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  • 51.
    Nilsson, Christophe
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Beckne, Olle
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Specifik värmeanvändning: Metod för framtagning av den specifika värmeanvändningen för fjärrvärmeanslutna flerbostadshus via Metrias fastighetsregister2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    District heating is currently the most common form of heating for apartment buildings in Sweden, with a ratio up to 90%. It has for a long time been the cheapest heating option for real estate in urban areas but has recently been challenged by cheap and efficient heat pumps. Suppliers are required to work more customer oriented to keep their heating customers, for instance by analyzing the customers heating usage. One way to do that is to get the customer's specific heat consumption expressed in kWh/m2.

    This report presents a method for obtaining the specific heat consumption of apartment buildings among Öresundskraft’s district heating customers in Helsingborg and Ängelholm. The method assumes Metria’s land registry to compile surfaces for Öresundskraft’s heating customers. The area for each property is matched with the delivered heat from Öresundskraft’s customer database.

    In total there are 1,326 properties with apartment buildings. The results show a variation between 2.8 kWh/m2 to over 2,600 kWh/m2 with a median of 109 kWh/m2. Approximately 85% of the properties have a specific heat use between 64 kWh/m2 and 170 kWh/m2, which is considered the normal distribution.

    The values ​​of the heated areas as calculated from Metria’s land registry are compared with values ​​obtained directly from the real-estate company. The result of the comparison is mixed and has in most cases different values ​​for the same property. However, it can’t be distinguished if Metra or the real-estate company’s value is the most accurate.

    The heated surface and the quantity delivered heating for a number of properties with extreme high and low specific heat consumption are compared with its energy return. In most of these cases the cause of the extreme values ​​has been resolved through contact with the owners of the buildings, with the help of aerial photographs or by identifying the building's usage.

    The method is inexpensive, easy to use and can be used instantly to companies. The results provides a clear overview of the specific heat consumption for district heating connected apartment buildings and the method is ideal as a first screening to see which properties needs improvements.

  • 52.
    Nilsson, Helge
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Solvärme i fjärrvärmesystem2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 53.
    Nilsson, Micke
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Lindqvist, Oscar
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Intern energiåtervinning: En förstudie för att ersätta fossila bränslen medrestprodukter från egen produktion2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 54.
    Nolhag, Richard
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Effektivare elanvändning på avfallskraftvärmeverk: Förslag till handlingsplan för minskad elanvändning på Renovas anläggning i Göteborg2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis has identified and studied measures to allow for reduced use of electricity in a waste incineration plant in western Sweden. The energy extracted from the waste at the powerplant is utilized and sold in form of electricity and heat. Technical and environmentally the combined heat and power plant is by today's standards among the leading waste incineration plants in the world. The owners are constantly striving to improve the efficiency of the waste incineration plant. They have seen the opportunities for savings in reducing internal usage of electricity. The delivery from the plant in 2012 was ~1.3 TWh heat and ~0.2 TWh of electricity. Of the total generated amount of electricity, about 29% was used for internal needs, a quota referred to decline by means of this thesis. In the search for ways to achieve a reduction in electricity usage, the plants energy systems was separated into subsystems such as: electric power, heating, ventilation, compressed air, fluid systems, lighting, and two additional categories, administrative and other measures. Efficiency measures were identified through literature reviews, visits at the facility, study of process data and routines as well as interviews and discussions. After analyzes using data and estimated values these measures was quantified in both estimated reduction in electricity usage and in economic measures which resulted in a compilation of several substantial efficiency improvements. With the implementation of these, the electricity usage can be reduced by 4.7 GWh per year, which represents 5.9% of the internal electricity usage. Repayment periods range between zero and 5.3 years. Based on the substantial efficiency potentials, administrative potentials emerged that may contribute to a future energy-wise management of the waste incineration plant.

