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  • 51.
    Dimkovski, Zlate
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Tomanik, Eduardo
    MAHLE Metal Leve, Jundiai, Sao Paulo, Brazil; University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    Grange, Simon
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science. École nationale d'ingénieurs de Saint-Étienne (ENISE), Saint-Étienne, France.
    Epinat, Flavien
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science. École nationale d'ingénieurs de Saint-Étienne (ENISE), Saint-Étienne, France.
    Novel Testing Methods for Screening the Tribological Performance of Ring-Liner Surfaces2017In: Mets&Props 2017: 16th International Conference on Metrology and Properties of Engineering Surfaces: Conference abstracts, 2017, p. 59-60Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 52.
    Dimkovski, Zlate
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Tomanik, Eduardo
    University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    Grange, Simon
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science. ENISE, St. Étienne, France.
    Epinat, Flavien
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science. ENISE, St. Étienne, France.
    Novel testing methods for screening the tribological performance of ring-liner surfaces2018In: Surface Topography: Metrology and Properties, E-ISSN 2051-672X, Vol. 6, no 3, article id 034017Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The piston system accounts for about the half of the frictional losses of internal combustion engines and requires special testing methods to understand and improve its function. The most common way to screen the surface performance is to rub ring/liner segments against each other in a reciprocating manner. However, short reciprocating tests have intrinsic low sliding speeds, unable to reach the mixed/hydrodynamic regimes found in the engine, especially at the mid-stroke. This paper presents a rotating test for the oil control ring, which has the largest frictional losses of all other rings. Both reciprocating and rotating tests were conducted using different in-house developed modules and fixtures. Twin land oil control rings against liners with two different finishes commonly used in heavy duty diesel truck engines were tested under similar loads and speeds as in a real engine. Engine oil 5W-30 and room temperature was used for all the tests. Sliding speed, load, friction force and electrical resistance were recorded during the tests. The results show a clear discrimination of the different liner finishes depending on the lubrication regime present.

  • 53.
    El-Ghoul, Zoel-Fikar
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    John, Shobin
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Dimkovski, Zlate
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Lööf, Pär-Johan
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Lundmark, Jonas
    Applied Nano Surfaces AB, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Mohlin, Johan
    Gnutti Carlo Sweden AB, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Wear Analysis of Pin and Roller Surfaces2017In: Mets&Props 2017: 16th International Conference on Metrology and Properties of Engineering Surfaces: Conference abstracts, 2017, p. 190-192Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 54.
    Eriksson, Lars
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Rosén, Bengt Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Bergman, Martin
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Affective surface engineering- using soft and hard metrology to measure the Sensation and perception in surface properties2018In: Proceedings of NordDesign: Design in the Era of Digitalization, NordDesign 2018, The Design Society , 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    New surface treatments, novel material developments, and improved quality control procedures and advanced metrology instrumentation create a possibility to further develop competitiveness by the selection of “optimal” surface features”, to a product. The customers first apprehension of a product and the creation of desire is a very complex, but tempting process to learn more about. The interaction between the added quantitative- and the qualitative direct impressions with the customers known and unknown functional demands, social background, and expectations results in sensation and perception, partly possible to quantify and to great extent impossible to pin-down as numbers. Customer sensation and perception are much about psychological factors. There has been a strong industrial- and academic need and interest for methods and tools to quantify and linking product properties to the human response but a lack of studies of the impact of surfaces. This paper aims to introduce a novel approach to develop and join a human sensoric inspired metrology frame-work with qualitative gradings of apprehended impressions of products with varying surface properties. The aim is to establish the metrology framework to link measurable- and unmeasurable impressions of product surfaces to customer FEELING as exemplified by a set of industrial applications. In conclusions of the study, future research in Soft metrology is proposed to allow understanding and modelling of product perception and sensations in combination with a development of the Kansei Surface Engineering methodology and software tools. © Proceedings of NordDesign: Design in the Era of Digitalization, NordDesign 2018. All rights reserved.

  • 55.
    Eriksson, Martin
    et al.
    Validus Engineering AB, Staffanstorp, Sweden.
    Bjärnemo, Robert
    Department of Design Sciences LTH, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Motte, Damien
    Department of Design Sciences LTH, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Petersson, Håkan
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Integrating Engineering Design and Design Analysis Activities at an Operational Level2017In: Proceedings of the 11th International Workshop on Integrated Design Engineering / [ed] Meyer, A., Schirmeyer, R. & Vajna, Sandor, Magdeburg, 2017, Vol. 11, p. 69-80Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Computer-based design analysis is nowadays of utmost importance in most engineering design projects. However, this brings some challenges, among them that of the collaboration between engineering designers and design analysts. Since they work with, and are responsible for, different areas, they do not necessarily have full insight into each other’s way of working. The issue of integration between the design analysis process and the engineering design process is thus of major significance for providing an increase in efficiency and effectiveness in engineering design and development of products. In this work, an approach is proposed aiming at providing this increase in efficiency and effectiveness. Based on the analysis of the information workflow between the engineering design process and the design analysis process, a mapping of the necessary interactions between engineering designers and design analysts can be made. The presented approach facilitates this mapping. An application of this approach to an industrial project is also presented.

  • 56.
    Eriksson, Martin
    et al.
    Validus Engineering AB, Staffanstorp, Sweden.
    Petersson, Håkan
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Motte, Damien
    Faculty of Engineering (LTH), Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Bjärnemo, Robert
    Faculty of Engineering (LTH), Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Utilizing the Generic Design Analysis (GDA) Process Model within an Extended Set of Design Analysis Contexts2017In: Proceedings of the ASME 2017 International Mechanical Engineering Congress & Exposition: IMECE2017, New York: ASME Press, 2017, article id V011T15A028Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In most industrial product development projects, computer-based design analysis, or simply design analysis, is frequently utilized. Several design analysis process models exist in the literature for the planning, execution and follow-up of such design analysis tasks. Most of these process models deal explicitly with design analysis tasks within two specific contexts: the context of design evaluation, and the context of design optimization. There are, however, several more contexts within which design analysis tasks are executed. Originating from industrial practice, four contexts were found to represent a significant part of all design analysis tasks in industry. These are:

    1. Explorative analysis, aiming at the determination of important design parameters associated with an existing or predefined design solution (of which design optimization is a part).

    2. Evaluation, aiming at giving quantitative information on specific design parameters in support of further design decisions.

    3. Physical testing, aiming at validating design analysis models through physical testing, that is, determining the degree to which models are accurate representations of the real world from the perspective of the intended uses of the models.

    4. Method development, that is the development, verification and validation of specific guidelines, procedures or templates for the design analyst and/or the engineering designer to follow when performing a design analysis task.

    A design analysis process model needs to be able to deal with at least these four. In this work, a process model named the generic design analysis (GDA) process model, is applied to these four contexts. The principles for the adaptation of the GDA process model to different contexts are described. The use of the GDA process model in these contexts is exemplified with industrial cases: explorative analysis of design parameters of a bumper beam system, the final physical acceptance tests of a device transportation system (collision test, drop test, vibration test), and the method development of a template for analyzing a valve in a combustion engine. The "Evaluation" context is not exemplified as it is the most common one in industry.

    The GDA process model has been successfully used for the four contexts. Using the adaptation principles and industrial cases, the adaptation of the GDA process model to additional contexts is also possible. © 2017 by ASME

  • 57.
    Farley, Oliver R.L.
    et al.
    School of Exercise and Health Science, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, Western Australia, Australia & Hurley Surfing Australia High Performance Center, Casuarina Beach, New South Wales, Australia & SPRINZ, Auckland University of Technology, Auckland, New Zealand.
    Secomb, Josh L.
    School of Exercise and Health Science, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, Western Australia, Australia & Hurley Surfing Australia High Performance Center, Casuarina Beach, New South Wales, Australia & Queensland Academy of Sport, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.
    Raymond, Ellen R.
    Hurley Surfing Australia High Performance Center, Casuarina Beach, New South Wales, Australia & Department for Health, University of Bath, Bath, United Kingdom.
    Lundgren, Lina E.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). School of Exercise and Health Science, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, Western Australia, Australia & Hurley Surfing Australia High Performance Center, Casuarina Beach, New South Wales, Australia.
    Ferrier, Brendon K.
    School of Exercise and Health Science, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, Western Australia, Australia & England School of Applied Sciences, Edinburgh Napier University, Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom.
    Abbiss, Chris R.
    School of Exercise and Health Science, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, Western Australia, Australia.
    Sheppard, Jeremy M.
    School of Exercise and Health Science, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, Western Australia, Australia & Hurley Surfing Australia High Performance Center, Casuarina Beach, New South Wales, Australia & Canadian Sport Institute, Pacific Region, Richmond, British Columbia, Canada.
    Workloads of Competitive Surfing: Work-to-Relief Ratios, Surf-Break Demands, and Updated Analysis2018In: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, ISSN 1064-8011, E-ISSN 1533-4287, Vol. 32, no 10, p. 2939-2948Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study provides an in-depth descriptive and quantitative time-motion analysis of competitive surfing, using Global Positioning System (GPS) units and video synchronization, which serves to extend upon the results of Farley, Harris, and Kilding (Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 26, 7 [2012]). In addition, comparisons between locations and surfers competing in the same heats were performed. Global Positioning System and video data were collected from 41 male competitive surfers (23.2 6 6.1 years, 71 6 10.3 kg, 177.2 6 6.4 cm) participating in 3 professional domestic surfing events, with competitive heats of 20-minute duration. Fifty data sets were analyzed across the 3 competitions, with velocities and distances covered, proportion of time spent performing various surfing activities, and total work-to-relief ratio determined. Results revealed surfers paddled 44% of the total time, followed by stationary periods (42%). Surfers performed at a significantly (p < 0.05) higher work-to- relief ratio (1.7:1) at the Beach-break (an exposed beach) com- pared with point-break 1 and 2 (waves breaking around a rocky point). Point-breaks 1 and 2 had longer continuous durations of paddling, with significantly longer rides at point-break 1 over the Beach-break (p < 0.01) and point-break 2 (p < 0.01). The average maximal speed (24.8 km/h) from point-break 2 was significantly faster than point-break 1 (p < 0.01) and Beach- break (p < 0.05). This information should influence surfing drills and conditioning methods to prepare these athletes for the dis- parate demands, such as training for a point-break competition involving longer durations of continuous paddling and short, high-intensity workloads for a Beach-break. 

