind power has been growing rapidly. As wind turbines in recent time have been more and more commonly placed in forestal terrain in Sweden, it is of interest to know the difference in annual output compared to the flat terrain which was the earlier dominant terrain type for wind turbines. In this thesis, the difference between the two terrain types is investigated for a number of wind turbine models.

    This paper presents the study from the annual Vindstat report of the year 2015 and 2016. The data were accumulated in the Excel file and the terrain for turbine locations was classified using Google Earth. Finally, the power generation in both areas are compared by graphs and tables. The results indicate the difference in production according to the terrain and turbine rating. And it was a surprising finding that the difference between them is not more as we expected. Even more, further study is required to find the difference between in forest and flat wind turbines in all the aspects.

  • 75.
    RIVERO CÁMARA, FRANCISCO JOSÉ
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energy Science.
    POWER DEVIATION ANALYSIS OF THE ROCKNEBY WIND FARM2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays the globalization and the economy expansion of the emerging countries demand anincreasing amount of energy. Therefore, energy production as well as the efficiency of energyusage, is essential for future developments of societies. Renewable energies appear as a turnkeysolution that could support the growing demands, and at the same time not being harmful to theenvironment [1]. Within the types of renewable energies, wind energy could be considered asone with large potential.In this paper I present the study of a Swedish wind farm placed in Rockneby.Once the wind turbines were installed and working correctly, a discrepancy between the realenergy obtained and the theoretical energy indicated by the manufacturer was detected. Thestored data in the SCADA system were compared with the values provided by the manufacturerand several analyses were performed. Initially an anomaly in the power residual deviation wasdetected. It was showing an unusual behaviour at high wind speeds. The variation of the airdensity in the wind farm at hub height was considered as a possible reason of the disagreementobserved in the power parameters since the reference density used by the manufacturer was aconstant value calculated in laboratory environment. However, this idea was rejected becausethe power generated in both conditions is similar. The pitch angle was analysed after detectinga significant variations in wind speed measurements made by the anemometer in the turbinenumber three. As a result, it was found a pitch variation in the turbine which seems due to afailure in the anemometer. As a final result, the turbulences were analysed giving as aconclusion that the turbulence intensity were situated around 20%. Therefore, I mainly suggestas a possible explanation of this fact the influence of the turbulence accompanied of a badcalibration or failure in the anemometers.

  • 76.
    Sadler, Edward
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    An analysis of the discrepancy in availability and production at a wind farm in Sweden2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Eolus recently developed, sold and now manage a wind farm consisting of four 2 MW wind turbines located in the northern half of Sweden. Soon after commissioning it was noticed that they were underperforming in terms of production and availability. It was suspected that one turbine was underperforming relative to the manufacturers’ power curve. Furthermore, the de-icing systems were discovered to be problematic, causing a lot of unplanned downtime.

    The main goals of this project are to determine the causes of the discrepancies in availability and production at the wind farm. As part of the investigation, the malfunctioning de-icing systems are also investigated. Initially, the background of the wind farm was researched. Important contracts, maintenance reports and other documentation was reviewed. Moreover, interviews were performed with four people involved with the wind farm. These revealed that problems first began during the construction phase. Delays and poor construction quality in general led to problems being carried over to the operations stage. Complications with the de-icing systems and blade drainage holes contributed to underperformance during the first year of operation. The second year of operation was marked by the de-icing system electrical cabinet detaching in the hub of turbine 2.

    Analysis of the turbine data and status files confirmed and elaborated on the information provided by the qualitative analysis. Investigation of the production and lost production figures revealed that the main problems have been related to the pitch systems, low temperature kits, sonic anemometers, PT-100 sensors, and the software for the controllers. Furthermore, a significant proportion of the lost production and downtime in years one and two can be attributed to tests and repairs performed on the de-icing systems. However, early indications in year three suggest that the single active de-icing system in turbine 3 is functioning as it should.

    Year three began with a significant improvement in availability, all turbines have experienced monthly availabilities of at least 90%. Overall, it appears that the fact that only one de-icing system is active has had a significant impact on the availability and production figures. However, organisational issues with the manufacturer still need to be resolved, as do the technical issues.  

