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  • 51.
    Jelec, Nino
    Halmstad University.
    Drivkrafter för byggnadsarbetare i Halmstad: Med fokus på Maslows behovstrappa2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Title - Incentives of construction workers – With focus onMaslow’s hierarchy of needs

    Course - Master’s dissertation 15hp

    Year of publication - 2015

    Author - Nino Jelec

    Advisor - Kristian Widén

    Keywords - Motivation, Productivity, Maslow’s hierarchy ofneeds, Construction workers

    Purpose - The purpose of this work is to investigate whatmotivates construction workers and if Maslow’shierarchy of needs can be of any use at aconstruction site.

    Methodology - I had a quantitative approach and I have been usinga questionnaire survey on the construction workers.

    Theory - My theory comes from Abraham Maslows hierarchyof needs.

    Empirics - My empirical data was collected from questionnairesurveys done on construction workers in a citycalled Halmstad.

    Conclusions - My investigation shows that Maslows hierarchy ofneeds can be used up to level 3. The constructionworkers in my research didnot find level 4 to be of any big importance but theyfound level 5 to be of importance.

  • 52. Jodin, Anna
    Självkompakterande betong: Kvalitetspåverkande faktorer inom anläggningsbranschen2010Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Self-compacting concrete is still considered a relatively new product in the construction industry. This type of concrete is rarely used within cast in place concrete. The industry is rather conservative towards new technology and few are willing to take the economic consequences if the casting fails.

    During the years self-compacting concrete has been used in Sweden, many failures occurred which has led to a fear of using the product. Manufactures and contractors have not understood how sensitive the concrete is and that you have to be very careful during manufacture and handling.

    The aim with this work was to find out what makes self-compacting concrete a sensitive product and what affects it.

    Self-compacting concrete is at the limit towards separation which requires great care during manufacture and casting. Even at very small changes of the available amount of water the concrete’s flowing properties, distribution and stability can be affected relatively strongly.

    The quality of the fresh concrete has large impact on the final results. As the mixing operator it is important to get the right information and be careful during production. The transport affects the concrete consistency but how much we do not know at present. Since several factors such as air temperature, humidity and wind conditions vary constantly it is hard to determine the impact of the transport alone.

    It is important to create experience of handling of self compacting concrete in order to solve the problems and to change the setting within the industry to self-compacting concrete.

  • 53.
    Johansson, David
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Dahlström, Alexandra
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Riskanalys med avseende på arbetssättet K12017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The construction industry is in third place concerning the number of yearly accidents and in secondplace concerning accidents with deadly outcomes in Sweden according to statistics (Arbetsmiljöverket2017a). This is an issue that Skanska, NCC, PEAB, Sveriges Byggindustrier and Byggnads isdetermined to work on to improve. A work procedure to identify and address safety risks during theplanning- and projection phase of a construction project has been developed with support from SBUF(Holm, Lidgren, Montecinos 2013). The work procedure is designed to first identify the safety risksthat is present for the current project with the help from a checklist. Then if the risks can’t beeliminated in the projection phase the risk will be highlighted on the construction drawings. A problemthat was discovered during the implementation of the work procedure in a construction project wasthat too many and not relevant risks was highlighted on the construction drawings. The purpose ofthis report is to produce underlying instructions to the planners of the construction project so thatthey can make use of the work procedure in the most appropriate manner. This report is written bystudents from Högskolan I Halmstad in co-operation with Skanska Teknik in Gothenburg. This reportis limited to new office and housing construction projects.To produce a result, we have conducted two comprehensive interviews as well as surveys answered byproduction managers. These interviews and surveys led to the conclusion that for the work procedureto succeed it’s important to have a good composition in the group that will work together with thechecklist and the identification of safety risks. The group is recommended to be composed of planners,project managers, safety representatives and if possible experienced workers. Another important aspectto make the work procedure successful is to make the checklist reflect the conditions of theconstruction projects that are being processed. Two construction project is almost never the sameconditions which doesn’t lend itself well to making a work procedure that handles all different casesof projects. The results also reveal that construction engineers and planners lack knowledge andeducation concerning work environment on construction sites. The results we have produced will alsohelp planners of construction projects that will use this specific work procedure to know which of thesafety risks are relevant to be highlighted on the construction drawings. We have also proposed someareas that needs more researched to make the work procedure more complete.

  • 54.
    Johansson, Henrik
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Fyhrlund, Emil
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Ordning och reda på byggarbetsplatsen2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 55.
    Johnsson, Mattias
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Nilsson, Viktor
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Fel i produktionen: En studie om uppkomna fel i två anläggningsprojekt2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    The purpose of this study was to identify problems that may occur in the execution of a civil engineering project and suggest measures to reduce the risk of errors. The study was conducted in cooperation with a civil engineering company in the Gothenburg area. During two weeks in February 2012, a field study took place on two construction sites where disruption and problems that took more than 15 minutes to correct were noted. During the field study we identified 39 such occurrences in the projects and then these were classified into different categories according to their cause.

    The two largest categories were "Design" and "Planning", which accounted for half of the errors that were discovered.

    In the study results were evaluated to decide whether it was possible to detect discrepancies at an earlier stage. The cost to fix an error in the design stage may be significantly less than to correct the problem in production.

    According to the evaluation, 55% of the errors could have been detected earlier if there was a greater degree of observation for such issues by everyone involved in the project. The conclusion for this study was that there was potential to reduce time-consuming and costly errors occurring in production through an increased involvement from all involved in both investigated projects and improved communication between all those involved.

  • 56.
    Josefsson, Oscar
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Hagström, Dan
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Optimering av fackverksmodellering: Ett makro för Tekla Structures2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This project is the result of a cooperation between HalmstadUniversity and EABAB. The aim of the project was to create a macro that would help EABAB automate the process of designing steel trusses. When run in Microsoft Excel, the macro imports and processes coordinates from a calculator program. The data is then imported into the Building Information Modelling software Tekla Structures, which creates a 3D structural model of the steel truss.

    The macro saves much time in the project planning process and also helps minimize the risk of design flaws caused by human error. 

  • 57.
    Kagevik, Tom
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Bohlin, Niklas
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Materiallogistik vid innerstadsprojekt: En fallstudie av ett innerstadsprojekt i förbättringssyfte av materialflödet2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The construction industry is always looking for ways to make the work more efficient aswell as minimize the waste of money in general. At the same time the industry is showing alow awareness of logistics which has to increase in order to improve the industry in thesekind of questions. Projects located in the inner city have high demands on the logistic andthe handling of material due to the so often limited space for storages of the material. Dueto this the purpose of this report is true a case, study and analyze what kind of factors thereis to take into consideration during the materials way from the supplier to the workstationin a project located in the inner city. The data for the report was collected with the help of acase study, and in three different ways. Partly through observations, but mostly with thehelp of surveys and interviews with workers and managers. The case study was made atthe project “Barometern 8” located in the inner city of Halmstad, Sweden. The project hasfrom the very beginning struggled with the lack of areas to store material due of thecramped construction site. Problems that were observed were both related to thedeliveries from the distributers and the difficulties to access the construction site. Theconclusions that were made from this report are that the managers have to put demandson the distributers as well as communicate the conditions of the receptions. It´s alsoimportant to make sure that the work site is as easy as possible to be accessed bydistributers.