  • 58.
    Flys, Olena
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Borås, Sweden.
    Jarlemark, Per
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Borås, Sweden.
    Petronis, Sarunas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Borås, Sweden.
    Patrik, Stenlund
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Borås, Sweden.
    Rosén, Bengt Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Applicability of characterization techniques on fine scale surfaces2018In: Surface Topography: Metrology and Properties, ISSN 2051-672X, Vol. 6, no 3, article id 034015Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, several surface topographies typical for dental implants were evaluated by different measurement techniques. The samples were prepared by machine turning, wet chemical etching and electrochemical polishing of titanium discs. The measurement techniques included an atomic force microscope (AFM), coherence scanning interferometer (CSI) and a 3D stereo scanning electron microscope (SEM). The aim was to demonstrate and discuss similarities and differences in the results provided by these techniques when analyzing submicron surface topographies. The estimated surface roughness parameters were not directly comparable since the techniques had different surface spatial wavelength band limits. However, the comparison was made possible by applying a 2D power spectral density (PSD) function. Furthermore, to simplify the comparison, all measurements were characterized using the ISO 25178 standard parameters. Additionally, a Fourier transform was applied to calculate the instrument transfer function in order to investigate the behavior of CSI at different wavelength ranges. The study showed that 3D stereo SEM results agreed well with AFM measurements for the studied surfaces. Analyzed surface parameter values were in general higher when measured by CSI in comparison to both AFM and 3D stereo SEM results. In addition, the PSD analysis showed a higher power spectrum density in the lower frequency range 10−2–10−1 µm−1 for the CSI compared with the other techniques. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd

  • 59.
    Folkhammar Andersson, Siv
    et al.
    Kalmar County Council, Oskarshamn, Sweden.
    Bergman, Stefan
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden & The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Welin Henriksson, Elisabet
    Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden & Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Bremander, Ann
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Arthritis management in primary care – a study of physiotherapists’ current practice, educational needs, and adherence to national guidelines2017In: Musculoskeletal Care, ISSN 1478-2189, E-ISSN 1557-0681, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 333-340Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: With an increasing number of patients with osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in primary care, our aim was to investigate arthritis-related practice in physiotherapy and to study adherence to evidence-based care.

    METHODS: Seventy physiotherapists (PTs) working in primary care were emailed a questionnaire to investigate current practice and the number of roles assumed by PTs, the degree of confidence, educational needs and adherence to national guidelines in managing patients with OA or RA. Interventions supported by national guidelines were compared with reports of treatment modalities in the questionnaire.

    RESULTS: Sixty-four (91%) PTs responded, and they reported a higher degree of confidence in assessment, treatment and education of patients with OA than for those with RA (p < 0.001). The total number of roles assumed by the PTs was higher in the management of OA than for RA (p < 0.001). PTs who assumed a greater number of roles also reported a stronger degree of confidence in assessing OA (p = 0.036). Those who assumed fewer roles also reported less confidence in RA treatment (p = 0.045). Recommendations in the guidelines were followed by the majority of PTs for eight of 11 treatment modalities in OA and for six of six in RA.

    CONCLUSIONS: PTs reported a lower degree of confidence and the assumption of fewer roles in managing patients with RA compared with OA. There was good adherence to the national guidelines for almost all the treatment modalities listed. Even so, the results indicate a need for education, especially in chronic inflammatory arthritis care.

    Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • 60.
    Furey, Paula C.
    et al.
    St. Catherine University, St. Paul, MN, USA.
    Liess, Antonia
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Lee, Sylvia
    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Arlington, VA, USA .
    Substratum-Associated Microbiota2017In: Water environment research, ISSN 1061-4303, E-ISSN 1554-7531, Vol. 89, no 10, p. 1634-1675Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This survey of literature on substratum-associated microbiota from 2016 includes highlights of research findings associated with algae, cyanobacteria, and bacteria from a variety of aquatic environments, but primarily freshwaters. It covers topics of relevance to the Water Environment Federation along with those of emerging or recent interest such as nuisance, bloom forming and harmful algae, fossil fuel related contamination, and other environmental pollutants like nanoparticles. Additional interesting findings reported on include general ecology, method development, multistressor interactions, nutrient cycling, taxonomy and systematics, trophic interactions, and biomonitoring, bioassessment, and bioremediation.  © 2017 Water Environment Federation

  • 61.
    Furey, Paula
    et al.
    St. Catherine University, Department Biology, St. Paul, MN, USA.
    Liess, Antonia
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Lee, Sylvia
    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, NW, Washington, DC, USA.
    Substratum-Associated Microbiota2018In: Water environment research, ISSN 1061-4303, E-ISSN 1554-7531, Vol. 90, no 10, p. 1171-1205Article, book review (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This review briefly highlights findings from a survey of 2017 literature on substratum-associated microbiota from a variety of aquatic environments, but primarily freshwaters. Centered on algae, cyanobacteria, and bacteria, topics covered include those of relevance to the Water Environment Federation, along with those of recent and emerging interest such as new or updated methods, new and interesting taxa, general ecology, trophic interactions, biogeochemical cycling, aquatic pollutants like herbicides and heavy metals, and nuisance, bloom-forming, or harmful algae. Additional coverage includes studies on bioremediation, bioassessment, biomonitoring and quantification of benthic microbiota.  © 2018 Water Environment Federation

  • 62.
    Gadd, Henrik
    et al.
    Oresundskraft AB, S-25106 Helsingborg, Sweden..
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Fault detection in district heating substations2015In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 157, p. 51-59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Current temperature levels in European district heating networks are still too high with respect to future conditions as customer heat demands decrease and new possible heat source options emerge. A considerable reduction of temperature levels can be accomplished by eliminating current faults in substations and customer heating systems. These faults do not receive proper attention today, because neither substations nor customer heating systems are centrally supervised. The focus of this paper has been to identify these faults by annual series of hourly meter readings obtained from automatic meter reading systems at 135 substations in two Swedish district heating systems. Based on threshold methods, various faults were identified in 74% of the substations. The identified faults were divided into three different fault groups: Unsuitable heat load pattern, low average annual temperature difference, and poor substation control. The most important conclusion from this early study of big data volumes is that automatic meter reading systems can provide proactive fault detection by continuous commissioning of district heating substations in the future. A complete reduction of current faults corresponds to approximately half the required reduction of the current temperature levels in the effort toward future low-temperature district heating networks. (C) 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  • 63.
    Ghadirinejad, Nickyar
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Ottermo, Fredric
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Hoseinzade, A.
    University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Zahedan, Iran.
    Experimental Evaluation, Simulation and Statistical Analysis of a Humidification-Dehumidification Solar Desalination System2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Inspired by the precipitation cycle, the Humidification-Dehumidification (HDH) method is based on evaporation and consecutive condensation in a natural loop. The heat input to the system is provided by a solar collector, making the system suitable for remote locations with access to sea water and good insolation. In this study investigated parameters included temperatures and flow rates of cooling water, cycled air, and water intake to humidifier, as well as the height of packed bed column. A series of simulations has been performed in the ASPEN Plus software, in order to obtain optimum physical parameters in this desalination system. The experimental results showed that at constant heat flux and optimum air flow rate, three parameters have strong influence on the production of distilled water: the flow rate of cooling water, the flow rate of water inlet and its temperature augmentation. Moreover, although increasing flow rate of cooling water leads to an increase in the distilled water flow rate, this effect is mitigated at high rates. The most reliable Height Equivalent to a Theoretical Plate (HETP) model of random packing has been found by opting for the model of Mangers & Ponter. The estimated error of the model in predicting the height of the packed bed was less than 4%. Regarding closed versus open air flow; the closed air system provided an efficiency of distilled water production up to 15% higher than the open air system for the same conditions. This increase is a result of prevention of the loss of air humidity at the condenser outlet. A regression analysis was performed, which indicates that the HDH system can be well described by a linear model for the logarithm of the rate of desalinated water. The variables used are the saline water flow rate, the heat transfer rate in the solar collector and the air flow rate. The adjusted R-squared of the fit was computed as 89.8%.