  • 55.
    Olsson Ingvarson, Lena
    et al.
    Göteborg Energi AB, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Building mass used as short term heat storage2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Daily variations of the heat demand in a district heating system increase the heat generation cost due to the marginal use of more expensive fuels. The use of building masses as short term heat storage has been investigated by Göteborg Energi. The possible heat storage and the prevailing conditions have been estimated. Field measurements have been performed for verification. The preliminary results show that the daily load variations at system level can be eliminated with building masses as active short term heat storage.

  • 56.
    Ottermo, Fredric
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik. Division for Electricity, Department of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Bernhoff, Hans
    Division for Electricity, Department of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden & Swedish Centre for Renewable Electric Energy Conversion, Uppsala, Sweden.
    An upper size of vertical axis wind turbines2014In: Wind Energy, ISSN 1095-4244, E-ISSN 1099-1824, Vol. 17, no 10, p. 1623-1629Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The scaling behaviour of a straight-bladed vertical axis wind turbine is considered. A scaling scheme is described that, in the presence of a wind shear profile, aims at leaving the material stresses of the scaled construction unchanged. On the basis of a recent 200 kW three-bladed H-rotor design, a structural upper size of the turbine is proposed, this size being the scale at which the gravitational force starts to become important. As gravity has a much worse scaling behaviour than the aerodynamic and centrifugal forces, the construction work will become increasingly more difficult above this scale. The upper size is estimated to be around 30 MW. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • 57.
    Persson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Realise the Potential!: Cost Effective and Energy Efficient District Heating in European Urban Areas2011Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Member States of EU27 need to accelerate the integration of energy efficient technology solutions to reach the 20% energy efficiency target set for 2020. At current pace, projections indicate that only half of expected primary energy reductions will be reached. To meet the energy demands of growing populations and a vibrant economy, while simultaneously reducing primary energy supplies, the European continent faces a new kind of challenge never previously encountered. The identification and application of feasible, competitive, and comprehensive solutions to this problem are of highest priority if the remaining gap is to be closed in time. How is this multi-dimensional and complex dilemma to be dissolved? In this work, expanded use of district heating technology is conceived as a possible solution to substantially reduce future primary energy demands in Europe. By extended recovery and utilisation of vast volumes of currently disregarded excess heat from energy and industry sector fuel transformation processes, district heating systems and combined generation of heat and power can improve the general efficiency of the European energy balance. To investigate the possible range of this solution, this thesis introduces a set of methodologies, theoretical concepts, and model tools, by which a plausible future excess heat utilisation potential, by means of district heat deliveries to residential and service sectors, is estimated. At current conditions and compared to current levels, this potential correspond to a threefold expansion possibility for directly feasible district heating systems in European urban areas and a fourfold increase of European excess heat utilisation.

  • 58.
    Persson, Urban
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Möller, Bernd
    Europa-Universität Flensburg, Flensburg, Germany.
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Heat Roadmap Europe: Identifying strategic heat synergy regions2014In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 74, p. 663-681Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study presents a methodology to assess annual excess heat volumes from fuel combustion activities in energy and industry sector facilities based on carbon dioxide emission data. The aim is to determine regional balances of excess heat relative heat demands for all third level administrative regions in the European Union (EU) and to identify strategic regions suitable for large-scale implementation of district heating. The approach is motivated since the efficiency of current supply structures to meet building heat demands, mainly characterised by direct use of primary energy sources, is low and improvable. District heating is conceived as an urban supply side energy efficiency measure employable to enhance energy system efficiency by increased excess heat recoveries; hereby reducing primary energy demands by fuel substitution. However, the importance of heat has long been underestimated in EU decarbonisation strategies and local heat synergies have often been overlooked in energy models used for such scenarios. Study results indicate that 46% of all excess heat in EU27, corresponding to 31% of total building heat demands, is located within identified strategic regions. Still, a realisation of these rich opportunities will require higher recognition of the heat sector in future EU energy policy. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 59.
    Persson, Urban
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Nilsson, Daniel
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Möller, Bernd
    Department of Development and Planning, Aalborg University.
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Mapping local European heat resources: a spatial approach to identify favourable synergy regions for district heating2012In: / [ed] Morten Hofmeister, 2012, p. 261-270Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A major setback in standard generic energy modelling is that national conditions constitute the basis for analysis. By such an approach, heat and energy assets, demands, and distribution structures are viewed from an aggregated perspective not permitting insight into unique local circumstances and conditions. As a consequence, genuinely local synergy opportunities, e.g. recovery and utilisation of excess heat from various activities and sources by distribution in district heating systems, are often ignored or overlooked in generic forecasts.

