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  • 51.
    Dimkovski, Zlate
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.
    Guilbert, Franck
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces. Ecole Nationale Supérieure d'Arts et Métiers, Centre Arts et Métiers ParisTech, Aix en Provence, France.
    Lundmark, Jonas
    Applied Nano Surfaces Sweden AB, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Mohlin, Johan
    Gnutti Carlo Sweden AB, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Rosén, B.-G.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.
    Optimization of the Triboconditioning Process on External Cylindrical Surfaces2015In: Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Metrology and Properties of Engineering Surfaces, Raleigh, NC: American Society for Precision Engineering (ASPE) , 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of tungsten disulfide in tribofilms on functional surfaces has been a proven way to reduce the frictional losses in rolling and sliding contacts, especially in lubricated contacts at boundary and mixed regime. A suitable and cost-effective process to deposit tungsten disulfide is by ANS Triboconditioning, the mechano-chemical surface finishing process for improving the tribological properties of mechanical components made of steel or cast iron. However, it is not known what are the optimal process parameters, speeds and pressures, to achieve an optimal surface treatment. In this paper, the modifications of the work-piece surfaces under Triboconditioning have been tracked to optimize the process parameters. To closely control the conditions, a commercial tribometer with a block-on-ring configuration was used. Cylindrical tungsten carbide samples (representing the tool) were rubbed against steel rings (representing the work-piece) under two different loads and speeds. The ring surfaces of two different finishes (ground and honed) were measured on the same place before and after treatment to track the surface modifications. At last, the treated rings were rubbed against a flat steel surface in start-stop sequences that resemble pin-roller operating conditions of a truck valve train and the friction behavior was screened. The results show a reduction of the core roughness of the ring surfaces with the lowest friction for the ground rings treated by low load and low speed.

  • 52.
    Dimkovski, Zlate
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.
    Kofod, Guggi
    InMold Biosystems, Farum & Høje-Taastrup, Denmark.
    Rebeggiani, Sabina
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.
    Rosén, Bengt-Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.
    Evaluation of Durability of SOG-layers on Steel Surfaces by Wear and Scratch Tests2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Steel moulds with high precision surfaces are being used in various branches. Process aspects, like tool life and tribological properties, as well as design issues are of great importance. This work summarises experimental studies performed to test durability properties of SOG (spin-on-glass)-layers on steel surfaces. This coating technique is based on a newly developed method for surface preparation of tools which has been demonstrated to be durable for more than 66.000 replications in injection moulding processes without loss of surface fidelity. The procedure allows surface roughness reduction from approximately 200 nm Ra down to some few nm for high gloss applications, as well as easy transfer of large-area functional nanostructures on complex 3D surfaces.

    Three different types of surfaces were investigated: SOG-layered metal surfaces with three different layer thicknesses, one ingot casted and one electro slag remelted material (with hardness level of 950 and 2500 MPa, respectively). The metal surfaces were ground and polished to mirrorlike finishes.

    Three circular samples of each type were rubbed against a hard steel ball of 6.35 mm radius on a commercial pin-on-disk tribometer. To resemble the molding process a sliding speed of 2 mm/s and a load of 8 N were chosen. The tests were performed with 5 minutes intervals until the first damage on the surface were observed. In parallel, scratch tests were performed in the same tribometer. The surfaces were measured in-situ by a portable microscope and a stylus, and afterwards by a white light interferometer and scanning electron microscope to evaluate the size of the wear/scratch traces.

    The surface type with the longest time to damage and/or smallest wear/scratch traces was considered to be the most durable one.