  • 64.
    Gong, Mei
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Exergy and cost analysis of heating systems with energy storage2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    About three quarters of the total final energy consumption is in the form of electricity and district heat and 49 TWh of district heat was used in Sweden in 2015. The energy supply and user demands vary and do not always match. The electricity production depends on the available energy resource that often is renewable, such as wind, solar and hydro power. The heat demand strongly depends on outdoor temperature and the weather conditions. Electricity and thermal storages are needed in order to reduce the losses from the lack of match between production and consumption. The cost of energy examined by others shows that electricity storage is about 100 times more expensive than thermal storage. However, in this study cost of exergy is only 20 times more for electricity than thermal. This study views electricity and district heat from source to end use and analyze the cost of exergy with storage. With a surplus of electricity the most efficient and cheapest way is to use electricity storage, such as battery or hydro storage on the purpose of electricity usage. The advantage of thermal storage depends strongly on the purpose of use, e.g. if it is for heating purposes. Heat pump is a method to convert electricity to district heat with 56% exergy efficiency. This paper will analyze different cases in order to give a more detailed discussion. Further studies of more cases are needed in the future.

  • 65.
    Gong, Mei
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Mapping energy and exergy flows of district heating in Sweden2017In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 116, p. 119-127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    District heating has been available in Sweden since the 1950s and used more than half of the total energy use in dwelling and no-residential premises in 2013. Energy and exergy efficient conversion and energy resources are key factors to reduce the environmental impact. It is important to understand energy and exergy flows from both the supply and demand sides. The exergy method is also a useful tool for exploring the goal of more efficient energy-resource use. Sankey diagrams together with energy and exergy analyses are presented to help policy/decision makers and others to better understand energy and exergy flows from primary energy resource to end use. The results show the most efficient heating method in current district heating systems, and the use of renewable energy resources in Sweden. It is exergy inefficient to use fossil fuels to generate low quality heat. However, renewable energies, such as geothermal and solar heating with relative low quality, make it more exergy efficient. Currently, about 90% of the energy sources in the Swedish district heating sector have an origin from non-fossil fuels. Combined heat and power is an efficient simultaneous generator of electricity and heat as well as heat pump with considering electricity production. Higher temperature distribution networks give more distribution losses, especially in exergy content. An outlook for future efficient district heating systems is also presented.

  • 66.
    Gåård, Anders
    et al.
    Karlstads Universitet, Karlstad, Sverige.
    Löfgren, Hans
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Nilsson, Bertil
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), MPE-lab.
    Hallbäck, Nils
    Karlstads Universitet, Karlstad, Sverige.
    Införandet av Computer Based Mathematics (CBM) i ingenjörsutbildningar2017Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    CBM är ett koncept som innebär användning av datorn och matematikprogramvaror som huvudverktyg i under-visningen. Istället för att som i traditionell undervisning kombinera handräkning med datorlabbar ligger tyngdpunkten i en CBM-kurs på datoriserade beräkningsverktyg. Härav för-flyttas fokus mot konceptförtåelse, modellering och tolkning av resultat. Vid Högskolan i Halmstad och Karlstads Universitet finns idag flera kurser baserat på CBM. Kvantitativt har införandet lett till ökad studentgenomströmning samtidigt som innehållet i kurser har ökat. Kvalitativa markörer, såsom studentens egen uppfattning om konceptuell förståelse och nyfikenhet inom ämnet, har baserat på kursvärderingar också ökat. 

  • 67.
    Hagel, Sofia
    et al.
    Skåne University Hospital, Lund, Sweden & Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Haglund, Emma
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Content Validity of the Arthritis Self-Efficacy Scale2017In: Reumabulletinen, ISSN 2000-2246, no 119; 4, p. 59-60, article id 93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Appropriate evaluation is important to optimize health care interventions and to understand patient’s experiences of their situation. Self-efficacy has been proven to have impact on pain, fatigue, physical activity and on cardiovascular risk in patients with inflammatory arthritides, and adequate evaluation is important. The arthritis self-efficacy scale (ASES) is one patient reported outcome measure recommended for evaluation of self-efficacy in arthritides. The aim of this study was to start analyzing the content validity of the ASES through linking to the International Classification of Functioning (ICF), and by using the proposed structure for personal factors (PF).

    Material and methods: The linking to the ICF was performed through identification of each meaningful concept of heading, introduction and all question including answering options of the ASES subscales for pain and symptoms. Each identified meaningful concept was linked to the third level ICF domain, according to established linking rules. Concepts identified as potential personal factors were sorted into the proposed structure of personal factors (Geyh, 2011) when applicable. The two authors independently identified meaningful concepts and performed the linking to the ICF, and sorted into the structure of personal factors (PF). Disagreements were discussed thoroughly, and reviewed until consensus was reached.    

    Results: The ASES subscales for pain and symptom comprised 5 and 6 questions respectively. All questions were linked to the ICF domain body functions, at a minimum through each answering option that was linked to the b126 “temperament and personality functions”. Other body function domains covered were b130 (energy and drive functions), b134 (sleep functions), b152 (emotional functions), b160 (thought functions) and b280 (pain).

    Seven questions and the introduction of the ASES subscales for pain and symptom were linked to the ICF domain activity and participation (3 and 4 questions respectively).  Five questions were linked to d570 (looking after one’s health), while d220 (undertaking multiple tasks) and d230 (carrying out daily routine) were captured by both subscales although somewhat less well represented.

    Three questions were linked to the ICF domain environmental factors. Two ASES pain questions were linked to e110 (products and substances for personal consumption) while one ASES symptom question was linked to e425 (individual attitudes of acquaintances, peers, colleagues, neighbors and community members).

    Personal factors were identified in both ASES subscales. The answering options for all questions except two could be sorted into the PF concept “feelings”, the headings, introductions and six questions could be sorted into the PF concept “patterns of experience and behavior”, and three questions could be sorted into “thoughts and beliefs”.

    Conclusion: The ASES subscales for pain and symptom showed satisfying content validity since important constructs on all ICF domains (except for body structure) were included. Both ASES subscales also covered PF that contribute with important aspects on health, and impact of the disease, further improving the content validity. 

     

  • 68.
    Haglund, Emma
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Bremander, Ann
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden & Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Bergman, Stefan
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI). Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden; Lund University, Lund, Sweden & ahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Larsson, Ingrid
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Nursing. Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Educational needs in patients with spondyloarthritis in Sweden - a mixed-methods study2017In: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, ISSN 1471-2474, E-ISSN 1471-2474, Vol. 18, no 1, article id 335Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: There is a demand for a flexible and individually tailored patient education to meet patients' specific needs and priorities, but this area has seldom been studied in patients with spondyloarthritis (SpA), a family of inflammatory rheumatic diseases. The aim of the present study was to identify needs and priorities in patient education in patients with SpA. A second aim was to investigate patients' experiences and preferences of receiving patient education.

    METHODS: Data collection included a questionnaire survey with the Educational Needs Assessment Tool (ENAT) and interviews, using a mixed-methods design. Patients were identified through a specialist clinic register. Descriptive data are presented as mean with standard deviation, or frequencies. Chi-square test and independent-samples t-test were used for group comparisons. A manifest qualitative conventional content analysis was conducted to explore patients' experiences and needs in patient education, based on two focus groups (n = 6) and five individual interviews.

    RESULTS: Almost half (43%) of the 183 SpA patients had educational needs, particularly regarding aspects of self-help, feelings, and the disease process. More educational needs were reported by women and in patients with higher disease activity, while duration of disease did not affect the needs. The qualitative analysis highlighted the importance of obtaining a guiding, reliable, and easily available patient education for management of SpA. Individual contacts with healthcare professionals were of importance, but newer media were also requested.

    CONCLUSION: There are considerable educational needs in patients with SpA, and education concerning self-help, feelings, and the diseases process were raised as important issues. Healthcare professionals need to consider the importance of presenting varied formats of education based on the experiences and preferences of patients with SpA. © 2017 The Author(s).

  • 69.
    Haglund, Emma
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Olsson, C.
    The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg.
    Bremander, Ann
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Bergman, Stefan
    Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden; The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden & Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Improving triage to appropriate treatment level by using a combination of screening tools in patients at risk of developing chronic back pain2017In: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, ISSN 0003-4967, E-ISSN 1468-2060, Vol. 76, no Suppl. 2, p. 1531-1532Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 70.
    Hansson, Anna
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Pedersen, Eja
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Hoveskog, Maya
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Business Model Innovation (BMI).
    Willingness to Innovate Business Models for Sustainability amongst Agricultural Businesses2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 71.
    Hedström, Ingemar
    et al.
    Department of Applied Science, Mid Sweden University, Härnösand, Sweden & Escuela de Biología, Universidad de Costa Rica, San José, Costa Rica & Department of Ecumenical Research, Sabanilla, Costa Rica.
    Sahlén, Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    A key to the adult Costa Rican "helicopter" damselflies (Odonata Pseudostigmatidae) with notes on their phenology and life zone preferences2001In: Revista de biologia tropical, ISSN 0034-7744, E-ISSN 2215-2075, Vol. 49, no 3-4, p. 1037-1056Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a key to the Costa Rican species of Pseudostigmatidae, comprising three genera with the following species: Megaloprepus caerulatus, Mecistogaster linearis, M. modesta, M. ornata and Pseudostigma aberrans. Pseudostigma accedens, which may occur in the region, is also included. For each species we give a brief account of morphology, phenology and life zone preferences, including distributional maps based on more than 270 records. These are not all of the known specimens from the area, but a high enough number to give a relatively good picture of the distribution and status of the species. We found M. caerulatus to be active during the first half of the year in seasonal, tropical semi-dry lowland forest and tropical moist forest at mid-elevation, but like M. linearis, M. caerulatus was active all year round in non-seasonal, tropical wet lowland forest and tropical moist forest at mid-elevation. Mecistogaster modesta also flew year round in non-seasonal, tropical wet lowland forest and tropical moist evergreen forest at mid-elevation, and likewise in seasonal and non-seasonal, tropical premontane moist forest. Only a few findings, however, have been made of M. modesta in seasonal, tropical semi-dry deciduous forest and seasonal, tropical moist evergreen forest. Mecistogaster ornata was missing entirely from non-seasonal, tropical wet lowland forest and non-seasonal, tropical moist forest at mid-elevation, while this species was active year round in seasonal, tropical dry lowland forest and tropical semi-dry forest, as well as in seasonal, tropical moist evergreen forest and tropical premontane moist forest, both at mid-elevation. Pseudostigma aberrans has so far been found too few times in Costa Rica for any indication of flight time preference.

