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  • 51.
    Beohar, Harsh
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Mousavi, Mohammad Reza
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    A Pre-congruence Format for XY-simulation2015In: Fundamentals of Software Engineering: 6th International Conference, FSEN 2015 Tehran, Iran, April 22–24, 2015, Revised Selected Papers / [ed] Mehdi Dastani & Marjan Sirjani, Cham: Springer, 2015, Vol. 9392, p. 215-229Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    XY-simulation is a generalization of bisimulation that is parameterized with two subsets of actions. XY-simulation is known in the literature under different names such as modal refinement, partial bisimulation, and alternating simulation. In this paper, we propose a precongruence rule format for XY-simulation. The format allows for checking compositionality of XY-simulation for an arbitrary language with structural operational semantics, by performing very simple checks on the syntactic shape of the rules. We apply our format to derive concrete compositionality results for different notions of behavioral pre-order with respect to different process calculi in the literature. © IFIP International Federation for Information Processing 2015

  • 52.
    Beohar, Harsh
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Mousavi, Mohammad Reza
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Input-output conformance testing based on featured transition systems2014In: Proceedings of the 29th Annual ACM Symposium on Applied Computing, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2014, p. 1272-1278Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We extend the theory of input-output conformance testing to the setting of software product lines. In particular, we allow for input-output featured transition systems to be used as the basis for generating test suites and test cases. We introduce refinement operators both at the level of models and at the level of test suites that allow for projecting them into a specific product configuration (or a product sub-line). We show that the two sorts of refinement are consistent and lead to the same set of test-cases. © Copyright 2014 ACM

  • 53.
    Beohar, Harsh
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Mousavi, Mohammad Reza
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Input–output conformance testing for software product lines2016In: The Journal of logical and algebraic methods in programming, ISSN 2352-2208, E-ISSN 2352-2216, Vol. 85, no 6, p. 1131-1153Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We extend the theory of input-output conformance (IOCO) testing to accommodate behavioral models of software product lines (SPLs). We present the notions of residual and spinal testing. These notions allow for structuring the test process for SPLs by taking variability into account and extracting separate test suites for common and specific features of an SPL. The introduced notions of residual and spinal test suites allow for focusing on the newly introduced behavior and avoiding unnecessary re-test of the old one. Residual test suites are very conservative in that they require retesting the old behavior that can reach to new behavior. However, spinal test suites more aggressively prune the old tests and only focus on those test sequences that are necessary in reaching the new behavior. We show that residual testing is complete but does not usually lead to much reduction in the test-suite. In contrast, spinal testing is not necessarily complete but does reduce the test-suite. We give sufficient conditions on the implementation to guarantee completeness of spinal testing. Finally, we specify and analyze an example regarding the Ceiling Speed Monitoring Function from the European Train Control System. (C) 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc.

  • 54.
    Beohar, Harsh
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Mousavi, Mohammad Reza
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Spinal test suites for software product lines2014In: Proceedings: Ninth Workshop on Model-Based Testing (MBT 2014) / [ed] Alexander K. Petrenko, Holger Schlingloff, Sydney: Open Publishing Association , 2014, Vol. 141, p. 44-55Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A major challenge in testing software product lines is efficiency. In particular, testing a product line should take less effort than testing each and every product individually. We address this issue in the context of input-output conformance testing, which is a formal theory of model-based testing. We extend the notion of conformance testing on input-output featured transition systems with the novel concept of spinal test suites. We show how this concept dispenses with retesting the common behavior among different, but similar, products of a software product line. © H. Beohar & M.R. Mousavi.

  • 55.
    Beohar, Harsh
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Varshosaz, Mahsa
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Mousavi, Mohammad Reza
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Basic behavioral models for software product lines: Expressiveness and testing pre-orders2016In: Science of Computer Programming, ISSN 0167-6423, E-ISSN 1872-7964, Vol. 123, p. 42-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to provide a rigorous foundation for Software Product Lines (SPLs), several fundamental approaches have been proposed to their formal behavioral modeling. In this paper, we provide a structured overview of those formalisms based on labeled transition systems and compare their expressiveness in terms of the set of products they can specify. Moreover, we define the notion of tests for each of these formalisms and show that our notions of testing precisely capture product derivation, i.e., all valid products will pass the set of test cases of the product line and each invalid product fails at least one test case of the product line. © 2015 The Authors.

  • 56.
    Berbineau, Marion
    et al.
    IFSTTAR, Villeneuve d’Ascq, France.
    Jonsson, MagnusHalmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).Bonnin, Jean-MarieTelecom Bretagne, Cesson Sévigné, France.Cherkaoui, SoumayaUniversité de Sherbrooke, Canada.Aguado, MarinaUniversity of the Basque Country, Bilbao, Spain.Rico Garcia, CristinaDLR, German Aerospace Center, Oberpfaffenhofen-Wessling, Germany.Ghannoum, HassanSNCF, Paris, France.Mehmood, RashidUniversity of Huddersfield, UK.Vinel, AlexeyTampere University of Technology, Finland.
    Communication Technologies for Vehicles: 5th International Workshop, Nets4Cars/Nets4Trains 2013, Villeneuve d' Ascq, France, May 14-15, 2013, Proceedings2013Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
  • 57.
    Bergenhem, Carl
    et al.
    SP - Technical Research Institute of Sweden Department of Electronics, Borås, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Two Protocols with Heterogeneous Real-Time Services for High-Performance Embedded Networks2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    High-performance embedded networks are found in computer systems that perform applications such as radar signal processing and multimedia rendering. The system can be composed of multiple computer nodes that are interconnected with the network. Properties of the network such as latency and speed affect the performance of the entire system. A node´s access to the network is controlled by a medium access protocol. This protocol decides e.g. real-time properties and services that the network will offer its users, i.e. the nodes. Two such network protocols with heterogeneous real-time services are presented. The protocols offer different communication services and services for parallel and distributed real-time processing. The latter services include barrier synchronisation, global reduction and short message service. A network topology of a unidirectional pipelined optical fibre-ribbon ring is assumed for both presented protocols. In such a network several simultaneous transmissions in non-overlapping segments are possible. Both protocols are aimed for applications that require a high-performance embedded network such as radar signal processing and multimedia. In these applications the system can be organised as multiple interconnected computation nodes that co-operate in parallel to achieve higher performance. The computing performance of the whole system is greatly affected by the choice of network. Computing nodes in a system for radar signal processing should be tightly coupled, i.e., communications cost, such as latency, between nodes should be small. This is possible if a suitable network with an efficient protocol is used. The target applications have heterogeneous real-time requirements for communication in that different classes of data-traffic exist. The traffic can be classified according to its requirements. The proposed protocols partition data-traffic into three classes with distinctly different qualities. These classes are: traffic with hard real-time demands, such as mission critical commands; traffic with soft real-time demands, such as application data (a deadline miss here only leads to decreased performance); and traffic with no real-time constraints at all. The protocols are analysed and performance is tested through simulation with different data-traffic patterns.