  • 53.
    Dimkovski, Zlate
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.
    Ohlsson, Robert
    Volvo Group Trucks Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Rosén, Bengt-Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.
    Effect of the measurement size on the robustness of the assessment of the features specific for cylinder liner surfaces2014In: Surface Topography: Metrology and Properties, ISSN 2051-672X, Vol. 2, no 1, article id 014013Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The quality of the cylinder liner surface is of great importance due to its impact on the fuel/oil consumption and emissions of the internal combustion engine. A good liner function depends on the size and distribution of the deep honing grooves and the amount of the cold work material (Blechmantel) left inside the grooves after finishing. A fast evaluation of these features requires optical three-dimensional measurements with a large area and good resolution, but many interferometers used today have limited resolution when measuring larger areas. To find out how the measurement size and resolution would affect the quantification and the variation of the parameters, two objectives, 2.5 ×  and 10 × , were used for measuring a cylinder liner from a truck engine. The Blechmantel was of special interest as it first comes into contact with piston/rings, detaches as particles and wears the running surfaces. The 2.5 ×  objective showed more robust assessment than the 10 ×  one, manifested by a lower coefficient of variation for the parameters describing the features: Blechmantel, groove width and height, groove balance and number of grooves. This means that fewer measurements are required if a 2.5 ×  objective is used in production and hence the time and cost of the liner would be decreased. © 2014 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  • 54.
    Dimkovski, Zlate
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.
    Ohlsson, Robert
    Volvo Group Trucks Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Rosén, Bengt-Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.
    Effect of the Measurement Size on the Robustness of the Assessment of the Features Specific for Cylinder Liner Surfaces2013In: Metrology and Properties of Engineering Surfaces, 2013: Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Metrology and Properties of Engineering Surfaces, 2013, p. 377-381Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The quality of the cylinder liner surface is of great importance due to the impact on the fuel/oil consumption and emissions of the internal combustion engines. A good liner function depends on the size and distribution of the deep honing grooves and amount of the cold work material (Blechmantel) left inside the grooves after finishing. A fast evaluation of these features requires optical 3D measurements with a larger area and good resolution, but the commercial interferometers used today are with limited resolution when measuring larger areas. To find out how the measurement size and resolution would affect the quantification and number of measurements needed for a robust assessment, two objectives, 2.5x and 10x, were used for measuring a cylinder liner from a truck engine. The Blechmantel was of a special interest as it first comes into a contact with piston/rings, detaches in particles and wears the running surfaces. The 2.5x objective showed more robust assessment than the 10x one manifested with lower number of measurements needed for the parameters describing the features: Blechmantel, groove width and height, groove balance and number of grooves.

  • 55.
    Dimkovski, Zlate
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.
    Ohlsson, Robert
    Volvo Power Train Corp Sweden.
    Rosén, Stefan
    Toponova AB, Sweden.
    Rosén, B.-G.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.
    Characterisation of transparent deposits on cylinder liner surfaces of HDD truck engines2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 56.
    Dimkovski, Zlate
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.
    Tomanik, Eduardo
    MAHLE Metal Leve, Jundiai, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    Profito, Francisco
    University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    Influence of measurement and filtering type on friction predictions between cylinder liner and oil control ring2016In: Tribology International, ISSN 0301-679X, E-ISSN 1879-2464, Vol. 100, p. 7-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is of a vital importance to reduce the frictional losses in the engines and hence the fuel/energy consumption. The major contributors to this are the oil control ring and cylinder liner interactions difficult to understand when comparing the experimental and theoretical results. The latter largely depend on the liner surface measurement and filtering type used in the simulations. Therefore, low-pass and high-pass filtrations were applied and the friction behaviors between the filtered liner surfaces and a perfectly flat ring surface were simulated for different engine speeds. The surfaces low-pass filtered by lower cutoffs showed higher friction, while the type of de-noising revealed about two and a half times higher friction. Stylus surfaces showed larger friction than the interference ones. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 57.
    Dimkovski, Zlate
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.
    Tomanik, Eduardo
    Mahle Metal Leve, Jundiai - Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    Profito, Francisco
    University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo – SP, Brazil.
    Influence of Surface Waviness on Predictions of Friction between Cylinder Liner and Oil Control Ring2015In: Proceedings of the 42nd Leeds – Lyon Symposium on Tribology, September 7-9, 2015, Lyon, France, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is of a vital importance for automotive industry to reduce the frictional losses in internal combustion engines and hence their fuel consumption and CO2 emissions. The major contributors to this are the oil control ring (OCR) and cylinder liner interactions. These interactions are of complex multi-physics and multi-scale nature and many attempts have been made to improve the modelling and understanding of the phenomena involved. Even though continuous improvements have been made (see for ex. [1-3]), the form, waviness and roughness variation of real engineering surfaces still cause a large scatter in the results. The most of the models include measured liner surfaces, which are then filtered to capture the micro-effects of the roughness scale. However, by doing this, the contact conditions change (asperity contact distributes more evenly, see Fig. 1) such that the part of the boundary friction reduces and the part of the hydrodynamic friction increases accordingly for a given engine speed. This study focuses on one of these multi-scale problems, namely on how the 3D measurement type/size and filtering affects the predictions of friction between cylinder liner and OCR of truck engines. Two types of 3D liner surface measurements were investigated: (i) interference (with an objective of 2.5x, size of 2.5x3.3mm) and (ii) 4x8mm stylus measurement. The form was removed by fitting and subtracting a 2nd order polynomial and the waviness was filtered out by using a robust Gaussian filter with three different cutoffs: 2.5mm, 0.8mm and 0.25mm. The friction behaviours (i.e. the Friction Mean Effective Pressure-FMEP) between the primary/ filtered liner surfaces and a perfectly flat ring surface were then simulated for different engine speeds. The relative errors of the OCR’s FMEPs with respect to the primary surface were evaluated and results discussed.