  • 72.
    Hedström, Ingemar
    et al.
    Boston University, College of Arts and Sciences, Boston, MA, United States.
    Sahlén, Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    An extended description of the larva of Megaloprepus caerulatus from Costa Rica (Odonata: Pseudostigmatidae)2003In: International Journal of Odonatology, ISSN 1388-7890, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 23-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The larva of Megaloprepus caerulatus is described and illustrated from specimens collected near the northern border of Barbilla National Park on the Costa Rican Caribbean slope. Habits and characters of larvae of three different size classes obtained from artificial tree holes permit the identification of small (body length 4 mm, excluding the caudal lamellae) larvae up to the final stadium. New diagnostic characters include the shape of the prementum and head. © 2003 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  • 73.
    Helland, Christian
    et al.
    The Norwegian Olympic and Paralympic Committee and Confederation of Sports, Oslo, Norway.
    Hole, Eirik
    The Norwegian Olympic and Paralympic Committee and Confederation of Sports, Oslo, Norway.
    Iversen, Erik
    The Norwegian Olympic and Paralympic Committee and Confederation of Sports, Oslo, Norway.
    Olsson, Monica Charlotte
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Seynnes, Olivier
    Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway.
    Solberg, Paul Andre
    Defense Institute, Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway.
    Paulsen, Gøran
    The Norwegian Olympic and Paralympic Committee and Confederation of Sports, Oslo, Norway & Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway.
    Training Strategies to Improve Muscle Power: Is Olympic-style Weightlifting Relevant?2017In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 49, no 4, p. 736-745Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: This efficacy study investigated the effects of (1) Olympic-style weightlifting (OWL), (2) motorized strength and power training (MSPT), and (3) free weight strength and power training (FSPT) on muscle power.

    METHODS: Thirty-nine young athletes (20±3 yr.; ice hockey, volleyball and badminton) were randomized into the three training groups. All groups participated in 2-3 sessions/week for 8 weeks. The MSPT and FSPT groups trained using squats (two legs and single leg) with high force and high power, while the OWL group trained using clean and snatch exercises. MSPT was conducted as slow-speed isokinetic strength training and isotonic power training with augmented eccentric load, controlled by a computerized robotic engine system. FSPT used free weights. The training volume (sum of repetitions x kg) was similar between all three groups. Vertical jumping capabilities were assessed by countermovement jump (CMJ), squat jump (SJ), drop jump (DJ), and loaded CMJs (10-80 kg). Sprinting capacity was assessed in a 30 m sprint. Secondary variables were squat 1-repetition-maximum, body composition and quadriceps thickness and architecture.

    RESULTS: OWL resulted in trivial improvements, and inferior gains compared to FSPT and MSPT for CMJ, SJ, and DJ. MSPT demonstrated small, but robust effects on SJ, DJ and loaded CMJs (3-12%). MSPT was superior to FSPT in improving 30 m sprint performance. FSPT and MSPT, but not OWL, demonstrated increased thickness in the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris (4-7%).

    CONCLUSION: MSPT was time-efficient and equally or more effective than FSPT training in improving vertical jumping and sprinting performance. OWL was generally ineffective and inferior to the two other interventions. Copyright © 2016 by the American College of Sports Medicine.

  • 74.
    Horwath, Oscar
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Paulsen, Gøran
    The Norwegian Olympic and Paralympic Committee and Confederation of Sports, Oslo, Norway & Department of Physical Performance, Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway.
    Esping, Tobias
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Seynnes, Olivier
    Department of Physical Performance, Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway.
    Olsson, M. Charlotte
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Isokinetic resistance training combined with eccentric overload improves athletic performance and induces muscle hypertrophy in young ice hockey players.2019In: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, ISSN 1440-2440, E-ISSN 1878-1861, Vol. 22, no 7, p. 821-826Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the combined effects of slow isokinetic resistance training and eccentric overload and compare it to traditional resistance training on strength, power, body composition and muscle hypertrophy in young ice hockey players.

    DESIGN: Experimental, randomized trial.

    METHODS: Twenty-two resistance-trained ice hockey players (18±1year) were assigned to either isokinetic resistance training and eccentric overload (ISO/ECC; n=11) or traditional resistance training (TRAD; n=11). Participants underwent supervised progressive resistance training for 8 weeks (2-3 sessions/week) involving lower body multiple-joint exercises (heavy squats and explosive jump squats). The ISO/ECC group performed their training using a computerized robotic engine system (1080 Quantum synchro, Sweden), whereas the TRAD group performed the same resistance exercises with isotonic loading. Before and after the intervention, participants were evaluated in 1RM back squat, loaded jump squats, sprint- and jump performance, body composition and muscle thickness using ultrasound measurement.

    RESULTS: Similar moderate increases in 1RM back squat and power output in the jump squats were found in both the ISO/ECC and TRAD groups (11-17%, P<0.01), whereas only the ISO/ECC group showed improvements in drop jump performance (9.8%, P=0.01). Moreover, similar trivial changes in body composition were observed in both groups, while only the ISO/ECC training group increased muscle thickness in the vastus intermedius (P=0.01) and rectus femoris muscles (P=0.03).

    CONCLUSIONS: Both modalities effectively increased maximal strength and power output, whereas isokinetic resistance training, combined with eccentric overload, improved drop jump performance and induced greater muscle hypertrophy than traditional training in young ice hockey players. © 2019 Sports Medicine Australia

  • 75.
    Hoveskog, Maya
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Business Model Innovation (BMI).
    Halila, Fawzi
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Business Model Innovation (BMI).
    Mattsson, Marie
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Upward, Antony
    Ontario College of Art and Design University (OCAD U), Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
    Karlsson, Niklas
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Education for Sustainable Development: Business modelling for flourishing2018In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 172, p. 4383-4396Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As companies and other organizations increasingly recognize society’s demand for greater social and environmental sustainability, university and college business schools have responded with new pedagogic approaches. Business schools have begun to offer courses in business models and business model innovation that focus not only on profit-normative goals but also on social and environmental goals. This paper describes an Experiential Workshop for university undergraduates in which the Service-Learning pedagogic approach is taken and Flourishing Business Canvas is applied as a tool for collaborative visual business modelling. In the Workshop, the students work with business model innovation for a biogas production cooperative of farmer-members in southern Sweden. The students take the role of problem-owners and problem-solvers as they co-create new business models ideas for the cooperative. The paper presents the students’ achievement of three Learning Objectives as they engage in meaningful, “real-world” simulations with a high degree of autonomy that allows them to combine their theoretical knowledge with practice. Implications for educators who wish to test the Experiential Workshop in their classrooms are proposed. The paper concludes with the suggestion that Education for Flourishing is a useful expansion of Education for Sustainable Development. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 76.
    Jarnemo, Anders
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Grimsö Wildlife Research Station, Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agriculture, SLU, Riddarhyttan, Sweden.
    Jansson, Gunnar
    Grimsö Wildlife Research Station, Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agriculture, SLU, Riddarhyttan, Sweden.
    Månsson, Johan
    Grimsö Wildlife Research Station, Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agriculture, SLU, Riddarhyttan, Sweden.
    Temporal variations in activity patterns during rut - Implications for survey techniques of red deer, Cervus elaphus2017In: Wildlife research (East Melbourne), ISSN 1035-3712, E-ISSN 1448-5494, Vol. 44, no 2, p. 106-113Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context Intraspecific differences in behaviour can affect censuses and bias population estimates, suggesting that choice and implementation of census methods are fundamental, and need to be adapted to behavioural variations. Aims We investigated temporal variations in activity patterns during the rut among red deer (Cervus elaphus) categories and the implications for two different census methods. Methods We used a long-term dataset collected during 17 consecutive red deer rutting seasons in southernmost Sweden. The two census methods were: (1) a collection of observation ratios; and (2) a count of individuals including identification of males. Both methods are commonly used in ungulate management. Key results There was a difference in activity among age and sex categories, with a temporal variation in activity and/or presence at rutting grounds of adult (≥6 years) and subadult (2-5 years) males. Observation ratios of adult and subadult males increased from low at the start of the rut to a top level during peak rut, with subadults lagging behind adults. Before and during peak rut, the proportion of adult males was higher than that of subadults. After peak rut, the proportion of adult males decreased, whereas subadult males remained high, resulting in a higher number of subadults than of adults. The comparison of the two census methods revealed a strong correlation regarding the trends of population size and for the age and sex categories. There was also a strong consistency concerning the calf/female ratio. The male proportion was, however, consistently lower in the collected observations than in the counts. Conclusions The lower proportion of males in observations compared with counts may be explained by behavioural differences among male age classes, i.e. by temporal variations in presence and activity. That females, calves and yearling males are stationary during the rut, but adult and subadult males arrive and depart the rutting grounds at varying points of time, can lead to an underestimated male proportion in continuously collected observation data. Implications The results suggest that census should be conducted during peak rut, and that incorporating identification of individual males in the monitoring may be beneficiary. © CSIRO 2017.