  • 58.
    Berger, Christian
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Mousavi, Mohammad RezaHalmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Cyber Physical Systems. Design, Modeling, and Evaluation: 5th International Workshop, CyPhy 2015, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, October 8, 2015, Proceedings2015Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 59.
    Bilstrup, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Bluetooth and Wireless Multihop Networks in Industrial Communication Systems2008Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this thesis is to investigate the use of short-range wireless communication technology in industrial communication systems where there is a need for guaranteed timely delivery of correct information. Methods for achieving such capability are developed in the context of the physical layer, the data link layer and the application layer. Based on the insight that it is impossible to achieve strict determinism in a wireless communication system, a probabilistic definition of hard real-time systems is suggested, and thus a guarantee is given in the form of the probability of fulfilling a certain goal. Since a wireless channel is time variant, it is also necessary to continuously keep track of available resources. Allocation and link management methods for wireless communication systems therefore need to be dynamic and of an online character. An exhaustive resource allocation method with redundancy is first proposed for single message delivery and then extended for the operation of a single Bluetooth piconet. However, many devices in an industrial automation system have limited computational resources, especially if wireless sensors/actuators powered by battery or wireless power are considered. This implies that methods used for resource allocation must be of low computational complexity. The complexity issue becomes evident when large systems are implemented, even if each individual sensor generates small amounts of data. The upstream and downstream flows of data grow rapidly in a hierarchical system with many sub-systems, sensors and actuators. It is empirically shown that the aggregated data flow in a monitoring system requires powerful communication nodes already at low levels in the industrial communication hierarchy. A predictable system requires that representative entities for the available resources are defined. In a communication system with a single broadcast domain, such as a single Bluetooth piconet, the resource space is often limited to the time domain. When a multihop wireless network with multiple broadcast domains is considered, the spatial domain is added as an available resource and, if a multi-channel radio transceiver is used, the frequency is also added as an available resource domain. These three domains represent the physical resource space that is available for a wireless multihop network. These are subject to trade-off in all of the three lowest protocol layers, and one of the most challenging problems in the design of a wireless multihop network is how to achieve efficient sharing of these resources. This problem is addressed by proposing a clustered architecture based on a dual-radio node that enables dynamic use of these resource domains.

  • 60.
    Bilstrup, Urban
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Bilstrup, Katrin
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Svensson, Bertil
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Wiberg, Per-Arne
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    The use of clustered wireless multihop networks in industrial settings2007In: ETFA 2007: IEEE Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, Vols 1-3, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Press, 2007, p. 211-218Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper suggests a cluster collision avoidance mechanism and a dual transceiver architecture to be used in a clustered wireless multihop network. These two contributions make the clustered wireless multihop network the preferred architecture for future industrial wireless networks. The wireless multihop cluster consists of one master and several slaves, where some of the slaves will act as gateways between different clusters. Frequency hopping spread spectrum is used on a cluster level and to avoid frequency collisions between clusters a "neighbor cluster collision avoidance mechanism" is proposed and evaluated through simulations. To break up the dependence between the clusters, introduced by the gateway nodes, each node is equipped with two transceivers. The paper is concluded with a suggestion to use a clustered wireless multihop network with orthogonal hopping sequences for an industrial setting.

  • 61.
    Bilstrup, Urban
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Bilstrup, Katrin
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Svensson, Bertil
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Wiberg, Per-Arne
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Using Dual-Radio Nodes to Enable Quality of Service in a Clustered Wireless Mesh Network2006In: IEEE Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, 2006. ETFA '06, Piscataway, N.J.: IEEE Press, 2006, p. 54-61Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper some well established wireless technologies are merged into a new concept solution for a future industrial wireless mesh network. The suggested clustered wireless mesh network can handle probabilistic quality of service guarantees and is based on a dual-radio node architecture using synchronized frequency hopping spread spectrum Bluetooth radios. The proposed architecture gives a heuristic solution to the inter-cluster scheduling problem of gateway nodes in clustered architectures and breaks up the dependence between the local medium access schedules of adjacent clusters. The dual-radio feature also enables higher network connectivity, implying, for example, that a higher link redundancy can be achieved.

  • 62.
    Bilstrup, Urban
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Parsapoor, Mahboobeh
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    A Framework and Architecture for a Cognitive Manager Based on a Computational Model of Human Emotional Learning2013In: Proceedings of SDR-WInnComm-Europe 2013: Wireless Innovation European Conference on Wireless Communications Technologies and Software Defined Radio / [ed] Lee Pucker, Kuan Collins & Stephanie Hamill, 2013, p. 64-72Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we propose an architecture for a cognitive engine that is based on the emotional learning cycle instead of the traditional cognitive cycle. The cognitive cycle that traditionally has been used as reference for cognitive radio is on the basis of the Unified Theories of Cognition (UTC) to model rational decision making in humans. UTC represents a rational goal-oriented decision-action made by an intelligent agent. However, the emotional cycle represents an emotional reaction-oriented cycle instead. These two models differ in function and structure of learning, decision making and optimization. In this work the structure of these two learning cycles are compared and a computational model for artificial emotional learning based engine is suggested.

  • 63.
    Bilstrup, Urban
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Wiberg, Per-Arne
    Free2move AB.
    An architecture comparison between a wireless sensor network and an active RFID system2004In: The 29th Annual IEEE International Conference on Local Computer Networks, 2004, IEEE , 2004, p. 583-584Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In This work a new hardware platform for active RFID and wireless sensor network is presented. Furthermore a comparison of these two architectures is performed, i.e., the singlehop and the multihop architecture. The comparison reveals important issues regarding the utilization and energy consumption for the singlehop as well as for the multihop architecture.

  • 64.
    Bilstrup, Urban
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Wiberg, Per-Arne
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    An Implementation of a 3-tier Hierarchical Wireless Sensor Network2006In: 2006 IEEE International Conference on Industrial Informatics, Piscataway, N.J.: IEEE Press, 2006, p. 138-143Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper an implementation of a wireless sensor network is described. The aim with the implementation is to investigate if present design patterns are applicable on wireless sensor networks. A 3-tier model is adopted as a possible candidate for the software as well as for the network architecture. The implemented wireless sensor network consists of a heterogeneous set of hardware devices such as sensors, sensor hubs, beepers, PDAs and connectors. Most of the hardware components are COTS and most of the software is GNU licensed. All these form a 3-tier hierarchical network architecture.

  • 65.
    Binotto, Alécio Pedro Delazari
    et al.
    Informatics Institute, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil.
    Pignaton de Freitas, Edison
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES). Informatics Institute, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil.
    Pereira, Carlos Eduardo
    Electrical Engineering Department, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil.
    Larsson, Tony
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Towards Dynamic Task Scheduling and Reconfiguration using an Aspect Oriented Approach applied on Real-time concerns of Industrial Systems2009In: Elsevier IFAC Publications / IFAC Proceedings series, ISSN 1474-6670, Vol. 13, no PART 1, p. 1423-1428Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High performance computational platforms are required by industries that make use of automatic methods to manage modern machines, which are mostly controlled by high-performance specific hardware with processing capabilities. It usually works together with CPUs, forming a powerful execution platform. On an industrial production line, distinct tasks can be assigned to be processed by different machines depending on certain conditions and production parameters. However, these conditions can change at run-time influenced mainly by machine failure and maintenance, priorities changes, and possible new better task distribution. Therefore, self-adaptive computing is a potential paradigm as it can provide flexibility to explore the machine resources and improve performance on different execution scenarios of the production line. One approach is to explore scheduling and run-time task migration among machines’ hardware towards a balancing of tasks, aiming performance and production gain. This way, the monitoring of time requirements and its crosscutting behaviour play an important role for task (re)allocation decisions. This paper introduces the use of software aspect-oriented paradigms to perform machines’ monitoring and a self-rescheduling strategy of tasks to address nonfunctional timing constraints. As case study, tasks for a production line of aluminium ingots are designed. © 2009 IFAC.