  • 58.
    Dimkovski, Zlate
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.
    Yoann, Charon
    Perrier, Maxime
    Cabanettes, Frédéric
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.
    Rosén, Bengt-Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.
    A Sensitivity Study of the Tribotesting Setup to Rate Different Liner Surfaces2012In: 15th Nordic Symposium on Tribology: NordTrib 2012, Trondheim, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 59.
    Elghoul, zoelfikar
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.
    John, Shobin
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.
    Surface Topographical  Analysis Of Cutting Inserts2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The following report conducted with collaboration of the University of Halmstad and ABSandvik Coromant.The focus of the project is characterizing the surface topography of different surface treatmentvariants before and after chemical vapor deposition (CVD).As a part of improving the knowledge about the surface area characterization and accomplisha better knowledge and understanding about surfaces and its relation to wear of uncoatedWC/Co cutting tools The project initiated in February 2016 and end date was set to May2016.The methodology used in this thesis based on the statistical analysis of surface topographicalmeasurements obtained from interferometer and SEM by using Digital-Surf-MountainsMapsoftware.The finding from this thesis showed that Mean and Standard deviation method, Spearman’scorrelation analysis and Standard deviation error bar followed by ANOVA and T-test areeffective and useful when comparing between different variants.The thesis resulted in a measurement approach for characterizing different surfacetopographies using interferometer and SEM together with statistical analysis.Keywords: 3D-Surfaces Texture, CVD coating inserts, Interferometer, Spearman’s correlation andANOVA & T-test.

  • 60.
    Flys, Olena
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.
    Dimkovski, Zlate
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.
    Olsson, Bengt
    Volvo Group Truck Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Rosén, Bengt-Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.
    Bååth, Lars
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK).
    Piston ring topography variation and robust characterization2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is a constant challenge for the automotive industry to reduce friction losses and oil consumption in automobile engine. The piston ring friction accounts for approximately 20% of the total mechanical energy losses in a modern engine. Oil control rings limit and control the oil consumption of the engine as well. They scrape off excess lubricating oil from the cylinder walls and return it to the crank case. Piston rings are designed to distribute the thin oil film evenly to ensure piston and ring lubrication. The surface topography of a piston ring is an efficient variable in the control of the oil consumption and friction losses. In places where the interacting surfaces come in contact, the oil film thickness is extremely thin and the surface asperities may deform because of the high pressures. There are different types of oil control rings.The most common one is the twin land oil control ring, which consists of two narrow lands that scrape off the oil on the liner and a spring on the back that exerts the load. In this paper, the surfaces of the two lands were investigated, since they play the key role in its function. The goal is to map the variation in surface roughness of piston rings that appear at different scales from form and waviness to micro and nano roughness. Areal topography measurements were made by white light interferometer designed at the Halmstad University able to measure and scan the total functional area of a piston ring. An significant amount of oil control piston rings of heavy duty truck engines were examined and 24 measurements were made in circumferential direction and on each ring land. The results show both the variation and uncertainty of the ring topography and discuss the instrument and measuring methodology uncertainty. The most stable parameters were found and recommended for an effective quality control. Comparisons between established coherence scanning interferometer and the instrument built in Halmstad were made. To ensure a good quality, the measurements were made both on calibration standards and on piston ring surfaces. Finally the influence on function and energy losses in the final engine assembly is discussed to indicate future design and metrology improvements.  

  • 61.
    Flys, Olena
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK). SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Borås, Sweden.
    Källberg, S.
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Borås, Sweden.
    Ged, G.
    LCM LNE-Cnam, Trappes, France.
    Silvestri, Z.
    LCM LNE-Cnam, Trappes, France.
    Rosén, Bengt-Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.
    Characterization of surface topography of a newly developed metrological gloss scale2015In: Surface Topography: Metrology and Properties, ISSN 2051-672X, Vol. 3, no 4, article id 045001Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the European Joint Research Project 'Multidimensional Reflectometry for Industry', a new gloss scale was developed with the aim to represent different levels of gloss, hue, roughness, and refractive indices. In this paper, the surfaces of six selected samples were thoroughly investigated using various measuring techniques in order to verify the outcome of the novel manufacturing processes in terms of distinct levels as well as types of surface roughness. The aim of the evaluation was to capture surface structures in different wavelength intervals utilizing a confocal microscope, a coherence scanning interferometer, and an atomic force microscope. Power spectral density functions were also calculated from the measurements and used to determine suitability of techniques for different roughness scales. The measurements show that the expected surface characteristics as well as different RMS roughness values are intimately connected to the perceived glossiness.