  • 58.
    Karlsson, Elsa
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Wallentinsson, Ewelina
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Identifiering av avgörande faktorer för optimal intern bygglogistik: En fallstudie av tre byggarbetsplatser2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Unlike the manufacturing industry, the construction industry is always in motion. Each new construction project brings new opportunities, and it requires a new plan, new organisation, and new suppliers. All construction projects are very different from each other and in terms of a logistical perspective, this is very weak as it makes it difficult to get a flow in the production and to make flawless routines. The way the external and internal logistics are managed, can effect the final product in the time taken to produce it, the quality of the product and the profit made from it. When internal logistics are handled poorly, it could result in materials not being at the right place at the right time, or information not going through to the right person. Small details such as these, can make the production time increase continuously with the price. Logistics is all about efficiency; to make things quickly and in a well organised manner. Although making things right is vastly important, it is also important to make things correctly as doing things quickly and efficiently becomes meaningless if there are activities that are unnecessary. The purpose of this report is to identify factors that are central to an efficient logistic on the construction site and which factors can be influenced by the construction site. However, the study does not include any concrete suggestions for improvement, but there will be some discussion around it.

    There are already some concepts and tools that can improve the logistics, for example, the use of Lean Construction and BIM. Logistics work should be included in all stages of the construction process: design, planning, production and managing of the actual building. This report mainly relates to the design- and production phase.

    There are different approaches and objectives when planning projects. A primary objective is to reduce costs. The main goal in logistics planning is to achieve short lead times, short set-up times, short transport distances, and eliminate waste.

    The result of the report is based on literature studies, observations, but mostly interviews. Three interviews were held with the management, i.e. the supervisors and site managers. The implementation has compiled information from interviews, observations and literature studies. It was discovered that there were many similarities, but also differences that separated the various projects. For example, it was found that a crane is an important asset for a smooth operation as it moves material around the site, but there is a lot of time wasting when unloading, partly due to the lack of communication. It also revealed that it is hard to know what operations to begin with at the construction of the framework.

    Conclusions drawn after work designing is planning and communication are two of the most important building blocks to get a smooth production both for functioning internal and external logistics. What has also emerged is the importance of accessibility and that doing the right things should come easy. An external factor that effect logistics a lot on the construction site is the demand, for example, of materials from their suppliers. The final conclusion raised is ultimately an improvement suggestion: apply a logistics manager to all types of construction projects, from the beginning and throughout the project. 

  • 59.
    Khagebahri, Armin
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Säkrare arbetsmiljö på byggarbetsplatser: Hur brister på arbetsplatser borde åtgärdas för att kunna arbeta på en mer hälsosam arbetsmiljö2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Work Environment problems on construction work sites are very extensive and discussed. The construction industry is one of the most dangerous industries in Sweden. The construction industry occupies about 290 000 employment (2009), and the investment was 250 billion SEK. This report will investigate the issues of the work environment and offer advice on how these can be measured and imporved. The study includes review and analyses of occupational injury statistics, interviews, inspections and audit and review of the literature. It is also includes review of work responsibilities and what the participant have the responsibilities and functions in the work environment. The results show that the construction work sites are one of the most dangerous workplaces. The statistics do not reflect reality and important factors are excluded. Work from height and managing in connection with tools are the most dangerous type of work. Work responsibilities are clear: the employer has the main responsibility for the work environment.

    The Work Environment act is the basis for the regulations that Swedish work environment authority gives out. Breaking the law or regualtion may not lead to seriously consequences, because it's a long process before punishment can be divided. The issues in work environment are more extensive in small companies and human error is much due to accidents. To edge the law and give the inspectors more eligibility than they now have to improve a better working environment and safer construction sites

  • 60.
    Larsson, Bengt
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Weather Protection Systems: Experiences from Three Construction Projects2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrialization is a well-known concept in the Swedish building industry, just as “weather protection systems” (WPS) is; however, WPS is seldom explicitly connected with industrialization. Perhaps this is because of the limited amount of experience that the building industry has so far had with WPS. This paper presents the results of an evaluation of the real advantages and disadvantages of WPS use. To this end, we studied three Swedish construction projects that employed WPS.

    The results indicate that the studied WPS did function well: benefits such as shorter construction schedules, more precise time of material delivery, and the use of different and more effective construction methods were demonstrated. It is indeed profitable to use a WPS, especially if soft factors are taken into account.

  • 61.
    Larsson, Bengt
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Mortin, Lizette
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Internal Logistics at the Building Site2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A construction project demands large quantities of material, and material therefore endures a big portion of the projects budget. The focus on short-term profitability is therefore a set-back in the effort of the construction industry’s attempt to develop the industry. Construction logistics consists of many processes and activities which are related to each other by complex relationships. Materials are received, moved, etc. creating a pattern of movement on the construction site. Reflecting the reality on site, a study was performed studying the movement of materials connected to activities on site, with the purpose to display the costs of the internal material logistics. The three cases indicate that planning is a key-factor when reducing costs connected to site-logistics. Where to put material, to which activity the material belong, and for what it should be used, are aspects which form the foundation for material-flow and material-cost-flow

  • 62.
    Larsson, Bengt
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Sundqvist, Jan
    How to Collect Ideas for the Development of Product and Process Innovations in the Building Process2003Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Construction companies can be described as intermediate companies that use many production methods and building materials/components to produce a variety of products. Since construction companies are also very decentralised and project oriented, they are not adapted to developing new process or product technologies. Manufacturers of construction machinery, building materials, and building components must thus be responsible for this task. Construction companies must develop the ability to communicate their technology-development needs to manufacturers and to adopt new technology. There are, however, many indications that communication between manufacturers and construction companies as to what should be developed needs to be improved. This paper describes and analyses two case studies of building-material manufacturers and how they collect product-development ideas; we then present an innovation process model. We conclude that there is a need to improve communication pertaining to technology needs between intermediate and basic-technology companies.

  • 63.
    Larsson, Bengt
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Sundqvist, Jan
    Örebro University, ESI, Örebro, Sweden.
    Key Business Processes in Building Supply Companies: A Comparison with other Manufacturing Companies2003In: Construction Economics and Organization: Proceedings of the 3rd Nordic Conference on Construction Economics and Organization, 23-24 April 2003, Lund, Sweden, Lund: Division of Construction Management, Lund Institute of Technology, Lund University , 2003, p. 257-263Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The province of Örebro approximately 260 000 inhabitants and 280 manufacturing companies with more than 10 employees. Eleven of these companies are suppliers to the building industry. A survey concerning key business processes in these 280 companies was carried out in the beginning of 2002. The purpose of the survey was to analyse key processes such as customer focus, information & benchmarking, quality & supplier focus and innovation processes. One basic finding is that the manufacturing companies score top levels in “Leader­ship and planning” but low in ”Information & Benchmarking”. Another finding is that “Innovation” also scores low. This combination of low information and low innovation might have negative effects on the Swedish construction contractors because of their dependence on active suppliers. In this paper we compare those companies which are suppliers to the building companies with the total group of companies in the survey. One result from this study is that the building material suppliers as a group score poorer than other lines of business on innovation

  • 64.
    Larsson, Julia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Söderberg, Sabina
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Emballage för väggelement i trä: Paketering, hantering, lager och transport2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As a company it is required to work with strategies to minimize costs such as packaging and logistic costs. The increased market of industrial produced wooden buildings results that the time and the cost which the packaging of prefabricated building elements consume, is experienced to be in greater need of development than before and demands a better solution. The aim with this dissertation was to discover how the development of the handling of the packaging can improve the packaging process. The goal was to present improvement proposals for a simplified and thereby a more efficient production in time and cost perspective.

