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  • 51.
    Alberdi, A.
    et al.
    Laboratorio de Astrofísica Espacial y Física Fundamental, Madrid, Spain; Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía CSIC, Granada, Spain.
    Krichbaum, T.P.
    Max Planck Institut für Radioastronomie, Bonn, Germany.
    Graham, D.A.
    Max Planck Institut für Radioastronomie, Bonn, Germany.
    Greve, A.
    IRAM, Domaine Universitaire, Grenoble, France.
    Grewing, M.
    IRAM, Domaine Universitaire, Grenoble, France.
    Marcaide, J.M.
    Departamento de Astronomía Universitat de Valéncia, Spain.
    Booth, R.S.
    Onsala Space Observatory.
    Bååth, Lars B.
    Onsala Space Observatory.
    Colomer, F.
    Onsala Space Observatory; Observatorio de Yebes, Guadalajara, Spain.
    Doeleman, S.
    NEROC, Haystack Observatory, Westford, Massachusetts, USA.
    Marscher, A.P.
    Boston University, Boston, MA, USA.
    Rogers, A.E.E.
    NEROC, Haystack Observatory, Westford, Massachusetts, USA.
    Schalinski, C.J.
    IRAM, Domaine Universitaire, Grenoble, France; Institut für Weltraumsensorik (DLR), Berlin, Germany.
    Standke, K.
    Max Planck Institut für Radioastronomie, Bonn, Germany.
    The high-frequency compact radio structure of the peculiar quasar 4C 39.251997In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 327, no 2, p. 513-521Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present new high angular resolution images of the compact non-thermal radio source 4C 39.25 obtained from VLBI observations at λ1.3cm, λ7mm, and λ3mm wavelengths. These maps and Gaussian model-fits show that the milli-arcsecond to sub-milliarcsecond structure of 4C 39.25 consists of a complex bent core-jet structure with embedded moving and stationary VLBI components. Facilitated by the small observing beams and high angular resolutions obtained at mm-wavelengths, we measured the relative positions of the jet components with an accuracy of a few hundred micro-arcseconds. This allows the detailed followup of the ongoing merging process of a westward superluminally moving component (b_) with a stationary component a_, located at ~2.9 mas east of the putative core d_. In contrast to the other components of the structure with steeper spectra, the westernmost component d_ exhibits an inverted spectrum peaking between λ7mm and λ3mm, thus further supporting its identification as the VLBI core, self-absorbed at longer wavelengths. From two VLBI maps obtained nearly simultaneously at λ7mm and λ1.3cm, we made the first spectral index map of 4C 39.25 in this wavelength regime. The main characteristics of the spectral index distribution of the jet are pronounced changes of the spectral index between orientations parallel and transverse to the jet axis. Near the merging components a_ and b_ the spectral index steepens with increasing separation from d_. However, in the bridge of emission c_, which connects d_ with a_ and b_, the spectral index gradient has a direction transverse to the jet axis, suggesting a frequency dependent jet curvature and edge-brightening. A brief discussion of this behaviour within current jet models is presented.

  • 52.
    Albinsson, John
    et al.
    Lund Univ, Dept Biomed Engn, S-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Brorsson, Sofia
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Rydén Ahlgren, Åsa
    Lund Univ, Dept Clin Sci, Clin Physiol & Nucl Med Unit, Malmo, Sweden..
    Cinthio, Magnus
    Lund Univ, Dept Biomed Engn, S-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Improved tracking performance of lagrangian block-matching methodologies using block expansion in the time domain: In silico, phantom and invivo evaluations2014In: Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology, ISSN 0301-5629, E-ISSN 1879-291X, Vol. 40, no 10, p. 2508-2520Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to evaluate tracking performance when an extra reference block is added to a basic block-matching method, where the two reference blocks originate from two consecutive ultrasound frames. The use of an extra reference block was evaluated for two putative benefits: (i) an increase in tracking performance while maintaining the size of the reference blocks, evaluated using in silico and phantom cine loops; (ii) a reduction in the size of the reference blocks while maintaining the tracking performance, evaluated using in vivo cine loops of the common carotid artery where the longitudinal movement of the wall was estimated. The results indicated that tracking accuracy improved (mean - 48%, p<0.005 [in silico]; mean - 43%, p<0.01 [phantom]), and there was a reduction in size of the reference blocks while maintaining tracking performance (mean - 19%, p<0.01 [in vivo]). This novel method will facilitate further exploration of the longitudinal movement of the arterial wall. (C) 2014 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology.

  • 53.
    Aldén, Victoria
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology.
    Gunnarsson, Ebba
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology.
    Användningen av Robotic Process Automation i kommunala förvaltningars beslutsstödsprocesser: En studie om vilka konsekvenser som kan uppstå genom användningen av RPA och påverkan på kommunala beslutsstödsprocesser för försörjningsstöd2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In communal organizations there has previously not existed a law that allowed automated decision support, it was during the year 2018 that the law changed. Previous research has focused on automation in the private business sector, which has created a lack of research on public organizations. Following the change in the law, Social services have started to automate the decision support in their decision support processes. The automation takes place using the software technology RPA (Robot Process Automation). RPA can only handle processes that are regulated and structured. It forces the Social services to define and structure their decision support processes that were previously manually performed by administrators. It involves creation of consequences that affects the decision support process and leads to the study ́s question: How is the decision support process in communal organizations affected using RPA? A qualitative method has been used in the collection of literature and empirical data, in order to be able to identify the consequences and its impact in the decision support process. The identified consequences presented in the study's conclusion are divided into the categories: consequences based on RPA and consequences based on the administrators. The consequences identified in the study have differed between the communal organizations, depending on how they interpreted the law and whether RPA has started to be used in the communes yet.

  • 54.
    Alendal, Gunnar
    et al.
    NTNU, Gjøvik, Norway.
    Dyrkolbotn, Geir Olav
    NTNU, Gjøvik, Norway & Norwegian Defence Cyber Academy (NDCA), Jørstadmoen, Norway.
    Axelsson, Stefan
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Forensics acquisition – Analysis and circumvention of samsung secure boot enforced common criteria mode2018In: Digital Investigation. The International Journal of Digital Forensics and Incident Response, ISSN 1742-2876, E-ISSN 1873-202X, Vol. 24, no Suppl., p. S60-S67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The acquisition of data from mobile phones have been a mainstay of criminal digital forensics for a number of years now. However, this forensic acquisition is getting more and more difficult with the increasing security level and complexity of mobile phones (and other embedded devices). In addition, it is often difficult or impossible to get access to design specifications, documentation and source code. As a result, the forensic acquisition methods are also increasing in complexity, requiring an ever deeper understanding of the underlying technology and its security mechanisms. Forensic acquisition techniques are turning to more offensive solutions to bypass security mechanisms, through security vulnerabilities. Common Criteria mode is a security feature that increases the security level of Samsung devices, and thus make forensic acquisition more difficult for law enforcement. With no access to design documents or source code, we have reverse engineered how the Common Criteria mode is actually implemented and protected by Samsung's secure bootloader. We present how this security mode is enforced, security vulnerabilities therein, and how the discovered security vulnerabilities can be used to circumvent Common Criteria mode for further forensic acquisition. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of DFRWS.

  • 55.
    Alfredsson, Erika
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE).
    Bengtsson, Matilda
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE).
    Bluetooth-implementation för Netbiter EC3502014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In industries today the demand for reading the state of industrial equipment and thus prevent machine breakdown, is increasing. The company HMS Industrial Networks AB has a product on the market, Netbiter EC350 that is used to read sensors and thus find out the condition of industrial equipment. By reporting scanned data to users through a cloud service, users can keep track of their equipment.

     

    When developing Netbiter EC350 a slot was made for a Bluetooth module to offer clients a wireless reading in future developments. In this project a prototype was made to show how this Bluetooth communication can be implemented.