  • 62.
    Glon, Fanny
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces. ENISE, Saint-Etienne, France.
    Flys, Olena
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces. SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Borås, Sweden .
    Lööf, Pär-Johan
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.
    Rosén, Bengt-Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.
    3D SEM for surface topography quantification – a case study on dental surfaces2014In: Journal of Physics, Conference Series, ISSN 1742-6588, E-ISSN 1742-6596, Vol. 483, no 1, article id 012026Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    3D analysis of surface topography is becoming a more used tool for industry and research. New ISO standards are being launched to assist in quantifying engineering surfaces. The traditional optical measuring instrumentation used for 3D surface characterization has been optical interferometers and confocal based instrumentation. However, the resolution here is limited in the lateral dimension to the wavelength of visible light to about 500 nm. The great advantage using the SEM for topography measurements is the high flexibility to zoom from low magnifications and locating interesting areas to high magnification of down to nanometer large surface features within seconds. This paper presents surface characterization of dental implant micro topography. 3D topography data was created from SEM images using commercial photogrammetric software. A coherence scanning interferometer was used for reference measurements to compare with the 3D SEM measurements on relocated areas. As a result of this study, measurements emphasizes that the correlation between the accepted CSI measurements and the new technology represented by photogrammetry based on SEM images for many areal characterization parameters are around or less than 20%. The importance of selecting sampling and parameter sensitivity to varying sampling is high-lighted. Future work includes a broader study of limitations of the photogrammetry technique on certified micro-geometries and more application surfaces at different scales. © Published under licence by IOP Publishing Ltd.

  • 63.
    Johansson, S.
    et al.
    Volvo Technology AB, Chalmers Science Park, Gothenburg.
    Frennfelt, C.
    Volvo Technology AB, Chalmers Science Park, Gothenburg.
    Killinger, A.
    Universität Stuttgart, Institut für Fertigungstechnologie keramischer Bauteile (IFKB), Stuttgart.
    Nilsson, P.H.
    Volvo Technology AB, Chalmers Science Park, Gothenburg.
    Ohlsson, R.
    Volvo Powertrain AB, Gothenburg.
    Rosén, Bengt - Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.
    Frictional evaluation of thermally sprayed coatings applied on the cylinder liner of a heavy duty diesel engine: pilot tribometer analysis and full scale engine test2011In: Wear, ISSN 0043-1648, E-ISSN 1873-2577, Vol. 273, no 1, p. 82-92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The piston system accounts for roughly half of the mechanical friction of an internal combustion engine, thus it is important to optimize. Different thermally sprayed cylinder liners were investigated in order to optimize the frictional impact of the contact between cylinder liner and piston ring/piston. A novel tribometer test setup was used to scan through different materials at different running conditions. Based on these results a full-scale single cylinder test was performed to validate the results from the rig. A comparison of the results between the tribometer and the engine shows the importance of the ratio between viscous and mechanical friction losses.

  • 64.
    Johansson, Staffan
    et al.
    Volvo Technology AB.
    Nilsson, Per
    Volvo Technology AB.
    Ohlsson, Robert
    Volvo Powertrain AB.
    Rosén, Bengt-Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.
    Experimental friction evaluation of cylinder liner/piston ring contact2011In: Wear, ISSN 0043-1648, E-ISSN 1873-2577, Vol. 271, no 3-4, p. 625-633Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fuel consumption is an extremely important parameter for the automotive industry today. Anticipated emission legislative demands in combination with a rising oil price are true motivators. In engines the piston system is the largest source of frictional losses, accounting for about 50% of the total frictional losses, thus it is important to optimize. Apart from frictional losses the piston system is a large consumer of lubricating oil, a considerable contributor to the total amount of particulate emissions (PM). New materials, coatings and high-tech machining processes that previously were considered to be too expensive and therefore only used in complex applications are today becoming more affordable. It is important to develop reliable test methods to study these new concepts. The reciprocating tribometer at Volvo Technology has been updated to better evaluate the frictional difference between material combinations/surfaces; it is possible to evaluate a number of operational parameters in each experiment. The components that were studied were a piston ring running against a cylinder liner. Friction, wear and change in surface morphology were studied in the experiments. It is shown that for the introduced DoE based tribometer test the interaction of dynamic viscosity, velocity and contact pressure can be studied within one experiment. The results show differences in friction which could be explained as the surface creating beneficial contact conditions for oil film build-up. It is also apparent that surface roughness is important regardless of material properties. To better understand the correlations between friction and surface roughness a future study should include a study of similar materials with different roughness values.