  • 66.
    Bocharova, Irina
    et al.
    St.-Petersburg University of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics, St.-Petersburg, Russia & University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.
    Kudryashov, Boris
    St.-Petersburg University of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics, St.-Petersburg, Russia & University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.
    Lyamin, Nikita
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Frick, Erik
    AstaZero Hällered, Sandhult, Sweden.
    Rabi, Maben
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Vinel, Alexey
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES). Department of Electrical Engineering, Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Bergen, Norway.
    Low Delay Inter-Packet Coding in Vehicular Networks2019In: Future Internet, ISSN 1999-5903, E-ISSN 1999-5903, Vol. 11, no 12, article id 212Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Cooperative Intelligent Transportation Systems (C-ITSs), vehicles need to wirelessly connect with Roadside units (RSUs) over limited durations when such point-to-point connections are possible. One example of such communications is the downloading of maps to the C-ITS vehicles. Another example occurs in the testing of C-ITS vehicles, where the tested vehicles upload trajectory records to the roadside units. Because of real-time requirements, and limited bandwidths, data are sent as User Datagram Protocol (UDP) packets. We propose an inter-packet error control coding scheme that improves the recovery of data when some of these packets are lost; we argue that the coding scheme has to be one of convolutional coding. We measure performance through the session averaged probability of successfully delivering groups of packets. We analyze two classes of convolution codes and propose a low-complexity decoding procedure suitable for network applications. We conclude that Reed–Solomon convolutional codes perform better than Wyner–Ash codes at the cost of higher complexity. We show this by simulation on the memoryless binary erasure channel (BEC) and channels with memory, and through simulations of the IEEE 802.11p DSRC/ITS-G5 network at the C-ITS test track AstaZero.

  • 67.
    Bocharova, Irina
    et al.
    Department of Information Systems, St. Petersburg University of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics, St.-Petersburg, Russia & Institute of Computer Science, University of Tartu, Estonia.
    Kudryashov, Boris
    Department of Information Systems, St. Petersburg University of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics, St.-Petersburg, Russia & Institute of Computer Science, University of Tartu, Estonia.
    Rabi, Maben
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Lyamin, Nikita
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Dankers, Wouter
    Volvo GTT, Goteborg, Sweden.
    Frick, Erik
    AstaZero, Hällered, Sandhult, Sweden.
    Vinel, Alexey
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES). Department of Electrical Engineering, Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Bergen, Norway.
    Characterizing Packet Losses in Vehicular Networks2019In: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, ISSN 0018-9545, E-ISSN 1939-9359, Vol. 68, no 9, p. 8347-8358Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To enable testing and performance evaluation of new connected and autonomous driving functions, it is important to characterize packet losses caused by degradation in vehicular (V2X) communication channels. In this paper we suggest an approach to constructing packet loss models based on the socalled Pseudo-Markov chains (PMC). The PMC based model needs only short training sequences, has low computational complexity, and yet provides more precise approximations than known techniques. We show how to learn PMC models from either empirical records of packet receptions, or from analytical models of fluctuations in the received signal strength. In particular, we validate our approach by applying it on (i) V2X packet reception data collected from an active safety test run, which used the LTE network of the AstaZero automotive testing site in Sweden, and (ii) variants of the Rician fading channel models corresponding to two models of correlations of packet losses. We also show that initializing the Baum-Welch algorithm with a second order PMC model leads to a high accuracy model. © 2019 IEEE.

  • 68.
    Bocharova, Irina
    et al.
    ITMO University, Saint Petersburg, Russia & University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.
    Kudryashov, Boris
    ITMO University, Saint Petersburg, Russia & University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.
    Rabi, Maben
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Lyamin, Nikita
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Dankers, Wouter
    Volvo GTT, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Frick, Erik
    AstaZero, Hällered, Sweden.
    Vinel, Alexey
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Modeling Packet Losses in Communication Networks2019In: 2019 IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory: Proceedings, 2019, p. 1012-1016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An approach to constructing discrete models of packet losses suitable for a wide variety of communication network applications is studied. It is based on estimating parameters of probabilistic automata described via so-called pseudo-Markov chains. The new technique is applied both to approximating a discrete time analog process at the output of known channel models and to the experimental data stream. Comparison of models is performed by computing probabilities of more than m losses out of n transmitted packets (P (m, n)). It is shown that for the Rician fading channel with exponential correlation and correlation determined by a Bessel filter, the obtained rank-two and rank-three discrete modes, respectively, provide high accuracy coincidence of P (m, n) performances. The rank-three discrete model computed on the experimental data stream obtained from the LTE network provides significantly better approximation of P (≥ m, n) performance than that obtained by the Baum-Welch algorithm.

  • 69.
    Boeira, Felipe
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS). Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil & Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Barcellos, Marinho P.
    Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil.
    Pignaton de Freitas, Edison
    Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil.
    Vinel, Alexey
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Asplund, Mikael
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Effects of Colluding Sybil Nodes in Message Falsification Attacks for Vehicular Platooning2017In: 2017 IEEE Vehicular Networking Conference (VNC) / [ed] Onur Altintas, Claudio Casetti, Nicholas Kirsch, Renato Lo Cigno & Rui Meireles, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies the impact of vulnerabilities associated with the Sybil attack (through falsification of multiple identities) and message falsification in vehicular platooning. Platooning employs Inter-Vehicular Communication (IVC) to control a group of vehicles. It uses broadcast information such as acceleration, position, and velocity to operate a longitudinal control law. Cooperation among vehicles allows platoons to reduce fuel consumption and risks associated with driver mistakes. In spite of these benefits, the use of network communication to control vehicles exposes a relevant attack surface that can be exploited by malicious actors. To carry out this study, we evaluate five scenarios to quantify the potential impact of such attacks, identifying how platoons behave under varying Sybil attack conditions and what are the associated safety risks. This research also presents the use of location hijacking attack. In this attack, innocent vehicles that are not part of a platoon are used as a way to create trust bond between the false identities and the physical vehicles. We demonstrate that the ability to create false identities increases the effectiveness of message falsification attacks by making them easier to deploy and harder to detect in time.

  • 70.
    Boeira, Felipe
    et al.
    Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil.
    Barcellos, Marinho
    Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil.
    Pignaton de Freitas, Edison
    Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil.
    Vinel, Alexey
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Asplund, Mikael
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    On the impact of sybil attacks in cooperative driving scenarios2017In: 2017 IFIP Networking Conference (IFIP Networking) and Workshops, IEEE, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Platooning employs a set of technologies to manage how a group of vehicles operates, including radar, GPS and Inter-Vehicular Communication (IVC). It uses broadcasted information such as acceleration, position and velocity to operate vehicle members of the platoon. Cooperation among vehicles allows platoons to reduce fuel consumption and risks associated with driver mistakes. In spite of these benefits, the use of IVC to control vehicles exposes a relevant attack surface that can be exploited by malicious actors. In this paper we study the impact of vulnerabilities associated with the Sybil attack (through falsification of multiple identities) and message falsification in vehicular platooning. Simulation results show that this attack may impact the longitudinal control and compromise the entire platoon control. © Copyright 2018 IEEE

  • 71.
    Brauner, Paul
    et al.
    Rice University, Houston, United States.
    Taha, Walid
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Globally Parallel, Locally Sequential: A Preliminary Proposal for Acumen Objects2010In: POOSC'10, Proceedings of the 9th Workshop on Parallel/High-Performance Object-Oriented Scientific Computing, New York, NY: ACM Press, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An important and resource-intensive class of computation codes consists of simulators for physical systems. Today, most simulation codes are written in general-purpose imperative languages such as C or FORTRAN. Unfortunately, such languages encourage the programmer to focus her attention on details of how the computation is performed, rather than on the system being modeled.