     

    The goal of the project was to create a Bluetooth communication between a Bluetooth sensor and Netbiter EC350. A user interface was made to allow the user to read sensor values.

     

    The result of the project shows how a Bluetooth communication can be implemented to read sensors wireless and therefore it fulfills its purpose and goal. The user can find connectable Bluetooth devices, connect to a device and read measured values through a user interface.

     

    The prototype demonstrates how a Bluetooth communication with a Netbiter EC350 can be implemented and the project is therefore considered to be a good basis for future development.

  • 56.
    Ali Hamad, Rebeen
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Järpe, Eric
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Lundström, Jens
    JeCom Consulting, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Stability analysis of the t-SNE algorithm for human activity pattern data2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Health technological systems learning from and reacting on how humans behave in sensor equipped environments are today being commercialized. These systems rely on the assumptions that training data and testing data share the same feature space, and residing from the same underlying distribution - which is commonly unrealistic in real-world applications. Instead, the use of transfer learning could be considered. In order to transfer knowledge between a source and a target domain these should be mapped to a common latent feature space. In this work, the dimensionality reduction algorithm t-SNE is used to map data to a similar feature space and is further investigated through a proposed novel analysis of output stability. The proposed analysis, Normalized Linear Procrustes Analysis (NLPA) extends the existing Procrustes and Local Procrustes algorithms for aligning manifolds. The methods are tested on data reflecting human behaviour patterns from data collected in a smart home environment. Results show high partial output stability for the t-SNE algorithm for the tested input data for which NLPA is able to detect clusters which are individually aligned and compared. The results highlight the importance of understanding output stability before incorporating dimensionality reduction algorithms into further computation, e.g. for transfer learning.

  • 57.
    Ali, Hazem
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE).
    Patoary, Mohammad Nazrul Ishlam
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE).
    Design and Implementation of an Audio Codec (AMR-WB) using Dataflow Programming Language CAL in the OpenDF Environment2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Over the last three decades, computer architects have been able to achieve an increase in performance for single processors by, e.g., increasing clock speed, introducing cache memories and using instruction level parallelism. However, because of power consumption and heat dissipation constraints, this trend is going to cease. In recent times, hardware engineers have instead moved to new chip architectures with multiple processor cores on a single chip. With multi-core processors, applications can complete more total work than with one core alone. To take advantage of multi-core processors, we have to develop parallel applications that assign tasks to different cores. On each core, pipeline, data and task parallelization can be used to achieve higher performance. Dataflow programming languages are attractive for achieving parallelism because of their high-level, machine-independent, implicitly parallel notation and because of their fine-grain parallelism. These features are essential for obtaining effective, scalable utilization of multi-core processors.

    In this thesis work we have parallelized an existing audio codec - Adaptive Multi-Rate Wide Band (AMR-WB) - written in the C language for single core processor. The target platform is a multi-core AMR11 MP developer board. The final result of the efforts is a working AMR-WB encoder implemented in CAL and running in the OpenDF simulator. The C specification of the AMR-WB encoder was analysed with respect to dataflow and parallelism. The final implementation was developed in the CAL Actor Language, with the goal of exposing available parallelism - different dataflows - as well as removing unwanted data dependencies. Our thesis work discusses mapping techniques and guidelines that we followed and which can be used in any future work regarding mapping C based applications to CAL. We also propose solutions for some specific dependencies that were revealed in the AMR-WB encoder analysis and suggest further investigation of possible modifications to the encoder to enable more efficient implementation on a multi-core target system.

  • 58.
    Aljarbouh, Ayman
    et al.
    Centre de Recherche INRIA, Rennes, France.
    Zeng, Yingfu
    Rice University, Houston, Texas, United States.
    Duracz, Adam
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Caillaud, Benoît
    Centre de Recherche INRIA, Rennes, France.
    Taha, Walid
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES). Rice University, Houston, Texas, United States.
    Chattering-Free Simulation for Hybrid Dynamical Systems: Semantics and Prototype Implementation2016In: 2016 IEEE Intl Conference on Computational Science and Engineering (CSE) and IEEE Intl Conference on Embedded and Ubiquitous Computing (EUC) and 15th Intl Symposium on Distributed Computing and Applications for Business Engineering (DCABES) / [ed] Randall Bilof, Los Alamitos: IEEE Computer Society, 2016, p. 412-422, article id 7982279Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chattering is a fundamental phenomenon that is unique to hybrid systems, due to the complex interaction between discrete dynamics (in the form of discrete transitions) and continuous dynamics (in the form of time). In practice, simulating chattering hybrid systems is challenging in that simulation effectively halts near the chattering time point, as an infinite number of discrete transitions would need to be simulated. In this paper, formal conditions are provided for when the simulated models of hybrid systems display chattering behavior, and methods are proposed for avoiding chattering “on the fly” in runtime. We utilize dynamical behavior analysis to derive conditions for detecting chattering without enumeration of modes. We also present a new iterative algorithm to allow for solutions to be carried past the chattering point, and we show by a prototypical implementation how to generate the equivalent chattering-free dynamics internally by the simulator in the main simulation loop. The concepts are illustrated with examples throughout the paper. © 2016 IEEE.

  • 59.
    Alkhawaja, Abdel Rahman
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE).
    Sheibani, Hatem
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE).
    Security issues with Mobile IP2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With a rapid growth in wireless technology in recent years, Mobile IP has become very important for consumers and businesses by providing mobility based on IP addresses using several applications, which keep the employees connected with each others with critical information. In mobile IP the node can change its location by maintaining the same IP address and keep connected to the internet, which solves the issue of terminating the communication once it moves.

    Since Mobile IP uses open airwaves as a transmission medium, it is subject to the many security threats that are routed in mobile IP network .Protecting mobile IP from threats and attacks is one of the most challenging task now days. IPSec is a standard security protocol solution for TCP/IP network that provides security through Authentication, Encryption and data integrity services. Mobile IP data traffic can be secured by combining with IP Security (IPSec) protocol.

    This thesis describes Mobile IP operations, security threats, different existing methods for securing mobile IP and then IPSec standard, how it works and why IPSec is the best solution. This thesis also describes how to combine IPSec with a mobile IP to provide a solution called (SecMIP) that protects the mobile device’s communication from any threats. Finally it describes Mobile IPv6, binding update and associated security concern.

  • 60.
    Alm, Ilkoo
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Man and Information technology laboratory (MI-lab).
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Man and Information technology laboratory (MI-lab).
    Cognitive aspects in visualisation of complex data2001In: CISST'2001: proceedings of the International Conference on Imaging Science, Systems, and Technology : Las Vegas, Nevada, USA, June 25-28, 2001 / [ed] Arabnia, H.R., Avalon, Athens, USA: CSREA Press, 2001, p. 633-638Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Information Visualization applications are dealing with fundamental difficulties related to overlap in cognitive models between designers and users, goal ambiguity, and accuracy in search strategies These difficulties are more obvious in applications aimed at reducing information overload by general users, than in applications aimed at visualising scientific data. General users have very likely quite different cognitive reference for approaching an abstract complex task, than designers. This can result in designs which can unintentionally increase information overload by users. In visualisation of scientific data the overlap of cognitive reference between specialists and designs is very likely much higher, but we need methods which can facilitate data exploration in real-time interaction. One possibility to facilitate exploration in a more or less systematic way is by means of metaphors which can support human perception in searching for patterns.