  • 65.
    Johansson, Staffan
    et al.
    Volvo Technology AB.
    Nilsson, Per
    Volvo Technology AB.
    Ohlsson, Robert
    Volvo Powertrain AB.
    Rosén, Bengt-Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.
    Experimental friction evaluation of cylinder liner/piston ring contact: Results2009In: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Metrology and Properties of Engineering Surfaces / [ed] P. Pawlus, L. Blunt, B.-G. Rosen, T. Thomas, M. Wieczorowski, H. Zahouani, Rzeszow: Rzeszow University of Technology , 2009, p. 193-199Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 66.
    Jonsson, Per
    et al.
    Olofström School of Automotive Stamping, Olofström.
    Berglund, Johan
    Sandvik Tooling R & D Center Olofström.
    Kjellsson, Kenneth
    Department of Manufacturing Engineering, Die Development, Volvo Cars, Olofström.
    Rosén, Bengt-Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.
    Surface Topography on trimming dies and the influence of wear2010In: Proceedings of the International Deep Drawing Research Group / [ed] R. Kolleck, 2010, p. 345-354Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper it is investigated how surface topography on trimming dies influences the wear process. Surfaces on both semi-industrial test dies and dies used in production were analyzed with different surface topography analysis methods. The result shows that the wear process is different on the different sides of the trimming edge. The texture direction of the surface is changed due to wear, with the strongest change on the clearance side of the edge. The roughness on sheet side of the edge is reduced due to a hammering effect from the sheet material. The result on the test dies and the production dies correlates well.

  • 67.
    Löfgren, Hans Bertil
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.
    A solution to the hydrodynamic lubrication of a circular point contact sliding over a flat surface with cavitation2012In: Theoretical and Applied Mechanics Letters, ISSN 2095-0349, Vol. 2, no 3, article id 032004Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This letter presents an analytical solution to the hydrodynamic lubrication of a circular point contact sliding over a flat surface with cavitation. The solution is found by solving the Reynolds equation with Reynolds boundary condition for cavitation. The cavitation boundary is shown to be straight lines directed 108.4° against the sliding direction. The result is experimentally verified in the limit of large values of viscosity, sliding velocity and radius of a spherical ball. The solution raises questions about the coupling between cavitation and film rupture and can be used as an independent check on the validity of numerical solutions.

  • 68.
    Nilsson, Bertil
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.
    Hansbo, Peter
    Department of Applied Mechanics, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    A goal oriented adaptive finite element method for hydrodynamic lubricationManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a goal-oriented adaptive finite element method for a cavitation model based on Reynolds' equation. A posteriori error estimates and adaptive algorithms are derived, and numerical examples illustrating the theory are supplied.

  • 69.
    Nilsson, Bertil
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.
    Hansbo, Peter
    Department of Applied Mechanics, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Adaptive finite element solution of a cavitation problem in hydrodynamic lubricationManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We present an adaptive finite element method for a cavitation model based on Reynolds' equation. A posteriori error estimates and adaptive algorithms are derived, and numerical examples illustrating the theory are supplied.

  • 70.
    Ohlsson, Robert
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Rosén, Bengt-Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.
    Surface texture knowledge support - ISM2003In: Advanced techniques for assessment surface topography: development of a basis for 3D surface texture standards "SURFSTAND" / [ed] Liam Blunt, Xiangqian Jiang, London: Kogan Page Science , 2003, p. 325-337Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the recent past there has been a step change in manufacturing strategies and technologies primarily as a result of globalisation and extreme pressure on increasing competitiveness. To be competitive and maintain profit in such a dynamic environment, a manufacturing enterprise must be capable of adjusting quickly to the market. This has lead to the emergence of a new manufacturing strategies such as agile manufacturing, where multiple companies co-operate under flexible virtual enterprise structures. The main purpose of AM is to obtain high quality, shortest lead- time, good service at the lowest cost to satisfy customers' requirements. To respond to the market rapidly, companies have to work closely with their suppliers, customers, and partners to shorten the product development lifecycle and to highlight potential problems. Simultaneous requirements of high quality and rapid co-operative business demands effective information and data handling systems. Specifying surface texture for products will have a heavy impact on the cost and function of the final product and consequently becomes a critical factor in AM based product specification.