  • 77.
    Jarnemo, Anders
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Grimsö Wildlife Research Station, Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-730 91 Riddarhyttan, Sweden.
    Minderman, Jeroen
    Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA, United Kingdom.
    Bunnefeld, Nils
    Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA, United Kingdom.
    Zidar, Josefina
    Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, SE-581 83 Linköping, Sweden.
    Månsson, Johan
    Grimsö Wildlife Research Station, Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-730 91 Riddarhyttan, Sweden.
    Managing landscapes for multiple objectives: Alternative forage can reduce the conflict between deer and forestry2014In: Ecosphere, ISSN 2150-8925, E-ISSN 2150-8925, Vol. 5, no 8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Deer (Cervidae) cause considerable damage to forest plantations, crops, and protected habitats. The most common response to this damage is to implement strategies to lower population densities. However, lowering deer density may not always be desirable from hunting, recreational, or conservation perspectives. Therefore, knowledge is needed about additional factors beyond deer density that affect damage levels, and management actions that consider competing management goals. We studied the relationships between levels of bark-stripping by red deer (Cervus elaphus) on Norway spruce (Picea abies) and (1) relative deer density indices (pellet group count and deer harvest data), (2) availability of alternative natural forage (cover of forage species) and (3) proportion forest in the landscape, both at a forest stand scale and at a landscape scale. Extensive variation in damage level was evident between the six study areas. On a stand scale, the proportion of spruce damaged was positively related to pellet group density, indicating the importance of local deer usage of stands. In addition, available alternative forage in the field layer within spruce stands and proportion forest surrounding stands was negatively related to damage level. On the landscape scale, damage level was negatively related to availability of forage in the field and shrub layers and proportion forest, but was not related to any of the relative deer density indices. Increasing alternative forage may thus decrease damage and thereby reduce conflicts. Additionally, the proportion of forest in the landscape affects damage levels and should thus be considered in landscape planning and when forecasting damage risk. The relationship between local deer usage of stands and damage level suggests that future studies should try to separate the effects of local deer usage and deer density. © 2014 Jarnemo et al.

  • 78.
    Johannesson, Karin M.
    et al.
    IFM Biology, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Tonderski, Karin S.
    IFM Biology, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Ehde, Per Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Weisner, Stefan E. B.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Temporal phosphorus dynamics affecting retention estimates in agricultural constructed wetlands2017In: Ecological Engineering: The Journal of Ecotechnology, ISSN 0925-8574, E-ISSN 1872-6992, Vol. 103, no Part B, p. 436-445Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Data from seven constructed wetlands (CWs) in the south of Sweden were analyzed to investigate the effects of water flow and season on inflow phosphorus (P) concentrations and temporal P retention variations in CWs receiving runoff from arable land. The form of P (dissolved or particulate) during different water flows (high and low) and seasons (warm and cold) was investigated using the results of total P (TP) and phosphate analyzed in grab samples that had been collected regularly or occasionally during two to nine years, along with continuous water flow measurements.

    The form of inflow and outflow P (particulate or dissolved P) differed between CWs, and also varied with season and flow. For instance, in three of the CWs, particulate P (PP) dominated the inflow during the cold period with high flow, while during the other periods the proportion of PP was approximately 50%. In one CW situated in a catchment with high clay content, PP dominated both inflow and outflow at all times. The average clay content in catchment top soils was positively correlated to the flow-weighted inflow TP concentrations.

    In three CWs receiving runoff through drainage pipes, the relationship between TP concentrations (TPin) and water flow was positive, both during high and low flow, and during warm and cold period. However, in four CWs that received surface water runoff, the relationship between TPin and water flow was positive during high flow periods (i.e. the 25% sampling occasions with the highest flow), and during low flow and warm period, the relationship was negative in these four wetlands, indicating either anoxic stagnant water upstream or influence from rural wastewater.

    The temporal dynamics of P concentrations mean that in some of the CWs, the main part of the annual P retention may occur during a few days with high water flows. The correlation between concentration and water flow suggests that the water sampling strategy may have a considerable impact on retention estimates, as exemplified by some calculation examples. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

  • 79.
    Johansson, Jörgen
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Holmquist, Mats
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Jonasson, Mikael
    Halmstad University, School of Education, Humanities and Social Science, Centrum för lärande, kultur och samhälle (CLKS), Lärande, Profession och Samhällsutveckling.
    Mattsson, Marie
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Ulvenblad, Per-Ola
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Weisner, Stefan
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Slututvärdering av det svenska landsbygdsprogrammet 2007–2013: DELRAPPORT IV : Synteser för en hållbar landsbygdsutveckling : Utvärdering av programmets samlade effekter2017Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport är en del av utvärderingen av landsbygdsprogrammet 2007–2013. Fyra grupper med forskare från universitet och högskolor har gjort slututvärderingen. Den publiceras i fyra delrapporter varav detta är en. Frågor som handlar om hela programmet besvaras huvudsakligen i delrapport IV. Frågor om enskilda åtgärder besvaras i de tre andra delrapporterna. En översikt av vilka frågor som besvaras i vilken rapport finns på följande sidor.

    Slututvärderingen görs för att besvara EU-gemensamma och specifika svenska utvärderingsfrågor om vilka effekter programmet har haft, i vilken utsträckning det har bidragit till att uppfylla målen och hur effektivt detta har gjorts.

    Utvärderingssekretariatet vid Jordbruksverket ansvarar för att de svenska EU-programmen där Jordbruksverket är förvaltande myndighet blir utvärderade. Det innebär att utvärderingssekretariatet beställer och genomför utvärderingar av landsbygdsprogrammet, havs- och fiskeriprogrammet samt programmet för lokalt ledd utveckling inom regionalfonden och socialfonden. Programmen utvärderas dels var för sig men också tillsammans. Utvärderingarna görs i relation till målen i programmen och de övergripande EU 2020-målen.

    De flesta utvärderingarna genomförs av externa aktörer. Vi tar hjälp av forskare för att kvalitetsgranska rapporterna innan de publiceras. I slutet av rapporterna finns ett utlåtande från granskarna. Rapporterna publiceras i en särskild rapportserie och rapportförfattarna är ansvariga för slutsatserna. Slutsatserna utgör inte Jordbruksverkets officiella ståndpunkt.

    /Utvärderingssekretariatet vid Jordbruksverket

  • 80.
    Johansson, Maria
    et al.
    Environmental Psychology, Department of Architecture and Built Environment, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Pedersen, Eja
    Environmental Psychology, Department of Architecture and Built Environment, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Weisner, Stefan
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Assessing cultural ecosystem services as individuals’ place-based appraisals2019In: Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, ISSN 1618-8667, E-ISSN 1610-8167, Vol. 39, p. 79-88Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Though the existence of cultural ecosystem services is dependent on people’s activities and experiences, these services are still commonly assessed using top–down approaches. In this study, appraisal theory and research into human responses to natural environments formed the basis of a systematic multilevel investigation of appraisals of created wetland areas. The aim was to explore how appraisals could be used as a bottom–up approach to assessing the perceived contribution of wetland areas s to people’s quality of life (QoL). In total, 111 participants assessed environmental perceptions, affective experiences, and restorative potentials on site at three wetlands in Sweden. The results indicate that wetland areas and specific places with different ecological functions within these areas were appraised significantly differently. Moreover these places were perceived to support various QoL aspects to different degrees. Concepts and methods tested here give environmental planners hands-on tools for facilitating communication with expected users about the cultural ecosystem services of created wetland areas. © 2019

  • 81.
    Johansson, Staffan
    et al.
    Volvo Group Trucks Technology, Vehicle Engineering, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Per H.
    Volvo Group Trucks Technology, Advanced Technology & Research, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ohlsson, Robert
    Volvo Group Trucks Technology, Powertrain Engineering, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Rosén, Bengt Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    A Novel Approach to Reduction of Frictional Losses in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine by Reducing the Hydrodynamic Frictional Losses2017In: Advances in Tribology, ISSN 1687-5915, E-ISSN 1687-5923, Vol. 2017, p. 1-17, article id 9240703Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An important parameter in the reduction of fuel consumption of heavy-duty diesel engines is the Power Cylinder Unit (PCU); the PCU is the single largest contributor to engine frictional losses. Much attention, from both academia and industry, has been paid to reducing the frictional losses of the PCU in the boundary and mixed lubrication regime. However, previous studies have shown that a large portion of frictional losses in the PCU occur in the hydrodynamic lubrication regime. A novel texturing design with large types of surface features was experimentally analyzed using a tribometer setup. The experimental result shows a significant reduction of friction loss for the textured surfaces. Additionally, the textured surface did not exhibit wear. On the contrary, it was shown that the textured surfaces exhibited a smaller amount of abrasive scratches on the plateaus (compared to the reference plateau honed surface) due to entrapment of wear particles within the textures. The decrease in hydrodynamic friction for the textured surfaces relates to the relative increase of oil film thickness within the textures. A tentative example is given which describes a method of decreasing hydrodynamic frictional losses in the full-scale application. © 2017 Staffan Johansson et al.