    This paper reports the design and implementation of a novel notion of an object for a physical modeling language called Acumen. A key idea underlying the language's design is encouraging a programming style that enables a "globally parallel, locally imperative" view of the world. The language is also being designed to preserve deterministic execution even when the underlying computation is performed on a highly parallel platform. Our main observation with the initial study is that extensive and continual experimental evaluation is crucial for keeping the language design process informed about bottlenecks for parallel execution.

  • 72.
    Bruneau, Julien
    et al.
    INRIA, Bordeaux, France.
    Consel, Charles
    INRIA, Bordeaux, France.
    O’Malley, Marcia K.
    Rice University, Houston, TX, United States.
    Taha, Walid
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES). Rice University, Houston, TX, United States.
    Hannourah, Wail Masry
    HVAC Consultant, Cairo, Egypt.
    Preliminary results in virtual testing for smart buildings2012In: Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering, ISSN 1867-8211, E-ISSN 1867-822X, Vol. 73, p. 347-349Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Smart buildings promise to revolutionize the way we live. Applications ranging from climate control to fire management can have significant impact on the quality and cost of these services. However, a smart building and any technology with direct effect on the safety of its occupants must undergo extensive testing. Virtual testing by means of computer simulation can significantly reduce the cost of testing and, as a result, accelerate the development of novel applications. Unfortunately, building physically-accurate simulation codes can be labor intensive. To address this problem, we propose a framework for rapid, physically-accurate virtual testing of smart building systems. The proposed framework supports analytical modeling and simulation of both a discrete distributed system as well as the physical environment that hosts it. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  • 73.
    Bruneau, Julien
    et al.
    INRIA Bordeaux Sud-Ouest Talence, Talence, France.
    Consel, Charles
    INRIA Bordeaux Sud-Ouest Talence, Talence, France.
    O’Malley, Marcia
    Rice University Houston, Houston, USA.
    Taha, Walid
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Hannourah, Wail Masry
    HVAC Consultant Cairo, Cairo, Egypt.
    Virtual Testing for Smart Buildings2012In: 2012 Eighth International Conference on Intelligent Environments / [ed] Randall Bilof, Piscataway, N.J.: IEEE Press, 2012, p. 282-289, article id 6258534Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Smart buildings promise to revolutionize the way we live. Applications ranging from climate control to fire management can have significant impact on the quality and cost of these services. However, smart buildings and any technology with direct effect on human safety and life mustundergo extensive testing. Virtual testing by means of computer simulation can significantly reduce the cost of testing and, as a result, accelerate the development of novel applications. Unfortunately, building physically-accurate simulation codes can be labor intensive.To address this problem, we propose a framework for rapid, physically-accurate virtual testing. The proposed framework supports analytical modeling of both a discrete distributed system as well as the physical environment that hosts it. The discrete models supported are accurate enough to allow the automatic generation of a dedicated programming framework that will help the developer in the implementation of these systems. The physical environment models supported are equational specifications that are accurate enough to produce running simulation codes. Combined, these two frameworks enable simulating both active systems and physical environments. These simulations can be used to monitor the behavior and gather statistics about the performance of an application in the context of precise virtual experiments. To illustrate the approach, we present models of Heating, Ventilating and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) systems. Using these models, we construct virtual experiments that illustrate how the approach can be used to optimize energy and cost of climate control for a building. © 2012 IEEE.

  • 74.
    Böhm, Annette
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Delay-sensitive wireless communication for cooperative driving applications2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Cooperative driving holds the potential to considerably improve the level of safety and efficiency on our roads. Recent advances in in-vehicle sensing and wireless communication technology have paved the way for the development of cooperative traffic safety applications based on the exchange of data between vehicles (or between vehicles and road side units) over a wireless link. The access to up-to-date status information from surrounding vehicles is vital to most cooperative driving applications. Other applications rely on the fast dissemination of warning messages in case a hazardous event or certain situation is detected. Both message types put high requirements on timeliness and reliability of the underlying communication protocols.

    The recently adopted European profile of IEEE 802.11p defines two message types,periodic beacons for basic status exchange and event-triggered hazard warnings, both operating at pre-defined send rates and sharing a common control channel. The IEEE 802.11p Medium Access Control (MAC) scheme is a random access protocol that doesnot offer deterministic real-time support, i.e. no guarantee that a packet is granted access to the channel before its deadline can be given. It has been shown that a high number of channel access requests, either due to a high number of communicating vehicles or highdata volumes produced by these vehicles, cannot be supported by the IEEE 802.11p MAC protocol, as it may result in dropped packets and unbounded delays.

    The goal of the work presented in this thesis has therefore been to enhance IEEE 802.11p without altering the standard such that it better supports the timing and reliability requirements of traffic safety applications and provides context-aware andefficient use of the available communication resources in a vehicular network. The proposed solutions are mapped to the specific demands of a set of cooperative driving scenarios (featuring infrastructure-based and infrastructure-free use cases, densely and sparsely trafficked roads, very high and more relaxed timing requirements) and evaluated either analytically, by computer simulation or by measurements and compared to the results produced by the unaltered IEEE 802.11p standard.

    As an alternative to the random MAC method of IEEE 802.11p, a centralized solution isproposed for application scenarios where either a road side unit or a suitable dedicated vehicle is present long enough to take the coordinating role. A random access phase forevent-driven data traffic is interleaved with a collision-free phase where timely channel access of periodic delay-sensitive data is scheduled. The ratio of the two phases isdynamically adapted to the current data traffic load and specific application requirements. This centralized MAC solution is mapped on two cooperative driving applications: merge assistance at highway entrances and platooning of trucks. Further,the effect of a context-aware choice of parameters like send rate or priority settings based on a vehicle’s position or role in the safety application is studied with the goal to reduce the overall number of packets in the network or, alternatively, use the available resources more efficiently. Examples include position-based priorities for the merge assistance use case, context-aware send rate adaptation of status updates in anovertaking warning application targeting sparsely-trafficked rural roads and an efficient dissemination strategy for warning messages within a platoon.

    It can be concluded that IEEE 802.11p as is does not provide sufficient support for the specific timing and reliability requirements imposed by the exchange of safety-criticalreal-time data for cooperative driving applications. While the proper, context-awarechoice of parameters, concerning send rate or priority level, within the limits of the standard, can lead to improved packet inter-arrival rates and reduced end-to-end delays,the added benefits from integrating MAC solutions with real-time support into the standard are obvious and needs to be investigated further.

  • 75.
    Böhm, Annette
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Position-based data traffic prioritization in safety-critical, real-time vehicle-to-infrastructure communication2009In: IEEE International Conference on Communications Workshops, 2009. ICC Workshops 2009 / [ed] IEEE, Piscataway, N.J.: IEEE Press, 2009, p. 205-210Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Future active-safety applications in vehicular networks rely heavily on the support for real-time inter-vehicle communication. The Medium Access Control (MAC) mechanism proposed for the upcoming IEEE 802.11p standard intended for Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) applications does not offer deterministic real-time support, i.e., the channel access delay is not upper bounded. We therefore propose a vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) communication solution extending IEEE 802.11p, by introducing a collision-free MAC phase with an enhanced prioritization mechanism based on vehicle positions and the overall road traffic density. A road side unit using a polling mechanism is then able to provide real-time support such that it can guarantee collision-free channel access within its transmission range. Part of the bandwidth remains unchanged such that best-effort services like ongoing vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) applications may continue. Our solution guarantees that all communication deadlines of the V2I applications are met, while minimizing the required length of the collision-free phase. This in turn maximizes the amount of bandwidth available for best-effort services and ongoing V2V applications. The position-based prioritization mechanism further improves the throughput of both real-time and best-effort data traffic by focusing the communication resources to the most hazardous areas. The concept is evaluated analytically based on a realistic task set from a V2I merge assistance scenario.