  • 71.
    Ohlsson, Robert
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Rosén, Bengt-Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.
    Westberg, John
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    The interrelationship of 3D surface characterisation techniques with standardised 2D techniques2003In: Advanced techniques for assessment surface topography: development of a basis for 3D surface texture standards "SURFSTAND" / [ed] Liam Blunt, Xiangqian Jiang, London: Kogan Page Science , 2003, p. 197-220Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The objectives and main aim of the work discussed in this chapter is to compare 2D with 3D surface roughness parameters measured on functional surfaces. The functional surfaces provided were automotive cylinder liners, steel sheet product and ball bearings. Tests designed to throw light on the dispersion and variability, when measuring and calculating 2D and 3D parameters, were also carried out. These results indicated the number of measurement needed for a surface to receive a stable mean value for the topography. Additionally, work is discussed which shows the functional relationship between traditional 2D surface parameters and a range of the newly developed 3D parameters. This study allowed a deeper understanding of the functionality of automotive cylinder bores, and empirical wear relationships are proposed. Finally, studies were carried out on sheet steel for the purpose of comparing optical and tactile measurement techniques

  • 72.
    Pawlus, Paweł
    et al.
    Rzeszóv University of Technology.
    Blunt, LiamHuddersfield University.Rosén, Bengt-GöranHalmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.Thomas, TomHalmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.Wieczorowski, MichalPoznan University of Technology.
    Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Metrology and Properties of Engineering Surfaces2009Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
  • 73.
    Rebeggiani, Sabina
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.
    On Polishability of Tool Steels2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the world’s fastest growing industries is the plastic industry. Today’s ever increasing demands of high quality products, shorter lead times and reduced costs push development and research forwards. Moulds for plastic injection moulding need to have a functional surface to meet demands on demoulding and wear properties, but also to produce the required final surface quality, which for ‘standard mould qualities’ of high gloss applications means nearly defect free, shiny and smooth mould surfaces with roughness levels in the nm-range.

    The aim of this thesis was to develop a metrology framework to quantitatively characterise these mould surfaces in order to gain better understanding of which defect structures are critical at injection moulding, and how these are correlated to material properties and operating conditions in surface preparation of tool steels. In practice this means to capture surface features of some few nm in height/depth up to some hundreds of microns in lateral dimension within insert areas of cm2 and larger. Experiments combining polishers’ experience with steel producers’ as well as non-contact areal texture examinations of surface topography were performed to overcome and link practical skills to academic ones.

    Based on areal surface metrology, defect classification and image analysis based surface characterisation, an evaluation procedure for polished tool steel surfaces was developed, initially tested and verified. The suggested method involves descriptions of relevant defect structures and acceptance levels for high gloss polished tool steels in the form of numerical parameter values based on interferometric measurements. It was also concluded that the cleanness of the steels was less important as long as it was kept within reasonable levels; the surface preparation strategy is a major factor influencing the mould surface quality e.g. it was found that a ‘several-step-strategy’ was favourable to avoid defect structures; not all ‘mirror-like’ mould surfaces had desirable topographies for injection moulding, therefore a well-defined mould surface assessment with numerical values describing mould surface quality is necessary to secure effective mould surfaces.

  • 74.
    Rebeggiani, Sabina
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.
    Polishability of tool steels: Characterisation of high gloss polished tool steels2009Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The manufacturing of plastic components, like a majority of other mass produced discrete parts, require well designed dies and moulds. Complex geometries and increasing demands on final surface appearance, which is strongly connected to the quality impression, are pushing for high demands on mould-makers and polishers as well as steel producers. Moulds for production of shiny plastic components require tool steels with low defect levels to achieve highly gloss and very smooth mould surfaces (roughness levels in the nm-range).

    It is the ability to achieve those mirror-like surfaces, the polishability of tool steels, that is the central part in this study. To increase the understanding of how material properties and different surface preparation techniques impact the polishability, a selection of high gloss polished tool steel qualities were characterised using non-contact 3D-surface texture analysis.

    A first step towards a grading system of the polishablility was made based on a classification of surface defects detected on included steel samples. 3D surface parameters based on interferometer measurements seemed to be useful for a characterisation, even though further studies (involving different filters and segmentation methods) are needed to find less and more precise parameter values to grade tool steel qualities.

    Future work will include analysis of surface measurements of test moulds and plastic parts, as well as studies of how quantitative parameters can be linked to qualitative estimations in order to better understand how surface features on the mould are transferred into the surface of plastic components.