  • 61.
    Almgren, Rikard
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Ärtrev som substrat för biogasproduktion: En litteraturstudie och rötning i labbskala2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Until 2020, 49% of Sweden's use of energy must derive from renewable sources. Greenhouse gases must as well decline with 40% compared to 1990 as a part of Sweden's 16 environmental objectives. Biogas is part of the effort to achieve these objectives, but as the demand for biogas increases, more substrates are needed to meet the demand. The purpose is to investigate the conditions for pea residue as substrate by performing lab-scale mesophilic digestion with different fractions and notch lengths and then to summarize pea residue as a substrate for biogas production. During anaerobic digestion, 1000 ml bottles were used as reactors for digestion. Analyses of gas production, gas composition, content of dry matter and organic matter, carbon / nitrogen-ratio and pH have been performed.The results from lab scale digestion show that the pea residue has a methane potential of 300-400 liters of methane per kg VS during 25 days of anaerobic mesophilic digestion. Chopped pea residue had a slightly higher methane production than untreated pea residue.. The substrate was very difficult to mix up in a regular household blender because of long and tough fibers. This suggests that the substrate requires to be chopped in order to avoid difficulties with management in pumps. Profitability may be a problem if you chop pea residue as the machine being used is expensive and the increase in methane yield as a result of chopping is too small for the pretreatment to be worthwhile. The cost for collecting and chopping the pea residue has been estimated to 473 SEK per hectare or 0,1 SEK per kWh.Practical experience of digesting chopped ensiled pea residue in large-scale facility shows that the substrate works well in pumps and does not affect the process negatively in any way, which suggests that chopping and ensiling pea residue is preferable. Theoretically, there is an energy potential of pea residue amounting to 40 GWh in Skåne and Halland, which roughly corresponds to the fuel consumption of 130 biogas buses annually. The biogas needs to be upgraded before this is possible.Environmental benefits of digesting pea residue include reducing nitrous oxide emissions of 500-1200g per hectare. Other environmental benefits include the reduction of ammonia emissions and nitrate leaching. Biogas as a fuel is neutral as regards carbon dioxide emissions and can replace fossil fuels. Crop residues as a substrate for biogas production do not compete with land for food production.

  • 62.
    Almström, Jennie
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Gustavsson, Simon
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Styrketräning en gång per vecka förbättrade anaerob kapacitet hos cyklister och triathleter: En 12 veckor lång interventionsstudie2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Triathletes and cyclists are endurance athletes with extreme training volume and high demands on aerobic capacity but the sport also requires anaerobic power and muscular strength for example hills or changes in tempo. Many endurance athletes do hesitate to implement strength training with the belief that the effect will negatively affect their performance, the high training volume also makes it difficult to combine. Strength training as a complement to endurance exercise has been shown to have a positive effect and may improve performance. The aim was to investigate whether strength training once a week can improve anaerobic capacity among cyclists and triathletes, and if any potential increase in strength capacity may affect swim performance in triathletes. The method was an interventional study with pre and post-test in which participants had to conduct a workout consisting of the three exercises, once a week for 12 weeks, in addition to regular exercise. The results from the test of maximum strength in the leg press showed a significantly increased strength in the intervention group, p = 0.001, a strength improvement of 16.5%. The Wingate test showed a significant improvement in maximum power, p = 0.003, an improvement of 11.1%, and the maximum power per kilogram bodyweight, p = 0.001, an improvement of 11.9 %. For the control group, there were no noticeable changes and no association was seen between increased strength and swim performance. Our strength training in combination with the regular workout can probably work synergistically and optimize their performance.

  • 63.
    Alonso-Fernandez, Fernando
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Bigun, Josef
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Eye Detection by Complex Filtering for Periocular Recognition2014In: 2nd International Workshop on Biometrics and Forensics (IWBF2014): Valletta, Malta (27-28th March 2014), Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Press, 2014, article id 6914250Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a novel system to localize the eye position based on symmetry filters. By using a 2D separable filter tuned to detect circular symmetries, detection is done with a few ID convolutions. The detected eye center is used as input to our periocular algorithm based on retinotopic sampling grids and Gabor analysis of the local power spectrum. This setup is evaluated with two databases of iris data, one acquired with a close-up NIR camera, and another in visible light with a web-cam. The periocular system shows high resilience to inaccuracies in the position of the detected eye center. The density of the sampling grid can also be reduced without sacrificing too much accuracy, allowing additional computational savings. We also evaluate an iris texture matcher based on ID Log-Gabor wavelets. Despite the poorer performance of the iris matcher with the webcam database, its fusion with the periocular system results in improved performance. ©2014 IEEE.

  • 64.
    Alonso-Fernandez, Fernando
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Bigun, Josef
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Periocular Biometrics: Databases, Algorithms and Directions2016In: 2016 4th International Workshop on Biometrics and Forensics (IWBF): Proceedings : 3-4 March, 2016, Limassol, Cyprus, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE, 2016, article id 7449688Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Periocular biometrics has been established as an independent modality due to concerns on the performance of iris or face systems in uncontrolled conditions. Periocular refers to the facial region in the eye vicinity, including eyelids, lashes and eyebrows. It is available over a wide range of acquisition distances, representing a trade-off between the whole face (which can be occluded at close distances) and the iris texture (which do not have enough resolution at long distances). Since the periocular region appears in face or iris images, it can be used also in conjunction with these modalities. Features extracted from the periocular region have been also used successfully for gender classification and ethnicity classification, and to study the impact of gender transformation or plastic surgery in the recognition performance. This paper presents a review of the state of the art in periocular biometric research, providing an insight of the most relevant issues and giving a thorough coverage of the existing literature. Future research trends are also briefly discussed. © 2016 IEEE.

  • 65.
    Alonso-Fernandez, Fernando
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Bigun, Josef
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE Viktoria, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Expression Recognition Using the Periocular Region: A Feasibility Study2018In: 2018 14th International Conference on Signal-Image Technology & Internet-Based Systems (SITIS) / [ed] Gabriella Sanniti di Baja, Luigi Gallo, Kokou Yetongnon, Albert Dipanda, Modesto Castrillón-Santana & Richard Chbeir, Los Alamitos: IEEE Computer Society, 2018, p. 536-541Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the feasibility of using the periocular region for expression recognition. Most works have tried to solve this by analyzing the whole face. Periocular is the facial region in the immediate vicinity of the eye. It has the advantage of being available over a wide range of distances and under partial face occlusion, thus making it suitable for unconstrained or uncooperative scenarios. We evaluate five different image descriptors on a dataset of 1,574 images from 118 subjects. The experimental results show an average/overall accuracy of 67.0%/78.0% by fusion of several descriptors. While this accuracy is still behind that attained with full-face methods, it is noteworthy to mention that our initial approach employs only one frame to predict the expression, in contraposition to state of the art, exploiting several order more data comprising spatial-temporal data which is often not available.

  • 66.
    Alonso-Fernandez, Fernando
    et al.
    ATVS/Biometric Recognition Group, Escuela Politecnica Superior, Univ. Autonoma de Madrid, Spain.
    Bigun, Josef
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Fierrez, Julian
    ATVS/Biometric Recognition Group, Escuela Politecnica Superior, Univ. Autonoma de Madrid, Spain.
    Fronthaler, Hartwig
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Kollreider, Klaus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Ortega-Garcia, Javier
    ATVS/Biometric Recognition Group, Escuela Politecnica Superior, Univ. Autonoma de Madrid, Spain.
    Fingerprint Recognition2009In: Guide to Biometric Reference Systems and Performance Evaluation / [ed] Dijana Petrovska-Delacrétaz, Gérard Chollet, Bernadette Dorizzi, London: Springer London, 2009, p. 51-88Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    First, an overview of the state of the art in fingerprint recognition is presented, including current issues and challenges. Fingerprint databases and evaluation campaigns, are also summarized. This is followed by the description of the BioSecure Benchmarking Framework for Fingerprints, using the NIST Fingerpint Image Software (NFIS2), the publicly available MCYT-100 database, and two evaluation protocols. Two research systems are compared within the proposed framework. The evaluated systems follow different approaches for fingerprint processing and are discussed in detail. Fusion experiments involving different combinations of the presented systems are also given. The NFIS2 software is also used to obtain the fingerprint scores for the multimodal experiments conducted within the BioSecure Multimodal Evaluation Campaign(BMEC’2007) reported in Chap.11.