  • 76.
    Böhm, Annette
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Position-based real-time communication support for cooperative traffic safety services2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Future cooperative traffic safety applications based on vehicular networks rely heavily on the support for real-time inter-vehicle communication. The Medium Access Control (MAC) mechanism proposed for the upcoming IEEE 802.11p standard intended for Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) applications does not offer deterministic real-time support, i.e., the channel access delay is not upper bounded. In this paper, we therefore propose a vehicle-to-infrastructure(V2I) communication solution extending IEEE802.11p by introducing a collision-free MAC phase based on real-time schedulability analysis. A static or semi-static access point on the road side (Road Side Unit, RSU) coordinates the vehicles’ access to the communication medium by polling them for data according to a schedule based on the Earliest Deadline First (EDF) principle. It is thereby possible to provide real-time support such that the access point can guarantee collision-free channel access within its transmission range. Part of the bandwidth remains unchanged and best-effort services like ongoing vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) applications can continue. We enhance our MAC solution by introducing a prioritization mechanism based on vehicle positions and the overall road traffic density, which leads to a more efficient use of the available bandwidth and further improves the real-time capabilities of our solution.

  • 77.
    Böhm, Annette
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Real-time communication support for cooperative, infrastructure-based traffic safety applications2011In: International Journal of Vehicular Technology, ISSN 1687-5702, E-ISSN 1687-5710, Vol. 2011, no Article ID 541903, p. 17-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The implementation of ITS (Intelligent Transport Systems) services offers great potential to improve the level of safety, efficiency and comfort on our roads. Although cooperative traffic safety applications rely heavily on the support for real-time communication, the Medium Access Control (MAC) mechanism proposed for the upcoming IEEE 802.11p standard, intended for ITS applications, does not offer deterministic real-time support, that is, the access delay to the common radio channel is not upper bounded. To address this problem, we present a framework for a vehicle-to-infrastructure-based (V2I) communication solution extending IEEE 802.11p by introducing a collision-free MAC phase assigning each vehicle an individual priority based on its geographical position, its proximity to potential hazards and the overall road traffic density. Our solution is able to guarantee the timely treatment of safety-critical data, while minimizing the required length of this real-time MAC phase and freeing bandwidth for best-effort services (targeting improved driving comfort and traffic efficiency). Furthermore, we target fast connection setup, associating a passing vehicle to an RSU (Road Side Unit), and proactive handover between widely spaced RSUs. Our real-time MAC concept is evaluated analytically and by simulation based on a realistic task set from a V2I highway merge assistance scenario.

  • 78.
    Böhm, Annette
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Kunert, Kristina
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Vinel, Alexey
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Context-Aware Retransmission Scheme for Increased Reliability in Platooning Applications2014In: Communication Technologies for Vehicles: 6th International Workshop, Nets4Cars/Nets4Trains/Nets4Aircraft 2014, Offenburg, Germany, May 6-7, 2014. Proceedings, Cham: Springer, 2014, p. 30-42Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent advances in cooperative driving hold the potential to significantly improve safety, comfort and efficiency on our roads. An application of particular interest is platooning of vehicles, where reduced inter-vehicle gaps lead to considerable reductions in fuel consumption. This, however, puts high requirements on timeliness and reliability of the underlying exchange of control data. Considering the difficult radio environment and potentially long distances between communicating platoon members, as well as the random channel access method used by the IEEE 802.11p standard for short-range inter-vehicle communication, those requirements are very difficult to meet. The relatively static topology of a platoon, however, enables us to preschedule communication within the platoon over a dedicated service channel. Furthermore, we are able to set aside parts of the available bandwidth for retransmission of packets in order to fulfil the reliability requirements stated by the platoon control application. In this paper, we describe the platooning framework along with the scheduling algorithm used to assign retransmission slots to control packets that are most likely to need them. This retransmission scheduling scheme offers a valuable tool for system designers when answering questions about the number of safely supported vehicles in a platoon, achievable reductions in inter-vehicle gaps and periodicity of control packets. © 2014 Springer International Publishing.

  • 79.
    Böhm, Annette
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Uhlemann, Elisabeth
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Adaptive Cooperative Awareness Messaging for Enhanced Overtaking Assistance on Rural Roads2011In: IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC Fall 2011), Piscataway, N.J.: IEEE Press, 2011, p. 1-5Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cooperative traffic safety applications such as lane change or overtaking assistance have the potential to reduce the number of road fatalities. Many emerging traffic safety applications are based on IEEE 802.11p and periodic position messages, so-called cooperative awareness messages (CAM) being broadcasted by all vehicles. In Europe, ETSI defines a periodic report rate of 2 Hz for CAMs. Although a high report rate is the key to early hazard detection, the 2 Hz rate has been chosen to avoid congestion in settings where the vehicle density is high, e.g., on major highways and in urban scenarios. However, on rural roads with a limited number of communicating vehicles, a report rate of 2 Hz leads to unnecessary delay in cooperative awareness. By adapting the CAM report rate depending on the specific application and road traffic density, and by making use of the priority levels provided by the 802.11p quality of service mechanism, we show that hazards can be detected earlier and the available bandwidth is used more efficiently, while not overexploiting the network resources.

  • 80.
    Böhm, Annette
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE).
    Uhlemann, Elisabeth
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Co-existing periodic beaconing and hazard warnings in IEEE 802.11p-based platooning applicationsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A platoon of trucks driving at the same, mutually agreed speed while keeping a minimum inter-vehicle distance will reduce fuel consumption, enhance transport efficiency as well as improve the safety of other adjacent road users. The European profile of IEEE 802.11p for inter-vehicle communications uses a single 10 MHz control channel dedicated to safety-critical data, shared by periodic status updates, CAM (Cooperative Awareness Message), and event-triggered warnings, DENM (Decentralized Environmental Notification Message). Coupled with the random access delay inherent to the 802.11p medium access method, the strict timing and reliability requirements of platoon applications are not easily met. To this end, we evaluate by simulation the effect of IEEE 802.11p-compliant send rate adaptations and message type prioritizations and the choice of warning dissemination strategy on CAM transmissions and DENM dissemination in a platooning scenario. Simulation studies of a platoon of 10-20 vehicles in a busy highway scenario show that the context-aware choice of send rate, priority class and dissemination strategy not only reduce the dissemination delay of DENMs but even has a significant effect on the throughput of CAMs exchanged by platoon members.

  • 81.
    Böhm, Annette
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Uhlemann, Elisabeth
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Co-Existing Periodic Beaconing and Hazard Warnings in IEEE 802.11p-Based Platooning Applications2013In: VANET 2013 - Proceedings of the 10th ACM International Workshop on VehiculAr Inter-NETworking, Systems, and Applications, New York, NY: ACM Press, 2013, p. 99-101Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A platoon of trucks driving at the same, mutually agreed speed while keeping a minimum inter-vehicle distance will reduce fuel consumption, enhance transport efficiency as well as improve the safety of other adjacent road users. The European profile of IEEE 802.11p for inter-vehicle communications uses a single 10 MHz control channel dedicated to safety-critical data, shared by periodic status updates, and event-triggered warnings. Coupled with the random access delay inherent to the 802.11p medium access method, the strict timing and reliability requirements of platoon applications are not easily met. To this end, we evaluate the effect of IEEE 802.11p-compliant send rate adaptations and message type prioritizations and the choice of warning dissemination strategy in a platooning scenario. Simulation studies of a platoon of 10-20 vehicles in a busy highway scenario show that a context-aware choice of send rate, priority class and dissemination strategy not only reduces the hazard warning dissemination delay but also has a significant effect on the throughput of periodic beacons.