    The ambitious European targets to increase energy efficiency in future power and heat distribution and use acts as a force to address local conditions in a more systematic and thorough sense than previously elaborated. Increased utilisation of local heat assets and recovered excess heat from local activities, to provide space and tap water heating in residential and service sectors, can replace and thus substitute large shares of natural gas and electricity currently being used to satisfy low temperature heat demands. Spatial screening and identification of local conditions throughout Europe, by use of NUTS3 regions as analytical level of reference, can disclose favourable synergy regions by combining information on local heat assets and demands, and hence provide additional and pivotal information to energy modellers.

    In this study, local conditions such as excess heat from thermal power generation plants, Waste-to-Energy incineration facilities, energy intensive industrial processes, and renewable heat assets (geothermal and solar), are depicted together with heat demand concentrations, using GIS based spatial information, to visualise the possibilities of mapping local European heat resources.

  • 60.
    Persson, Urban
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Competitiveness of European district heating systems2011In: European Energy Pathways: Pathways to Sustainable European Energy Systems / [ed] Filip Johnsson, Göteborg: Alliance for Global Sustainability (AGS) , 2011, p. 283-290Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 61.
    Persson, Urban
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    District heating in sequential energy supply2012In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 95, p. 123-131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increased recovery of excess heat from thermal power generation and industrial processes has great potential to reduce primary energy demands in EU27. In this study, current excess heat utilisation levels by means of district heat distribution are assessed and expressed by concepts such as recovery efficiency, heat recovery rate, and heat utilisation rate. For two chosen excess heat activities, current average EU27 heat recovery levels are compared to currently best Member State practices, whereby future potentials of European excess heat recovery and utilisation are estimated. The principle of sequential energy supply is elaborated to capture the conceptual idea of excess heat recovery in district heating systems as a structural and organisational energy efficiency measure. The general conditions discussed concerning expansion of heat recovery into district heating systems include infrastructure investments in district heating networks, collaboration agreements, maintained value chains, policy support, world market energy prices, allocation of synergy benefits, and local initiatives. The main conclusion from this study is that a future fourfold increase of current EU27 excess heat utilisation by means of district heat distribution to residential and service sectors is conceived as plausible if applying best Member State practice. This estimation is higher than the threefold increase with respect to direct feasible distribution costs estimated by the same authors in a previous study. Hence, no direct barriers appear with respect to available heat sources or feasible distribution costs for expansion of district heating within EU27. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 62.
    Persson, Urban
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Effective Width: The Relative Demand for District Heating Pipe Lengths in City Areas2010In: 12th International Symposium on District Heating and Cooling, Tallinn: Tallinn University of Technology , 2010, p. 128-131Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One key concept when assessing network investment cost levels for district heating systems is the linear heat density. In contrast to a traditional way of expressing this quantity entirely on the basis of empirical data, a recently developed analytical approach has made it possible to estimate linear heat densities on the basis of demographic data categories. A vital complementing quantity in this analytical approach is the concept of effective width.

    Effective width describes the relationship between a given land area and the length of the district heating pipe network within this area. When modelling distribution capital cost levels by use of land area values for plot ratio calculations, there is a potential bias of overestimating distribution capital cost levels in low dense park city areas (e < 0.3). Since these areas often include land area sections without any housing, avoiding overestimations of network investment costs demand some kind of corrective mechanism.

    By use of calculated effective width values, a compensating effect at low plot ratio levels is achieved, and, hence, renders lower anticipated distribution capital cost levels in low dense park city areas.