    The packaging process which includes packaging, handling, storage and transport were studied. Interviews were made with participants from the market for manufacturers of wooden houses and a case study was made at the company A-hus. The production management at A-hus considered that the packaging process needed to be developed and the study investigates where in the supply chain the problems are. In the case study people were interviewed about the company’s packaging process. Observations were made to discover problems that did not emerge by the interviews, but also to confirm the problems which were expressed by the respondents.

    Several conclusions of improvement proposals for the packaging process could be drawn from the results:

    • The documentation of damages needs to be developed to fulfill its function.
    • The handling stage is where most damage occurs and therefore the equipment for handling is in need of development.
    • The communication is in need of improvement to increase the knowledge management within the factory and between the factory and the building site.
    • A specific improvement proposal for A-hus is to remove the plastic packaging and to implement an indoor storage.
  • 65.
    Larsson, Pontus
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Engdahl, Peter
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Byggnadsarbetarens syn på att bli involverad i projekteringen: En intervjustudie i byggprojekt2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title

     Becoming involved in the planning process - from the construction workers perspective.

    University/Institution

     Halmstad University

    Keywords

    Empowerment through participation, construction workers involvement in decision making in the planning process, knowledge management and communication in the planning process, partnering, human resource management

    Aim

    The aim of this bachelor thesis is to provide knowledge and examine how construction workers perceive involvement in the planning process of partnering projects, what they can contribute and what they get out of the planning process.

    Methodology

     The study was conducted with a qualitative approach in the form of semi-structured interviews.          The interview studie consist of 10 interviews with construction workers who are specially educated in participating in the planning process at the company ByggDialog AB.

    Conclusion

    All respondents are positive to be involved in the planning process. The main advantages they can see is that they are able to influence technical solutions and methods that will be used later on in the production. Therefore it is important to consider when construction workers should be involved in the planning process so that they get the chance to influence in this decisions.

    When it comes to the decision making the construction workers should be involved in the decisions that are related to their tasks in the production such as technical solutions, choice of methods and materials. Their main duties and working hours should be in the production.

    Involvement in planning does not automatically mean that the construction workers are involved in the decision making, it is up to them how much they participate. Therefore it is important to give the construction workers space and opportunities to express their opinions.

  • 66.
    Lindberg, Mattias
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Axelsson, Fredrik
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Industrialiserat byggande: Fältfabrikens användning, utveckling och framtid2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The construction industry is currently receiving much criticism for inefficiency and slow development while demands for reduced built in moisture and efficiency increases. This report examines whether the use of field factories can meet these requirements and what factors that will be critical for future use of field factories. Industrialized construction with field factory is compared with traditional loose timber construction and industrial construction in the fields of execution, logistics and working environment. The aim of this report is to provide a basis for field factories current and future use and development. To achieve the aim of the report, people with experience in the use of the various methods was interviewed and literature studies in the various fields done. The construction industry is like many other industries based on economy and this is a big factor when using field factories. The report has identified key elements that should be met for the use of field factories and that the economy is the biggest issue for future use.

  • 67.
    Lindelöf, Camilla
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Ljungdahl, Anna
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Tillsatsmaterial i betong: hur påverkas den tidiga hållfasthetsutvecklingen2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 68.
    Lindgren, John
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Diffusing systemic innovations: Influencing factors, approaches and further research2016In: Architectural Engineering and Design Management, ISSN 1745-2007, E-ISSN 1752-7589, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 19-28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research about innovation diffusion in construction has considered systemic innovations to a minor extent. Systemic innovations are inter-organizational, relational and require a coordinated change in processes. Systemic innovations like Building Information Modeling and industrialized housing are on the move forward and systemic innovations can be considered important to diffuse within the construction sector. Most likely, they provide great impact on productivity in construction. The aim of this paper is to discuss factors influencing the diffusion of systemic innovations, approaches and areas for future studies. Previous research on systemic innovations is complemented with inter-organizational research in construction and research using the Industrial Network Approach. Of the many factors influencing the diffusion a key seems to relate to long-term relationships since they enable development and learning necessary for diffusion. The main complexities are also related to the project-based work method in combination with different degrees of interdependencies: in projects, between projects and within the construction chain. In turn this has effects on interaction between individuals. Further research should preferably be conducted with broad approaches that validate and nuance current constructs, capture the dynamics in the diffusion process and thereby add understanding for the diffusion of systemic innovations. © 2015 Taylor & Francis.

  • 69.
    Lindgren, John
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Sustainability, Innovation and Management in Building (SIMB).
    Diffusion of systemic innovations in the construction sector2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The amount of research dealing with innovation has increased dramatically, construction management research included. This thesis focuses on innovations with inter-organizational effects, systemic innovations, which may radically change and improve the construction process. The overall aim of the thesis is to contribute understanding of diffusion of systemic innovations in the construction sector through the study of two different types of systemic innovations, Building Information Management and Multi-Story Housing in Timber (MSHT). It explores what facilitates and hinders innovation diffusion, with a special focus on knowledge integration and mechanisms used in the diffusion process and their effects on knowledge development. The studies conducted were made in a Swedish context related to two separate companies work with diffusing the innovations, using a broad approach with different data collection methods.

    The research departures in the interplay between the innovation content, context and process through which diffusion take place, displaying differences in how diffusion precedes and is affected. Where organizations are situated in the construction process and their ability to control the diffusion process is influential and diffusion is affected by established traditions and work procedures. For MSHT other structural materials form obstacles, while for BIM it is established work procedures and methods. Environmental pressure drives diffusion of MSHT and both innovations are supported by active clients. Diffusion also requires financial resources depending on the size of investment and associated risks. The cases show advantages with moving activities from projects into a continuous business that delivers to projects, where simplifying implementation is central. Mainly due to complexity, developing in steps enables simplifications and adjustments towards users in a controlled manner. MSHT to a higher degree depends on performing real projects for development and diffusion than BIM, which can be tested to a larger extent before diffusing into the real environment. MSHT in particular show a difference in relation to many traditional models of innovation and innovation diffusion where tests are assumed possible.

    The research relates to and has emphasized interaction and dynamics in the diffusion process and has provided additional understanding for managing complexity in the diffusion process. Projects are the most crucial knowledge integration mechanism with many underlying mechanisms, since they are a result of the development and show consequences of work performed. The applicability of codified knowledge in combination with more interactionintensive mechanisms has been shown and the introduction of the knowledge type’s domain-specific, procedural and general knowledge, complementing the current use of tacit and explicit knowledge, has provided additional understanding for diffusion and related knowledge flows. There are however differences in how knowledge types develop for the innovations. General knowledge is more influencing for BIM, while MSHT is about developing domain-specific knowledge. MSHT is about learning something new, while for BIM it is about re-learning. Findings show relevance in both using and developing the framework of innovation in organizations by Rogers (2003) for future diffusion studies in construction management research as well as the necessity of developing knowledge concerning implementation.