  • 82.
    Böhm, Annette
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Uhlemann, Elisabeth
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Performance comparison of a platooning application using the IEEE 802.11p MAC on the control channel and a centralized MAC on a service channel2013In: 2013 IEEE 9th International Conference on Wireless and Mobile Computing, Networking and Communications (WiMob), Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Press, 2013, p. 545-552, article id 6673411Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent advances in cooperative driving hold the potential to significantly improve safety, comfort and efficiency on our roads. An application of particular interest is platooning of trucks, where it has been shown that keeping a minimum inter-vehicle distance results in considerably reduced fuel consumption.This, however, puts high requirements on timeliness and reliability of the underlying exchange of control messages betweenplatoon members. The European profile of IEEE 802.11p, recently adopted by ETSI, defines two message types to this end, periodic beacons for basic cooperative awareness (CAM) and event-triggered decentralized environmental notification messages (DENM), both of which will use one common control channel. IEEE 802.11p employs a random medium access protocol, which may experience excessive delays during high network loads. To mitigate these effects, ETSI standardizes a decentralized congestion control algorithm to, e.g., lower the CAM update frequency during high loads. However, this may prevent proper functionality of a platooning application. In this paper we propose a solution that instead uses a dedicated service channel for platooning applications and compare its performance to standard-compliant IEEE 802.11p inter-platoon communication on the control channel. Service channels typically have less strict requirements on send rates, data traffic types and medium access methods. Our service channel solution combines a random access phase for DENM with a centralized, scheduled access phase for CAM. Using a service channel enables us to guarantee timely channel access for all CAM packets before a specified deadline while still being able to provide a reasonable DENM dissemination delay. © 2013 IEEE.

  • 83.
    Böhm, Annette
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE).
    Uhlemann, Elisabeth
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Performance evaluation of a platooning application using the IEEE 802.11p MAC on a control channel vs. a centralized real-time MAC on a service channelManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent advances in cooperative driving hold the potential to significantly improve safety, comfort and efficiency on our roads. An application of particular interest is platooning of trucks, where it has been shown that keeping a minimum inter-vehicle distance results in considerably reduced fuel consumptions. This, however, puts high requirements on timeliness and reliability of the underlying exchange of control messages between platoon members. The European profile of IEEE 802.11p, recently adopted by ETSI, defines two message types to this end, periodic beacons for basic cooperative awareness (CAM) and event-triggered decentralized environmental notification messages (DENM), both using the common control channel. The IEEE 802.11p employs a random medium access protocol, with excessive delays that may prevent proper functionality of a platooning application. To mitigate the effects of this, ETSI standardizes a decentralized congestion control algorithm to, e.g., lower the CAM frequency when needed. Some service channels with less strict requirements on send rates, data traffic types or medium access methods are available. In this paper we compare the performance of decentralized, standard-compliant inter-platoon communication using IEEE 802.11p on the control channel with a solution based on a service channel, which combines a random access phase for DENM with a centralized, scheduled access phase for CAM. A dedicated service channel for platooning applications enables us to always guarantee timely channel access of CAM packets before a specified deadline and our simulations show that this is achieved at very small sacrifices in DENM dissemination delay.

  • 84.
    Böhm, Annette
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Zakizadeh, Hossein
    Volvo Technology.
    Vehicular ad-hoc networks to avoid surprise effects on sparsely trafficked, rural roads2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper summarizes the main results from a project focusing on the development and evaluation of communication protocols for inter-vehicle communication on sparsely trafficked, rural roads,ensuring the reliable and timely delivery of safety critical data. The project is motivated by traffic safety applications, especially warning systems to avoid surprise effects of unexpected vehicle encounters on sparsely-trafficked, rural roads. The key issue in suchan application is to make sure that the vehicles become aware of each other’s existence by the help of communication as soon as possible. The driver can then be warned in time to avoid a possible accident.The challenge is to gain high probabilities of successful delivery in time, especially when having to cope with bad communication performance caused by e.g. crests.

  • 85.
    Böhm, Annette
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Kunert, Kristina
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Data age based MAC scheme for fast and reliable communication within and between platoons of vehicles2016In: International Conference on Wireless and Mobile Computing, Networking and Communications, Piscataway: IEEE, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Heavy vehicles driving as platoon with highly reduced inter-vehicle gaps has shown considerable fuel saving potential, but put high timing and reliability requirements on the underlying control data exchange. The recently standardized IEEE 802.11p protocol suite for Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks (VANETs) and its message types do neither support the demands of a platooning application nor take advantage of its properties. We therefore propose a framework for centralized channel access with retransmission capabilities for safety critical control data exchange based on the data age of earlier received messages, DA-RE (Data Age based REtransmission scheme). A simulation comparison to the 802.11p random access Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol shows that the intelligent assignment of retransmission opportunities considerably improves the reliability of platooning control data. We also propose a power control based scheme for early platoon detection allowing several platoons to temporarily share a channel and show that the safe and reliable operation of their vehicles is not compromised. © 2016 IEEE.

  • 86.
    Böhm, Annette
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Kunert, Kristina
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Data age based retransmission scheme for reliable control data exchange in platooning applications2015In: 2015 IEEE International Conference on Communication Workshop (ICCW), Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Press, 2015, p. 2412-2418Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent advances in cooperative driving hold the potential to significantly improve safety, comfort and efficiency on our roads. Platooning of heavy vehicles, where automated or semi-automated driving allows minimal inter-vehicle gaps, has shown considerable reductions in fuel consumption. Although using the same wireless communication technology, a platoon differs from a VANET (Vehicular Ad-hoc NETwork) in several points. It is centralized in its nature, with a well-defined group leader, its topology is fairly stable and it has very challenging requirements on timeliness and reliability of its control data exchange. Therefore, the IEEE 802.11p protocol suite and its recently defined message types do neither support the needs of a platooning application nor take advantage of its properties. A platoons control loop must continuously be fed with fresh data, so the information age is an important parameter to be closely monitored. In this paper, we therefore propose a framework for centralized channel access and retransmission capabilities for safety critical inter-platoon control data based on the data age of earlier received messages. A simulation evaluation compares our solution to a) the decentralized, standard-compliant IEEE 802.11p MAC (Medium Access Control) method, and a time-slotted scheme b) with and c) without retransmissions and shows that the centralized, data age based retransmission scheme clearly outperforms its competitors in terms of maintained data age. © 2015 IEEE.

  • 87.
    Böhm, Annette
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Lidström, Kristoffer
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Larsson, Tony
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Evaluating CALM M5-based vehicle-to-vehicle communication in various road settings through field trials2010In: Proceedings - Conference on Local Computer Networks, LCN, (2010 12 01): 613-620, Piscataway, N.J.: IEEE Press, 2010, p. 613-620Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Future cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) applications aimed to improve safety, efficiency and comfort on our roads put high demands on the underlying wireless communication system. To gain better understanding of the limitations of the 5.9 GHz frequency band and the set of communication protocols for medium range vehicle to vehicle (V2V) communication, a set of field trials with CALM M5 enabled prototypes has been conducted. This paper describes five different real vehicle traffic scenarios covering both urban and rural settings at varying vehicle speeds and under varying line-of-sight (LOS) conditions and discusses the connectivity (measured as Packet Reception Ratio) that could be achieved between the two test vehicles. Our measurements indicate a quite problematic LOS sensitivity that strongly influences the performance of V2V-based applications. We further discuss how the awareness of these context-based connectivity problems can be used to improve the design of possible future cooperative ITS safety applications.