  • 63.
    Persson, Urban
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Evaluating competitiveness of district heating using a distribution capital cost model2011In: Methods and models: used in the project Pathways to Sustainable European Energy Systems, January 2011 / [ed] Filip Johnsson, Göteborg: Alliance for Global Sustainability (AGS) , 2011, p. 157-160Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 64.
    Persson, Urban
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Heat distribution and the future competitiveness of district heating2011In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 88, no 3, p. 568-576Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The competitiveness of present and future district heating systems can be at risk when residential and service sector heat demands are expected to decrease in the future. In this study, the future competitiveness of district heating has been examined by an in depth analysis of the distribution capital cost at various city characteristics, city sizes, and heat demands. Hereby, this study explores an important market condition often neglected or badly recognised in traditional comparisons between centralised and decentralised heat supply.

    By a new theoretical approach, the traditional and empirical expression for linear heat density is transformed into an analytical expression that allows modelling of future distribution capital cost levels also in areas where no district heating exists today. The independent variables in this new analytical expression are population density, specific building space, specific heat demand and effective width.

    Model input data has primarily been collected from national and European statistical sources on heat use, city populations, city districts and residential living areas. Study objects were 83 cities in Belgium, Germany, France, and the Netherlands. The average heat market share for district heat within these cities was 21 % during 2006.

    The main conclusion is that the future estimated capital costs for district heat distribution in the study cities are rather low, since the cities are very dense. At the current situation, a market share of 60 % can be reached with a marginal distribution capital cost of only 2.1 €/GJ, corresponding to an average distribution capital cost of 1.6 €/GJ. The most favourable conditions appear in large cities and in inner city areas. In the future, there is a lower risk for reduced competitiveness due to reduced heat demands in these areas, since the increased distribution capital cost is low compared to the typical prices of district heat and competing heat supply. However, district heating will lose competitiveness in low heat density areas. Hence, reduced heat demands in high heat density areas are not a general barrier for district heating in the future. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 65.
    Rydström, Petter
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Eriksson, Anders
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Skingrad dimma: energikartläggning på Högskolan i Halmstad2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Society's standards and guidelines say that today's buildings shall reduce their energyconsumption to obtain a better energy performance. To make this possible new laws havebeen formulated to ensure that this is the case. Halmstad University (HH) consists of 18building cells, each with has its own unique energy usage. To get an overall image overHH’s energy situation, the values for heating, cooling and electricity have been collected.The task of obtaining these values has been difficult were multiple instances in HH, theenergy provider and the property manager has been consulted. These values have beentreated along the guidelines of the National Housing Board on how the energyconsumption documents should be created. There have been some values that areunobtainable, the reason for this is because several buildings shared the same connectionpoint for heating, cooling and energy, because of this a breakdown of how much energyeach building uses have been impossible to answer. In these situations all of the buildingsenergy consumptions and surfaces have been pooled and then been treated as onebuilding. Further simplification has been made. In some instances many differentcustomers have shared the same connection point even though separate meters for eachcustomer have not existed. On these occasions the energy provider has divided the energyconsumption between the energy customers only with the means of a fixed percentage, adistribution that is perceived as a disincentive to energy efficiency measures.Distributions of this type do not show the actual energy usage in a specific building.When comparing the values obtained from the energy provider and the energyconsumption documents, several errors were found. Some of the building surfaces havebeen switched. Even pure neglections have occurred. The final result shows that HH’sbuildings have higher energy consumption than the documents that society refers to tooensure that the energy performance of each building is known.

  • 66.
    Selamis, Henrik
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Jämförande livscykelinventering2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 67.
    Sidén, Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Development of New Wind Power in Falkenberg2010Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Within Energy in Minds H-Uni has made a scientific study of the technology, practicability and potential of running cogeneration plants fuelled with rape-seed oil on farms and rural industries. As the cost for the made investigations were lower than planned, three additional studies on topics and activities carried out within Energy in Minds has been made.Within Energy in Minds the municipality of Falkenberg has realized 5 new turbines of 2.3 MW each by the sea shore of Falkenberg. This wind power park gives valuable experience for the planning of the future expansion of wind power, especially for the planned off-shore park with 30 turbines som e 8 km out in the sea.Falkenberg has since the 80-ties actively contributed to the utilisation of wind power in Sweden, both in terms of careful planning of where and how wind turbines should be placed in the landscape but also in terms of participating in the technical competence and manufacturing of turbines.