  • 67.
    Alonso-Fernandez, Fernando
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Farrugia, Reuben
    University of Malta, Msida, Malta.
    Bigun, Josef
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Very Low-Resolution Iris Recognition Via Eigen-Patch Super-Resolution and Matcher Fusion2016In: 2016 IEEE 8th International Conference on Biometrics Theory, Applications and Systems (BTAS), Piscataway: IEEE, 2016, article id 7791208Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Current research in iris recognition is moving towards enabling more relaxed acquisition conditions. This has effects on the quality of acquired images, with low resolution being a predominant issue. Here, we evaluate a super-resolution algorithm used to reconstruct iris images based on Eigen-transformation of local image patches. Each patch is reconstructed separately, allowing better quality of enhanced images by preserving local information. Contrast enhancement is used to improve the reconstruction quality, while matcher fusion has been adopted to improve iris recognition performance. We validate the system using a database of 1,872 near-infrared iris images. The presented approach is superior to bilinear or bicubic interpolation, especially at lower resolutions, and the fusion of the two systems pushes the EER to below 5% for down-sampling factors up to a image size of only 13×13.

  • 68.
    Alonso-Fernandez, Fernando
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Mikaelyan, Anna
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Bigun, Josef
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Compact Multi-scale Periocular Recognition Using SAFE Features2017In: Proceedings of the 23rd International Conference On Pattern Recognition (Icpr), IEEE Computer Society, 2017, p. 1455-1460, article id 7899842Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we present a new approach for periocular recognition based on the Symmetry Assessment by Feature Expansion (SAFE) descriptor, which encodes the presence of various symmetric curve families around image key points. We use the sclera center as single key point for feature extraction, highlighting the object-like identity properties that concentrates to this unique point of the eye. As it is demonstrated, such discriminative properties can be encoded with a reduced set of symmetric curves. Experiments are done with a database of periocular images captured with a digital camera. We test our system against reference periocular features, achieving top performance with a considerably smaller feature vector (given by the use of a single key point). All the systems tested also show a nearly steady correlation between acquisition distance and performance, and they are also able to cope well when enrolment and test images are not captured at the same distance. Fusion experiments among the available systems are also provided. © 2016 IEEE.

  • 69.
    Aloulou, Hamdi
    et al.
    Institut Mines Telecom, Paris, France & Laboratory of Informatics, Robotics and Microelectronics, Montpellier, France.
    Abdulrazak, Bessam
    Laboratory of Informatics, Robotics and Microelectronics, Montpellier, France & University of Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Canada.
    Endelin, Romain
    Institut Mines Telecom, Paris, France & Laboratory of Informatics, Robotics and Microelectronics, Montpellier, France.
    Bentes, João
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research. Image and Pervasive Access Laboratory, Singapore, Singapore.
    Tiberghien, Thibaut
    Institut Mines Telecom, Paris, France & Image and Pervasive Access Laboratory, Singapore, Singapore.
    Bellmunt, Joaquim
    Institut Mines Telecom, Paris, France & Image and Pervasive Access Laboratory, Singapore, Singapore.
    Simplifying Installation and Maintenance of Ambient Intelligent Solutions Toward Large Scale Deployment2016In: Inclusive Smart Cities and Digital Health: 14th International Conference on Smart Homes and Health Telematics, ICOST 2016, Wuhan, China, May 25-27, 2016. Proceedings / [ed] Chang C.K., Jin H., Cao Y., Aloulou H., Mokhtari M., Chiari L., Heidelberg: Springer, 2016, p. 121-132Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Simplify deployment and maintenance of Ambient Intelligence solutions is important to enable large-scale deployment and maximize the use/benefit of these solutions. More mature Ambient Intelligence solutions emerge on the market as a result of an intensive investment in research. This research targets mainly the accuracy, usefulness, and usability aspects of the solutions. Still, possibility to adapt to different environments, ease of deployment and maintenance are ongoing problems of Ambient Intelligence. Existing solutions require an expert to move on-site in order to install or maintain systems. Therefore, we present in this paper our attempt to enable quick large scale deployment. We discuss lessons learned from our approach for automating the deployment process in order to be performed by ordinary people. We also introduce a solution for simplifying the monitoring and maintenance of installed systems. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016.

  • 70.
    Alzghoul, Ahmad
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Verikas, Antanas
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Hållander, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Bacauskiene, Marija
    Kaunas University of Technology, Studentu 50, Kaunas LT-51368, Lithuania.
    Gelzinis, Adas
    Kaunas University of Technology, Studentu 50, Kaunas LT-51368, Lithuania.
    Screening paper runnability in a web-offset pressroom by data mining2009In: Proceedings of the 9th Industrial Conference on Advances in Data Mining: Applications and Theoretical Aspects, Berlin: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2009, p. 161-175Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is concerned with data mining techniques for identifying the main parameters of the printing press, the printing process and paper affecting the occurrence of paper web breaks in a pressroom.Two approaches are explored. The first one treats the problem as a task of data classification into “break” and “non break” classes. The procedures of classifier design and selection of relevant input variables are integrated into one process based on genetic search. The search process results in a set of input variables providing the lowest average loss incurred in taking decisions. The second approach, also based on genetic search, combines procedures of input variable selection and data mapping into a low dimensional space. The tests have shown that the web tension parameters are amongst the most important ones. It was also found that, provided the basic off-line paper parameters are in an acceptable range, the paper related parameters recorded online contain more information for predicting the occurrence of web breaks than the off-line ones. Using the selected set of parameters, on average, 93.7% of the test set data were classified correctly. The average classification accuracy of the break cases was equal to 76.7%.

  • 71.
    Amerion, Mohsen
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE).
    Radio Communication for PIE -  a Tiny Timber Interface2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Tiny Timber is a very lightweight, real-time kernel for small, event-driven embedded systems.  It implements reactive objects as a way of structuring embedded software. These objects are components that react to incoming events by updating their internal state and issuing an outgoing event. Implementing a control system based on reactive objects enhances the reactivity of the system and it helps to optimize the energy consumption, as the system goes to sleep mode when there is nothing to react to. It is also a programming technique that facilitates the organization of the program.

    In this project, we develop a device driver for radio communication with a Tiny Timber interface. This is an extension to the Platform for Intelligent Embedded (PIE) system which is a robot assembled and used at the IDE department of Halmstad University as a platform for developing new applications as well as for educational purposes in the area of embedded and intelligent systems.  The interface is programmed in C and consists of a collection of device drivers for different components of PIE in the form of reactive objects.

  • 72.
    Amnell, Mathias
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE).
    Öhman, Martin
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE).
    Samband mellan motivationsfaktorer för UGC: Vad motiverar en användare att skapa innehåll på internet?2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    User Generated Content (UGC) is becoming increasingly common on the web and many of the most frequently visited websites on the Internet is largely based on content created by its users. Every day 120,000 articles gets edited on Wikipedia by its devoted users who spend an average of eight hours a week on creating new or edit existing material. To motivate users to contribute with content is becoming increasingly important. This requires an increased understanding of what motivates users to contribute. 

    In this paper we study the motivational factors that motivates users to contribute with UGC and if there is any correlation between these motivational factors. A literature review of previous research in the field of UGC is performed and results in 15 motivational factors categorized into four categories. These are presented in a matrix that structures the motivation factors in the different categories. The matrix of the 15 motivational factors are the theoretical foundation for a quantitative survey designed to see to what extent users are motivated by different motivational factors for the creation of UGC. Through the survey we establish an understanding to what extent different motivational factors motivate the participiants of the study to create UGC. The results from the survey are then used to study the relationships between motivational factors. This leads to a correlation table that presents all the significant relationships between factors and a motivation matrix that can serve as a basis for understanding and discuss the motivators for the UGC and its categorizations. Our results may help developers to support multiple motivational factors in services based on UGC. The motivation matrix and the results presented may also be the basis for future research.