  • 77.
    Sami Kasim, Ayvar
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Design av solcellsanläggning för strömförsörjning för Falkenbergs nya bibliotek2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Every life on the earth is addicted of the sun. The sun is clean and free energy source. In Sweden there is a long term goal for the global energy system with 100% renewable energy. To achieve this goal we need more efforts in a form of including solar cells. Solar cells has existed a long time on the markets, but in the recent years it has been more interesting in the world and it is mainly because the price has gone down, the quality has been better, the efficiency has been higher.

    Nowadays people are more interested to do something that is environmentally friendly and profitable. Because of the solar cells are applying good on the roofs and facades so the property companies have been more interested to place solar cells on their buildings.

    My project is about potential electricity generation for photovoltaic systems at the new library roof that will be built in Falkenberg. In my work I explain what a solar cell is, how it works, how many types are there and what kind of it is the most common, how solar systems work, how it is installed, what it takes to install solar cells, and what it provides for power.

    After I have tested different angles as solar modules are directed against, comparisons and calculations, the results of the design have shown that the roof of the library has good opportunities for mounting solar cells installations. The best angle was 27◦ to the south with azimuth 185◦.

    The conclusion of the work is that it is profitable to invest solar systems at the library's roofs. Repayment time is long but it is worth it, in this way Falkenberg’s government also makes an effort for the environment.

  • 78. Sandberg, Erik
    et al.
    Wollein, Jonathan
    Lundblad, Philip
    Geoladdning: Lagring av värme i marken2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 79.
    Saveski, Stefan
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Venturi Rios, Jack Peter
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Smart Heating System for Residential Apartments2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    HFAB is always striving to satisfy their customers energy demand and at the same time followdirectives within the company, where saving a certain amount of energy every year is included.For this reason, the heating system in their apartments is set to deliver about 21ºC. However, thereare some customers who feel that 21 °C is not warm enough, and therefore choose to plug in anelectrical radiator to raise the temperature. This solution often results in an expensive electricitybill and a poorly optimized temperature increase, due to the manner of how the mechanicalthermostats are configured by the landlord. Thus, the aim of this study was to find a solutionsystem for HFAB where the customers had the option to pay for the extra heat in addition to the 21°C, which in turn would lead to lower electricity consumption and cost for the consumers.To achieve this goal, test methods were created to acquire temperature data from various solutionsystems, provided by different companies and also from the current solution that the customershave been using. Calculations about how much heat (power) was needed to achieve temperaturesabove 21ºC in a room were made. Cost evaluations of the electricity consumed by the solutionsystems and different heat packages were also estimated.The study showed that, the temperature set range value from digital thermostats was higher (upto 28°C) compared to the mechanical ones (21ºC) when such solution systems were installed inthe hot-water radiators. That allowed the use of an electrical radiator in a room to raise thetemperature without shutting the hot-water radiators off. When it comes to the electricityconsumption, one test showed that the customer had an option to save up to 42% of the electricalcost when using these solution systems. The indicated cost saving has been possible due to theautomatically operation of the electrical radiator via wireless relays.

  • 80. Schrewelius, Karin
    et al.
    Rexhepi, Filloreta
    Grid integrated PV systems in Germany2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The environmental awareness has led to many political decisions and initiated laws that regulate the market towards responsible energy usage. The demand of sustainable power has led to an increasing integration of renewable energy sources to the electric grid. Solar power is the 3rd largest renewable power source after wind and bio-power.

    One of the main reasons to this fast expansion is the German renewable energy act that has motivated households to install PV systems in their houses. This has led to a large amount of producers on the low-voltage network. The small scale producers receive compensation for electricity generated from the PV systems, both when it is used directly in the producer’s home and when it is sold to the grid due to low usage. The systems can be more profitable by storing the energy instead of selling it on the grid. In this way the amount of bought electricity can be reduced.