  • 68.
    Sigurd, Christer
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Hur kommer elbilar och förnybara energikällor påverka vår framtida elproduktion?2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Att vi behöver göra något åt rådande miljösituationen är det få som tvekar på. Elbilar kommer mer och mer som ett alternativ till de konventionella fordonen och det satsas mycket på förnybara energikällor.

    Med en introduktion av elbilar i samhället kommer behovet av elenergi att öka. Inledningsvis kommer elbehovet endast påvekas marginellt och genom att ladda under nattetid när elkonsumtionen är låg kommer nuvarande produktion att räcka ända fram till att hälften av vår fordonsflotta är elektrifierad. När sedan antalet bilar ökar ytterligare krävs en förändring för att klara av det ökade behovet av elenergi. Med den potential våra förnybara energikällor har så visar denna rapport att det kommer klaras av gott och väl. Att köra våra elbilar på förnybar energi har också fördelen att utsläppen i princip blir lika med noll, vilket skapar mervärden. Elbilen blir inte renare än elen som den körs på är.

    Redan idag är en mycket stor del av vår elproduktion från förnybara energikällor. Vattenkraft står för ca 46 % av elproduktionen sett ur ett perspektiv på 11 år. Sedan finns ett planeringsmål att år 2020 ska det produceras 30 TWh från vindkraft i Sverige (idag 2,5 TWh) vilket skulle räcka som energi till både alla våra bilar samt att exportera "grön el" ut i Europa.

  • 69.
    Sporrong, Kristofer
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Ringvall, Angelica
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Pettersson, Per-Johan
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Smarta lokala energisystem, Vision-Teknik-Tillämpning2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The energy sector is facing an impending paradigm shift. Today’s technology enables the end-user to generate their own energy locally at home. Furthermore, recently developed storage technologies make it possible to balance energy demand with stored energy and integrate district heating with the local power grid. This means that in the future heat and electric power will interact and energy flows is converted over energy boundaries. This places high demands on the energy systems dynamic and adaptive functions as a whole. Distributed System Operator (DSO) will therefore need to transform the local energy system, which requires initial investment of energy technology and intelligent system solutions that are technically efficient, flexible, and economically viable.Halmstad Energi och Miljö (HEM) owns a local energy system that is well prepared to implement the vision of a sustainable energy system. The city of Halmstad has politically established that renewable energy will play a more crucial role in the future. A greater proportion of "locally-generated" renewable energy will be implemented in this reference system that includes about 60 000 inhabitants, a great number of different heating/cooling customers and 40,000 electricity customers.In the future, it will be required by HEM to integrate intelligent energy solutions, where energy consumers are increasingly micro generation and able to control their energy demand patterns according to the most economical forecast. The local energy system needs to be able to handle a larger share of intermittent electricity from solar, wind or hydropower that can automatically interact with thermal energy from biomass and waste in a flexible, efficient and economical manner. The project group therefore advice HEM to urgently take steps to reserve the rights to a future aggregator role within the municipality. For this to be possible, new business models and contracts are examined within the energy branch.This master thesis provides suggestions for an appropriate mix of energy that can be achieved by 2030 for the reference system. The proposed energy mix generates 20% of the electricity demand and 100% heat production (except peak load) locally from Renewable Energy Sources (RES) according to local political goals. It also provides suggestions for alternative technological configurations where electricity and district heating systems interact across system boundaries.

  • 70.
    Svedberg, David
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Olsson, Robin
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Virtuella värmebanker i fjärrvärmesystem: En analys av värmelagring i flerbostadshus2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Analysis of the heat storage in residential apartment buildings can be utilized to achieve a smoothing effect of the heat load in district heating system. This heat storage leads to a more optimal operation of the district heating system and will lead to reduced oil consumption for peak load purposes. The district heating system has since its beginning been demand-driven. This means that the customer determines how high the heat demand should be. This leads to large variations in heat production. The variations result in peak demands in the district heating system. These peaks are expensive for the utility company which will be forced to start their peak load plants, which usually consists of oil-fired boiler plants. In this bachelor thesis we have developed a system structure and a model for how the load control can be applied in the district heating system operated by Trollhättan Energi in Western Sweden. The model developed shows how the district heating system and the indoor temperature is affected by the new load control proposed.