  • 88.
    Caltais, Georgiana
    et al.
    University of Konstanz, Konstanz, Germany.
    Leue, Stefan
    University of Konstanz, Konstanz, Germany.
    Mousavi, Mohammad Reza
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    (De-)Composing Causality in Labeled Transition Systems2016In: 1st Workshop on Causal Reasoning for Embedded and safety-critical Systems Technologies (CREST’16) / [ed] Gregor Gössler & Oleg Sokolsky, Open Publishing Association , 2016, Vol. 224, p. 10-24Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we introduce a notion of counterfactual causality in the Halpern and Pearl sense that is compositional with respect to the interleaving of transition systems. The formal framework for reasoning on what caused the violation of a safety property is established in the context of labeled transition systems and Hennessy Milner logic. The compositionality results are devised for non-communicating systems.

  • 89.
    Campolo, Claudia
    et al.
    Mediterranea University of Reggio Calabria, Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Molinaro, Antonella
    Mediterranea University of Reggio Calabria, Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Berthet, Antoine O.
    Gif-sur-Yvette, CNRS-Centrale Supélec-Université Paris Sud, Gif-sur-Yvette, France.
    Vinel, Alexey
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Full-Duplex Radios for Vehicular Communications2017In: IEEE Communications Magazine, ISSN 0163-6804, E-ISSN 1558-1896, Vol. 55, no 6, p. 182-189Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent significant advances in self-interference cancellation techniques pave the way for the deployment of full-duplex wireless transceivers capable of concurrent transmission and reception on the same channel. Despite the promise to theoretically double the spectrum efficiency, full-duplex prototyping in off-the-shelf chips of mobile devices is still in its infancy, mainly because of the challenges in mitigating self-interference to a tolerable level and the strict hardware constraints. In this article, we argue in favor of embedding full-duplex radios in onboard units of future vehicles. Unlike the majority of mobile devices, vehicular onboard units are good candidates to host complex FD transceivers because of their virtually unlimited power supply and processing capacity. Taking into account the effect of imperfect SI cancellation, we investigate the design implications of full-duplex devices at the higher-layer protocols of next-generation vehicular networks and highlight the benefits they could bring with respect to half-duplex devices in some representative use cases. Early results are also provided that give insight into the impact of self-interference cancellation on vehicle-to-roadside communications, and showcase the benefits of FD-enhanced medium access control protocols for vehicle-to-vehicle communications supporting crucial road safety applications.

  • 90.
    Campolo, Claudia
    et al.
    DIIES Department, University Mediterranea of Reggio Calabria, Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Molinaro, Antonella
    DIIES Department, University Mediterranea of Reggio Calabria, Reggio Calabria, Italy, & CentraleSupélec/L2S, Université Paris-Saclay, Paris, France.
    Berthet, Antoine
    CentraleSupélec/L2S, Université Paris-Saclay, Paris, France.
    Vinel, Alexey
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES). Department of Electrical Engineering, Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Bergen, Norway.
    On Latency and Reliability of Road Hazard Warnings over the Cellular V2X Sidelink Interface2019In: IEEE Communications Letters, ISSN 1089-7798, E-ISSN 1558-2558, Vol. 23, no 11, p. 2135-2138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Decentralized Environmental Notification Messages (DENMs) are generated by a vehicle upon detection of an accident or other hazards on the road, and need to be promptly and reliably transmitted. Delayed or lost messages may have fatal consequences, especially in critical driving situations, such as automated overtake and emergency braking, when vehicles can be very close to each other. In this letter, the DENM latency and reliability performances are characterized over the Cellular Vehicle-to-everything (C-V2X) sidelink (PC5 interface). The conducted study uses analytical tools, among which stochastic geometry, to derive performance results, then validated by simulations. Results are applied to the case of DENMs for emergency electronic brake lights, and helpful insights are provided for this crucial case and for other more general DENM-assisted V2X use cases.

  • 91.
    Campolo, Claudia
    et al.
    Dipartimento di Informatica, Matematica, Elettronica e Trasporti, University Mediterranea of Reggio Calabria, Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Molinaro, Antonella
    Dipartimento di Informatica, Matematica, Elettronica e Trasporti, University Mediterranea of Reggio Calabria, Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Vinel, Alexey
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    To switch or not to switch: Service discovery and provisioning in multi-radio V2R communications2016In: Proceedings of 2016 8th International Workshop on Resilient Networks Design and Modeling (RNDM) / [ed] Magnus Jonsson, Jacek Rak, Arun Somani, Dimitri Papadimitriou & Alexey Vinel, Piscataway: IEEE Press, 2016, p. 281-287, article id 7608299Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A rich portfolio of services (e.g., road traffic information, maps download, Internet/cloud access) will be delivered to users on wheels through Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs).Most of them will be offered by road-side units (RSUs) sparsely deployed along the roads. The prompt access to such services by passing by vehicles highly relies on the efficiency of service announcement procedures performed by the RSUs. In this paper, we present an analytical framework that models the service discovery and access mechanisms in multi-channel vehicular networks. The model accounts for dual-radio devices under different channel configurations for the delivery of announcements (e.g., on the control channel, on a service channel) and related switching mechanisms. Guidelines are suggested for the setting of service announcements parameters and channel configuration to allow providers to boost service provisioning. © 2016 IEEE.

  • 92.
    Campolo, Claudia
    et al.
    Mediterranea University of Reggio Calabria, Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Molinaro, Antonella
    Mediterranea University of Reggio Calabria, Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Vinel, Alexey
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Understanding Adjacent Channel Interference in Multi-Channel VANETs2014In: 2014 IEEE Vehicular Networking Conference (VNC) / [ed] Falko Dressler, Onur Altintas, Suman Banerjee, Björn Scheuermann & David Eckhoff, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Press, 2014, p. 101-104, article id 7013316Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multiple channels have been allocated in the 5 GHz spectrum for vehicular communications worldwide, however, due to the limited allocated bandwidth, simultaneous communications occurring over nearby channels may be affected by adjacent channel interference (ACI). Due to ACI, packet reception may be unsuccessful and transmissions may be delayed. In this work, we investigate the ACI phenomena in multichannel vehicular networks to shed light on their effects, with focus on the transmitter-side. To this purpose, a simple analytical model is introduced along with a preliminary evaluation. Suggestions are also provided about the usage of adjacent channels so to minimize side effects on the communication quality. © 2014 IEEE

  • 93.
    Campolo, Claudia
    et al.
    Università Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Molinaro, Antonella
    Università Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Vinel, Alexey
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Lyamin, Nikita
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Service Discovery and Access in Vehicle-to-Roadside Multi-Channel VANETs2015In: 2015 IEEE International Conference on Communication Workshop, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Press, 2015, p. 2477-2482Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A wide portfolio of safety and non-safety services will be provided to drivers and passengers on top of Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs).

    Non-safety services are announced by providers, e.g., road-side units (RSUs), on a channel that is different from the one where the services are delivered. The dependable and timely delivery of the advertisement messages is crucial for vehicles to promptly discover and access the announced services in challenging vehicle-to-roadside scenarios, characterized by intermittent and short lived connectivity.

    In this paper, we present an analytical framework that models the service advertisement and access mechanisms in multichannel vehicular networks.