  • 70.
    Lindgren, John
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Sustainability, Innovation and Management in Building (SIMB).
    Exploring effects of the interplay of context, content and process for supplier innovation diffusionManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This research explores the interplay between innovation content, innovation context and the innovation diffusion process in a reinforcement supplier's work with diffusing different types of innovations. An important part is to gain understanding of what facilitates and complicates innovation diffusion in the construction industry context from a supplier perspective. The interpretative research presented builds on 28 semistructured interviews with the supplier and its customers and document studies. Three types of innovations were studied to explore how the dimensions innovation content, innovation context and the innovation process interacts in the diffusion process. The findings provide details concerning how the dimensions interact, influencing factors and how the diffusion process may unfold over time. It provides an example of how dynamics and detail in the diffusion process can be captured and the approach can be with additional concepts and frameworks. Besides the supplier perspective and the inter-organizational setting, it also emphasizes the necessity of researching the innovation process and how it may differ depending on the impact on affected parties.

  • 71.
    Lindgren, John
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Emmitt, Stephen
    Department of Architecture and Civil Engineering, University of Bath, Bath, United Kingdom.
    Diffusion of a systemic innovation: A longitudinal case study of a Swedish multi-storey timber housebuilding system2017In: Construction Innovation, ISSN 1471-4175, E-ISSN 1477-0857, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 25-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to identify factors that influence the diffusion of a systemic innovation in the Swedish construction sector. The focus is on high-rise multi-storey timber housing; the development of which was enabled by a change in building regulations. This allowed building higher than two stories in timber.

    Design/methodology/approach - A longitudinal case study was used with multiple data collection methods to study the development and diffusion of a multi-storey timber house system by a case study organisation.

    Findings - The findings contribute to understanding for a number of interacting factors influencing the diffusion of a systemic innovation related to the case study organisation.

    Originality/value - The research provides a holistic view of interacting factors influencing the diffusion of a systemic innovation. The results have value to the Swedish construction sector and to the global community of construction researchers, as it provides empirical findings that further increase the understanding for diffusion of systemic innovations in a specific context. 

    © Emerald Publishing Limited

  • 72.
    Lindgren, John
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Sustainability, Innovation and Management in Building (SIMB).
    Emmitt, Stephen
    Department of Architecture and Civil Engineering, University of Bath, Bath, United Kingdom.
    Widén, Kristian
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Sustainability, Innovation and Management in Building (SIMB).
    Construction projects as mechanisms for knowledge integration: mechanisms and effects when diffusing a systemic innovation2018In: Engineering Construction and Architectural Management, ISSN 0969-9988, E-ISSN 1365-232X, Vol. 25, no 11, p. 1516-1533Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The aim of this research is to study knowledge integration (KI) when diffusing a systemic innovation. The objectives are to understand what mechanisms are used, and when and what their effects are in terms of knowledge development.

    Design/Methodology/Approach - The method comprised a longitudinal case study which followed a firm’s attempts to develop and diffuse a timber multi-storey building system (the systemic innovation) over a number of projects.

    Findings - The findings emphasize actual projects as the most crucial activity for KI and when and why soft personalization mechanisms and codified knowledge should be mixed.  Furthermore, it shows how different types of knowledge is built up including construction process effects over a series of projects.

    Research limitations/implications -  The research contributes with knowledge about mechanisms for the diffusion of a specific systemic innovation type and provides input regarding mechanisms to use. The introduction of the concepts ‘domain-specific’, ‘procedural’ and ‘general knowledge’ into construction has increased understanding of innovation diffusion and knowledge flows and where and how they are integrated.

    Practical Implications – The research shows how knowledge develops and through which mechanisms, and where problems occur. Construction organisations can learn from this to avoid mistakes and potentially better understand how to manage knowledge to diffuse a systemic innovation.

    Originality/value - The research provides insight into systemic innovation diffusion over a series of projects and focuses on both projects and the construction process. © 2018, Emerald Publishing Limited.

  • 73.
    Lindgren, John
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Sustainability, Innovation and Management in Building (SIMB).
    Widén, Kristian
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Sustainability, Innovation and Management in Building (SIMB).
    Diffusing BIM – knowledge integration mechanisms and their effects2016In: Proceedings of the CIB World Building Congress 2016: Volume V - Advancing products and services / [ed] Nebil Achour, Tampere: Tampere University of Technology , 2016, Vol. 5, p. 832-843Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Building Information Modelling (BIM) has for a number of years been seen as a systemic inter-organizational innovation that will have great impact on the efficiency of the construction process as a whole. In this study both successful and unsuccessful attempts to diffuse a BIM-service in the construction sector by a building material manufacturer has been studied through multiple data collection methods. Of special interest has been in what ways knowledge has been integrated, i.e. what mechanisms has been used in the case, since it is a key area for diffusion, and this is described and discussed.  Furthermore, the contextual characteristics of the construction sector have been highlighted as influential on diffusion, especially when it comes to areas such as learning, flow of knowledge and feedback loops. Therefore, the context of the different cases and in what ways this affects the knowledge integration process is also described and discussed.

  • 74.
    Lindgren, John
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Sustainability, Innovation and Management in Building (SIMB).
    Widén, Kristian
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Sustainability, Innovation and Management in Building (SIMB).
    Diffusing building information management: knowledge integration, mechanisms and knowledge development2017In: Architectural Engineering and Design Management, ISSN 1745-2007, E-ISSN 1752-7589, Vol. 14, no 5, p. 347-362Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Building Information Management (BIM) is a systemic inter-organizational innovation predicted to have a great impact on the efficiency of the construction process. An enabler for its diffusion is knowledge integration (KI). This research investigates KI mechanisms used by a Concrete Reinforcement Supplier and its customers in the diffusion of BIM and BIM-related solutions. The research employs a qualitative approach with multiple data-collection methods at two different points in time. BIM diffusion and KI are viewed here as emergent and iterative processes, understood from a supplier perspective. The research examines the interaction between context, content of the diffusing innovation and the diffusion process. Knowledge development from the KI process has been assessed by exploring the interaction between (1) domain-specific knowledge, (2) procedural knowledge and (3) general knowledge, complementing the established emphasis on tacit and explicit knowledge found in relevant construction management research. The findings indicate that general knowledge needs to be high for increased BIM diffusion and the research raises the need to develop procedural knowledge both from a practical and research perspective. © 2017 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group

  • 75.
    Lindgren, John
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Sustainability, Innovation and Management in Building (SIMB).
    Widén, Kristian
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Sustainability, Innovation and Management in Building (SIMB).
    Exploring the dynamics of supplier innovation diffusion2019In: 10th Nordic Conference on Construction Economics and Organization / [ed] Lill, I. & Witt, E., Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2019, Vol. 2, p. 221-228Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – This study aims to focus on a reinforcement supplier’s efforts to diffuse solutions, more or less innovative, in the construction sector to gain understanding of what facilitates and complicates innovation diffusion from a supplier perspective.