  • 71.
    Törngren, Lotta
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Skedala solcellspark2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Skedala photovoltaic plant is the largest projected solar photovoltaic park in Sweden with

    4000 m2 and a total installed peak power of 610 kWp. The solar park planned for Halmstad

    Energy and Environment Ltd, which has a landfill in Skedala, a village northeast of Halmstad,

    where the final cover is in progress. When the final covering is finished, they want to use the

    land for something positive, which is good for both the environment and the residents? My

    work was to design and calculate the profitability of a photovoltaic power plant in the area. I

    chose to design the facility as a park, where you can get for a good time to play and snuggle

    up but also get knowledge about different types of solar cells. In the park, it will be possible

    to see the monocrystalline and polycrystalline solar cells, which are of solar type crystalline

    silicon and CIGS, that is a thin film cell. There are also variations though independent and

    mobile tracking system. HEM also considered, that it was important to get a clear picture of

    the environmental benefits of solar cells and therefore, calculations and comparisons are made

    in the case the electricity is used by households and electric cars compared to electricity made

    from coal and cars powered by petrol and diesel.

  • 72.
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    District Heating and Cooling2013In: Reference Module in Earth Systems and Environmental Sciences / [ed] Scott A. Elias et al., Elsevier, 2013Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    District heating and cooling systems move heat in urban areas. Heat and cold are generated in central supply units by heat or cold recycling, renewables, or by direct heat or cold generation. The heat and cold demands should be concentrated in order to keep low distribution costs. District heating and cooling systems substitute ordinary primary energy supply for heating and cooling. Therefore, district heating and cooling increase both energy efficiency and decarbonisation in the global energy system. However, district heating and cooling is a highly underestimated energy efficiency and decarbonisation method in contemporary energy policy, both nationally and internationally.

  • 73.
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    District Heating in Sweden – Achievements and challenges2010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish district heating sector has achieved a strong position with a market share of 60% during 2008 in the heat market for buildings in the residential and service sectors. This position has been reached during the last 30 years without major use of combined heat and power (CHP) plants. The district heat has instead been generated from a basket of waste incineration, industrial surplus heat, biomass, and some fossil CHP. But during the recent years, the fossil CHP has been replaced by biomass CHP. The specific carbon dioxide emissions are now more than 80% lower than in other European cities and towns using natural gas and fuel oil to heat buildings. This paper gives a short overview of the development of the Swedish district heating sector with respect to market position, the CHP situation, the carbon dioxide emissions, and the additional social cost for district heating.

  • 74.
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Ecoheatcool: Gauging district energy's potential in Europe2007In: District Energy, ISSN 1007-6222, Vol. 93, no 2, p. 23-28Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 75.
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Low carbon district heat in Sweden: District heat and cogeneration in Sweden2007In: Euroheat and Power - English edition, ISSN 1613-0200, Vol. 4, no 4, p. 20-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of the Swedish district heating sector with a market share of 54% in the heat market for buildings in the residential and service industry, is discussed. The district heat is generated using waste incineration, industrial surplus heat, biomass, and fossil combined heat and power (CHP). It reduces carbon dioxide emissions by 63 to 87% lower than in European cities and towns using natural gas and fuel oil to heat buildings. The district heat sector involves about 140 companies with 540 networks located in 220 municipalities. District heating systems have been started to obtain heat sinks for future municipal CHP plants. National energy policy program for reducing the oil dependence and carbon dioxide emissions has boosted the growth of the sector to meet the energy demand of buildings.