    There are concerns regarding the connection of renewable sources to the grid. This project aims to examine the impact from single-phase PV systems on the low-voltage grid. The focus of this bachelor thesis is understanding problems such as harmonic distortion and grid asymmetry. Simulations have been carried out using the software MATLAB in order to study harmonic distortion in the output of a single-phase PV system. Grid asymmetry is examined through calculations and simulations of a worst case scenario in the software NEPLAN. This scenario contains a low voltage grid with a star-star connected transformer, where all PV-systems are connected to the same phase.

    The simulations in combination with a literature review have provided the conclusion that harmonic distortion caused by the inverter becomes higher when the voltage supply is too low. Integration of battery energy storage systems together with PV systems does not cause additional harmonic distortion. The results also show how single-phase systems contribute to the asymmetry in the grid. When the production from the PV systems is high, and all systems are connected to a certain phase, the current and voltage will also have an impact on the other phases in the worst case scenario.

  • 81.
    Sharma, Prajesh
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Potential of Geothermal Energy in India2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this research paper, review of world geothermal energy production and their capacity is shown. Here, a research is conducted to know the potential and possibility of geothermal energy in India. All the geothermal province with their geographical locations are shown and a brief calculation is conducted in order to show the potential of the particular province. As India is having the low temperature geothermal fields, binary geothermal plants are used for this analysis and results are calculated by using R134a as a working fluid at different temperatures. The results are sufficient to prove the potential of geothermal energy in India. 

    Importance of Ground Source Heat Pump (GSHP) and power savings by its contribution over traditional heating and cooling methods is shown statistically. 9 different states of India are divided by their climatic condition, severe winter and moderate winter to calculate the heat demand in those states. Also, for the cold demands these states are considered to be same as per the climatic situation in summer. Then, comparison is done between GSHP and the traditional heating and cooling systems. The result shows the drastic power saving by using GSHP for space heating as well as cooling, over electric heater and air conditioner respectively. 

  • 82.
    Skytt, Johanna
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Järkil, Elina
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Solar heating in Colombia2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report describes the process of a thesis implemented in Colombia concerning solar energy. The project was to install a self-circulating solar heating system, as well as creating exchange of knowledge regarding renewable energy. One of the two major goals of the project was to achieve a functioning solar heating system in Timbio, a village outside the city of Popayán in south west Colombia. The purpose was to use the free power from the sun and show people how to use it in a way that is not complicated or too expensive. The second major goal was to hold workshops about renewable energy in general, and solar energy in particular. The preparatory work started in October 2010 by concretizing the project, applying for scholarships and establishing necessary contacts; both in Colombia and Sweden. Research and correspondence continued throughout 2011, along with the search for finance from companies and funds to cover the project costs. The implementation took approximately three months and was finished in April 2012. However, the project was limited due to time scale and financial resources. The project was successful; a functioning solar heater and workshops. The aim to arise interest for renewable energy is fulfilled plus the aim to show how to use solar energy in a practical and useful way.

  • 83.
    Sporrong, Kristofer
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Harrysson, Mattias
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Elektrisk integrering och projektering av förnybar energi i svagt lokalt elnät2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To achieve a reliable and qualitative power conversion from the wind into electric power, a variety of factors and demands need to be obtained. Climatological and technological factors requires proper dimensioning and adjustment of the conversion technology, to harvest the greatest possible amount of energy and to be converted in a reliable and energy efficient way, that windmill owners, power grid owners require. The wind is as familiar an unpredictable power supply. The variations in intensity over time could mean a number of drive optimization problems with after-effects of the wind turbine, power grid and load. The consequences may depend on which type of technology that is installed in the different parts of the energy system. The area's power grid and varying power needs with characteristics over time, also has a significant importance. The turbulent wind gives deviations of voltage and power flow, especially in various extreme situations in weak power grids. Good interaction between the wind turbine and power grid with varying active and reactive power demand for the energy users, provides conditions for a good power quality and thus, an optimal and safe operation with few interruptions over time. It can be, and often is the mechanics, electro-technical choices in the wind turbine and associated electrical systems that play a critical role in how profitable installation is during the wind turbines technological life. The power grid owner strives for a good interaction between the power grid and electrical generation which rise for few faults between interruptions and errors. In the branch this is known as "Mean time between failures" MTBF. 