  • 73.
    An, Xing
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Recent developments in wetland technology for wastewater treatment2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment have substantially developed in the last decades. As an eco-friendly treatment process, constructed wetlands may enable the effective, economical, and ecological treatment of agricultural, industrial, and municipal wastewater. The present study reviews the recent developments in wetland technology for wastewater treatment from articles published from 2011 to 2012. The papers were searched from Web of Science using the key words constructed wetland and wastewater treatment. Up to 32 articles were selected and a table describes the recent enhancements in wetland treatment technology. Some articles presented notable results, with higher pollutant removal rates or related to some important factors in removal processes. These articles were separated into three main parts, namely, enhancement of nitrogen removal, phosphorus removal and recovery, and wetland contribution to heavy metal removal. The recent trends in the enhancement of wetland treatment were identified. The major enhancement methods for nitrogen, BOD, and COD reduction are hybrid water flow wetland designs and the combination of porous substrates with conventional gravel. Organic substrates, such as wood mulch and rice husk, are a suitable option for the upper porous media. The recent promotion of phosphorus removal involves a solution to internal loading and an inexpensive substrate source. Fragmented Moleanos limestone and alum sludge cake from the water plants present the feasibility of P removal. The main improvement in heavy metal removal depends on the substrate and combination of different treatment methods. Additionally, the free water surface constructed wetland was proven as a stable heavy metal treatment method. Vegetation was confirmed to enhance the removal rate of all wetland types for all kinds of pollutants. However, the species of the vegetation does not significantly influence the removal rates.

  • 74.
    Ananthu, Ottakuttiyankel Saji
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Small Scale Biogas Production by using Food Waste- Examples from three Restaurants  2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Global warming is the one of the most dangerous threats that the entire world is facing today. The emission of greenhouse gases is increasing the impact of global warming. In such a situation, reduction of GHG emissions and finding an alternative source of energy is more and more important. The production of biogas from food wastes is considered as a suitable way for the reduction of GHGs emission. The production of this type of renewable energy is very popular in Asian countries, especially in countries like India and China. Biogas production never creates any harmful effects to the environment but at the same time it also produces byproducts that are not harmful for the environment.  This study tries to investigate the possibility for the production of biogas from food wastes in restaurants under Swedish conditions. In order to do so, three different models of biogas plants in three different restaurants were used as a case study. The results showed that biogas production from food waste in restaurants are practically possible in Sweden and it can be used as an alternative source of cooking fuel with many benefits both economically and environmentally. Temperature problems in Sweden during winter season can be avoided by using pre-heating technique.

     

  • 75.
    Andersen, Emelie
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Aeshna viridis distribution and habitat choices in South and Central Sweden and the possibility to use a database as a tool in monitoring a threatened species2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aeshna viridis, a dragonfly generally considered to be a specialist as it in most cases choosesStratiotes aloides as its habitat, have suffered badly from habitat loss and fragmentationsthroughout Europe under the last century as the human demand of land use have grown. It´sthereby considered near threatened on EU red list and is included in the Habitat Directive.This means that it is protected by EU law as all EU Member States is committed to protect,monitor and report back to EU the status of the species. Several European countries havedesigned protection plans for S. aloides to improve the preservation of A. viridis. My study inSouth and Central Sweden shows that the strong connection between A. viridis and S. aloidesmay not be consistent all over the distribution range of A. viridis, as my survey showed thatlarvae occur among other water plants when S. aloides is not present. Another aim in thisstudy was to evaluate the possibility to use occurrence data on A. viridis and S. aloides fromthe Species Observations System to monitor A. viridis distribution and dispersal. My studyimplies uncertainties of how well the datasets reflects reality and more research is necessarybefore clarifying if datasets could be a possible tool in conservation management of A. viridis.

  • 76.
    Andersen, Emelie
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Nilsson, Bertil
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), MPE-lab.
    Sahlén, Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Survival possibilities of the dragonfly Aeshna viridis (Insecta, Odonata) in southern Sweden predicted from dispersal possibilities2016In: Journal of Insect Conservation, ISSN 1366-638X, E-ISSN 1572-9753, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 179-188Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We use public records from 1980 to 2014 to analyse survival of the EU Annex IV species Aeshna viridis in Sweden, a dragonfly strongly associated with the plant Stratiotes aloides. We clustered localities with S. aloides based on assumed dispersal abilities of A. viridis, using a dispersing radius of 2–100 km, calculating the proportion of sites with S. aloides that A. viridis is able to reach. If mean dispersal capability is high (40 km or above) 92.6 % or more of the localities are connected. For a good disperser, the probability of long-time survival is good. We further analysed the species richness of other Odonata and aquatic plants at 98 localities from the dataset. A. viridis co-occurred with more Odonata in the presence of S. aloides and running water but not in lakes. S. aloides sites had a higher number of other aquatic plants. Area had no impact on the occurrence of the species. For the present situation we surveyed 32 localities with known occurrence of the species. Only half of the sites for S. aloides contained any specimens while A. viridis occurred in the same number of sites. The species co-occurred in only 8 of 32 sites. In four sites A. viridis larvae appeared among Menyanthes trifoliata, Phragmites australis, Potamogeton natans and Sphagnum spp., indicating that at high latitudes A. viridis breeds among other species. Indirect monitoring based only on S. aloides would underestimate the number of populations of the dragonfly. © 2016 Springer International Publishing Switzerland

  • 77.
    Andersson, Emma
    Halmstad University.
    A study of how fragmentation affects distribution and diversity among Nymphalidae, Papilionidae and Pieridae (Lepidoptera): in native and exotic forest fragments in southern Brazil2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 78.
    Andersson, Harald
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Ekologisk dagvattenhantering i städer: Med utgångspunkt i förtätningsprojektet vid Flygaregatan i Halmstad2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As cities grow and become denser the hard surfaces, where water cannot be infiltrated through the ground, increases. Rain fall is also expected to increase, due to climate change, and the combination of both scenarios will most likely lead to greater risks of flooding, as large volumes of stormwater runoff must be handled by limited underground pipes. Urban stormwater is, added to that, often polluted and affects the quality of streams and lakes close to cities. A solution to the problems might be to integrate sustainable urban drainage systems (SUDS) that handle stormwater by the same principles as in nature, where green areas, ponds and open ditches both purifies and slows down the urban runoff.

    By mapping the specific conditions within the ongoing development project at Flygaregatan in Halmstad, which has been used as an example site, the possibilities of SUDS have been investigated. The purpose of the study is to see what parts of SUDS that are possible to use in cities and to come up with a suggestion of how such a system could be integrated within Flygaregatan.

    The study is based upon a review of literature, interviews, calculations and study visits. Due to the complex nature of urban stormwater some assumptions and simplifications have although been necessary.

    The results show that SUDS can reduce the pollution in urban stormwater to acceptable levels and, added to that, delay the runoff which decreases the risks of flooding. From the perspectives at Flygaregatan it should be possible to integrate SUDS within the site and considering the many positive effects of SUDS it is then suggested that such systems should also be used in similar construction projects in the future.

  • 79.
    Andersson, Julia
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Does clearcutting as a method for forestry impact the aquatic life in lakes nearby?2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Clearcutting is the most common method for forestry in Sweden. However research shows that this type of intense management can have a negative impact on biological biodiversity as it interferes with an area’s natural characteristics. Previous studies have mainly focused on biological effects on land. In this study dragonflies were used as biological indicators to investigate the impact of clearcutting in aquatic environments. The result from this study indicate that the use of clearcutting as a method for forestry can, with a certain postponement in time, negatively affect the species diversity of Odonata, and thus also the aquatic biodiversity in lakes in the immediate surroundings of a clearcut area, although it is still unclear exactly how and by which mechanisms. It is also uncertain if the effects are only temporarily, or long-term. If Sweden is to reach the environmental goal of Flourishing Lakes and Streams, it is essential to adopt further safety measures when conducting clearcutting near waters to avoid negative impact on the aquatic biological diversity.