  • 76.
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Lägre intäkter från högre fjärrvärmepriser?: en kortfattad analys utifrån fjärrvärmens priselasticitet2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The long term price elasticity for district heating in Sweden has been estimated to -0,35 for the time period between 1970 and 2006. The implication of this estimation is that a Swedish district heating company can only keep 65 % of a real price increase. The remaining 35 % will disappear due to the energy efficiency measures initiated by the customers due to the price increase.In the total revenues, the price elasticity of district heating will be reinforced, if a combined heat and power plant is used in the heat supply. Then the revenues for generated electricity will also be reduced if the heat demand is reduced. In the defined reference case including a biomass combined heat and power plant, the final revenue elasticity became -0,51, almost 50% higher than the price elasticity estimated. If the combined heat and power is based on waste incineration, the reinforcement of the price elasticity is much lower. This result can be explained by the lower heat power share of combined heat and power in the district heating system, the low power-to-heat ratio and the somewhat lower remuneration for the electricity generated.One general conclusion from the analysis performed is that the Swedish district heating companies must consider the price elasticity of district heating in their long term planning. Another conclusion is that the companies must focus on cost reductions rather than price increases in order to preserve the current combined heat and power base for the future.

  • 77.
    Werner, Sven
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Andersson, Sofie
    FVB.
    Abrahamsson, Eva-Marie
    AKRAB.
    Fjärrvärmeolyckor: en översiktlig förstudie2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This prestudy contains a short survey of both international and national information sources about district heating accidents. Also an own database with almost 200 district heating accidents has been analysed.

    Our main conclusions are:• The common denominators for accidents in heat generation are fires and explo-sions.• In heat distribiution, the common denominator seems to be pressure hammers.• It seems probable that district heating systems have lower risk for accidents withrespect to frequencies and consequences compared to other energy systems.• No person was killed or injured in the seven major district heating accidentsreported in the national register of large accidents.• To our knowledge, no customer or third person has been killed or injured by adistrict heating accident in Sweden. However, at least two employees have been killed from scalding of hot water.

    Our recommendations are:• We suggest a revision of the national standards concerning fires and explosions inorder to identify any possibilities to decrease the future frequencies in heat gene-ration plants.• We suggest that the demand for a national standard concerning pressure hammersin distrct heating systems should be considered.• We suggest a study in order to quantify the risks for district heating accidents ba-sed on actual accidents and compare them with the risks in other energy systems..

  • 78.
    Werner, Sven
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Frederiksen, Svend
    Lunds Universitet.
    Fjärrvärme och fjärrkyla2014Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Effektiv förflyttning av värme och kyla i stadsområden är det huvudsakliga syftet med fjärrvärme- och fjärrkylesystem. Genom att koppla samman kundernas värme- och kylbehov med olika tillgängliga värme- och kylkällor kan man tillgodose behoven med ett totalt lägre resursutnyttjande än med konventionella värmepannor och luftkonditioneringsaggregat.

    Denna lärobok innehåller avsnitt om den grundläggande affärsidén, energimarknader, kundbehov, lastvariationer, värmetillförsel, miljöpåverkan, distribution, fjärrvärmecentraler, systemfunktion, ekonomi, planering, historisk utveckling, nutida oh framtida användning, organisation och informationskällor avseende flöden av värme och kyla i fjärrvärme- och fjärrkylesystem.

    Fjärrvärme och fjärrkyla är en tvärvetenskaplig teknik med element från många allmänna tekniker och metoder som förbränning, värmeöverföring, rörströmning, marknadsföring, fakturering etc. Vår uppgift har varit att ge grundläggande inledande kunskaper om typiska aspekter på fjärrvärme och fjärrkyla, vilka vi har bedömt vara viktiga för den grundläggande förståelsen eller mycket unika för denna nischteknik.

    Vi har haft ett brett spektrum av läsare i åtanke. Vår huvudsakliga målgrupp är fjärrvärmeingenjörer, universitetsstudenter, och anställda på fjärrvärmeföretag. Vi skulle också uppskatta om stadsplanerare, ekonomer, politiker och andra som är intresserade av ämnet kommer att tycka att den här boken ger konkret och användbar information om fjärrvärme och fjärrkyla.