    Design/Methodology/Approach – The interpretative research presented builds on 28 semi-structured interviews with the supplier and its customers and document studies. The research emphasizes dynamics in the diffusion process and rests on the assumption that the innovation content, innovation context and the innovation process interacts in the diffusion process.

    Findings – The findings and the contribution from the study provide significant details concerning how the dimensions interact and how the diffusion process may unfold over time, but also that different solutions interact to push diffusion forward.

    Research Limitations/Implications – The study relates to one supplier’s work and the interplay implies uniqueness in different cases. Studies in other contexts could, therefore, also be suitable to develop findings and their transferability.

    Practical Implications – The study provides understanding for suppliers diffusing innovations in construction on how to act.

    Originality/Value – A major contribution from the study is that it puts emphasis on how the diffusion process proceeds in interaction with its content and context and problematizes this dimension. Furthermore, the importance of nuancing sub-contexts to display decisive factors in the diffusion process is emphasized. © John Lindgren and Kristian Widén.

  • 76. Lu, Qi
    et al.
    Liu, Kai
    Diffusion of the green innovation within the construction industry: The case of European Passive House in China2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 77.
    Manley, Karen
    et al.
    School of Civil Engineering and Built Environment, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia.
    Widén, Kristian
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Sustainability, Innovation and Management in Building (SIMB).
    Prefabricated housing firms in Japan and Sweden: Learning from leading countries2019In: Offsite Production and Manufacturing for Innovative Construction: People, Process and Technology / [ed] Jack S. Goulding & Farzad Pour Rahimian, Abingdon: Routledge, 2019, 1, p. 399-418Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 78.
    Mikael, Axelsson
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Carlsson, Roger
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Möjligheterna för Casabona-systemet2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract New methods, techniques and tools for the building industry are constantly being developed and improved and launched on the market. The problem in the building industry development is not that the products are not good enough. The problem is instead that the existing construction companies do not choose to use these innovations, instead they continue to employ the technologies they already possess and master. This leads to the fact that the construction industry is, in the public eye, beeing seen as a conservative industry. AquaVilla is a company that basically produces houseboats. In order to be able to expand they now want to launch their frame system, Casabona. Casabona consists of a lightweight steel frame integrated with the EPS-insulation, making it ideal for houses on the water. To allow the company to grow they now wants to introduce the frame system in houses on land. The purpose of this report is to find the problems or difficulties which may arise during the launch of a new product in an industry perceived as beeing conservative. In addition, we make a comparison between different framing systems where the advantages and disadvantages of respective framing systems is presented. All this is done in order to find out what chances a new framing system like Casabona has to establish itself on the market. The goal of this report is to get a greater understanding of how the construction industry looks on new products. In order to arrive at the analyses and the results we achieved, we first made a field study at Aquavillas production plant in Västervik. During our visit we gained a deeper understanding of how the Casabonas system is built up. We then began to study the litterature about steel structures in General. After that we read about two big companies on the Swedish market, Lindab and Gyproc who seperatly manufacture framing systems similar to Casabona. When we had gained a broader understanding of steel, we began to interview the companies operating in the construction industry in Halmstad. The interviews gave us a greater insight about what designers, installers and architects thought about steel constructions. The conclusion that we can draw from our results and our analyses is that Casabona has a good chance to enter the Swedish market. With a successful product Aquavilla will also acquire a strong brand and reach out to customers even easier. The report will cover 3 different framing system that we have reviewed and compared. We have listed the different system's pros and cons, and we have put these together in a comparison table.

  • 79.
    Mokhlesian, Shahin
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Holmén, Magnus
    Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Business model changes and green construction processes2012In: Construction Management and Economics, ISSN 0144-6193, E-ISSN 1466-433X, Vol. 30, no 9, p. 761-775Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Green construction or sustainable construction differs from traditional construction in terms of the materials and processes used. To profit from green construction, firms may need to change their business models, including their offers, activities, networks and revenue models. However there is no explicit study on what changes are required or common in construction companies' business models when they are involved in green construction projects. To systematize prior research a literature review identified changes in business model elements. The results showed that (1) most business model elements can change in a non-trivial manner as a consequence of green construction; (2) value configuration, cost structure, partner networks and capability are the elements emphasized in literature and are expected to be the most difficult and important to change; and (3) to be successful, firms may need to simultaneously change the business model elements of capability, value configuration and partner network on the one hand, and value proposition, cost structure and capability on the other hand. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

  • 80.
    Mårtensson, Johan
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Bengtsson, Jonatan
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Från BIM-modell till beräkningsprogram: Kompatibilitet mellan Tekla Structures 21 och FEM-Design 15 3D Structures2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Building designing can be made by a powerful tool, BIM-programs. With these programs, you quickly get a view of future design. Elements of the model are intelligent, which means that they are more than just some dashes. These intelligent elements can be analytically studied with programs that make calculations according to finite element methods. This report describes the export of BIM-elements into a calculation program that calculates static using the finite element method. Applications for the method and appropriate project size and complexity is described in the report. The software used in the case studies in the report is the BIM modelling software Tekla Structures 21 and the calculation program FEM-Design 15. To determine if the connection between the chosen applications are possible, two case studies has been made. The case studies have shown that a one-way transfer from Tekla to the FEM-Design is possible and useful. But because the reversal is not possible when the calculations and analysis are completed, the method can't be implemented in an automatized BIM- design.

  • 81.
    Nilsson, Signe
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Housing innovations in rural Ethiopia: A case study of how to make innovations accepted and sustainable2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A good product does not guarantee its successful adoption. This can be seen in a project in rural Ethiopia, in which a new type of house provides great advantages over current housing alternatives. This thesis, which focuses on the Sustainable Rural Dwelling Unit project in Ethiopia, aims to contribute knowledge about how to implement rural-housing innovations successfully. Interviews with the project’s stakeholders show that although a construction concept is a genuine breakthrough, its diffusion process may stumble. Successful diffusion of a housing innovation appears to depend on wider factors. Two success factors identified here are: (1) to analyse the innovation’s attributes, and (2) to analyse the interests of stakeholders. Furthermore, these successful practices are possible with analysis tools that are exemplified in the thesis. The needs for clear communication among stakeholders, and for identifying contradictory implementation strategies, were identified to be important elements for successful innovation diffusion. Another conclusion of this thesis is that the studied project both has great potential for future rural housing in Ethiopia and is relevant for other developing countries where there is a need for durable, higher-standard, low-cost housing.

  • 82.
    Nilsson, Tim
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Tätskikt i klimatskal: En studie av byggentreprenörers arbetssätt2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As energy prices skyrocket and the environmental issues become more frequently debated, interest in energy-efficient buildings has increased sharply in the past decade. Because of this, the interest to achieve high air tightness in building envelopes have once again awakened, due to a good air tightness contributes to lower energy consumption in several ways and to a healthier indoor environment.

    As the regulations for energy consumption and controls of achieved air tightness has tightened considerably in recent years, the work regarding sheets for air tightness changed significantly for construction contractors. This thesis includes a study that aims to detect what kind of manuals, recommendations or instructions contractors working according, and how a number of randomly selected construction companies in Halland, Sweden, are dealing with the matter of high air tightness of the building envelopes. The study also includes a knowledge inventory of supervisors, site managers and skilled workers, and what their opinions and attitudes are like towards work regarding the sheets of air tightness. The results have been compared with a similar survey dated to 2004, conducted by the SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden in collaboration with Chalmers University of Technology. The thesis provides a picture of the industry situation, but shouldn’t be seen as a statistical result due to its limited extent.