    The model accounts for dual-radio devices, and computes the mean service discovery time and the service channel utilization by considering the disruption periods due to the switching of the RSU from the advertising channel (where announcements are transmitted) to the advertised channel (where services are exchanged), under different channel and mobility conditions. It provides quick insights on parameter settings to allow providers to improve service provisioning. © 2015 IEEE

  • 94.
    Campolo, Claudia
    et al.
    University Mediterranea of Reggio Calabria, Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Molinaro, Antonella
    University Mediterranea of Reggio Calabria, Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Vinel, Alexey
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Zhang, Yan
    Simula Research Laboratory, Fornebu, Norway.
    Modeling and enhancing infotainment service access in vehicular networks with dual-radio devices2016In: Vehicular Communications, ISSN 2214-2096, Vol. 6, p. 7-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A dedicated spectrum portion at 5 GHz is available to provide services in vehicular environments (e.g., road safety, traffic efficiency, comfort and infotainment services). The multitude of non-safety critical services offered by roadside and mobile providers can be accessed by vehicles under radio coverage if they listen to the advertisement messages announcing the service configuration parameters and tune to the announced frequency to access the service. Due to intermittent and short connectivity periods, timely and successful advertisements reception is crucial to enable a vehicle accessing available services while it is still connected to the provider.

    In this paper, we design an analytical model of the service advertisement and access procedure for dual-radio vehicular devices. Moreover, we enhance the advertisement phase with a simple technique of message repetition and channel switching coordination, which helps in making vehicles aware of local services promptly coping with channel impairments and collisions. The model flexibly accounts for channel switching, message repetitions, access prioritization, and interference by contending traffic on the channel where service announcements are regularly transmitted. ©2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 95.
    Campolo, Claudia
    et al.
    Dipartimento di Informatica, Matematica, Elettronica e Trasporti, University Mediterranea of Reggio Calabria, Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Molinaro, Antonella
    Dipartimento di Informatica, Matematica, Elettronica e Trasporti, University Mediterranea of Reggio Calabria, Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Vinel, Alexey
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Zhang, Yan
    Simula Research Laboratory, Fornebu, Norway.
    Modeling Event-Driven Safety Messages Delivery in IEEE 802.11p/WAVE Vehicular Networks2013In: IEEE Communications Letters, ISSN 1089-7798, E-ISSN 1558-2558, Vol. 17, no 12, p. 2392-2395Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A stochastic model is designed to assess the delivery performance of event-driven safety messages in IEEE 802.11p/1609.4 vehicular ad-hoc networks (VANETs). The study focuses on the case of a vehicle detecting an unpredictable hazard and broadcasting the alert in the one-hop neighborhood. The model aims at providing quick insights into the impact of the latest WAVE specifications (i.e., traffic differentiation, channel switching) on the delivery of such short-lived alert messages. Results prove that it is accurate in capturing the effect of relevant parameters and show that repeating the alert transmission on the control channel helps to achieve reliable delivery. © 2013 IEEE.

  • 96.
    Castellani, Ilaria
    et al.
    INRIA Sophia Antipolis Méditerranée, Valbonne, France.
    Mousavi, Mohammad Reza
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Preface: Special issue on Trends in Concurrency Theory (selected invited contributions from the workshops TRENDS 2014 and 2015)2017In: The Journal of logical and algebraic methods in programming, ISSN 2352-2208, E-ISSN 2352-2216, Vol. 87, p. 93-93Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 97.
    Castellani, Ilaria
    et al.
    INRIA Sophia Antipolis Mediterranee, Biot, France.
    Mousavi, Mohammad Reza
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Special issue on Trends in Concurrency Theory (selected invited contributions from the workshops TRENDS 2014 and 2015) Preface2017In: The Journal of logical and algebraic methods in programming, ISSN 2352-2208, E-ISSN 2352-2216, Vol. 87, p. 93-93Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 98.
    Churchill, Martin
    et al.
    Swansea University, Swansea, Wales, United Kingdom.
    Mosses, Peter D.
    Swansea University, Swansea, Wales, United Kingdom.
    Mousavi, Mohammad Reza
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES). Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, The Netherlands.
    Modular Semantics for Transition System Specifications with Negative Premises2013In: Proceedings of the 24th International Conference on Concurrency Theory / [ed] Pedro R. D'Argenio & Hernán Melgratti, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2013, p. 46-60Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transition rules with negative premises are needed in the structural operational semantics of programming and specification constructs such as priority and interrupt, as well as in timed extensions of specification languages. The well-known proof-theoretic semantics for transition system specifications involving such rules is based on well-supported proofs for closed transitions. Dealing with open formulae by considering all closed instances is inherently non-modular - proofs are not necessarily preserved by disjoint extensions of the transition system specification. Here, we conservatively extend the notion of well-supported proof to open transition rules. We prove that the resulting semantics is modular, consistent, and closed under instantiation. Our results provide the foundations for modular notions of bisimulation such that equivalence can be proved with reference only to the relevant rules, without appealing to all existing closed instantiations of terms. © 2013 Springer-Verlag.

  • 99.
    Costa Paiva, Sofia
    et al.
    University of Sao Paolo, São Carlos, Brazil.
    Simao, Adenilso
    University of Sao Paolo, São Carlos, Brazil.
    Varshosaz, Mahsa
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Mousavi, Mohammad Reza
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Complete IOCO Test Cases: A Case Study2016In: A-TEST 2016 - Proceedings of the 7th International Workshop on Automating Test Case Design, Selection, and Evaluation, co-located with FSE 2016, New York, NY: ACM Press, 2016, p. 38-44Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Input/Output Transition Systems (IOTSs) have been widely used as test models in model-based testing. Traditionally, input output conformance testing (IOCO) has been used to generate random test cases from IOTSs. A recent test case generation method for IOTSs, called Complete IOCO, applies fault models to obtain complete test suites with guaranteed fault coverage for IOTSs. This paper measures the efficiency of Complete IOCO in comparison with the traditional IOCO test case generation implemented in the JTorX tool. To this end, we use a case study involving five specification models from the automotive and the railway domains. Faulty mutations of the specifications were produced in order to compare the efficiency of both test generation methods in killing them. The results indicate that Complete IOCO is more efficient in detecting deep faults in large state spaces while IOCO is more efficient in detecting shallow faults in small state spaces. © 2016 ACM.

  • 100.
    Cristofer, Englund
    et al.
    Viktoria Swedish ICT, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Chen, Lei
    Viktoria Swedish ICT, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Vinel, Alexey
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Lin, Shih-Yang
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Future Applications of VANETs2015In: Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks: Standards, Solutions, and Research / [ed] Claudia Campolo, Antonella Molinaro & Riccardo Scopigno, Cham: Springer Publishing Company, 2015, p. 525-544Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Current transportation systems face great challenges due to the increasing mobility. Traffic accidents, congestion, air pollution, etc., are all calling for new methods to improve the transportation system. With the US legislation in progress over vehicle communications and EU’s finalization of the basic set of standards over cooperative intelligent transportation systems (C-ITS), vehicular ad hoc network (VANET) based applications are expected to address those challenges and provide solutions for a safer, more efficient and sustainable future intelligent transportation systems (ITS). In this chapter, transportation challenges are firstly summarized in respect of safety, efficiency, environmental threat, etc. A brief introduction of the VANET is discussed along with state of the art of VANET-based applications. Based on the current progress and the development trend of VANET, a number of new features of future VANET are identified, together with a set of potential future ITS applications. The on-going research and field operational test projects, which are the major enabling efforts for the future VANET-based C-ITS, are presented. The chapter is of great interest to readers working within ITS for current development status and future trend within the C-ITS area. It is also of interest to general public for an overview of the VANET enabled future transportation system. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015.

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