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  • 51.
    Furey, Paula
    et al.
    St. Catherine University, Department Biology, St. Paul, MN, USA.
    Liess, Antonia
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Lee, Sylvia
    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, NW, Washington, DC, USA.
    Substratum-Associated Microbiota2018In: Water environment research, ISSN 1061-4303, E-ISSN 1554-7531, Vol. 90, no 10, p. 1171-1205Article, book review (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This review briefly highlights findings from a survey of 2017 literature on substratum-associated microbiota from a variety of aquatic environments, but primarily freshwaters. Centered on algae, cyanobacteria, and bacteria, topics covered include those of relevance to the Water Environment Federation, along with those of recent and emerging interest such as new or updated methods, new and interesting taxa, general ecology, trophic interactions, biogeochemical cycling, aquatic pollutants like herbicides and heavy metals, and nuisance, bloom-forming, or harmful algae. Additional coverage includes studies on bioremediation, bioassessment, biomonitoring and quantification of benthic microbiota.  © 2018 Water Environment Federation

  • 52.
    Ge, Chang
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    The Seasonal Dynamics of Removal of Nitrogen in Free Water Surface Constructed Wetlands in cold climate2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden and other Nordic countries, Free Water Surface (FWS) constructed wetlands are widely used for advanced sewage treatment. This study was performed in an experimental wetlands system in order to research the seasonal dynamics and interferences in N removal under cold climate condition. According to the result of study, as expected, N removal in FWS wetlands is strong related to temperature, the removal rates are higher in late summer and autumn than in spring and early summer. Removal at similar temperatures are quite different when they are in different months. For instance, in the study, the average N removal in June is significant different from N removal in September (P<0.001), indicating that there are other factors affecting the N removal, different treatment wetlands have different situations. N removal in two different periods (March to July & August to December) were extracted for covariance analysis, it indicated that they are significant different. Besides that, the r2-value of correlation test showed that total N removal rate in FWS constructed wetlands is higher in relation to temperature in autumn and winter (r2-value is 0.4449) than in spring and summer (r2-value is 0.3857). Generally speaking, the dynamics of N removal in FWS wetlands is not steady and variable even at similar temperatures. Finally, I find the temperature of excess heating from district heating which has been used by the residents’ house in Sweden is high enough to heat up the temperature in FWS wetlands. That is a valuable improvement to be put forward.

  • 53.
    Gilson, Eoin
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Biogas production potential and cost-benefit analysis of harvesting wetland plants (Phragmites australis and Glyceria maxima).2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Biogas production from energy crops grown on arable land often competes with food and feed production. Wetland plants offer an alternative source of biomass as well as offering a number of environmental benefits such as nutrient removal from wastewaters, carbon sequestration and reducing the use of mineral fertilizer. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of harvest time on biogas production of Phragmites australis and Glyceria maxima and to perform a cost-benefit analysis of using these wetland plants as a substrate for biogas production. The results of the batch experiment show that the overall biogas production and specific methane yields of biomass harvested in June was higher than biomass harvested in September due the increased lignocellulosic nature of the more mature September plant. The cost-benefit showed that in Sweden it is not currently profitable to solely use wetland plants for biogas production. For both species the highest costs were seen in the June harvested biomass, this was due to the much higher fresh weight and increased transportation costs. For both species the highest revenues generated were the June harvested biomass, this was due to the higher specific methane yields. It was found that the harvest time that was closest to profitability from both species was the June harvest for Phragmites australis. Although the costs were higher for harvesting in June, this was outweighed by the higher amount of electricity produced for this scenario. If transportation distance was to be increased it could result in September being the favourable harvest time. Therefore, individual circumstances of the farmers could decide which is the optimal harvest time. Although solely using wetland plants for biogas production is not currently profitable, co-digestion and pre-treatment are options to investigate that could change this. Also if a greater financial value is put on the socioeconomic benefits such as increased biodiversity, aesthetic value and global warming mitigation it may be financially viable in the future.

  • 54.
    Gimeno, Natalia
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Identifying factors affecting the removal of illicit drugs in WWTP: A case study in Halland, Sweden2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Illicit drugs and drugs of abuse are emerging contaminants in the aquatic environment.Its presence in the ecosystem is an important concern and therefore it is necessary toinvestigate why these pollutants reach the aquatic environments after its treatment inwastewater treatment plants. There is a lack of information about the occurrence ofthese Illicit Drug in natural waters that is why is interesting to evaluate the factors thatcan influence the removal of Illicit drug in WWTP in the county of Halland, Sweden.The drugs that have been assessed in this paper are cocaine (COC), its metaboliteBenzoylecgonine (BE), MDMA, Amphetamine (AMPH), Methamphetamine (METH),and Cannabis (THC/THC-COOH)). The results show that AMPH and METH are theones who have higher concentrations in the effluents because just the eliminate 11,78%is removed from the water after treatment. Activated sludge methods are the besttreatment but factors such as residence time and sludge time influence in its efficiency.

  • 55.
    Glenn, Johansson
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Environmental Science.
    Metaller i dagvatten - Effekter i recipient: En analys av koppar, kdamium och zink i dagvatten från en parkering i Halmstad, Sverige2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    When stormwater occurs near human activity the water gets polluted. The purity and composition vary widely depending on the types of activities in the area, the type of surface the water comes in contact with, precipitation and many more parameters. It has long been known that stormwater quality can affect both human health and the environment as stormwater is a major contributor to pollution of receiving waters.

    A human activity that has an impact on the environment in several different ways is traffic and stormwater is no exception. Airborne gases that react with precipitation, oil leaks and fuel systems that drops down on the ground, metals from brake linings and rubber particles from tire wear are some of the aspects you have to take into account when categorizing the relationship between traffic and polluted stormwater.

    In this project, stormwater samples from a parking lot in Halmstad, Sweden were collected and analyzed with an atomic spectrophotometer. The presence and relationship between copper, cadmium and zinc with different rainfall parameters have been studied. The results have been compared with similar studies to answer whether the metals pose a threat to the recipient or not.

    Copper and zinc were found in concentrations that may lead to chronic effects in aquatic organisms depending on the nature of the recipient. There is a need for further studies in this field in order to better carry out risk assessments and plan preventive measures.

  • 56.
    Granville-Self, Edward
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Hållbar utveckling i kommunalt beslutsfattande: En studie om integrering och prioritering ur fritidspolitiskt perspektiv2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of sustainable development is a challenge that demands cooperation from all levels of society for it to be successful. The focus for this thesis is how politicians within the local councils understand the concept of sustainable development and how they implement it in political decision-making.

    The basis for the study is a questionnaire that was distributed to 303 local politicians in three municipalities of varying size in Southern Sweden. The study concentrates on departments within the local councils that are directly connected to the Swedish environmental law and the Swedish planning and construction law. One of the primary goals with the aforementioned laws is the achievement of sustainable development within one generation.

    The outcome of the study was that over half of the local politicians could correctly define sustainable development according to the World Commission on Environment and Development’s (WCED) definition. Two thirds of them prioritised the concept and were motivated to take it into serious consideration when making political decisions. With regard to the local councils documentation for decision-making, the respondents were not in agreement as to whether clear associations to sustainable development and the Swedish environmental objectives were present. The study also revealed both statistical differences and correlations in relation to several statements regarding aspects of sustainable development.

    Further education within sustainable development and clearly defined connections to documentation from the local councils can conceivably increase its acceptance and integration amongst local politicians.