  • 79.
    Werner, Sven
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Lund, Henrik
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Vad Mathiesen, Brian
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Progress and results from the 4DH research centre2014In: Proceedings from the 14th International Symposium on District Heating and Cooling: September, 6-10, 2014: Stockholm, Sweden, Stockholm: Swedish District Heating Association , 2014, p. 302-307Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With lower and more flexible distribution temperatures, fourth generation district heating systems can utilize renewable energy sources, while meeting the requirements of low-energy buildings and energy conservation measures in the existing building stock. 4DH is an international strategic research centre located at Aalborg University, which develops 4th generation district heating technologies and systems (4GDH). This technology is fundamental to the implementation of the Danish objective of being fossil fuel-free by 2050 and the European 2020 goals. The research centre is working between 2012 and 2017, with The Danish Council for Strategic Research as main financier and the participating 31 Danish and international companies and universities as co-financiers. Thirteen PhD student projects constitute a vital part of the research centre. In 4GDH systems, synergies are created between three areas of district heating and cooling, which also sum up the work of the 4DH Centre: Grids and components; Production and system integration, and Planning and implementation. This paper presents an overview of the progress and results achieved after more than two years of work. This includes the basic definition paper, the two Heat Roadmap Europe pre-studies, annual conferences, additional demonstration projects, initiated European project proposals, an international PhD course based on the new international textbook, PhD student seminars, all PhD student subjects, and a list of major papers and articles written so far within the research centre.

  • 80.
    Werner, Sven
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Reidhav, Charlotte
    Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Profitability of sparse district heating2008In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 85, no 9, p. 867-877Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The expansion of district heating into areas of low heat densities (heat sparse areas) constitutes a challenge due to the higher distribution costs. The profitability of sparse district heating has been analysed from actual investments in 74 areas with 3227 one-family houses connected to district heating between 2000 and 2004 in Göteborg, Sweden. The profitability was estimated from a probable price model, a typical marginal heat generation cost, and the investments from the actual connections made. The analysis identified factors as the linear heat density and heat sold per house explaining the main variations in profitability. The profitability analysis was concluded with a competition analysis. The main conclusion is that sparse district heating is possible when reaching low investment costs for the local distribution network and low marginal costs for the heat generation. In Sweden, the general competitiveness of sparse district heating is facilitated by the high consumption taxes for fuel oil, natural gas, and electricity. Hence, it should be more difficult to introduce sparse district heating in other countries with low energy taxes. © 2008.

  • 81.
    Wiltshire, Robin
    et al.
    Building Research Establishment (BRE), Watford, United Kingdom.
    Williams, Jonathan
    Building Research Establishment (BRE), Watford, United Kingdom.
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    European DHC Research Issues2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Euroheat & Power is now working towards a European Technology Platform for District Heating and Cooling. In response to this important European DHC research initiative, a preliminary detailed list of research issues within 18 dimensions was elaborated and communicated to more than 100 people in February 2008. After additions and comments received, an updated list of research issues was again distributed in July 2008. This paper contains the current list of suggested research issues.

  • 82.
    Åström, Sara
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Jorlöv, Josefine
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Karaktärisering av solcellsmoduler: en fördjupning i solcellsteknik och metoder för karaktärisering2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP, has recently invested in a pulsed solar simulator to measure and characterize photovoltaic modules. The following report investigates the differences in the analysis between the new solar simulator and SP's existing pulsed solar simulator. All measurements have been performed on four different solar modules, two solar modules of type CIS and two solar modules of type crystalline silicon. We have also carried out practical measurements to see which environmental factors that affect the analysis from the new solar simulator. The surrounding factors consisted of ambient lighting, reflections from the new solar simulator and soiling of the monitor cell. The results show a difference between the quantified values of the new and existing solar simulator, where most of the measurements in the existing solar simulator are higher. The differences are probably due to measurements being made at a higher irradiance level than according to the standard. Furthermore, the results show that there are environmental factors affecting the analysis from the new solar simulator; a soiled monitor cell have the greatest influence on the outcome. 

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