    According to the Swedenergy, harmonics, slow and fast voltage variations including required short-circuit power should be investigated and compared with those requirements and terms that prevails with electrical integration of power into the grid. The feasibility study has concluded two suitable power connection proposals including wind mapping research, later in this report it is described and suggested two related Smart Grid variants with energy storage for the two power connection proposals in the existing weak local grid. 

  • 84.
    Tefera, Misrak A.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Electricity Production from Concentrated Solar Power and PV System in Ethiopia2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Ethiopia has been facing problems regarding power generation, distribution, balancingbetween demand and supply and access to modern energy service. About 92.4% of energysupply is from biomass (mostly in traditional) 5.7% oil which is not friendly with theenvironment and about 1.6% of energy supply is from renewable energy resource,hydropower plants.Being dependent on hydropower plant causes the country to face many challenges indistribution and balancing demand and supply. This thesis provides another way ofconsidering and implementing renewable energy resource (solar energy resource) throughtechnologies like grid-connected roof mounted solar PV system and CSP plant with the helpof PVGIS, PVWatt and SAM software.This thesis aims to come up with an idea that will work out for current engineering, socialand political issue that is seen in the country. Considering new way in planting PV system onthe roof is strongly recommended and increasing the alternative sites for power generationalong with the appropriate technology is recommended as another way. The possibility andpower generating efficiency is checked through each application.Based on the demonstration in all software’s used, it is clearly visible that the country couldhave been satisfied the needed demand and become the hub of east Africa as mentioned inthe policy and strategy. However, this dependency causes the country to insufficiently supplythe need. Apart from the possibilities and estimation, ideas that might help the country tocome over these challenges are provided in recommendation section.

  • 85. Thorell, Kristina
    Planering av det nordiska landskapet: en kunskapsöversikt om vindkraft2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kunskapsöversikten sammanställer forskning som belyser planering av vindkraft i ett landskapsperspektiv.

  • 86.
    Werner, Sven
    Department of Energy & Environment, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Benefits with more district heating and cooling in Europe2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The future possibilities of more district heating and cooling in Europe have been assessed within the Ecoheatcool project, supported by the European Intelligent Energy programme. Doubling district heat sales and improved heat generation would increase the overall energy efficiency, increase security supply by lower import dependence, and decrease the carbon dioxide emissions. Increasing the market share of district cooling would also increase energy efficiency, decrease carbon dioxide emissions, and reduce summer congestion in electricity distribution. Furthermore, the 10 important strategy recommendations from the project are presented.

  • 87.
    Wollein, Jonathan
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Investment analysis for solar PV cells in Sweden2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 88.
    YANAMANDRA, LAKSHMI NAGA SWETHA
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    OPTIMAL ENERGY DESIGN FOR A SYSTEM OF PUMPED HYDRO-WIND POWER PLANTS2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT

     Awareness and concern regarding the environmental effects of greenhouse gas emissions and depletion of non-renewable energy sources has increased over the last decades. A considerable development of new technology for renewable energy has occurred globally as an answer to this concern. There has been a major progress in production of electricity and heat generated from solar, wind, ocean, hydropower, biomass, geothermal resources, and biofuels and hydrogen.

    Consequently, the development of energy storages has become an imperative part, for integration of renewable energy. It is beneficial for the entire supply chain, for dependability and better stability, and for enhanced quality of electrical power.

    This thesis is exploring an optimal energy design for a system of pumped hydro-wind power plants including storage. Solutions with Pumped Hydro Storages have a great potential for their balancing role necessary for a higher degree of renewable energy sources, RES, in the energy systems because of the intermittent and variable nature of these sources.