  • 57.
    Gärde, Jenny
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    TREATMENT OF WASTE WATER FROM A FISH CONSERVATION INDUSTRY: Flocculation Experiment and Analysis2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Tjörn is a cluster of islands, located in Västra Götaland’s county, on the west coast of Sweden. A fishing industry called Kädesholmen Seafood AB is located at Kädesholmen, one of the larger islands of Tjörn. The industry produces different types of fish preserves. The resulting waste water is polluted with mostly nutrients and organic matter in high concentrations. In lack of other treatment alternatives, the waste water is collected and transported to Trollhättan for biological degradation. Sweco, a consulting company, has been working together with Klädesholmen Seafood AB to establish a local treatment alternative for the fishing industry’s waste water. The ambition is to find a pretreatment option that enables treatment of the waste water in the municipal waste water treatment plant at Tjörn. Currently a pretreatment system consisting of a flocculation step followed by a flotation step is investigated as a possibility. The system would reduce especially organic matter and nutrient content of the waste water, but also other contaminations to some extent.

    The subject of my master’s thesis was to perform a small scale investigation of the pretreatment alternative mentioned above. Waste water effluent collected from the industry was tested in combinations with three different flocculation chemicals; ferric chloride, Ekoflock 71 and Ekoflock 90, at different dosages and pH- levels. The aim was to obtain as high separation of contaminations from the water as possible. The flocculation results of each series were evaluated visually, according to a five grade scale. The test series with the most successful separation of sludge- and clear water phase were sampled for analysis. A limited physical and chemical characterization was performed at Halmstad University. The parameters analyzed were pH, conductivity and nutrients. The results were used for determining the success of the flocculation experiment. The flocculation experiment resulted in a discovery of a successful span for flocculation to occur, regarding both chemical dosage and pH- level. Ferric chloride proved to be more successful in separating the two phases (water- and sludge phase) from each other than the other two flocculation chemicals. The addition of chemicals caused a decrease in pH and therefore the addition of NaOH was needed to increase pH to a level beneficial for the reaction to occur. The analysis showed a decline of nutrients in the water, but not as much as anticipated. Little or no difference of conductivity was obtained and pH was low after flocculation, even with addition pH elevating substances during the flocculation.

    The conclusion; flocculation is a possible treatment option for the waste water. However, large amounts of flocculation chemicals are required and the reduction of pollutants is poor. A modification of the flocculation process or another form of treatment alternative is preferable.

  • 58.
    Hansson, Anna
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Eno, Kristian
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Pedersen, Eja
    Environmental Psychology, Department of Architecture and Built Environment, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Bra kontakter kan bli bättre: Utvärdering av kontakter mellan brukare, handläggare och politiker inom miljö- och hälsoskyddsarbetet i Hallands län och Borås stad2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Att få återkoppling från de som berörs av miljö- och hälsoskyddstillsyn och rådgivning, det vill säga brukarna, är viktigt i det ständiga förbättringsarbetet. Denna studie ”Bra kontakter kan bli bättre” handlar därför om hur mötet mellan myndighet (handläggare och nämndledamöter) och brukare kan utvärderas på bästa sätt. Studien fokuserar på miljö- och hälsoskyddstillsynen av två olika grupper av brukare: verksamhetsutövare med enskilda avlopp (som ofta är privata fastighetsägare) och verksamhetsutövare inom livsmedel (som ofta är företagare), i Hallands län samt i Borås stad.

    Studien tog utgångspunkt i metoden grundad teori där resultatet tas fram och valideras i en process där framväxande faktorer testas i datamaterialet, för att sedan modifieras och testas igen. I denna studie innebar detta en analys av fritextsvar från över 500 tidigare utskickade enkäter, gruppintervjuer med totalt 17 tjänstemän och närmare 30 nämndledamöter samt 23 intervjuer med brukare varav 8 innebar längre samtal vid platsbesök. Analysarbetet fortgick tills faktorerna var kompletta och mättnad uppstod, dvs. inga nya aspekter som ändrade faktorerna kom fram.

    Av analyserna framgår att brukare, handläggare och nämndledamöter har en gemensam syn på vilka faktorer som är viktiga i miljö- och hälsoskyddsarbetet, även om de olika rollerna ibland leder till delvis olika tolkningar av vad dessa innebär. Brukare, handläggare och nämndledamöter är överens om att brukaren har rätt Att bli rättvist behandlad med korrekt bemötande på jämlik nivå och med hänsyn tagen till omständigheterna kring den egna verksamheten. Det är också viktigt som brukare Att få stöd, men det kan vara svårt för handläggaren i sin dubbla roll som rådgivare och inspektör. Både brukare och handläggare upplevde att dialog är nyckeln till god kommunikation, ur brukarnas synpunkt uttryckt som Att bli lyssnad på. Att få kontakt och besked, gärna muntligt, under arbetets gång är centralt. Kontakt med samma handläggare ger möjlighet till Att få kontinuitet, men likartad handläggning oavsett handläggare är viktigast. De avgifter som brukarna betalar för miljö- och hälsoskyddstillsynen upplevdes ibland, av både brukare och handläggare, som svårmotiverade. Upplevelsen Att få valuta för pengarna kan ökas med ökad samsyn av vad miljö- och hälsoskyddstillsyn innebär.

    Resultatet gav också en bild av vad brukare, handläggare och nämndledamöter efterfrågar av utvärderingar kopplade till miljö- och hälsoskyddskontorens arbete. Brukarnas motiv är möjligheten att få uttrycka en åsikt och påverka tillsynsarbetet. Handläggare och nämndledamöter vill kunna använda utvärderingar för att få svar på vad brukarna tycker om tillsynsarbetet och deras bemötande. De vill att resultaten från utvärderingar värderas och leder till kunskap om vad som kan förbättras så att förbättringsåtgärder sätts in där de blir som mest effektiva. En utvärdering ska ge klara svar och förhoppningsvis leda till samsyn mellan olika handläggare och nämndledamöter samt mellan olika kommuner.

    Resultatet som identifierades i studien handlar mycket om kommunikation och behovet av ömsesidig förståelse mellan parterna. Att arbeta för en gemensam samsyn av vad miljö- och hälsoskyddsarbete innebär skulle kunna vara en väg att ytterligare förbättra kontakterna. Svårigheter som uppstår kan bero på att brukare, handläggare och nämndledamöter har olika målbild. Utifrån vad som framkommit i studien och tidigare erfarenheter ger vi ett förslag på hur framtida utvärderingar kan utformas. Förslaget ska ses som ett diskussionsunderlag, snarare än ett färdigt förslag.

    - Syftet med utvärderingen och hur resultatet ska användas klargörs gemensamt av handläggare och nämndledamöter.

    - En övergripande enkät, där det finns möjlighet att följa arbetet över åren och att jämföra kommuner, gärna nationellt, skickas ut även i fortsättningen. Resurser läggs på att få in så många svar som möjligt och att analysera resultaten.

    - Mer detaljerad kunskap om brukarnas upplevelse av miljö- och hälsoskyddsarbetet studeras i samband med utvärdering av själva verksamheten.

    - I utvärdering av en riktad satsning, eller av ett delområde inom den löpande verksamheten, utifrån de kriterier som respektive kommun använder, t.ex. nyckeltal för miljönytta eller kvalitetsmätningar, bör utvärdering av brukarnas upplevelse ingå och belysas av handläggare och nämndledamöter.

    - Utvärderingen bör göras av utredare utanför miljö- och hälsoskyddskontoren med kunskap om utvärderingar, t.ex. av kommunens utredningsavdelning eller av en fristående konsult.

    - Resultatet av utvärderingen, dvs. utvärdering av verksamhet där även brukare, handläggare och nämnledamöters synpunkter synliggörs, återkopplas till brukare som har ärenden inom det studerade ärendeområdet.

    - Utvärderingen ger nämndledamöter ökad kunskap om verksamheten och om hur brukare och handläggare uppfattar den.

    - Utvärderingen ger handläggare återkoppling på sitt arbete och en bas för det fortsatta förbättringsarbetet.

    - Utvärderingen ger brukarna möjlighet att se hur deras perspektiv beaktas och öka sin förståelse för miljö- och hälsoskyddsarbetet.