  • 83.
    Nord, Niklas
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Iranmanesh, Reza
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Klimatförändringar i byggbranschen: Är branschen redo för extremt väder?2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    It has over the last 20 years occurred a series of extreme weather events around the worldthat caused damage to people and buildings. Many published reports have studied thedeveloping countries and less studies has been conducted on the construction industry andthe economically powerful countries.Sweden has been spared from the most extreme events but still suffered some events whichcan be considered extreme for the country. Therefore, the aim of this report is to study howthe construction industry in Sweden works with risk management, as a preventive measureagainst extreme weather events. The intention has been to find out how aware the industryis of climate change.Studies of this kind have not been carried out previously in Sweden and therefore this studyuses a qualitative approach to conduct the study. Thorough studies on risks, riskmanagement and all its processes have been performed. The focus has been on the generalrisks and the risks associated with extreme weather conditions. This is to analyze how theconstruction industry works with risks of this kind. Interviews have been conducted withproject managers and production managers at a major Swedish construction company to becompared with the written theory.The study and 10 interviews have been conducted at Skanska Hus in Stockholm to get apicture of how different projects in the same region are working with risk managementlinked to extreme weather events as they have the same weather conditions.The study concluded that the studied company was very good at working with riskmanagement but they were less prepared for extreme weather than had been expected. Thisgave the impression that the industry as a whole are in need to be informed about what kindof impacts climate change has on production and the working environment for the future.The investigation showed that it still needs improvements and more knowledge in this areasince climate change is a fact.

  • 84.
    Nordsjö, Olle
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Johansson, Marcus
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Toleransproblem vid produktion och montering av prefabricerade betongelement2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The idea with constructions made out of prefabricated elements is that it should be quick and easy to build as the demands for lower production costs, increased profitability and shorter production times are constantly increasing. High accuracy in measurements and well-balanced tolerances is required to achieve this. The fact that the concrete-elements doesn’t fit and that damage occurs during assembly is a highly topical issue even though we now have methods and systems that make this high-intensity construction possible. Through this report we want to highlight the problems that cause the dimensional and tolerance problems and give suggestions on how to come to terms with these. The aim is that the conclusions in this report in the long run hopefully will lead to time and cost efficiency.

    The fact that dimension and tolerance errors occur isn’t news for the industry. Nor that the cost to fix them greatly increases the farther forward in the product chain one goes. Where in the production- chain do they occur and what causes them? Where in the production-chain are they corrected? How’s the knowledge regarding dimensions and tolerances of those that are working in production at the factory and at the construction site? When an error is detected, is a deviation report always written? What’s the opinion regarding the deviation management system?

    The work will begin with a literature study that will keep on going throughout the whole time of the report. The literature study will in detail explain what the terms dimension and tolerance mean, how they are used, the different types of combinations that exist and how to calculate them. Furthermore, the literature study will also examine the results of studies and surveys made by others. Two field trips will be carried out, one at a concrete-element factory and the other one at a construction site. The purpose is to gain a greater understanding of the preconditions for the writing of this report. Three semi-structured interviews will be conducted according to a stratified selection. The plant manager, assembly manager and the assembly foreman will be interviewed. The questionnaire study is a group survey with cluster selection. The survey will be conducted by the workers on a construction site. The assembly difficulties of prefab elements that occur derives partly from drawing errors, manufacturing defects and that installation and construction site tolerances are set too stint.

    The fact that installation and construction site tolerances are set too stint is probably due to customer requests. Drawing errors and carelessness in production stood out as the most likely causes to why dimension and tolerance errors occur. This is something that we think could be reduced by making more distinct drawings. We believe that drawing sheet should be easy to understand and that it sometimes might be a good idea to make more drawings with fewer measurements on each. More technical equipment was requested at the construction site. This was requested to gain access to more drawings at the assembly location and for the ability to enlarge in order to enhance clarity.

    The majority of errors that were detected in the plant were also corrected there. But if there’s a rush to send an element and the defect is small they notify the assembly crew, and then they have to correct the defect at the construction site. The plant manager thinks that awareness of existing dimensions and tolerances among the factory employees are good. At the

    construction site 91% of the employees thought that it would be good with an educational course about existing dimensions and. The deviation management system is something that all the interviewees basically thought was good but that the possibility of feedback and improvement could be developed. Many minor errors aren’t reported because in many cases it takes more time to write the report than to correct the error. We think it would be good if all the errors were reported so they could estimate the cost to correct them. In order to correct some recurring production errors, investments in the factory would be necessary. There’s a constant discussion about whether the cost of the investment is profitable compared to the costs of correcting the errors at the construction site. 

  • 85.
    Olander, Stefan
    et al.
    Lund University, Lund, Sverige.
    Widén, Kristian
    Lund University, Lund, Sverige.
    Differences in implementation and effects of the public procurement act in the EU construction sector2008In: CME 25 Conference Construction Management and Economics: ‘Past, Present and Future’, Volume 1 / [ed] Will Hughes, 2008, Vol. 1, p. 267-276Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    All member countries in the EU must follow the given directive for public procurement that has been decided upon. The purpose of the directive is to ensure a sufficient public procurement and a sound use of public resources. However, knowledge about the implementation and effects of the directive is limited. One clear indication is that the effects vary between different countries in the EU. A preliminary study of the implementation of the public procurement act in Sweden and Denmark for the construction sector has been conducted, with the aim of obtaining knowledge of how and why implementation and effects vary. One distinction is that the number of appeals concerning public procurement is higher in Sweden than in Denmark that might depend on a different implementation of the directive, mainly because Sweden has added amendment to the directive while Denmark has not. The variation of implementing the directive between member countries may have negative impact upon the opportunities of obtaining the best possible service and technical solution in the public procurement process.

  • 86.
    Olander, Stefan
    et al.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Widén, Kristian
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Measuring Change in a Sector: CREDIT Case SE062010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This case describes an ongoing initiative in Sweden with the aim of measuring the development of the Swedish infrastructure sector. The reason this case was chose is that it is one, of only a very few, national initiatives with a clear aim of taking an holistic approach to assess the development of one large share of the Swedish construction sector. The purpose of this case is to investigate:– What measures are used– The underlying assumptions for the choice of measureThe case study mainly contributes to WP6 (report 4)National benchmarking (WP6) summaryIn Sweden, apart from the larger Utmärkt Samhällsbyggande a more focused program aimed at improving the competitiveness of the civil engineering part of construction, FIA (Renewal within the civil engineering sector), was launched in December 2003. FIA saw a need to monitor how the civil engineering sector develops, in order to effectively plan and implement development projects.

    This survey will not directly measure the effect that FIA has on the civil engineering sector. What is measured is the direction of change for the Swedish civil engineering sector during the years that FIA is active. This knowledge could indirectly be used by FIA to initiate additional studies concerning specific subjects that could guide the civil engineering sector in a desired direction.