  • 82.
    Johansson, Staffan
    et al.
    Volvo Technology AB, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Per H
    Volvo Technology AB, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ohlsson, Robert
    Volvo Technology AB, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Rosén, Bengt Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Simulation and experimental analysis of the contact between oil control ring and cylinder liner in a heavy duty diesel engine2013In: Tribologie und Schmierungstechnik, ISSN 0724-3472, Vol. 60, no 3, p. 23-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In heavy-duty diesel engines the piston system is the largest source of frictional losses, accounting for about 50 % of the total frictional losses. Due to the high tangential force of the oil control piston ring this component is responsible for a considerable amount of the total friction losses. The primary aim of this study was to determine the correlation between different cylinder liner surface morphology and friction; the secondary aim was to validate the simulation model using reciprocating tribometer experiments. A novel deterministic simulation approach was used to analyse the frictional interaction between oil control ring and cylinder. Multi variate analysis was used to analyse the effect of different cylinder liner surfaces on frictional outcome. Simulated results were compared to tribometer experiments. The simulation results show that a smaller honing angle decreases both hydrodynamic and boundary friction and that average level of plateau amplitude is most beneficial to decrease frictional losses. The simulation result also helps gaining insight into previous engine test result. Future work includes additional verification of the positive simulation result.

  • 83.
    John, Shobin
    et al.
    Halmstad University.
    Cabanettes, Frederic
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). University of Lyon – ENISE, Saint-Etienne, France.
    Etievant, Lucas
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science. University of Lyon – ENISE, Saint-Etienne, France.
    Lööf, Pär-Johan
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Dimkovski, Zlate
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Rosén, Bengt Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Running in of superfinishing surfaces in lubricated rolling sliding contacts2017In: Mets&Props 2017: 16th International Conference on Metrology and Properties of Engineering Surfaces: Conference abstracts, 2017, p. 62-64Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 84.
    John, Shobin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    El-Ghoul, Zoel
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Dimkovski, Zlate
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Lööf, Pär-Johan
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Lundmark, Jonas
    Applied Nano Surfaces AB, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Mohlin, Johan
    Gnutti Carlo Sweden AB, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Friction between pin and roller of a truck's valvetrain2019In: Surface Topography: Metrology and Properties, E-ISSN 2051-672X, Vol. 7, no 1, article id 014001Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to minimize the fuel consumption in internal combustion engines, the frictional losses must be minimized between the moving parts such as the sliding bearings. In this study, the sliding friction between the pin and roller in a heavy duty truck engine's valvetrain has been investigated. Three combinations of production components with different surface treatment were used: steel pin with steel roller, steel pin with WS2 coating inside the roller and PVD coated steel pin with steel roller. In-house test rig was used, enabling controlled conditions close to the real engine. A new method for alignment using a laser scanner was introduced together with high resolution tactile measurements of radial displacement during test. Surface topography of pins and rollers was measured before test with a mechanical stylus instrument. The WS2 showed 3.1 times and the PVD showed 2.5 times lower friction than the steel type at low speeds. Even though the friction reduction of WS2 over the PVD is not large, the important advantage is that the WS2 can be manufactured at lower costs than the PVD one. Good correlations among the friction, initial roughness and radial displacements were also found.

  • 85.
    John, Shobin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    El-Ghoul, Zoel-Fikar
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Dimkovski, Zlate
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Lööf, Pär-Johan
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Lundmark, Jonas
    Applied Nano Surfaces AB, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Mohlin, Johan
    Gnutti Carlo Sweden AB, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Friction between Pin and Roller of a Truck’s Valvetrain2017In: Mets&Props 2017: 16th International Conference on Metrology and Properties of Engineering Surfaces: Conference abstracts, 2017, p. 193-194Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 86.
    Karlsson, Jan
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Winroth, Jan
    Högskolan Väst, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Bremander, Ann
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Haglund, Emma
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Holmquist, Mats
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Lindgren, Eva-Carin
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Lydell, Marie
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Staland Nyman, Carin
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Förändringsledarskap vid digital transformation inom vård och omsorg: En sammanfattande rapport från kompetensutvecklingsprojektet ”Trygg motivation och inspiration” i Kungsbacka kommun 20182018Report (Other academic)
  • 87.
    Karlsson, Niklas
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Business models and business cases for financial sustainability: Insights on corporate sustainability in the Swedish farm-based biogas industry2019In: Sustainable Production and Consumption, ISSN 2352-5509, E-ISSN 1614-2373, Vol. 18, p. 115-129Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, Swedish farmers have begun investing in biogas technology in an attempt to become more sustainable. Biogas production from organic waste on farms combines renewable energy production with increased resource efficiency. However, many farmers have found this activity less profitable than expected. This paper investigates the corporate sustainability strategy used by Swedish farm businesses, in particular how this strategy influences the development of business models and business cases for sustainability in the effort to increase economic profitability from biogas production. A questionnaire, administered to farm business managers, was used to collect the paper’s empirical data. The study’s findings show that the farmers currently use a reactive corporate sustainability strategy that hinders profits because biogas production is realized as an indirect financial business case for sustainability. The study concludes that the farmers could benefit financially from biogas production if they adopted a proactive corporate sustainability strategy. Such a strategy, if adopted, enables the development of a business model for sustainability, the capture of sustainable value for stakeholders, and the creation of biogas production as a direct financial business case for sustainability. This study contributes to the literature on business cases for sustainability, specifically in how their creation is connected to, and influenced by, the corporate sustainability strategy and by related business model changes. The study adds to our understanding of how sustainable investments can contribute to long-term, sustainable business success. © 2019 Institution of Chemical Engineers

  • 88.
    Karlsson, Niklas
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL). Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Halila, Fawzi
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Business Model Innovation (BMI).
    Mattsson, Marie
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Hoveskog, Maya
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Business Model Innovation (BMI).
    Success factors for agricultural biogas production in Sweden: A case study of business model innovation2016In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 142, no Part 4, p. 2925-2934Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As government officials, policymakers, and the general public increasingly express their concern about global warming caused by greenhouse gas emissions, scientists search for alternative sources of vehicle fuel and electric power. One sustainable energy source that shows considerable promise is biogas produced from organic waste. For various reasons, biogas plants in Sweden struggle with profitability. This is especially true for agricultural biogas plants. Suggestions on how to deal with this problem include the use of business model innovation (BMI) to develop agricultural networks and to implement new strategies for arranging, producing, and marketing farm-produced biogas. This qualitative study, influenced by grounded theory, identifies and examines the success factors in an agricultural network in which biogas is produced at four farms in Sweden with distribution by pipeline to a refinery for purification and conversion to vehicle fuel. Fourteen interviews were conducted with various individuals in this network: farmers, a local politician, municipal employees, and external consultants. Of the six success factors identified in the network for farm-produced biogas, the long-term perspective on profitability was found most important. The six factors were used to create a conceptual business model framework for such networks that adds new value propositions while retaining the original value propositions. We propose that long-term government subsidies and other incentives can make farm-produced biogas profitable, not only in social and environmental terms but also in economic terms. Our main conclusion is that BMI can be used to create public-private networks that invest in farm-based biogas production. Such investments can stimulate rural development and provide new business possibilities for SMEs in the agricultural sector. This study also shows that BMI that takes a long-term perspective can result in high-value environmental and social benefits as well as financial profitability.

  • 89.
    Karlsson, Niklas
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Hoveskog, Maya
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Halila, Fawzi
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Mattsson, Marie
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Business modelling in farm-based biogas production: towards network-level business models and stakeholder business cases for sustainability2019In: Sustainability Science, ISSN 1862-4065, E-ISSN 1862-4057, Vol. 14, no 4, p. 1071-1090Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Farm-based biogas production is a promising renewable energy technology with the potential for creating sustainable economic, environmental, and social value. However, Swedish farmers engaged in this activity struggle to turn a profit because of high-investment costs and severe price competition with fossil fuels. One way to address this situation is to re-organize the activity by innovating the business model (BM) towards sustainability. In this study, a team of researchers took an action research approach that proposed solutions for the financial difficulties at a farm cooperative that intended to develop its farm-based biogas production. Two participatory workshops (including researchers, producers, students, and consultants) were conducted using the sustainable business-modelling tool called the Flourishing Business Canvas (FBC). Based on the 215 ideas developed in the workshops, five sustainable BM prototypes were created. These five prototypes form the basis of an approach for initiating the development of a network-level BM for sustainability that highlights its superiority over a single-firm BM. The network-level BM’s main advantage in the farm-based biogas context is its strong focus on stakeholder collaboration that supports the development of a stakeholder business case for sustainability. Overall, this study highlights the usefulness of the network concept in the practice of sustainable BM development. Collaborative business modelling for developing network-level BMs that address environmental and social problems for and with stakeholders can be an effective way to increase long-term financial profit and promote the growth of a firm, a network, or an industry. © 2018 The Author(s)