  • 59.
    Hansson, Anna
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Environmental Science, Wetland Research Centre.
    Pedersen, Eja
    Environmental Psychology, Department of Architecture and Built Environment, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Weisner, Stefan
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Environmental Science, Wetland Research Centre.
    Landowners’ incentives for constructing wetlands in an agricultural area in south Sweden2012In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 113, p. 271-278Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Eutrophication of the Baltic Sea has in Sweden led to the initiation of government schemes aiming to increase wetland areas in agricultural regions and thereby reduce nutrient transport to the sea. Landowners play a significant role as providers of this ecosystem service and are currently offered subsidies to cover their costs for constructing and maintaining wetlands. We undertook a grounded theory study, in which landowners were interviewed, aiming at identifying landowners’ incentives for constructing wetlands on their land. The study showed that adequate subsidies, additional services that the wetland could provide to the landowner, local environmental benefits, sufficient knowledge, and peers’ good experiences could encourage landowners to construct wetlands. Perceived hindrances were burdensome management, deficient knowledge, time-consuming application procedures and unclear effectiveness of nutrient reduction. The main reason for not creating a wetland, however, was that the land was classified as productive by the landowner, i.e., suitable for food production. Current schemes are directed toward landowners as individuals and based on subsidies to cover costs. We propose that landowners instead are approached as ecosystem service entrepreneurs and contracted after a tendering process based on nutrient reduction effects. This would lead to new definitions of production and may stimulate improved design and placement of wetlands.

  • 60.
    Hansson, Ulf
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Fosforsläpp och vigg i polerdamm vid Västra strandens avloppsreningsverk i Halmstad2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During the winters in recent years Laholmsbuktens VA's treatment plant in Halmstad has recorded unexcepted levels of phosphorus from the polishing pond. Only between 8 and 20 January 2016 samples indicates a realese of net 75 kg.

    In winter the pond temperature never goes below about 8oC, which attracts wintering waterfowl. In February 19, 2016 the largest number of birds in the inventory for this thesis was noted, 325 individuals, of which 208 were tufted ducks. 

    Even if the number of waterfowl at peak levels was to be about 1000 individuals, their combined contribution of phosphorus through droppings into the pond could not be more than 500 g per day.

    This study proposes that a significant factor is the foraging activity of tufted ducks, which are diving ducks. In search of food at daytime they disturb the sediment at the bottom of the pond, i.e bioturbation. 

    The higher proportion of particle-bound phosphorus in samples with high phosphorus content also fits well with this hypothesis. A scientific investigation in which the bottom of this part of the pond was stirred up mechanically gave similar proportions between phosphorus and water-soluble phosphorus.

  • 61.
    Holmberg, Hanna
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Järnstedt, Nina-Maria
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Actions and improvements in waste management: A comparison between Halmstad University, Sweden and UNIVATES, Brazil2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 62.
    HU, Wan
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Risk Assessment of Three Herbicides Used in Rice Field in Californian Watersheds on Freshwater Fishes2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

      Molinate, glyphosate and thiobencarb are three commonly used herbicides in rice fields. The purpose of this study is using the exposure:effect ratio (RQ value) to quantify the risk of these herbicides to fish in some Californian watersheds. The risk assessment process follows the framework suggested by US-EPA. For the exposure assessment, data reported by California Department of Pesticide Regulation was used. The largest surface water exposure concentrations of glyphosate, molinate and thiobencarb in San Joaquin and Sacramento Basins were 39.0000μg/L, 44.0900μg/L and 16.9000μg/L respectively. For the effect assessment toxicity data for fish from laboratory studies was retrieved from databases and the open scientific literature. The most sensitive fish to glyphosate was Oreochromis sp. (LC50 value 3.5mg/L); the most sensitive fish to molinate was Cyprinus carpio L.(LC50 value 0.21mg/L); and the most sensitive fish to thiobencarb was Lepomis macrochirus (LC50 value 0.33mg/L). A comparison of RQ values of the herbicide in counties with high usage in San Joaquin and Sacramento Basins, Colusa shows a relatively high RQ value of 5.12 for thiobencarb while the RQ value for molinate in Colusa, Sutter and Yolo are 21.00, 11.29 and 9.14 respectively. Glyphosate has a lower average risk, and the highest RQ value is 1.11 in Fresno.

  • 63.
    Hugoh, Lisa
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Vikström Karvonen, Charlotte
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Uppbyggnad av WCR:s miljöledningssystem: Miljödiplomering enligt Göteborgsmodellen2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Idag är miljömedvetandet stort och intresset för företags miljöarbete ökar och anses allt mer viktigt. Ett system där struktur och ordning är första prioritet är därför viktigt i miljöarbetet. Alla handlingar och inköp som fattas av oss människor påverkar miljön både positivt och negativt. Påverkan blir inte bara här och nu utan global och sprider sig långt över det industriella samhället. Dock har inte förståelsen för miljö och klimat hängt med i utvecklingen och jordens resurser utnyttjas till det maximala med en negativ miljöpåverkan som följd. En lösning för företag att arbeta med att minska verksamhetens påverkan på miljön är att införa ett miljöledningssystem, där minskning av utsläpp till mark, luft och vatten är huvudsyftet.

    Ett miljöledningssystem syftar till att strukturera upp företagets eller verksamhetens miljöarbete och är ett sätt att ta hänsyn till miljön. Miljödiplomering är ett miljöledningssystem för små till medelstora företag. Miljödiplomering följer Svensk Miljöbas kravstandard och syftar till att verksamheten minskar sin miljöbelastning. Idag är miljödiplomering ett nationellt känt begrepp som används av företag som vill stärka sitt varumärke och bidra till ett bättre konkurrensläge.

    WCR Sweden AB i Halmstad är specialiserade på service av alla typer av plattvärmeväxlare. Företaget kontaktade Högskolan i Halmstad då de inte hade något strukturerat miljöarbete och insett att detta var något de önskade att införa. Detta var något de ville ha hjälp med vilket resulterade i vårt examensarbete.

    Mycket praktiskt arbete ligger till grund för resultatet av detta examensarbete. Företagets mest miljöpåverkande delar, som togs fram utifrån resultatet av miljöutredningen, visade sig vara transporter och kemikalieanvändning.