    Two main issues are of importance in regard to the CREDIT objectives.

    1. The difficulty of getting in the data – although this assessment has been initiated, approved and sponsored by the very top management of the two largest infrastructure clients and even though it is written in the procurement guidelines for both of these organisations that the survey hould be carried out jointly, between the client and the supplier consultant or contractor), it has been extremely difficult to get the survey sent in. Now, both of these two organisations have designated personnel to track down projects and make them fill it out, according to guidelines, and send it in.

    2. The main performance the parties in the sector are interested to measure and to keep track of is efficiency and productivity. They are largely uninterested of measuring the performance of the product and/or how it affects the end-users. Similar tendencies have been seen in other national initiatives on housing in Sweden. This is to some extent in large contrast to the views and aim of the CREDIT project.

  • 87.
    Olander, Stefan
    et al.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Widén, Kristian
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Hansson, Bengt
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Industrialiserat anläggningsbyggande – möjligheter och hinder2012In: Vägar till förbättrad produktivitet och innovationsgrad i anläggningsbranschen: bilagedel : betänkande. D. 2 / [ed] Produktivitetskommittén, Stockholm: Fritze , 2012, p. 327-356Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 88.
    Olander, Stefan
    et al.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Widén, Kristian
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Hansson, Bengt
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Pemsel, Sofia
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Productivity comparisons, are they possible or even desirable?2010In: CIB World Congress 2010, Building a Better World, Programme & Book of Abstracts / [ed] Peter Barrett, Dilanthi Amaratunga, Richard Haigh, Kaushal Keraminiyage, & Chaminda Pathirage, Salford: University of Salford , 2010, p. 58-67Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increased productivity is of societal good and efforts to achieve this should be a relevant task for all businesses. However, the concept of productivity is not clear as to what is to be measured. This becomes a problem especially when statements are made that the development of productivity in the construction industry is not as good as other sectors of industry. It is not clear if this comparison is relevant or even possible to make. This study aims to address and discuss the problem surrounding productivity measurements and comparison of them and is based on literature reviews that address the problem of evaluating productivity, with special focus on construction productivity. The results show that there is no uniform measure for construction productivity that can be used. Different situation calls for different measures. There unique circumstances for various construction activities, such as housing, commercial, industrial, infrastructure etc, that makes comparison of productivity between them virtually impossible. If statements of productivity are made without the knowledge of what the measures really show or is based on, there is a risk that these lead to misleading conclusions. Every study of productivity needs to be critically scrutinised with a high degree of scepticism. Instead of trying to achieve one uniform measure of productivity a set of key performance indicators can be used instead in order to obtain more qualitative facts about the state of the construction industry.

  • 89.
    Olander, Stefan
    et al.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Widén, Kristian
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Nordvall, Frida
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Implementering av LOU: effekter för byggsektorn2008Report (Other academic)
  • 90.
    Olofsson, Amanda
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Dahlman, Jonatan
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Ändring av flerbostadshus från folkhemsperioden2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 91.
    Olsson, Viktor
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Luftläckage I Småhus: Hur de upptäcks och attityderna till dem2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Air tightness in new buildings has been discussed for several decades. But the knowledge in the subject is low. With tougher requirements from the Swedish government about energy consumption for a new building required competences how these shall be met. It's not only the thick mess of insulation that are important, it's also the air tightness. This report is about air leakage in Swedish houses. How these leaks can be measured/detected and what the consequences may be of them. Both theoretical and practical tips and advice will be given. The author wants to increase the knowledge in this subject for people in the Swedish building industry.

  • 92.
    Ottosson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science. 9110141414.
    Wallqvist, Dennis
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Produktionschefer i Byggbranschen: En studie om arbetssituationen för produktionschefer i byggbranschen2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The site manager has a key role in every construction project and is the person who has utmost responsibility on the site. This often leads to high workload and a high stress level for the site managers. It has also taken place a change in the construction industry the recent decades and is also constant under development, and this is all of the new technologies and methods, which has led to a more efficient production and increased requirements and regulations. This is a thing that many site managers think leads to a more stressful existence for them, as it is their task to manage and control the production and meet all the demands and requirements. 

    The problems with a more stressful work and a lot higher workload were encountered in the literary studies, and also by the respondents in the interviews. At the same time, the attitude to the site manager role was more positive by the respondents than the studies showed, but everyone felt that there were several possibilities for improvement in order to make the profession more sustainable. The authors found that the various problems were due in part to differences between the generations. Based on this, a couple of conclusions could be drawn. The importance of having a person in each project dealing with the administrative parts that site manager carries, a coordinated role to facilitate the transition of new site managers and widen the older generations' approach to the younger.

  • 93.
    Pemsel, Sofia
    et al.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Widén, Kristian
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Bridging boundaries between organizations in construction2011In: Construction Management and Economics, ISSN 0144-6193, E-ISSN 1466-433X, Vol. 29, no 5, p. 495-506Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organizations have boundaries that serve various purposes; for example, differentiating internal operations from external activities and controlling flows of information. Boundaries can however hinder knowledge exchange in inter‐organizational collaboration, leading to less effective outcomes. Empirical results from comparative case studies on how boundaries between organizations in a project can be bridged effectively to support knowledge exchange are presented. End‐user organizations and real estate companies form the subjects of the enquiry. The results show that the depth of involvement of the end‐user organization varies widely and, with it, the use of bridging roles and activities. To identify bridging strategies that can foster productive knowledge exchange in inter‐organizational collaboration, it is necessary to understand contextual aspects of end‐users’ needs to ensure the availability of sufficient competence within, and time for, the project team to perform its duties. © 2011 Taylor & Francis.

  • 94.
    Pemsel, Sofia
    et al.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Widén, Kristian
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Creating knowledge of end users' requirements: The interface between firm and project2010In: Project Management Journal, ISSN 8756-9728, E-ISSN 1938-9507, Vol. 41, no 4, p. 122-130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to stay competitive and meet the changing needs of the market, construction firms must develop efficient means of gathering and using knowledge of end-users requirements. This study uses two case studies, to explore the knowledge creation of end-users requirements in project driven firms. The focus of the study is the interface between firm and project. The interface is analyzed from both an autopoietic and cognitive, organizational and societal view. The findings implicates the importance of understanding (a) what kinds of knowledge that is dominated in the different organizations (b) what could be expected in the exchange of data, (c) what action needs to be taken in order to create value of it. The study suggests that considering the organization as an autopoietic system could be useful to understand the organizations responses to a dynamic environment. © 2010 by the Project Management Institute.