  • 75.
    Rebeggiani, Sabina
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.
    Behrens, Barbara
    Fraunhofer Institute for Production Technology, Department Process Technology, Aachen, Germany.
    Klocke, Fritz
    Fraunhofer Institute for Production Technology, Department Process Technology, Aachen, Germany.
    Zunke, Richard
    Fraunhofer Institute for Production Technology, Department Process Technology, Aachen, Germany.
    Rosén, Bengt-Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.
    Towards robust polishing strategies for moulds and dies2009In: Proceedings of the 3rd Swedish Production Symposium, Göteborg, Sweden, 2-3 December 2009 (SPS09), Swedish Production Academy , 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper summarises several experiments performed in order to increase the knowledge about the polishing process (e.g. to better understand the origins of different defect structures) and to develop new polishing strategies for dies and moulds with high demands on surface quality, i.e. glossy and ‘defect free’ surfaces. The polishing strategies are not only a help to avoid unwanted surface structures, they will also work as the base for automated polishing systems, which have several advantages compared to manual polishing; vibrating hand tools and monotonic work can be avoided, dust and noise levels as well as total process time can be reduced, and more consistent surface finishes from tool to tool can be achieved.

    A selection of steel samples, polished with different techniques, were analysed to study how the final surface quality was influenced by e.g. the process route, the degree of purity and the microstructure. The surface quality was here represented by roughness values and SEM-images. It could be concluded that the degree of homogeneity and the purity level of the steel materials were crucial to final surface qualities; the lower amount of inclusions, the better the surface quality. Further, a classification of occurred defect structures made.

  • 76.
    Rebeggiani, Sabina
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.
    Dimkovski, Zlate
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.
    Kofod, Guggi
    InMold Biosystems, Taastrup, Denmark.
    Rosén, Bengt-Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.
    Empirical Evaluation of Spin-on-Glass-Layers on Steel Surfaces by Wear Tests2014In: Tribologia Finnish Journal of Tribology, ISSN 0780-2285, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 19-24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dies and moulds with high precision surfaces are being used in various branches, e.g. in the plastic industry where the surface finish are conventionally performed by manual polishers. With ever increasing demands of shorter lead times and reduced costs, efforts have been made to automate this finishing process. This paper presents an empirical study performed to test durability properties of SOG (spin-on-glass)-layers on steel surfaces. The results showed that the thin coating last longer than the thicker ones, and that the harder coatings withstood wear significantly better than the steel reference samples thus motivating further investigations.

  • 77.
    Rebeggiani, Sabina
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.
    Dimkovski, Zlate
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.
    Rosén, Bengt-Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.
    Traceology for polishing process control2014In: Conference Proceedings - 14th International Conference of the European Society for Precision Engineering and Nanotechnology, EUSPEN 2014 / [ed] R. Leach, Bedford: EUSPEN , 2014, Vol. 1, p. 217-220Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Final finishing operations of dies and moulds e.g. in the plastic industry, are conventionally performed by manual polishers. With ever increasing demands of shorter lead times and reduced costs, efforts have been made to automate the finishing process. This paper presents the first step towards a built-in surface inspection system for automated polishing processes, designed to indicate when it is time to shift from one preparation step to the next one. It is based on an evaluation procedure for mirror-like steel surfaces, and a characterisation method used to study scratch patterns on cylinder liner surfaces. This method was further developed/adapted to polished steel surfaces. The results showed that scratch width and height were strong indicators for surface quality evaluation.

  • 78.
    Rebeggiani, Sabina
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.
    Flemming, Leigh
    Huddersfield University, Huddersfield, United Kingdom.
    Rosén, Bengt-Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.
    Blunt, Liam
    Huddersfield University, Huddersfield, United Kingdom.
    A Training Consortium to Explore and Exploit Surface Metrology2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of surface finish in all aspects of manufacturing influences economic considerations as well as environmental aspects and functionality. The ability to effective and efficient characterise surface topography is an important tool in the manufacturers arsenal which is often overlooked or underutilised. By providing a comprehensive, affordable training package, a gap in the industrial knowledge is filled giving manufacturers the ability to increase their competitive edge.