  • 64.
    Hunka, Agnieszka D.
    et al.
    Department of Environmental, Social and Spatial Change, Roskilde University, Roskilde, Denmark.
    Meli, Mattia
    Department of Environmental, Social and Spatial Change, Roskilde University, Roskilde, Denmark.
    Thit, Amalie
    Department of Environmental, Social and Spatial Change, Roskilde University, Roskilde, Denmark.
    Palmqvist, Annemette
    Department of Environmental, Social and Spatial Change, Roskilde University, Roskilde, Denmark.
    Thorbek, Pernille
    Syngenta, Jealott's Hill International Research Centre, Bracknell, Berkshire, United Kingdom.
    Forbes, Valery E
    School of Biological Sciences, University of Nebraska Lincoln, United States.
    Stakeholders' Perspective on Ecological Modeling in Environmental Risk Assessment of Pesticides: Challenges and Opportunities2013In: Risk Analysis, ISSN 0272-4332, E-ISSN 1539-6924, Vol. 33, no 1, p. 68-79Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article closely examines the role of mechanistic effect models (e.g., population models) in the European environmental risk assessment (ERA) of pesticides. We studied perspectives of three stakeholder groups on population modeling in ERA of pesticides. Forty-three in-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with stakeholders from regulatory authorities, industry, and academia all over Europe. The key informant approach was employed in recruiting our participants. They were first identified as key stakeholders in the field and then sampled by means of a purposive sampling, where each stakeholder identified as important by others was interviewed and asked to suggest another potential participant for our study. Our results show that participants, although having different institutional backgrounds often presented similar perspectives and concerns about modeling. Analysis of repeating ideas and keywords revealed that all stakeholders had very high and often contradicting expectations from models. Still, all three groups expected effect models to become integrated in future ERA of pesticides. Main hopes associated with effect models were to reduce the amount of expensive and complex testing and field monitoring, both at the product development stage, and as an aid to develop mitigation measures. Our analysis suggests that, although the needs of stakeholders often overlapped, subtle differences and lack of trust hinder the process of introducing mechanistic effect models into ERA. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  • 65.
    Hunka, Agnieszka D.
    et al.
    Department of Environmental, Social and Spatial Change, Roskilde University, Roskilde, Denmark.
    Palmqvist, Annemette
    Department of Environmental, Social and Spatial Change, Roskilde University, Roskilde, Denmark.
    Thorbek, Pernille
    Department of Environmental, Social and Spatial Change, Roskilde University, Roskilde, Denmark.
    Forbes, Valery E
    Department of Environmental, Social and Spatial Change, Roskilde University, Roskilde, Denmark.
    Risk communication discourse among ecological risk assessment professionals and its implications for communication with nonexperts2013In: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management, ISSN 1551-3777, E-ISSN 1551-3793, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 616-622Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Risk communication, especially to the general public and end users of plant protection products, is an important challenge. Currently, much of the risk communication the general public receives is via the popular press, and risk managers face the challenge of presenting their decisions and their scientific basis to the general public in an understandable way. Therefore, we decided to explore the obstacles in risk communication, as done by expert risk assessors and managers. Using the discourse analysis framework and readability tests, we studied perspectives of 3 stakeholder groups-regulators, industry representatives, and academics across Europe. We conducted 30 confidential interviews (10 participants in each group), with part of the interview guide focused on communication of pesticide risk to the general public and the ideas experts in the field of risk assessment and management hold of the public perception of pesticides. We used the key informant approach in recruiting our participants. They were first identified as key stakeholders in ecological risk assessment of pesticides and then sampled by means of a snowball sampling technique. In the analysis, first we identified main motifs (themes) in each group, and then we moved to studying length of the sentences and grammar and to uncovering discoursespresent in the text data. We also used the Flesch Reading Ease test to determine the comprehension difficulty of transcribed interviews. The test is commonly used as a standard for estimating the readability of technical documents. Our results highlight 3 main obstacles standing in the way of effective communication with wider audiences. First of all, ecological risk assessment as a highly technical procedure uses the specific language of ecological risk assessment, which is also highly specialized and might be difficult to comprehend by nonexperts. Second, the idea of existing "expert-lay discrepancy," a phenomenon described in risk perception studies is visibly present in the experts' opinions. Finally, the communicationflow among stakeholders was perceived as flawed, e.g., our participants did not consider themselves fully included in the communication process, despite taking part in many networks. Interestingly, both studies on the role of trust in risk perception, and research on links between daily choices and perceived risk, show that the public is more likely to rely on experts they can trust, than the experts in our study were inclined to think. © 2013 SETAC

  • 66.
    Jaggwe, Assad
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Effects of Environmental Variables on Four Aquatic Insect Taxa among Smaller Water Bodies of Different Ages on Farmland; A Pilot Study2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    High anthropogenic modification like infrastructural development, drainage, eutrophication, dumping garbage, is a threat to biodiversity of smaller water bodies in agricultural landscapes. However, smaller water bodies have historically been constructed for drainage, waste treatment and other purposes. Further, new small water bodies are now being constructed in agricultural areas in Sweden, mainly to remove nutrients and to improve landscape biodiversity. This creates two different age classes (old and new) of smaller water body habitats. I sampled aquatic insects in 27 smaller water bodies of varying types and ages in Halmstad region and related insect biodiversity, species richness, composition structure to environmental variables. I partitioned the region into two locations (Northern and Southern) for easy data comparison and due to difference in topography. The data was analysed using a Canonical Correspondence (CCA) and regression analysis. The CCA results show a difference in the species composition between old and new sites. The most important variables in explaining species assemblage structure was age of the aquatic water bodies. The species richness decreased with increase in nutrient concentration (total phosphorus) according to regression analysis. Species composition and diversity were related to Vegetation and tree cover in and around the water body. The results of my study shows that the older the water bodies the better for specific species like Aeshna cyanea and the new water bodies tolerate more specimens. My results suggest that, as there is need to facilitate plant growing, protecting vegetation and trees to better mimic natural conditions of water bodies, creating new water bodies while protecting aged water bodies is important for conservation of biodiversity.

  • 67.
    Jansson Hoggen, Linn
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Pettersson, Anna
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Faroanalys och kritiska styrpunkter kan minska hälsofaror vid livsmedelshantering: - en studie av ett företag som tillagar mat till skolor.2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 68.
    Jansson, Victoria
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Effects of increased lake brownification on extracellular microcystin concentrations - a mesocosm study in Lake Bolmen, Sweden2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Increased brownification of freshwaters has been noticed during recent decades and is predicted to continue with climate change and increased precipitation. Cyanobacteria have been observed to benefit from increased brownification, posing a possible future threat to drinking water sources by increased toxic microcystin production. A mesocosm study was conducted during the summer of 2018 in Lake Bolmen, one of southern Sweden’s most important drinking water reservoirs, to test the effect of predicted future brownification (in 50 and 100 years) on extracellular (free) microcystin concentrations. The results of this study show that future brownification alone of oligotrophic freshwaters seem not to result in increased extracellular microcystin concentrations. Despite variability of temperature during the experiment, temperature and extracellular microcystin concentrations were not correlated in this study. Although intracellular (cell bound) microcystin should be measured before any certain assumptions of the risk are drawn, the concentrations of extracellular microcystin were in general very low and significantly under the guideline value of 1 µg/L provided from the WHO (World Health Organisation). These results are very positive for Lake Bolmen from a drinking water perspective. My results suggest that browning, even in combination with relatively high temperatures, poses a low threat to Lake Bolmen’s drinking water quality. However, an increase of both eutrophication and increased brownification may pose a bigger general threat regarding cyanobacterial toxin production than brownification alone will do.

  • 69.
    Jansson, Victoria
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Monitoring heavy metals in private drinking water near industrial activity in Kosovo2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Exposure to heavy metals around the world is practically unavoidable due to their extensive use and spread in the environment. This is especially critical due to the metals’ toxicity and detrimental effects on human health. Rural inhabitants in less developed countries in Europe near industrial local polluters are especially exposed. Leachates from industrial wastes may add heavy metal pollution to surrounding groundwater aquifers. Both industrial pollution and rain runoff poses extensive risks for private wells. These wells provide a large part of the drinking water supplies for Kosovo’s inhabitants. The aim of this study is to investigate how a nickel (Ni) refining industry’s slag hill is affecting the drinking water quality in surrounding neighbours private drinking water supplies. To do this 10 samples with increasing distance from the industrial slag hill were collected and analysed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Chromium (Cr), Ni and lead (Pb) were below guideline and limit values in the well water drinking supplies. Rain runoffs increased the concentrations of aluminium (Al), Ni and Pb, in wells where rainwater leaked in. This was however not the case for Cr. Highest Cr concentrations were found in clear (unpolluted by rain runoff) well waters, southeast of a local open pit mining area. This study shows that the Ni refinery and slag hill do not currently risk contaminating local drinking water wells above guideline and limit values. However, there are indications that local mining activity may pose a larger risk concerning Cr leakage to the private wells. Further groundwater monitoring is needed focusing on this area to investigate potential and actual sources of pollution.