  • 95.
    Pemsel, Sofia
    et al.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Widén, Kristian
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Hansson, Bengt
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Managing the needs of end-users in the design and delivery of construction projects2010In: Facilities, ISSN 0263-2772, E-ISSN 1758-7131, Vol. 28, no 1/2, p. 17-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The two-fold purpose of this paper is identifying areas of difficulty in managing the needs of end-users in the course of the design and delivery of construction projects and suggesting possible solutions. Design/methodology/approach: The focus of the paper is the interaction between three principal parties: end-users, project leader (a selected end-user) and facility planner (a facilities professional). The context is two projects in the public sector: a university and a hospital. The end-users of both are known from the start and participate in the whole process. The paper is based on a case study comprising 12 interviews - seven end-users and five professionals. Findings: The research shows that during the project's design and delivery, communication and attitudinal problems have to be managed alongside the inherent difficulty of understanding end-users' real needs. To help in managing these issues, facility planners relied heavily on pedagogical and behavioural skills, rather than formalised methods as found in the literature. Practical implications: The findings highlight areas of difficulty for managers and planners and how these areas were handled in practice. Suggestions on how to resolve some of the areas are presented and discussed. Originality/value: Much of the research related to managing end-users focuses on how to extract value from the construction process, for instance providing greater flexibility and improved air quality. This paper concentrates on relations between parties who are central to the briefing, design and delivery process © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

  • 96.
    Pemsel, Sofia
    et al.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Widén, Kristian
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Svetoft, Ingrid
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL). Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Hansson, Bengt
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Managing End User Requirements in Construction Projects2009In: Proceedings of 5th Nordic Conference on Construction Economics and Organisation, Vol. 1, 2009, p. 44-55Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The research presented is the initial part of a project with the aim of increasing the use of end-user requirement through out the construction process. This initial part maps how Swedish real estate companies manage end-user requirements and evaluate the outcome.

    Methodological approach

    The focus of the study was on methods for capturing and managing end-user requirements and for measuring their satisfaction with the outcome. The study was conducted as a desktop study using literature databases and through interviews with key personnel from 12 different companies; from housing, office and school real estate management to health care facilities management.

    Results

    The literature review showed that there are a number of different methods that could be used for parts, but that there exist no method that cover the whole process. There are different ways to combine methods for achieving an end-user focus throughout the project. The Swedish real estate companies did, in most cases, measure end-user satisfaction; not in relation to construction projects, but on a general level. Feeding back the knowledge, gained from the evaluations, into construction projects were found difficult and thereby not done. The companies were all interested in new ways of working and thought that it would improve there business.

    Status

    The paper is based on work made in the spring of 2008 this initial part of the study is almost finished and will be completely finished by the time of full paper submission.

    Contribution

    The work identifies the problems of keeping an end-user approach through the whole building cycle; from briefing to evaluating the building in use. The paper gives a collection of different methods and indicators and how these could be combined to create greater value for the end-users as well as the state of the art of work methods in practice in Sweden.

  • 97.
    Persson, Mats
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Sustainability, Innovation and Management in Building (SIMB).
    Developing and Managing Knowledge of Construction Methods in the Swedish Building Sector2010In: Building a Better World - CIB World Congress 2010: Full paper proceedings - CIB 2010 World Congress / [ed] Professor Peter Barrett, Professor Dilanthi Amaratunga, Dr Richard Haigh, Dr Kaushal Keraminiyage, Salford: The University of Salford , 2010, p. 11 s.-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the 1960s and 1970s the construction industry made an effort to develop shared knowledge and performance measurement tools within the industry. This effort ceased as the bigger enterprises began to see information generated at their companies as enterprise assets and competitive resources. In recent years, the construction industry has begun to acknowledge the importance of detailed planning and work preparation on construction sites. The fragmentation of the construction process, with increased specialisation and involvement of many interested parties and actors calls for a shared format for creating, converting, and exchanging knowledge. There is a need for better documentation and control of what is actually done on the construction site, and of how it is done. The purpose of this paper is to discuss how knowledge about construction methods is created, converted, and shared in the Swedish construction sector. It examines past efforts to share information and how the efforts have developed over time. New initiatives are examined and analysed, looking at how well knowledge is managed and applied on construction sites. A web portal developed at Lund University (www.ByggAi.se) in close cooperation with the construction industry exemplifies a new initiative in this respect. The paper will also present end users’ analysis regarding the accessibility of information from the web portal. The web portal has a great potential to disseminate information to various actors: construction enterprises, manufacturers, consultants, and clients. The web portal has also developed to include other areas of interest, promoting issues such as health, safety, and ergonomics; energy-efficient buildings; energy-efficient construction work; and handling of moisture issues. The main advantage of the portal is its packaging of situational knowledge, so that workers at all levels can find all of the relevant information about specific construction methods before they begin work on the construction site. Moreover, the portal makes the information available on a “just-in-time” basis, so workers can continue to access it throughout the project, taking what they need to know at the time they need it.

  • 98.
    Persson, Mats
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Sustainability, Innovation and Management in Building (SIMB).
    Impact Assessment and Project Appraisal in Cases of Coastal Erosion2010In: Building a Better World - CIB World Congress 2010: Full Paper Proceedings - CIB 2010 World Congress / [ed] Professor Peter Barrett, Professor Dilanthi Amaratunga, Dr Richard Haigh, Dr Kaushal Keraminiyage & Dr Chaminda Pathirage, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are several urban areas close to the sea and other water bodies that may be adversely affected by erosion and flooding. Global climate change, including sea-level rise and more intense and damaging storms, will increase the threats of natural hazards in several areas. Mitigating and adapting to these risks in urban areas are huge challenges for society. There is a need for a proper decision basis to build a society that is economically, socially, and environmentally sustainable. By incorporating coastal hazard and risk mapping into spatial planning, new developments can be diverted away from threatened areas. Further, by taking adaptation measures, risks in existing urban areas can be reduced. A guideline has been developed as a tool for the integration of costs and benefits in decision-making on investments in coastal zones. The guideline gives an overview of why, when, and how impact assessments and project appraisals can be made using socio-economic valuations of coastal areas affected by erosion. The guideline can be used to prioritise areas that need attention due to threatened shorelines, and to decide which preventive measures are the most efficient from a socio-economic point of view. Two case studies have been performed to demonstrate the practical application of the guideline and economic analysis and valuation in coastal management. This paper presents the results of the two case studies and discusses the prerequisites for impact assessment and project appraisal and how this is used and accepted by the users and decision-makers.

  • 99.
    Persson, Mats
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Landin, Anne
    Lund University, Construction science, Lund, Sweden.
    Transfer of experience in a construction firm2010In: Performance Improvement in Construction Management / [ed] Brian Atkin & Jan Borgbrant, Oxon & New York: Spon press, 2010, p. 59-69Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 100.
    Persson, Sebastian
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Entreprenörens risker vid övergången från utförandeentreprenader till totalentreprenader!: En nulägesanalys som skildrar entreprenörens perspektiv i väg och anläggningsprojekt.2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    When clients more often choose to transfer from” traditional” design-bid-build contracts to design-build contracts it creates consequences of risks and possibilities for all involved parties. In collaboration with Skanska as a case company and their division “Väg och Anläggning i Väst”, this thesis was conducted as a qualitative study with the intention to examine what consequences it have on the contractor when an increased amount of contracts transfer from design-bid-build to design-build.

    This thesis shows that the contractor agrees that there are some difficulties with design-build contracts, and that the transition from design-bid-build to design-build takes place in a relatively short time, also that the contractor and the client lack the experience and skills required to perform a good project without major complications.

    Many of the problems that occur today can be derived to individuals and their communication skills, by increasing cooperation and open up for a better dialogue between the parties, which creates opportunity for both the client and the contractor to gently adjust to the changes that the transition to design-build contracts means.

    An Increased cooperation and a more open communication, will result in better working conditions and a better end product. 

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