  • 80.
    Andersson, Julia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Environmental Science.
    Nielsen, Denise
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Environmental Science.
    En studie av eutrofierande näringsämnen i tre biflöden till Suseån: - Falkenbergs kommun, Halland2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Enligt ett av de 16 miljökvalitetsmålen, Ingen övergödning, ska halterna av eutrofierande ämnen inte ha någon negativ effekt på människors hälsa, den biologiska mångfalden eller vår möjlighet till ett hållbart brukande av mark och vatten. En stor bidragande orsak till den rådande övergödningsproblematiken i svenska vatten är läckage av främst näringsämnena kväve och fosfor från agrara och urbana källor.

    Hallands kustkommuner har sedan länge problem med övergödning och behovet för åtgärd är stort. Länet är särskilt utsatt för näringsläckage, delvis på grund av att en stor del av åkermarken utgörs av genomsläppliga jordar, vilka underlättar för vattnets framkomlighet och transport av näringsämnen, men även för att vattendrag har rätats ut av människan och för att naturliga våtmarker har tagits bort.

    I Halland rinner Suseån som är den femte största ån i länet. Problematiken i den övre regionen av dess avrinningsområde handlar främst om försurning, medan det i det nedre området främst handlar om övergödning och fysisk förändring av vattendragen.

    Vattenprovtagning utfördes i Suseån, samt i tre biflöden i den nedre delen av avrinningsområdet, vilken till stor del domineras av jordbruksmarker. De utvalda vattendragen var Käringasjöbäcken, Boarpsbäcken och Årstadbäcken.

    Resultatet av vattenprovtagningarna uppvisade överlag förhöjda halter av näringsämnen i alla biflöden till Suseån. De högsta halterna av både totalkväve och totalfosfor uppmättes i Boarpsbäcken och Årstadbäcken, vilka således har det största åtgärdsbehovet.

  • 81.
    Andersson, Liza
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Hur påverkar dispens från sexveckorsregeln antal och grad av körskador efter skogsavverkning i Västsverige?2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The six week notice implies that the Swedish Forest Agency must be notified at least six weeks in advance of every greater forest felling. For various reasons it is possible for an exception to be granted and thus be able to execute felling earlier. High rainfalls in western Sweden during late autumn and winter 2012 made the soils extra sensitive for rutting. That is the tracks created by forest machines, especially on loose and moist soils, and can in turn cause negative effects for both the environment and wood production. Many forest owners who had planned felling at this time when the ground usually is frozen and can carry the machines instead wished to fell unnoticed areas (objects) with better carrying capacity despite the mild weather. To not having to wait with the felling they therefore applied for exception of the six week notice when sending the notification for the new object. Since the sensitive object could be spared for colder weather, many of the applications were granted. As the exception cases demands more time and work and are also managed prior to regular felling notifications the Swedish forest Agency had interest in finding out if this kind of exception in effect leads to less rutting and soil damage.

    The study was conducted on behalf of the Swedish Forest Agency in Gothenburg with the purpose to find if the exception, when granted, is fully utilized and if the granted and the sensitive objects are felled with more or less soil damage than objects felled without exception. During April/May 2013 a total of 66 privately owned objects in Halland and Västra Götaland were visited. The study showed that a great majority of the exceptions were utilized but there was no significant difference in number and degree of rutting between any of the three types of objects. This means that the exception of the six week notice, in this case, have not led to less soil damage than in objects without it. Furthermore, serious ruts occurred in a high amount of objects in all three groups, something that partly can be related to climate but also as an effect of a tough wood market and lack of knowledge and communication within the forestry. These are well known problems that in recent years have been more intensely addressed both by the Forest Agency but also within the branch organizations. Hopefully, an increased consciousness about the environmental effects of rutting and knowledge about how it can be avoided will make fellings in greater extent become planned thereafter. Along with a more detailed description of the objects regarding the exeptions and a more direct follow-up of soil damages after felling the number of serious ruts could possibly even at poor weather conditions be reduced in the future.

  • 82.
    Andersson, Magnus
    et al.
    Telematics Group, Viktoria Institute, Göteborg.
    Lindgren, Rikard
    Telematics Group, Viktoria Institute, Göteborg.
    The Mobile-Stationary Divide in Ubiquitous Computing Environments: Lessons from the Transport Industry2005In: Information systems management, ISSN 1058-0530, E-ISSN 1934-8703, Vol. 22, no 4, p. 65-79Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The emergence of ubiquitous computing offers new possibilities and opportunities for organizations attempting to improve their productivity and effectiveness. In particular, the promises of ubiquitous computing are attractive to organizations such as transport firms, in which coordination of diverse sets of mobile units is central to organizational performance. This article analyzes the use of ubiquitous transport systems in Swedish road haulage firms and discusses the opportunities and challenges for the early adopters. It pays specific attention to the mobile-stationary divide; that is, the set of challenges associated with integration of mobile and stationary people and systems into a seamless computing environment.

  • 83.
    Andersson, Magnus
    et al.
    Telematics Group, Viktoria Institute, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Lindgren, Rikard
    Telematics Group, Viktoria Institute, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Henfridsson, Ola
    Telematics Group, Viktoria Institute, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Assessing the Mobile-Stationary Divide in Ubiquitous Transport Systems2005In: Designing Ubiquitous Information Environments: Socio-Technical Issues and Challenges, New York, USA: Springer-Verlag New York, 2005, p. 123-137Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Many transport organizations seek to develop seamlessly integrated computing environments. A central problem in attempts to realize such ubiquitous transport systems is the divide that exists between stationary transport management systems and mobile applications such as embedded vehicle sensor networks and in-vehicle services for message handling. Originating from different Innovation regimes, these technologies are heterogeneous in that they rely on different technological platforms and knowledge bases, as well as the institutionalized settings from which they have emerged. This paper assesses how the mobile-stationary divide plays out in practical efforts to develop ubiquitous transport systems in road haulage firms. This assessment is conducted through a multiple-case study that identifies socio-technical challenges associated with this divide. Building on this assessment, the paper contributes a set of implications for enterprise-wide ubiquitous computing environments where coordination of diverse sets of mobile units is central to organizational performance. On a general level, these implications are important for any organization attempting to integrate mobile and stationary information systems.

  • 84.
    Andersson, Ramon
    Halmstad University.
    Hållbart jordbruk inom vattenskyddsområde: En studie om Sverige, Danmark, Frankrike och Tyskland2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To guarantee protection of our drinking water, water catchment protections are established. These are divided into three different zones and in the first zone it is most likely that an activity, such as agriculture, will contaminate the water resource. Hence the activities are strongly regulated or banned. The EU communion is working towards a sustained water quality through several directives; Nitrate Directive, Waterframwork directives and Sustainable use of pesticide directive. The main purpose is to regulate the diffuse pollution from agriculture.This thesis is about how Denmark, Germany and France are working towards a sustainable agriculture within water protection areas. Sweden is also discussed but mainly about two different methods applied in Linköpings and Ljungbys municipalties.How the different countries work is mainly the same due to the directives. However, there are some interesting water management methods to observe such as voluntary agreements between water companies and farmers. Moreover, the sustainability perspective is approached in a larger scale where you and I as consumers also contribute via consumer-pays-principle. Therefore, we are, by our demand for water, the problem but also the solution and together we can contribute with good social, economic and ecological conditions for ourselves and the farmer.