  • 70.
    JIANG, HUAN
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Ecological Risk Assessment of Salts in Swedish Freshwater Ecosystem: A preliminary assessment for invertebrates and vertebrates2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 71.
    Jiang, Ying
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Suggested biogas production and carbon dioxide emission reduction by handling and treating food waste in China: inspiration from a Swedish system2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Although China’s food waste recycling has been carried out for nearly 10 years, the effect is still not good, and there are some gaps with developed countries. This study reviews the present status and main problems of food waste treatment in China as well as the successful Swedish food waste treatment model. This study calculates the food waste volumes in the city scale (Beijing) and the national scale (the whole of China) , and estimates the biogas potential of anaerobic digestion from food waste. The result shows that from 2013 to 2017, the total amount of food waste from household and restaurants in Beijing was on average 5.4 million tons per year which could have produced 3 524 million m3 of biogas. These quantities of biogas could have generated 5.3 TWh of electricity, equivalent to 2.1 tons of standard coal. If used as a gas fuel, it is equivalent to 813 million liters of diesel, or 1084 million liters of gasoline. The CO2 emissions that could have been saved were approximately 5.3 million tons, 2.1 million tons, and 2.5 million tons, when the biogas replaces standard coal, diesel and gasoline, respectively. The food waste production of China was on average 153.2 million tons per year with 99 712 million m3 of biogas potential. This study also proposes a framework for food waste collection, transportation, biogas production, and product utilization inspired from the Swedish system. The feasibility from the perspective of circular economy is also discussed. Finally, suggestions are made on the main problems in the current treatment of food waste in China like people’s awareness of food waste sorting which should be enhanced through various means. The food waste separation infrastructure and transportation system should be improved, and necessary reward and punishment measures should be implemented to promote the separation and treatment of food waste by individuals and public or private entities.

  • 72.
    Johansson, Ann-Charlotte
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Hedergård, Emelie
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Kunskap, attityd och beteende kring hushållsavfall: En jämförelse mellan elever i Göteborg, Sverige och Iloilo City, Filippinerna2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Waste management is a major challenge for several countries around the world. Sweden and the Philippines have similar waste management legalization but different potentials to effectively achieve the goal of sustainable waste management. Education is the key to sustainable development and both countries promote the subject environment in the curriculum. Based on scientific articles, reports and personal meetings, a survey was conducted among 510 students from Gothenburg, Sweden and Iloilo City, Philippines. The survey aimed to investigate the knowledge, attitude and behavior regarding waste management and was analyzed to answer questions of possible reasons to differences and also, linkages to sustainable development. The level of knowledge was overall high and the attitude among the students positive in both countries. The differences among the students answers, in both countries, did not generally differ in terms of knowledge and behavior. However, the questions regarding attitude showed a statistical significance indicating that Filipino students had a more positive attitude to the subject environment in the curriculum, waste segregation and the importance of waste management for a sustainable development. Several links between the different questions showed that attitude can influence the behavior regarding waste segregation and that other factors are important. It also showed that further studies are of importance to find out what these possible factors are.

  • 73.
    Johansson, Frida
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Larsen-Spasojevic, Nina
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Verktyg för effektiviserad provtagning på råvatten: Ett arbete utfört i samarbete med Laholmsbuktens VA & miljöförvaltningen i Halmstad2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The task of providing clean drinking water is made more demanding since pollutants have the ability to percolate into the groundwater. Because of the limited budget for drinking water monitoring and the high cost of drinking water contaminant analysis, it is of the highest importance to only analyze relevant contaminants. The aim of this study is thus to develop a monitoring tool that is adapted according to the specific industrial activities and land uses in a water catchment area to simplify and target relevant pollutants in raw water. This will also minimize the costs and increase the effectiveness of the groundwater monitoring. First we conducted a scientific data literature search to empirically enquire the answers to the following questions: (1) Can a so called basic analytical parameter package be designed with appurtenant addition packages? (2) What environmentally hazardous industries are present in the water catchment area of the water source Harplinge-Dettan? (3) How can it be assured that a parameter package is complete, and that not new or forbidden substances are being used and which are not being identified? We further mapped out the surrounding industries in the area of Harplinge-Dettan as well as the agricultural purposes of the land. From here we designed a basic analytical parameter package, which essentially is a list of possible parameters that can be found in a water catchment area. These parameters are recurrent pollutants that can be found in any catchment area. Additionally, we designed several additional packages which are specific to the surrounding industries for that water catchment area. Subsequently, the parameters here are outliers found in the basic analytical parameter package. This means that these are non-recurring pollutants that can only be linked to a specific source (i.e. trikloretylen can be linked to dry cleaning facilities, but no other activity in the area).

  • 74.
    Johansson, Hanne
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Neijman, Hanna
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Rening av avloppsvatten inom pappersmassa- och kartongindustrin2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 75.
    Johansson, Kristian
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Spårning av tungmetaller i Västra strandens avloppsreningsverks ledningsnät2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sewage sludge contains several important nutrients that can be utilized byrecycling to arable land. This is especially important for phosphorus which is a finite resource and an important nutrient in agriculture. It is, however, important that the sewage sludge is free from high concentrations of harmful substances. In the spring of 2013 passive samplers (ecoscope) were used to track sources of metals in the waste water system of Västra strandens waste water treatment plant in Halmstad. The results showed differences in the level of metal contaminants in terms of both individual metals and the total load of metals. The results suggest that there is a possible source of cadmium upstream the measuring point that is called KärlekenANB 492. This is supported by the measurement at point (P2) downstream that also showed the presence of high levels of cadmium. Silver at two sampling points (P2 and KarlXIANB 465) have elevated values compared to other sampling points. The measurements performed in combined systems have probably been affected by the snow melting and the winter conditions that prevailed during the exposure period. High levels of zinc occurred mainly in areas with combined systems which indicate that surface water is a likely source for this metal.Further investigations have to be done to track specific sources of heavy metals so that measures can be taken to reduce them.

  • 76.
    Johansson, Lina
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Hammar, Madelene
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Kretsloppsanpassning av enskilda avlopp: En förstudie för Laholms kommun2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Nutrients leaking from small wastewater systems, partly because of insufficient treatment, contribute to eutrophication. Instead of letting the nutrients from the small wastewater systems leak out into the environment, one can install source separated small wastewater systems where the nutrients are collected and returned to agricultural land. This may not only lead to a better water environment but also reduce the need for chemical fertilizers. To improve the water environment in the municipality of Laholm and reduce eutrophication Laholm now wants to begin the work with source separated small wastewater systems.To clarify what conditions there are for source separated small wastewater systems in Laholm and what to consider when introducing this systems we have done a literature review and interviews with other municipalities and with local farmers.The predominant methods of source separating systems in Sweden are collection of urine, where urine is separated from faeces, and collection of toiletwaste where nutrients in both urine and faeces are used.The conditions for deposition of sewage fractions in Laholm are good. Six of the eleven interviewed farmers in Laholm are positive about spreading urine and toiletwaste and are willing to do this on their land. There is a certification system for fractions from small wastewater systems. Some of the farmers would prefer if the fractions were certified.There are a number of municipalities in Sweden that already have come a long way with their source separated small wastewater systems and they can be seen as good examples of successful work with source separated small wastewater systems.

  • 77.
    Johansson, Maria
    et al.
    Environmental Psychology, Department of Architecture and Built Environment, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Pedersen, Eja
    Environmental Psychology, Department of Architecture and Built Environment, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Weisner, Stefan
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Assessing cultural ecosystem services as individuals’ place-based appraisals2019In: Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, ISSN 1618-8667, E-ISSN 1610-8167, Vol. 39, p. 79-88Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Though the existence of cultural ecosystem services is dependent on people’s activities and experiences, these services are still commonly assessed using top–down approaches. In this study, appraisal theory and research into human responses to natural environments formed the basis of a systematic multilevel investigation of appraisals of created wetland areas. The aim was to explore how appraisals could be used as a bottom–up approach to assessing the perceived contribution of wetland areas s to people’s quality of life (QoL). In total, 111 participants assessed environmental perceptions, affective experiences, and restorative potentials on site at three wetlands in Sweden. The results indicate that wetland areas and specific places with different ecological functions within these areas were appraised significantly differently. Moreover these places were perceived to support various QoL aspects to different degrees. Concepts and methods tested here give environmental planners hands-on tools for facilitating communication with expected users about the cultural ecosystem services of created wetland areas. © 2019

  • 78.
    Johansson, Martin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Environmental Science.
    Martell, Philip
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Environmental Science.
    Gröna utsikter: En analys av hampas (Cannabis sativa L.) förutsättningar som energigröda i Sverige2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Hemp is a versatile plant with many uses that has been around for thousands of years. The plant is highly adaptable andwill cultivate in almost any soil. It has excellent remediation properties and has shown to be relatively consistent when itcomes to crop yields. The aim of this literature survey is to examine how hemp can be used to be considered asustainable energy crop in Sweden through database searches and interviews. Hemps characteristics as an energy cropand its remediation properties is evaluated and compared with other plants that are used in Sweden. The result showsthat hemp is a competitive crop when used for solid fuel and that a closed-loop solution is achievable. Further studiesare needed for a closed-loop solution to be possible when using hemp as a biogas crop, mainly for establishing asustainable waste treatment.