    Tehri pumped hydro storage plant, in Uttarakhand, India is one of the objects studied in this thesis. The systems total efficiency of 93%, calculated from head losses, is discussed as well as wind potential and its impact. Wind data is obtained from National Institute of Wind Energy (NIWE) and analysed using the software tools MATLAB and WindPro. The finally chosen area explored for wind potential is Ramakkalmedu, Idukki district, Kerala, India. After selection of site within the area, three different turbines; Siemens SWT-3.2-113 3.2 MW, Enercon E-126 4.2MW, and Enercon E-126 7.58MW were considered for analysis.

    The analysis consists of several parts; Wind farm modelling, Noise estimation of Wind Park, estimation of Annual Energy Production (AEP), Capacity factor, Wind park efficiency with respect to the storage/reservoir´s base load variation. Results are achieved for all three turbines. The overall conclusion is that combined hydro and wind power with a pumped storage, is a satisfactory method for bulk energy store to address peak loads, which is validated by this thesis.

     

    Keywords: Pumped Hydro, Wind farm, Energy Storage, Renewable Energy.

  • 89.
    Yu, Rong
    et al.
    Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou, China.
    Ding, Jiefei
    Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou, China.
    Zhong, Weifeng
    Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou, China.
    Zhang, Yan
    Simula Research Laboratory, Fornebu, Norway.
    Gjessing, Stein
    University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Vinel, Alexey
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Price-based Energy Control for V2G Networks in the Industrial Smart Grid2015In: Proceedings of the 2015 1st International Conference on Industrial Networks and Intelligent Systems: INISCom: Tokyo, Japan: March 2-4, 2015, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE, 2015, p. 107-112, article id 7157830Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The energy crisis and global warming call for a new industrial revolution in production and distribution of renewable energy. Distributed power generation will be well developed int he new smart electricity distribution grid, in which robust power distribution will be the key technology. In this paper, we presenta new vehicle-to-grid (V2G) network for energy transfer, in which distributed renewable energy helps the power grid balance demand and supply. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) will act as transporters of electricity for distributed renewable energy dispatching. We formulate and analyze the V2G network within the theoretical framework of complex network. We also employthe generalized synchronization method to study the dynamic behavior of V2G networks. Furthermore, we develop a new price-based energy control method to stimulate the PHEV’s behavior of charging and discharging. Simulation results indicate that the V2G network can achieve synchronization and each region is able to balance energy supply and demand through price-based control. © 2015 ICST.

  • 90.
    Åhlund, Anton
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energy Science. Halmstad University.
    Solar Cooling: -A study of two thermal systems2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Electricity-driven air-conditioning is energy-intensive and puts a strain to many grids during hot periods in warm climates. Solar thermal cooling could be an alternative to conventional cooling, using a renewable energy source and supplying the most energy during peak demand periods with insignificant effect to the electric grid.

    Office buildings in warm climates have high cooling loads, naturally peaking during daytime because of occupancy and ambient temperature. Thus, office buildings have a seemingly advantageous relationship between the possible supply of solar thermal energy and cooling demand. With this background, solar cooling systems for two office buildings with the same dimensions are investigated, placed in a tropical- and a sub-tropical location.

    There are great differences in the design conditions for solar cooling systems in the tropics and the sub-tropics, between the chosen locations Manila and Abu Dhabi more specifically.

    Manila has a quite evenly distributed cooling load while Abu Dhabi has a strongly pronounced summer season with very high maximum cooling loads, while the winter temperatures are relatively low. The prior described conditions creates a big difference between loads throughout the year, making a thermal chiller less effective in this aspect. However Abu Dhabi is expected to have an overall smoother- and ultimately a more high performance solar cooling system due to lower humidity, which facilitates the important cooling of the chiller.

    Evacuated tube collectors were used at both sites, where the collectors in Manila needs to be larger relative to the chiller cooling capacity, in order to compensate for the irregularity of direct solar radiation.

    The electricity price in Abu Dhabi is too low for the solar cooling system to be economically feasible compared to a conventional system, where the net values over 20 years are 163 000 € and 127 000 €, respectively. Manila has on its hand a very high price for electricity, making the 20-year net values for both the solar cooling- and the conventional system approximately 170 000 €.

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