  • 85.
    Andersson, Rebecca
    Halmstad University, School of Education, Humanities and Social Science.
    Laborativa material i grundskolans matematik: En kunskapsöversikt om hur laborativa material kan utveckla elevers förståelse och intresse för tal i bråkform2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 86.
    Andersson, Sanna
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology.
    Lidén, Anna
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology.
    IT-system som stöd för personaladministration på sjukhus: En fallstudie om vilka utmaningar med personaladministration som ett sjukhus kan hantera med stöd av IT-system2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today’s healthcare is strained due to a limited amount of workforce and an increased need for medical care. Official reports of the Swedish government calls for a more efficient healthcare in order to cope with for example overcrowding. Digitalisation of Swedish healthcare is expected to contribute with management information for planning and resource allocation. Digitalisation has shown improved efficiency by using information systems. There is however a need for additional research on the effects of information systems in healthcare, since previous research has focused on information systems for patient care and not workforce allocation. In order to ensure that the information systems support the organisation, there are a number of challenges that needs to be handled. The aim of this case study is therefore to examine information systems as a way to support workforce planning for a more effective health care. This is done through the research question: Which challenges with workforce administration in a hospital can be handled with support from information systems? In order to answer the research question a qualitative research method has been used. Empirical material has been collected through interviews and analysed using process analysis. The results show that the main challenge with workforce administration that can be handled with the support of information systems is incorrect and irrelevant data. Other challenges are coordination of doctors and nurses as well as staff shortage. Finding a solution to the overall problem of understaffing is important, but information systems can only provide a basis for discussions.

  • 87.
    Andersson, Theres
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Classification of uncertainties in Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA) of pesticides: A tool for improved risk communication for decision makers within the EU2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    It is known that there are shortcomings in identifying uncertainties in an Ecological RiskAssessment (ERA) conclusions presented by an authority such as EFSA. In 2018, "Guidanceon Uncertainty Analysis in Scientific Assessments" was adopted by EFSA, which will assistdecision makers to identify uncertainties in the basis for decision making. What is stillmissing is a typology to ease identification of uncertainties. Therefore, finding a method tosystematically analyse EFSA conclusions to identify and topologize uncertainties has beenthe main purpose of this thesis. Key words were selected to identify uncertainties and thefrequency of use of the respective keywords in the texts was thereafter analysed. A twodimensionalALSCAL model was then used to explore the relationship between the keywords. The ALSCAL model showed that the key words uncertainty and gap were notclustered with any other keywords found in the 52 EFSA conclusions that were analysed. Themethod used proved to be valuable for creating a consistent and useful method for classifyinguncertainty however analysing a larger data set of ERA conclusions are necessary forconfirming the accuracy and usefulness of the classification method.

  • 88.
    Andersson, Veronica
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Kretsloppslösning med SBR och våtmark: Utredning av avloppsvattenrening vid Kvibille mejeri2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 89.
    Andersson, Victor
    Halmstad University.
    Standards and methodologies for evaluating digital forensics tools: Developing and testing a new methodology2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Standards play a big role in a lot of professions and when it comes to most aspects of law enforcement and forensic investigation, it’s no different. Despite that, for some reason, there aren’t any for when it comes to evaluating and choosing forensic tools. The lack of an international standard for evaluating forensic tools has a clear negative impact on the digital forensics community as it lowers the value of tool tests and evaluations and hinders both the reproducibility and verification of their results. Most tool evaluations are performed with custom forensic images and measures metrics that are not scientifically motivated, but rather made up based on the evaluator's personal preferences. By examining current standards and related work done in the field, a new methodology is proposed. It builds on scientific principles and the strengths of existing literature. The methodology is then tested in a practical experiment. The result of the paper is a solid foundation for a new standard to be built upon.

  • 90.
    Andreasson, Björn Pererik
    et al.
    Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, Switzerland.
    Janousch, M.
    Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, Switzerland.
    Staub, U.
    Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, Switzerland.
    Meijer, G. I.
    IBM Research, Zurich Research Laboratory, Rüschlikon, Switzerland.
    Spatial distribution of oxygen vacancies in Cr-doped SrTiO3 during an electric-field-driven insulator-to-metal transition2009In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 94, no 1, p. Article number: 013513-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Spatially resolved x-ray fluorescence maps are presented that show the introduction and the evolution of oxygen vacancies in chromium-doped strontium titanate during an electric-field-driven insulator-to-metal transition. The vacancies are introduced at the anode and diffuse through the crystal toward the cathode. The spatial distribution of vacancies is explained by a model describing the electrical breakdown as a percolation process. Strong differences in the vacancy distribution were found when the transition took place in air and in a hydrogen-enriched atmosphere. In air, the vacancies disappeared from the surface, whereas in the reducing hydrogen atmosphere, they remained at the surface. © 2009 American Institute of Physics.

  • 91.
    Andreasson, Björn Pererik
    et al.
    Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, Switzerland.
    Janousch, M.
    Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, Switzerland.
    Staub, U.
    Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, Switzerland.
    Meijer, G. I.
    IBM Research, Zurich Research Laboratory, Rüschlikon, Switzerland.
    Delley, B.
    Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, Switzerland.
    Resistive switching in Cr-doped SrTiO3: An X-ray absorption spectroscopy study2007In: Materials Science & Engineering: B. Solid-state Materials for Advanced Technology, ISSN 0921-5107, E-ISSN 1873-4944, Vol. 144, no 1-3, p. 60-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy was used to study the microscopic origin of conductance and resistive switching in chromium-doped strontium titanate (Cr:SrTiO3). Differences in the X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) at the Cr K-edge indicate that the valence of Cr changes from 3+ to 4+ underneath the anode of our sample device after the application of an electric field. Spatially resolved X-ray fluorescence microscopy (μ-XRF) maps show that the Cr4+ region retracts from the anode-Cr:SrTiO3 interface after a conducting state has been achieved. This interface region is studied with extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and the results are compared with structural parameters obtained from density functional theory (DFT) calculations. They confirm that oxygen vacancies which are localized at the octahedron with a Cr at its center are introduced at the interface. It is proposed that the switching state is not due to a valence change of chromium but caused by changes of oxygen vacancies at the interface. © 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 92.
    Andreasson, Björn Pererik
    et al.
    Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, Switzerland.
    Janousch, M.
    Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, Switzerland.
    Staub, U.
    Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, Switzerland.
    Meijer, G. I.
    IBM Research, Zurich Research Laboratory, Rüschlikon, Switzerland.
    Ramar, A.
    École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Centre de Recherche en Physique des Plasmas, Association Euratom-Confédération Suisse, Villigen, Switzerland & Center for Electron Nanoscopy, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark.
    Krbanjevic, J.
    École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Centre de Recherche en Physique des Plasmas, Association Euratom-Confédération Suisse, Villigen, Switzerland.
    Schaeublin, R.
    École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Centre de Recherche en Physique des Plasmas, Association Euratom-Confédération Suisse, Villigen, Switzerland.
    Origin of oxygen vacancies in resistive switching memory devices2009In: Journal of Physics, Conference Series, ISSN 1742-6588, E-ISSN 1742-6596, Vol. 190, p. Article number: 012074-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The resistive switching state in Cr-doped SrTiO3 was induced by applying an electric field. This was done in ambient air and in an atmosphere of H2/Ar. The distribution of the thereby introduced oxygen vacancies was studied by spatially resolved X-ray fluorescence images. It was concluded that the oxygen vacancies were introduced in the interface between the SrTiO3 and the positively biased electrode. © 2009 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  • 93.
    Andreasson, Björn Pererik
    et al.
    Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, Switzerland.
    Janousch, M.
    Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, Switzerland.
    Staub, U.
    Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, Switzerland.
    Todorova, T.
    Condensed Matter Theory Group, Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, Switzerland.
    Delley, B.
    Condensed Matter Theory Group, Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, Switzerland.
    Meijer, G. I.
    IBM Research, Zurich Research Laboratory, Rüschlikon, Switzerland.
    Pomjakushina, E.
    Laboratory for Developments and Methods, Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, Switzerland.
    Detecting oxygen vacancies in SrTiO3 by 3d transition-metal tracer ions2009In: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, ISSN 1098-0121, E-ISSN 1550-235X, Vol. 80, no 21, p. Article number: 212103-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    X-ray absorption experiments on 3d transition-metal tracer ions in SrTiO3 are presented. The absorption spectra of the tracer-ion changed upon reduction in the SrTiO3. This change is due to an oxygen vacancy created at the tracer-ion site. This finding is supported by density-functional theory calculations, which prove that the oxygen vacancies preferentially are created at the tracer-ion sites. Using the chemical sensitivity of x-ray absorption spectroscopy, tracer ions can be used to detect oxygen vacancies in SrTiO3 and possibly in other oxide systems. © 2009 The American Physical Society.