  • 79.
    Jonsson, Tove
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Karlsson, Sabine
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    En utredning av rådgivning vid omställning till ekologiskt lantbruk2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 80. Kahlert, Maria
    et al.
    Sandin, Leonard
    Strömberg, Helena
    Eilola, Kari
    Viktorsson, Lena
    Liess, Antonia
    Knowledge and monitoring gap analysis with respect to the EU Directives2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents the results of a review on gaps in Baltic Sea monitoring based on two different information sources: peer-reviewed scientific articles, and BONUS and HELCOM project reports. The reviews are part of the BONUS project FUMARI. Our main questions are:

    (1)    does the current monitoring of the Baltic Sea sufficiently address the requirements set by the Marine Strategy Framework Directive, the Water Framework Directive and the HELCOM´s Baltic Sea Action Plan?

    (2)    what are the most critical shortcomings (gaps) in the current Baltic Sea monitoring programs?

    We found that scientific articles dealing with Baltic Sea monitoring present a view on main monitoring gap occurrence, that differs from the view presented in reports dealing with the same topic. Both scientific articles and reports agreed that many thematic assessment categories are not monitored sufficiently, often due to insufficient spatial coverage. However, whereas articles often highlight both that a category is not sufficiently monitored, and that there is a lack of indicators, the reports focused more on gaps in data storage or handling, coordination of monitoring, or highlighted plans for new but non-operational indicators. Articles mainly mentioned gaps in relation to Eutrophication, Contaminants, Biodiversity, Commercial fish and shellfish, Food webs, Hydrographical conditions, and No alien species. Reports however indicated primarily Biodiversity gaps, followed by Contaminants and Healthy wildlife, Marine litter, and Sea-floor integrity. Our review also showed that certain categories are underrepresented in the scientific literature, i.e. with few scientists developing indicators or assessing data related to them, potentially indicating a knowledge gap in these fields.

  • 81.
    Kapira, Elvanus
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    EFFECTS OF PLANT HARVESTING ON NUTRIENTS REMOVAL IN CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS.2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Insufficient access to clean water and sanitation has become one of the most universal problems affecting human health in developing countries, water resources are facing high pollution rate due to improper management of wastewater. Ecological technologies such as constructed wetlands are promising innovative solutions for this universal problem.

    Constructed wetlands are engineered wastewater treatment systems that include treatment segments such as physical, chemical, and biological processes like in natural wetlands. Plant harvesting practice is one management strategy that can prevent these systems from clogging and loss of surface area, the effects of this management strategy need to be assessed related to the performance of wetlands.

    The aim of this thesis was to investigate the effects of plants harvesting on nutrients removal (N, P, and COD) in constructed wetlands. This is a literature review and experimental based thesis. The literature review involved reviewing 5 studies about effect of harvesting plants in constructed wetlands. The experiment part involved data analysis from 6 experimental wetlands, with 3 wetlands that have been harvested in 2015 and 2016, another 3 wetlands that have never been harvested.

    Results from literature review indicated that plant harvesting in wetland has a significant effect in nutrients removal. Experiment results indicated that there was significant difference between these wetlands in TN and NO3-N removed when the entire operation period was considered (P=0.005). But when each season was considered separately statistical differences were only observed during first summer after harvesting for TN removal. For NO3-N, differences between wetlands were observed in first summer and winter only.

    For summer, harvested wetland performed better than non-harvested wetland, but in winter non-harvested wetland performed better than harvested in terms of NO3-N removal. For winter, the reason to this could be that, some of plants parts decay and provided denitrification bacteria with a carbon source which accelerates denitrification process.

    According to this study, plants harvesting in wetland generally has a positive effect on nutrient removal such as TN, TP, COD, and BOD. Therefore, this practice could be recommended as the best wetland plants management to improve and maintain nutrient removal in constructed wetlands.

  • 82.
    Karlsson, Emelie
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Sukjai, Hathaichanok Sukjai
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Avledning av orenat avloppsvatten: En litteraturstudie om bräddning i svenska samhällen2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bräddning har blivit ett vanligt förekommande problem över hela landet när man pratar om avlopp och avloppsvatten. Eftersom bräddning är utspädning av avloppsvatten som tvingas släppas ut utan rening, leder detta till utsläpp av bland annat näringsämnen, miljö- och hälsostörande ämnen och patogena organismer i recipienten. Detta kan vara särskilt allvarligt om recipienten är en dricksvattentäkt. Det är därför viktigt att samhället arbetar med att förhindra att bräddning sker. Syftet med denna studie är därför att undersöka på vilket sätt kommuner arbetar med att identifiera i vilken omfattning bräddning sker och hur de arbetar för att åtgärda problemet. I undersökningen har därför en genomgång av lagstiftning inom området gjorts och VA-planer från 10 svenska kommuner har granskats för att identifiera åtgärdsområden. Vetenskaplig litteratur och rapporter har använts för att bedöma omfattning av problem internationellt och nationellt samt för att bedöma om de åtgärder som görs är tillräckliga.

    Bräddning sker på grund av hydraulisk överbelastning eftersom vattenmängderna är större än ledningsnätets och reningsverkets kapacitet. Dessa överbelastningar uppkommer till följ av ökad nederbörd, avsmältning, lagring av fett, sediment eller rötter som tränger in i ledningsnäten. Allt detta försvårar avledningen av vatten vid höga flöden. EU:s vattendirektiv har som syfte att minska farligt utsläpp till vatten och det sker främst genom övervakning, bättre hantering av slam, information och rapporter över utsläppen. Många av just de här punkterna är återkommande åtgärder i de åtgärdsplaner som vi har granskat.

    Till följd av klimatförändringarna måste kunskapen om bräddning öka och det är viktigt att hantera dagvattnet i separata system där det är möjligt t.ex. i nya bostads och industriområden. Samtidigt måste reningsverkens och ledningsnätens kapacitet ses över i form av övervakning, då åtgärdstakten inte är tillräckligt hög idag.

  • 83.
    Kordi, Javad
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Processes and drivers of biological and chemical Phosphorus removal in wastewater treatment plants2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Phosphorus (P) is one of the most important elements exists in wastewater in soluble forms. Several methods have been using for P recovery in wastewater treatment plants, but this study tried to investigate on the most important drivers and the processes of biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) and chemical phosphorus removal that are the major technics of P recovery globally. It has been considered that EBPR is a high recovery method (normally greater than 90%) which could be implemented in different regimes with the integration feasibility of different methods, while chemical precipitation is a flexible technique that could be dosed in various section of a treatment unit. The performance and drivers of three metal-based salts such as Iron (Fe), Aluminum (Al), and Calcium (Ca) also investigated during chemical precipitation. The crystallization process is also investigated as a subcategory model of chemical P removal method. It has been considered that the alkaline pH of 9-9.5, mixing intensity, and the addition of isomorphic seed materials are the most important factors in the crystallization process.