  • 90.
    Karlsson, Niklas
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Hoveskog, Maya
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Halila, Fawzi
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Business Model Innovation (BMI).
    Mattsson, Marie
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Early Phases of the Business Model Innovation Process for Sustainability: Addressing the Status Quo of a Swedish Biogas-Producing Farm Cooperative2018In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 172, p. 2759-2772Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years in Sweden, interest has grown concerning the possibilities of biogas production from organic waste. This interest reflects a general concern over environmental sustainability in society. However, given the lack of financial backing and the competition of other energy producers, few Swedish biogas plants have been profitable. This is particularly the situation with farm-based biogas producers. One response to this problem in the farm-based biogas industry is to engage in business model innovation that can lead to new ways of organizing business structures and activities. This qualitative study, which takes an action research approach, explores the early phases (initiation and ideation) of the business model innovation process for sustainability at a biogas-producing farm cooperative in southern Sweden. The main activities and the actors who are central to the execution of these activities are identified in six sub-phases. The paper describes two Flourishing Business Canvas workshops in which the participants were the researchers, members of the farm cooperative, external consultants, and university students. This study contributes theoretically to the literature with its detailed examination of the early phases of the business model innovation process for sustainability. It also contributes to practice with its conceptual model that demonstrates how biogas producers and farm managers can innovate and transform their current business models towards sustainability in order to improve competitiveness and long-term profitability. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 91.
    Karlsson, Niklas P.E.
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL). Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Laurell, Hélène
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Lindgren, John
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Pehrsson, Tobias
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Svensson, Göran
    Kristiania University College, Oslo, Norway.
    A cross-country comparison and validation of firms’ stakeholder considerations in sustainable business practices2018In: Corporate Governance : The International Journal of Effective Board Performance, ISSN 1472-0701, E-ISSN 1758-6054, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 408-424Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to compare and validate firms’ internal and external stakeholder considerations in sustainable business practices across business settings. It aims to assess the validity and reliability of a stakeholder framework appearing in previous studies.

    Design/methodology/approach: The study uses a questionnaire survey and a cross-industry sample consisting of the largest firms in corporate Sweden. Multivariate analysis tests the stakeholder framework. Each of the 294 key informants was initially identified and contacted by telephone, generating a response rate of 36.5 per cent.

    Findings: The tested stakeholder framework appears valid and reliable across countries to assess the internal stakeholders of focal firms, as well as their up- and downstream, market and societal stakeholders. This study provides additional empirical support to categorize firms’ stakeholder considerations in sustainable business practices.

    Research limitations/implications: This study validates previous findings in terms of Swedish firms’ considerations of internal and external stakeholders in sustainable business practices in relation to one similar country (Norway) and one different country (Spain). The study also shows how the three countries perceive the focal company and societal stakeholders differently. Practical implications: The tested framework sheds light on focal firms’ stakeholder considerations in sustainable business practices and elucidates the extent to which firms’ account for their internal and external stakeholders in sustainable business practices.

    Originality/value: This study contributes to the development of valid and reliable stakeholder theory across contexts and through time. In particular, it contributes to the development of a valid and reliable framework to categorize firms’ stakeholder considerations in sustainable business practices. © 2018, Emerald Publishing Limited.

  • 92.
    Koch, Kamilla
    et al.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Dept Ecol, D-55128 Mainz, Germany .
    Fuchs, Nadine
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Dept Ecol, D-55128 Mainz, Germany .
    Sahlén, Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Morphology of follicle cells of Libellulidae (Odonata)2011In: International journal of odonatology, ISSN 1388-7890, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 257-267Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In libellulids, mature oocyte size varies within and between individual ovaries. The regulating mechanism is not yet understood. Variations in the contents of the follicle cells, and thereby their ability to secrete material into the oocyte, might explain some of the observed differences in oocyte size. We therefore investigated the follicle cell surface, the interstitial space width between follicle cells and between follicle cells and oocytes, the number of nuclei, and the cell compartment proportions using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. In all investigated species, the follicle cells were covered by a basal lamina. We found cytoplasmic microvilli and septate junctions. As we could not find any pores or other structures on the cell surface, endocytosis seems to be the only mechanism transporting material into the follicle cells. Larger follicle cells had larger interstitial gaps between follicle cells and oocytes, larger nuclei and a larger mitochondrial area. Larger interstitial spaces between follicle cells and oocytes may afford more room that can be filled with material from the follicle cell layer. More mitochondria could provide more energy/ATP needed for the transport of the material. The quantity of free ribosomes and the mean number of nuclei seemed to be even more important to the productivity of the follicle cell. All these variations in cell contents cause productivity differences among follicle cells and may explain some of the size differences between oocytes within individual ovaries in libellulids.

  • 93.
    Koch, Kamilla
    et al.
    University of Mainz.
    Quast, Malte
    Waldweg 8, 38176, Wendeburg, Germany.
    Sahlén, Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Morphological differences in the ovary of Libellulidae (Odonata)2009In: International Journal of Odonatology, ISSN 1388-7890, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 147-156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    All female Odonata have been assumed to produce oocytes continuously during their mature life span. However, a recent study of ovariole orientation and development led to the suggestion that Libellulidae are divided into two groups of species, one with continuous, the other with stepwise oocyte production. To find more evidence of this division, we compared the size variation and growth within the vitellarium of the ovary, studying oocytes, and follicle cells. We found that morphological characters discriminate between the two ovary types in eight of the 10 investigated species. In both types we found an increase in all measurements from the anterior to the posterior end of the vitellarium. The increase in oocyte width and follicle cell length was significantly higher in species with a continuous oocyte production. We also noted that follicle cells may have more than one nucleus and that their number can vary during vitellogenesis. Our study confirmed the hypotheses that two different ovary types exist in Libellulidae. The two species not fitting into this grouping could be an artefact of small samp le size due to intraspecific phenotypic plasticity, or else there might be more than two ovary groups, or even a continuum. We could not offer an explanation as to how the process of stepwise oocyte production differs from continuous based production on morphological characters.

  • 94.
    Kohli, Manpreet K
    et al.
    Department of Biological Sciences, Rutgers University-Newark, Newark, USA.
    Sahlén, Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Kuhn, William R.
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, USA.
    Ware, Jessica L.
    Department of Biological Sciences, Rutgers University-Newark, Newark, USA.
    Extremely low genetic diversity in a circumpolar dragonfly species, Somatochlora sahlbergi (Insecta: Odonata: Anisoptera)2018In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, p. 1-10, article id 15114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present the first empirical treatment of the northernmost breeding dragonfly, Somatochlora sahlbergi. We sequenced populations from United States, Canada, Finland, Sweden and Norway for cytochrome oxidase I (COI) and D2 region of 28s. We found that, despite geographic barriers across its vast arctic range, S. sahlbergi is a single species. Not only does it appear to interbreed across its entire range, there also seems to be almost no variation among European and North American populations in their COI gene fragment (the barcode gene), which is usually extremely variable. We further found that characters thought to be diagnostic for the larvae of S. sahlbergi were absent in our European samples. We review and re-describe the habitat of this species based on new findings from recent field observations. Finally, we report for the first time the likely presence of this species in Japan. We hope our findings will encourage further study of this species and other under-studied insect taxa that inhabit the remote Arctic.

  • 95.
    Korkeamäki, Esa
    et al.
    Water and Environment Association of the River Kymi, Kouvola, Finland.
    Elo, Merja
    University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Sahlén, Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Salmela, Jukka
    Regional Museum of Lapland, Rovaniemi, Finland.
    Suhonen, Jukka
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Regional variations in occupancy frequency distributions patterns between odonate assemblages in Fennoscandia2018In: Ecosphere, ISSN 2150-8925, E-ISSN 2150-8925, Vol. 9, no 4, article id e02192Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Odonate (damselfly and dragonfly) species richness and species occupancy frequency distributions (SOFD) were analysed in relation to geographical location in standing waters (lakes and ponds) in Fennoscandia, from southern Sweden to central Finland. In total, 46 dragonfly and damselfly species were recorded from 292 waterbodies. Species richness decreased to the north and increased with waterbody area in central Finland, but not in southern Finland or in Sweden. Species occupancy ranged from 1 up to 209 lakes and ponds. Over 50% of the species occurred in less than 10% of the waterbodies, although this proportion decreased to the north. In the southern lakes and ponds, none of the species occurred in all lakes, whereas in the north many species were present in all of the studied waterbodies. The dispersal ability of the species did not explain the observed species occupancy frequencies, but generalist species with a large geographical range occurred in a higher percentage of the waterbodies. At Fennoscandian scale, we found that the unimodal satellite pattern was predominant. However, at smaller scale, we found geographical variations in odonate species SOFD patterns. The most southern communities followed the unimodal satellite-dominant pattern, whereas in other regions communities fitted best with the bimodal core - satellite patterns. It seems that the richer species pool in the southern locations, and the larger distribution range of the northern species, skewed the unimodal pattern into a bimodal satellite dominant pattern. © 2018 The Authors.

  • 96.
    Landgren, Ellen
    et al.
    Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Bremander, Ann
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden & Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Lindqvist, Elisabet
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden & Skåne University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.
    van der Elst, Kristien
    University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven, Belgium & KU Leuven, University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
    Larsson, Ingrid
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI). Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Patients’ experiences of health in early rheumatoid arthritis – a qualitative study2018In: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, ISSN 0003-4967, E-ISSN 1468-2060, Vol. 77, p. 1802-1803, article id FRI10707-HPRArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The World Health Organization defines health as ”a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity”. Health changes dramatically when a person becomes ill in a chronic disease as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). RA is a disease with great impact on all aspects of life. Living with RA affects patients’ health including physical, emotional, psychological and social aspects. The purpose of a person-centered care is to see patients as experts; sharing decisions with them and helping them manage their health. Therefore it is important to understand how patients in early disease stage of RA experience the concept of health.