  • 94.
    Andreasson, Lena
    Viktoria Swedish ICT, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Balancing Commonality and Differentiation: A Case Study of a Development Tool for Enhancing Differentiation on Digitized Products2008In: Proceedings of the 31th Information Systems Research Seminar in Scandinavia, IRIS 31: Public systems in the future – possibilities, challenges and pitfalls / [ed] Asproth, V., Axelsson, K., Holmberg, S.C., Ihlström, C., Lindblad-Gidlund, K., and Sundgren, B, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 95.
    Andreasson, Lena
    Viktoria Institute, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Installed Base in Service Innovation: The Case of Intelligent Speed Adaption2009In: 15th Americas Conference on Information Systems 2009, AMCIS 2009, Red Hook, NY: Curran Associates, Inc., 2009, p. 4667-4674Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While some argue that innovation is inhibited by installed base, this paper suggests that it is critical to service innovation. In particular, the installed base of devices and infrastructure is an important element for improved diffusion and higher acceptance of services. It brings forward a nuanced view of installed base and reports a case study of Swedish National Road Administration's strategy for increasing safety on the roads with intelligent speed adaptation (ISA) services. Over time, they changed the strategy in order to employ existing installed base available.

  • 96.
    Andriesse, Carin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology.
    Edvinsson, Erika
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology.
    Utvärdering av Business Intelligence system ur ett nytto-perspektiv: En studie om hur företag kan utvärdera nyttan av ett Business Intelligence system före och efter en implementation2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The growing amount of data in the world leads to an increasing amount of investments in BI-systems, which can support management and analysis of data. Businesses can experience benefits such as better control and decision base when they analyze their data. The evaluation of BI-systems has fallen behind at the same time as investments in these systems has increased. The difficulty in evaluating the soft and strategic benefits of a BI-system is one of the reasons for the lack of evaluations. Evaluation can give businesses a notion of which benefits that they have achieved and if further activities are needed to increase the benefits of the BI-system. A qualitative interview study has been carried out on large manufacturing businesses and consulting businesses, with the purpose to study how the evaluation of BI-system benefits are being done in practice. The study include evaluation before and after an implementation of a BI-system and results in recommendations. The result of the study shows that there can be differences in the way small and large manufacturing businesses use the BI-system and therefore also differences in how to perform the evaluation. The study has also established that more evaluations should be done after the BI-system has been implemented. Evaluation of parts that affect the possibility to achieve benefits as well as parts that affects the evaluation results in a more realistic evaluation, and a greater chance for the business to increase the benefits of their BI-system.  

  • 97.
    Anokhina, Ksenia
    et al.
    Avd. f. Fasta Tillståndets Fysik, Lunds Universitet, Lund, Sweden.
    Graczyk, Mariousz
    Avd. f. Fasta Tillståndets Fysik, Lunds Universitet, Lund, Sweden.
    Kvennefors, Anders
    Avd. f. Fasta Tillståndets Fysik, Lunds Universitet, Lund, Sweden.
    Montelius, Lars
    Avd. f. Fasta Tillståndets Fysik, Lunds Universitet, Lund, Sweden.
    Maximov, Ivan
    Avd. f. Fasta Tillståndets Fysik, Lunds Universitet, Lund, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Håkan
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), MPE-lab.
    Metal-assisted chemical etching of Si for fabrication of nanoimprint stamps2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 98.
    Ansari, Jamshid
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Occurrence and Risk Assessment of Illicit Drugs in Wastewater Treatment Plants’ influent and effluent in Halland County, Sweden: Cocaine, MDMA, Amphetamine, Methamphetamine, and Cannabis.2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, the presence of illicit drugs in effluents from Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTPs) and the aquatic environment has raised concern over their possible negative effects on aquatic organisms. In this study, therefore ecotoxicological data was retrieved through a literature survey and by using the software ECOSAR. Predicted No Effect Concentrations (PNEC) of five types of illicit drugs and their metabolites including 1. Cocaine (COC) and its metabolite Benzoylecgonine (BE), 2. Amphetamine (AMPH), 3. Methamphetamine (METH), 4. Cannabis ((delta 9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), 11-Nor-9-carboxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-CCOH)) and 5. 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) for species of three trophic levels in aquatic ecosystems derived. Predicted Environmental Concentrations (PEC) of above-mentioned drugs in twelve WWTPs’ influent and two effluents in Halland County have been measured by Swedish Toxicology Research Center (SWETOX co). Acute and chronic Risk Quotients (RQ) of the mixture of illicit drugs based upon two novel approaches calculated for the effluents of two WWTPs. Wastewater treatment plant in Ängstorp found with better removal efficiency of above- mentioned illicit drugs and the lower total RQs of (0.01<MRQacute<0.1; MRQchronic = 0.13) in comparison with that of Västra Stranden with the total RQs of (0.1<MRQacute <1; MRQchronic = 1.4). Although the RQ of WWTPs’ effluent was higher than 1 in Västra Stranden, there was no potential of risk on aquatic organisms in surface waters receiving that effluent. AMPH and Cannabis found as the most degradable substances through the WWTPs with (90-100%) of removal efficiency. Moreover, the results revealed that Cannabis (THC-COOH) was the most hazardous illicit drug on aquatic species in case of acute and chronic effects while, in terms of genotoxicology, a mixture of Cocaine metabolites found the most dangerous mixture of illicit drugs on zebrafish embryos.

  • 99.
    Anstrén, Ludwig
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    The Reliability of Cooper ́s Test in Subjects Between 28-60 Years of Age2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) is a determinant of an individual’s ability to handle oxygen during maximal exercise. To measure VO2max expensive equipment and expertise personnel are required. To make the process of measuring VO2max easier, several submaximal and maximal tests have been created in which an estimation of VO2max could be made. Cooper’s 12-minute run (12MR) was created in 1968 and was tested on 115 military men with a mean age of 22 years. Since then the 12MR test has been re- tested and validated towards maximal treadmill tests on several occasions. When an age of 30 years is reached, VO2max starts to decline with 9-10 percent per decade but can be halted by different forms of exercise. With exercise of moderate to high intensity the decline can be halted by almost 50 percent. Objective: To investigate the reliability of estimated VO2max in a test retest scenario of Cooper ́s 12MR on a mixed healthy population between the ages of 28-60. Method: Nine women and five men, healthy subjects with a mean age of 43 ± 8 participated in the present study. A test retest of Cooper ́s 12MR took place with a minimum of seven days between tests. The subjects had to run as many laps as possible on the track during a 12-minute period. Finished laps were then counted and the fraction of the last lap was measured with a measuring wheel and then added to the total distance. To estimate the subjects’ VO2max Cooper ́s table was used. Results: The single measure Intraclass correlation (ICC) that was found, between the estimated VO2max made from the initial test to the retest on Cooper ́s 12MR, was 0.979. ICC showed a small error variance correlation between the tests and was close to the optimal correlation of 1.0. Conclusion: A standardized protocol for performing Cooper ́s 12MR showed good repeatability for estimating VO2max in two separate tests for a mixed population between 28 to 60 years of age. 

  • 100.
    Antczak, Magdalena
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), MPE-lab.
    Leniec, Marta
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), MPE-lab.
    Pricing and Hedging of Defaultable Models2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Modelling defaultable contingent claims has attracted a lot of interest in recent years, motivated in particular by the Late-2000s Financial Crisis. In several papers various approaches on the subject have been made. This thesis tries to summarize these results and derive explicit formulas for the prices of financial derivatives with credit risk. It is divided into two main parts. The first one is devoted to the well-known theory of modelling the default risk while the second one presents the results concerning pricing of the defaultable models that we obtained ourselves.

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