  • 84.
    Leesment, Emelie
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Svensson, Matilda
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Kartläggning av lastbilstransporter i Halmstads tätort ur ett miljöperspektiv: en nulägesbeskrivning med förslag på åtgärder för att effektivisera lastbilstransporternas logistik2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, one third of the carbon dioxide emissions are generated by the transport sector. The biggest contributor of emission in this sector is road traffic. In addition to emissions of greenhouse gases, trucks contribute to particle emissions and noise in urban areas.

    The purpose of this thesis is to provide a status report of Halmstad's urban truck transports by means of a traffic survey, a questionnaire and a literature study, thus presenting measures to reduce the environmental impacts of trucks.

    The result found in the survey is that the majority of the Swedish-registered trucks have diesel engines and the majority were Euro 5. Approximately 75 percent of the vehicles were heavy trucks. The questionnaire showed that accessibility in Halmstad needs to be improved and less than half of the companies coordinate their transportation.

    The conclusion is that there are several opportunities to reduce the environmental impact of trucks in the urban area in Halmstad. For example, the possibilities for coordinating 
 transports in Halmstad's urban area needs to be improved. A transshipment terminal in 
 Halland can reduce road traffic and increase railway transports. An environmental zone would demand that the trucks should contribute to less emissions and better air.

  • 85.
    Linder, Oscar
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Avloppsslam - användning: Utvärdering av avsättningsmetoder samt en jämförelse mellan Sverige, Kina, Nederländerna och Storbritannien2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this project has been to evaluate the methods currently used in the sewage treatment plant's sludge management. Method used is literature study. The project has described the different deposition methods used today. Excluded are the methods used to clean the water and stabilize the sewage sludge. The project has examined how waste sludge management is in Sweden, China, the Netherlands and the UK. The intention has been to explain how the use of the respective deposition method looks and why the participating countries have chosen different deposition methods. Keywords used are Sewage sludge, ReVAQ, Heavy metals, Comparison of countries, Settlement options. Sewage sludge is one of the major unutilized assets we have, it brings not only economic benefits but also profits from environmental perspective. Sewage sludge contains many useful substances like nitrogen and phosphorus. These substances promote growth of the plants. There are also risks associated with the supply of sewage sludge to agricultural land such as heavy metals supply. There are many different methods of handling sewage sludge. The methods are divided into thermal and non-thermal. The most used deposition method is supply to farmland, combustion, landfill and land cover. Methods used to a lesser degree include wet oxidation and pyrolysis. Sludge management is governed by both EU directives (for EU member states) and the country's own legislation. The conclusions that can be drawn from this project are that there are many different methods of sludge management. New technology is also constantly evolving, which can create new opportunities. Countries in the study have chosen different marketing methods depending on current legislation in the area as well as the country's infrastructure and economic climate.

  • 86.
    Lindgren, Fredrik
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Lakes are browner in the south than in the north of Sweden despite similar levels of dissolved iron2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During recent decades many lakes have become browner in the northern hemisphere and more specific in Sweden. This process is called brownification. Brownification of lakes makes it more difficult to clean water to drinking water and may have negative ecological effects on biota. Browning of lakes is generally thought to be caused by an increase of humic substances that consist of organic matter which colour the water brown or yellow. However, more recent studies show that dissolved iron can interact with humic substances in browning lakes. Since the concentrations of dissolved iron have increased during recent years and the mechanisms behind brownification and the contribution of iron to this process is not clearly understood it is important to investigate this subject. In this study 17 lakes in south of Sweden were sampled for iron concentration, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), absorbance (420nm) and pH. Further, data was added about atmospheric sulphur deposition and additional data from 17 lakes in the north part of Sweden. Iron had a stronger significant correlation towards absorbance than DOC had in the south of Sweden. A similar amount of dissolved iron seems to colour lakes differently based on their location in Sweden. This indicates that different mechanisms are involved in the interaction between iron and absorbance. However, pH had a stronger relationship with absorbance than either DOC or iron. Overall results suggested that iron do have a strong browning effect on Swedish fresh water lakes in the presence of DOC and that iron-increase driven processes may be due to a change of pH.

  • 87.
    Lindén, Pernilla
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Environmental Science.
    Utvärdering av användandet av Smiley-systemet: Miljökontor och livsmedelsverksamheter i två kommuner i Skåne2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A system for the publication of the control results on food businesses were introduced in

    Sweden but for various reasons it was never fully implemented. It was, however, a few

    municipalities in Sweden which became curious about this system and gradually began to use

    it. In this study, I have investigated what perceptions and views local authorities and

    associated food businesses that use the system have and if they think that it is a good system.

    2 municipalities were interviewed with related food industries and a simple questionnaire

    about their views on the system was sent to a few more establishments. The results showed

    that local authorities were satisfied with the system and considered that so far there were no

    disadvantages to the system. The food businesses felt that the Smiley system was mainly a

    positive system, and in their view above all for the customer. The non-premier a Smiley

    considered it a positive system so long as it was done in the right way. The majority of the

    interviewed businesses felt that there was a marketing value in having the Smiley sticker.

  • 88.
    Liwenius, Linnéa
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Johansson, Petra
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Kan fiskar spela fotboll?: Närliggande vattendrag som möjlig spridningsvägför gummigranulat från konstgräsplaner i Halmstad kommun2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Artificial turf pitches have been identified as the second largest source of microplastics in the

    IVL's 2016 research report. The purpose of this study is to explore whether watercourses in

    the vicinity of artificial turfs are a likely distribution route for rubber granulates. Also in what

    size fraction rubber granules is most dominant compared to the natural substrate is

    investigated. To investigate this, sediment samples from 4 different streams have been taken;

    2 near artificial turfs and 2 further away. These have been analyzed in microscopes where

    each rubber fraction relative to the gravel grain was counted in filter sizes 0-

    5 μm, 5-10 μm

    and 10-

    35 μm. The result shows that there is a significantly higher incidence of rubber

    fragments in watercourses near artificial turfs compared to those of further afield. In the size

    fraction 10-

    35 μm, rubber fragments were most dominant in proportion to gravel. The study

    thus shows that adjacent watercourses can be a spreading source of artificial turf granules, and

    that animals that filter or eat particles of size 10-

    35 μm run the highest risk of absorbing large

    quantities of rubber.

  • 89.
    Lundskog, Sofia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Olofsson, Michaela
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Hinder och drivkrafter för implementation och tillämpning av miljöledningssystemet ISO 14001 hos småföretag2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 90.
    Malmqvist, Anton
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Environmental Science.
    Återvinning av kompositer: Metoder och utbyte2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 91. Martens, Mireille LMI
    GHG reduction by rewetted arable land: a study on cultivated peatland for biogas production in temperate climate in Sweden2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Hydrophytes can be cultivated on rewetted drained peatland and used as substrate to produce biogas which can be utilized as vehicle fuel. This results in less GHG from rewetted peat soils and at the same time leads to renewable energy that substitutes fossil fuels. A literature research was conducted to study the impact of different species (Phragmites australis = Pa and Typha latifolia=Tl) and soil nutrient status on GHG emissions of rewetted fens in N Europe. In addition, biogas production and the exposure to different N-load were investigated for these species. Pa has a methane yield of 235 ml CH4 g-1 VS-1 regardless the input of N whereas Tl needs to be fertilized in order to produce high methane yield (204 ml CH4 g-1 VS-1).  Pa sequesters more CO2 and converts it into biomass which makes it a C-sink but by using the GWP factor to convert CH4 into CO2-equivalents, Pa becomes as Tl a GHG-source. Still Pa’s GHG emissions are lower than Tl’s if water depth is maximum 20 cm. Pa also contributes to peat formation and can cope with water fluctuations. 