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to describe patients’ experiences of health in early RA.

    Methods: The study had a descriptive design with a qualitative content analysis approach. Individual interviews were conducted with 24 patients with early RA. In this study the patients had disease duration less than 12 months. A manifest qualitative content analysis was used to analyze the question: “What does health mean to you?”

    Results: In the early stage of RA, patients experienced health as the most important goal in their life. They described health as well-being, independence, life satisfaction and vitality. Health as well-being meant to feel good, be painless and have a good sleep to feel rested. Health as independence meant to have both physical and financial prerequisites to perform everyday activities, to exercise and being able to travel. Health as life satisfaction meant to feel joy in life, enjoy the family and to believe in the future. Health as vitality meant to have the energy, power and strength to cope with everyday life. The patients expressed that their health had been adversely affected by the RA disease and they had a strong desire for full health including well-being, independence, life satisfaction and vitality.

    Conclusions: Patients in an early stage of RA describe a strong desire to regain health in terms of well-being, independence, life satisfaction and vitality. The concept of health at early RA is similar to health at established RA in terms of well-being, independence and life satisfaction. Unique findings for patients with early RA are the description of health as vitality, and the emphasis of having energy, power and strength to cope with everyday life. Health professionals should have these different ways of experiencing health in mind when providing person-centred care to patients with early RA. Depending on the patients’ perception of health, different support strategies are needed.

  • 97.
    Larsson, Ingrid
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Andersson, M. L. E.
    Spenshult Research and Development Center, Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Ajeganova, S.
    Leiden University Medical Center - LUMC, Leiden, Netherlands.
    Bala, V.
    Helsingborgs Lasarett, Department of Medicine, Helsingborg, Sweden.
    Svensson, Björn
    Lunds Universitet, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund, Sweden.
    Bergman, Stefan
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Bremander, Ann
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Häggström, Åsa
    Keller, Catharina
    Helsingborg Lasarett AB, Helsingborg, Sweden.
    Leden, Ido
    Centralsjukhuset, Kristianstad, Sweden.
    Teleman, Annika
    Spenshult Hospital, Olofstrom, Sweden.
    Theander, Jan
    Kristianstad Central Hospital, Department of Internal Medicine, Kristianstad, Sweden.
    ֖stenson, Anneli
    Reasons to stop drinking alcohol among patients with rheumatoid arthritis in Sweden: A mixed-methods study2018In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 8, no 12, article id e024367Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The aims were to identify patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who had stopped drinking alcohol and compare them with patients drinking alcohol, and to explore reasons for stopping drinking alcohol. Design: A sequential explanatory mixed methods design was used. Setting: Six rheumatology clinics in Southern Sweden Better Anti-Rheumatic FarmacOTherapy cohort. Participants: A total of 1509 patients completed the questions about alcohol and were included in the study. 86 of these had stopped drinking alcohol and 72 responded to the open question and their answers were analysed with qualitative content analysis. Outcome measures: The quantitative data were from a cross-sectional survey assessing disease severity, physical function (Health Assessment Questionnaire, HAQ) and health-related quality of life (EuroQol five dimensions, EQ5D), pain, fatigue, patient global assessment (PatGA) and lifestyle factors, for example, alcohol. The questions assessing alcohol included an open question ’Why have you stopped drinking alcohol?’ Results: The patients who stopped drinking alcohol were older (median (min-max) 69 (36-90) vs 66 (23-95), p=0.011), had worse HAQ (1.00 (0-2.75) vs 0.50 (0-3.00), p<0.001), worse EQ5D (0.69 (-0.02-1.00) vs 0.76 (-0.58-1.00), p<0.001) worse PatGA (5 (0-10) vs 3 (0-10), p<0.001), more pain (5 (0-10) vs 3 (0-10), p<0.001) and more fatigue (6 (0-10) vs 4 (0-10), p<0.001 compared with patients drinking alcohol. The qualitative content analysis revealed five categories describing reasons for patients with RA to stop drinking alcohol: illness and treatment; health and well-being; work and family; faith and belief; and dependences and abuse. Conclusions: The patients who had stopped drinking had worse physical functioning and higher levels in pain-related variables. Most stopped drinking due to their illness or a desire to improve health. © 2018 Author(s).

  • 98.
    Larsson, Jonas
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Department of Medical Imaging and Physiology, Skåne University Hospital Department of Translational medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Engberg, Amanda
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Turnstedt, Max
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Dencker, Magnus
    Department of Medical Imaging and Physiology, Skåne University Hospital Department of Translational medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Bremander, Ann
    FoU Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Olsson, M. Charlotte
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Cardiovascular Effects of Load Carriage in Soldiers; A Pilot Study2019In: Book of Abstracts of the 24th Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science – 3rd - 6th July 2019, Prague – Czech Republic / [ed] Bunc, V. & Tsolakidis, E., European College of Sport Science , 2019, p. 422-423Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Previous studies have shown that risk of physical fatigue increases if prolonged average work intensity exceeds 50% of oxygen uptake (VO2). In order to avoid persistent fatigue in a work setting, it is important to conduct suitable work capacity analyses. In physically demanding jobs where wearing protective gear and/or external load is mandatory, monitoring of cardiovascular demands through heart rate (HR) is one way to track the workers’ relative effort.  There are limited studies examining effects of load carrying on cardiovascular capacity where it appears that VO2peak differ when soldiers and firefighters are tested with work-related equipment/clothing compared to light clothing. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate effects of load (combat gear) on HR, VO2 and muscle oxygen saturation (SmO2) compared to no load in soldiers during a graded treadmill protocol.

    Methods: Eight volunteer army soldiers (1 woman, 7 men) performed a graded treadmill test until exhaustion. All soldiers performed the test twice, once with light clothes and no load (NL) and once with added load, their personal combat gear (CG), with at least 48 h between sessions. The treadmill protocol stages included supine and standing positions, followed by marching speeds of 5.4 km/h and 8 km/h at 0 incline (all 5 min) immediately followed by a set marching speed of 8 km/h with a starting incline of 2 % increasing the incline 2 % every third minute until voluntary exhaustion. Measurements of HR, VO2 and SmO2 were collected continuously and the last 30 s of each stage were averaged and used for statistical analyses (paired t-tests).

    Results: The mean added load for all soldiers with CG was 16.8 ± 1.1 kg. All soldiers completed at least 6 stages (range 6-11 stages) with both NL and CG, where time to exhaustion with NL was longer (19.1 ± 3.2 min) compared to CG (9.1 ± 2.9 min; p <0.01). Submaximal HR and VO2 were both significantly higher with CG compared to NL (at absolute intensities) at all marching speeds all soldiers completed (5.4 km/h 0 % grade - 8 km/h 4% grade; all p<0.05). For SmO2, marching with CG compared to NL resulted in increased muscle oxygen utilization, at submaximal stages 8 km/h 0% -4% grade (all p<0.05). For values at maximal effort the CG had a significantly lower VO2peak (3.7 ± 0.5 L/min) compared to NL (4.1 ± 0.6 L/min, p <0.01), whereas there was no difference in HRpeak or the lowest value of SmO2 between CG (193.1 ± 7.2 bpm; 42.4 ± 30.3%) and NL (195.4 ± 8.9 bpm; 47.0 ± 29.2%).

    Conclusions: This pilot study suggests that assessment of aerobic capacity in soldiers should be conducted with combat gear to help determine their actual work capacity during combat and other load carrying tasks. These results suggest that if soldiers’ work performance is determined without added load it overestimates their aerobic capacity (VO2peak) in tasks wearing combat gear, which might lead to added fatigability and deleterious effect on performance.

  • 99.
    Larsson, Jonas
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Lund University, Lund, Sweden & Swedish Armed Forces, Eksjö, Sweden.
    Olsson, M. Charlotte
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Denker, Magnus
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Bremander, Ann
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Department of Clinical Sciences, Section of Rheumatology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden .
    Self-rated physical work demands for ground combat soldiers2018In: PES 2018: 3rd International Conference on Physical Employment Standards, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 100.
    Laurell, Hélène
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Karlsson, Niklas
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Lindgren, John
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Svensson, Göran
    Kristiania University College, Oslo, Norway.
    Re-testing and validating a triple bottom line dominant logic for business sustainability2019In: Management of environmental quality, ISSN 1477-7835, E-ISSN 1758-6119, Vol. 30, no 3, p. 518-537Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The triple bottom line (TBL) is still commonly explored in research without joint consideration of economic, social and environmental elements of business sustainability (BS). The purpose of this paper is to re-test and validate a BS framework based on the TBL approach.This study is based on a questionnaire survey consisting of the largestfirms in corporate Sweden. A total of 107 usable questionnaires were ultimately received, for a response rate of 36.5 percent. The findings validate and extend a framework of a TBL-dominant logic for BS. A total of 19 dimensions indicating satisfactory validity and reliability of the BS framework were identified. The BS framework offers relevant insights to monitor and assess a TBL-dominant logic for BS. It also provides opportunities for further research. Managers can use the BS framework as a tool to map firm priorities in connection with BS. Each dimension of the BS framework offers insights into how to monitor and assess firms’ efforts in the TBL.This study contributes to validate and extend the TBL-dominant logic for BS. The BS framework also offers a timely and relevant contribution to both scholars and practitioners engaging in business sustainability. © 2018, Emerald Publishing Limited.

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