  • 92.
    Martinsson, Caroline
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Integrerade skyddszoner: en granskning av nya åtgärden för minskning av jordbrukets utsläpp av näringsämnen via dräneringsrör2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Nitrogen and phosphorus are important nutrients to increase the crop yield on agricultural fields. These nutrients have a tendency to leak and be transported to lakes and seas where they contribute to eutrophication and algal blooms. Today different methods exist to decrease the environmental impact from agriculture but these methods have their limitations. That is why it calls for development of new environmental tools. A new tool is the integrated buffer zone, IBZ, which aims to decrease transportation from smaller drainage areas with drainage systems along streams. In this thesis the potential of IBZ is studied through a research in literature. The concept is based on two parts, a ditch and an infiltration zone. These can be compared to wetlands and buffer zones, to which scientific facts exist. A field study was performed in a newly constructed IBZ in Halland, in south Sweden. Other existing methods for reducing the transportation of nutrients are also studied in this paper. Mechanisms reducing transport of nitrogen and phosphorus are by sedimentation, denitrification, uptake and storage into plants and microorganisms. The results from the field study showed no effect but it is important to keep in mind that the studied facility is just a few months old and its functions are not developed yet

  • 93. Milenkovski, S
    et al.
    Thiere, Geraldine
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Wetland Research Centre.
    Samuelsson, K
    Weisner, Stefan
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Wetland Research Centre.
    Berglund, O
    Lindgren, P-E
    Denitrification in constructed wetlands in southern Sweden2007In: 2nd International Symposium on Wetland Pollutant Dynamics and Control - WETPOL 2007: Extended abstracts / [ed] Ülo Mander, Margit Kõiv, Christina Vohla, Institute of Geography, 2007, p. 220-222Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 94.
    Minwei, Ding
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Effects of different algae to inoculum ratios on improving biogas production of macro-algae Fucus vesiculosus, Fucus serratus and Polysiphonia sp.2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 95.
    Miret Redondo, Francesc
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    The situation of wind power and human perception and attitude towards it: A comparison between Sweden and Spain2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The biggest environmental challenge that has to be addressed is climate change. From an environmental perspective, the use of renewable energy and wind power deployment are a positive choice to curb it and also are promoted by many governments. General public usually expresses a positive attitude towards wind power, but sometimes local population reject wind power projects. In this project, interviews to key figures in the wind power sector were conducted to assess human perception and attitudes in Spain. For Sweden, data was obtained through a literature revision. The other parts of this project, which are wind energy status, history and future directions, legislation, and projects’ planning and permitting; were also analyzed and compared for both countries through a literature search. There is a great level of acceptance of wind power projects in both countries. Some impacts from wind power on humans are found: noise and shadows are the major impacts in Sweden, and visual impact in Spain. Several improvements to the approaches taken by these two countries have been proposed with the aim of promoting a further development of wind power. Governmental incentives to the deployment of wind power and other renewable energy sources must be re-adopted in Spain, where procedures should be standardized and public participation promoted. In Sweden, changes either in the energy sources used to produce energy or in the system should be included. More efforts have to be done to protect the environment, so wind power development should be a major asset to achieve these objectives.

  • 96.
    Moshi, Adelina
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Temporal dynamics in coral reefs over a set of years.2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Coral reefs are among the ecosystems most threatened by ongoing climate change and anthropogenic activities. It still remains unclear whether protection of marine protected areas from human activities can reduce impacts on corals reefs from acute thermal and physical stress and making them more resilient to climate related disturbances. This study investigates the temporal dynamics and trend of coral cover from 2015 to 2018. Also, assessing the coral health status from 2015 to 2018 in MIMP. I obtained secondary data and information based on benthic monitoring of coral reefs. My result show that there is a significant difference in percentage coral cover between years H= 29.39, df=3, p=0.000002 at MIMP. Number of bleached corals are stronger correlated R= -0.83, p<0.0001 than number of sea urchins R= -0.31, p= 0.032 with the percent coral cover. Coral cover fluctuates with periods of decline and recovery, corals tend to bleach from January to April and recover reach higher coral cover values during September to November every year. As the number of bleached corals increase healthy corals decline and vice versa. In 2016 there was a greater number of bleached corals but after that a recovery followed until 2018 when healthy corals at MIMP were at a higher abundance indicating the resilience ability of the reefs. However, with the likely future conditions there is still much to worry about with the anomalous ocean warming, as corals live very close to their upper thermal threshold. I suggest that careful management and monitoring of the coral reefs is paramount.

  • 97.
    Mårtensson, Adina
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Suhonjic, Meliha
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Strategier för ett minskat matsvinn inom kommunal skolverksamhet2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today we stand in front of major environmental problems both at global and national level. This report deals with the issue of food waste which is a significant environmental problem worldwide. Food waste also has a strong impact on the economy. The aim of this work was to examine what strategies the municipalities work with to reduce food waste in school catering. The aim was also to analyze and suggest strategies that could be successful in decreasing the problem with food waste. The study included four municipalities with a variety of size and population. Our method consisted of interviews with 11 key persons working both in the selected school kitchens and at least one nutrition manager in each municipality. The result of the study showed that municipalities work with different strategies to reduce food waste in schools. Some of them focus on educating their staff, others have different methods to measure food wastage in school kitchens in order to understand how much is thrown away and encourage improvements. Furthermore the result of the study points at the importance of communication as a key factor in dealing with food waste. Communication between students, teachers and the kitchen staff could improve in order to make awareness of the problem with food waste. The study showed that there is not a reference value for what little or much food waste is. A reference value can increase the motivation of school kitchens to develop new strategies for reduced food waste.

  • 98.
    Nelson, Ronja
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Svensson, Rebecka
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Hur förorenad är en dagvattendamm som inte sköts om?: En jämförelse av två dagvattendammar.2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Stormwater contains a variety of pollutants and is a major contributor to the dispersion of hazardous substances. Vehicles and industries are two factors that cause the increase of copper and zinc. Without handling stormwater, adverse effects can occur to our freshwater systems. Stormwater ponds have been established to prevent contamination of pollutants through various treatment processes. Stormwater ponds however, need to be maintained in order to remain effective. Notably, in Sweden several stormwater ponds lack maintenance. This study has investigated two stormwater ponds located near highways with a focus on the presence of copper and zinc in its sediment. One pond lacks maintenance in comparison to the other pond which receives continuous maintenance. Concentrations of heavy metals have been obtained through AAS and analyzed for statistical significance. Concentrations have also been compared with the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency's background levels for sediment in freshwater. The investigation has shown a significant difference (p <0.05) between the two stormwater ponds. Furthermore the pond that has been neglected has poor separation efficacy as opposed to the pond that is being routinely maintained. More chemical and physical measurements need to be investigated to determine with certainty what has caused the observed significant difference.

  • 99.
    Nilsson, Charlotte
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Environmental Science.
    Luftutsläpp från järnmalmsproduktion: - Strategier för systematisk luftkvalitetsmätning2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The mining company LKAB extracts iron ore in three areas in the north of Sweden, Kiruna, Malmberget and Svappavaara. The iron ore is refined and in the pelletizing plants the material is rolled to finished pellet product. The different steps of pelletizing plants causes among other things emissions to the air. It occurs occasionally stops in the production and the emissions are vented via an emergency chimney without purification. The aim for this work is to look into how LKAB may improve their monitoring of air emissions and control of ambient air quality and the analysis methods which are suitable for measuring. More recently, optical methods have been included in the measurements, which have an advantage over the collection of sample for analysis in a laboratory. The work has been limited to air emissions and optical methods. Through extensive literature review, questions has been answered on regarding which are the most important parameters to measure concerning air emissions, which methods that are suitable for continuous measurement and the parameters that are important in meteorological dispersion modeling. Three different methods of measurement are included, DOAS, FT-IR and LIDAR. The optical methods are discussed on the basis of how they can apply for adjustment to LKAB’s operations and its northern geographical location. A method suited better than the others, DOAS, which is the measuring method to be adapted best to LKAB’s operations and for measurement of the emergency chimney. Measurement results from DOAS can be used to make a dispersion model. 

  • 100.
    Nilsson, Helena
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science. Student Halmstad Högskola.
    Miljöpåverkan från hästgårdars gödselförvaring och näringsläckage från hagar2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
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