  • 79.
    Rebeggiani, Sabina
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.
    Rosén, Bengt Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.
    Sandberg, Alf
    Uddeholms AB, Hagfors, Sweden.
    A quantitative method to estimate high gloss polished tool steel surfaces2011In: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Metrology and Properties of Engineering Surfaces: 12 – 15 April 2011, Twickenham Stadium, UK / [ed] Richard Leach & Liam Blunt, Teddington: National Physical Laboratory , 2011, p. 35-39Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Visual estimations are today the most common way to assess the surface quality of moulds and dies; a method that are both subjective and, with today’s high demands on surfaces, hardly usable to distinguish between the finest surface qualities. Instead a method based on non-contact 3D-surface texture analysis is suggested. Several types of tool steel samples, manually as well as machine polished, were analysed to study different types of surface defects such as pitting, orange peel and outwardly features. The classification of the defect structures serves as a catalogue where known defects are described. Suggestions of different levels of ‘high surface quality’ defined in numerical values adapted to high gloss polished tool steel surfaces are presented. The final goal is to develop a new manual that can work as a ‘standard’ for estimations of tool steel surfaces for steel producers, mould makers, polishers etc.

  • 80.
    Rebeggiani, Sabina
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.
    Rosén, Bengt-Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.
    A Step-by-Step Analysis of Manual Polishing Sequences2012In: Proceedings of the 9th International Tooling Conference / [ed] Harald Leitner, Regina Kranz, Angelika Tremmel, 2012, p. 317-324Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polishing of tool steels for e.g. injection moulding of plastic parts or direct polishing of products is perhaps the most important industrial finishing process today. Polishing is often made manually to ensure the highest quality and nanometre roughness. This study compare steel samples prepared in different companies to study how different polishing sequences affect final surface qualities, i.e. trying to find crucial factors controlling high gloss appearance and defect levels. The samples were prepared in a way that every step of the polishing process could be studied quantitatively at nanometre level using phase shifting- and coherence scanning interferometry. In addition, all samples were qualitatively documented and judged visually by the polishers themselves. It could be concluded that a ‘several-step’ strategy in combination with short polishing time was advantageous. Also, guidelines for tool and abrasive selection is presented suggesting cotton as carrier and diamonds of 1 µm size for more time efficient final polishing.

  • 81.
    Rebeggiani, Sabina
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.
    Rosén, Bengt-Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.
    Evaluation of a robot assisted polishing equipment2008In: Proceedings (CD) of the 2nd Swedish Production Symposium; Stockholm, Sweden, 2008, p. 6-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is based on several tests of a robot assisted polishing equipment, the Strecon RAP-200, which was recently developed by Strecon A/S in purpose to polish punches and dies for metal forming. The main part of the study was a 4-factor 2-level design of experiment, where the influence of pressure, pulse, repetitions and linear speed on the final surfaces were studied with help of both a mechanical stylus and an interferometer.

    The number of repetitions seemed to be the main factor affecting the final surface quality, but also the rotation speed seemed to affect the surface roughness. Further evaluations will be performed in the forthcoming three years.

  • 82.
    Rebeggiani, Sabina
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.
    Rosén, Bengt-Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.
    Factors influencing the surface quality of polished tool steels2014In: Surface Topography: Metrology and Properties, ISSN 2051-672X, Vol. 2, no 3, article id 035004Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today’s demands on surface quality of moulds for injection moulding of plastic components involve no/low defect contents and roughness levels in the nm-range for high gloss applications. Material properties as well as operating conditions influence the mould finish, and thus the final surface of moulded products. This paper focuses on how particle content and different polishing strategies influence final surface qualities of moulds. Visual estimations of polished tool steel samples were combined with non-contact 3D-surface texture analysis in order to correlate traditional assessments to more quantitative methods, and to be able to analyse the surfaces at nanometer-level.

    It was found that steels with a lower proportion of particles, like carbides and oxides, gave rise to smoother polished surfaces. In a comparative study of polishers from different polishing shops, it was found that while different surface preparation strategies can lead to similar final roughness, similar preparation techniques can produce high-quality surfaces from different steel grades. However, the non-contact 3D-surface texture analysis showed that not all smooth polished surfaces have desirable functional topographies for injection moulding of glossy plastic components.

  • 83.
    Rebeggiani, Sabina
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.
    Rosén, Bengt-Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.
    High gloss polishing of tool steels – step by step2011In: Proceedings of The 4th International Swedish Production Symposium / [ed] J.-E. Ståhl, 2011, p. 257-262Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The surface preparation of moulds for high gloss applications, e.g. tools for injection moulding of plastic parts, is still a relatively unknown area. Most knowledge is accumulated by individual polishers with long experience in the field. Literature covering the polishing process/mechanisms is rare and it becomes harder and harder to recruit new skilled polishers. Today it is also a matter of time, and cost; how long time is needed to prepare a new mould? How many steps are needed? Which tools? Is it possible to replace the manual polishers by robots?

    This article is part of a study where equivalent steel samples were prepared in different polishing shops to investigate the surface quality achieved in every step of the process. The polishers have documented their processes and comment on the final results. The main goal was to study how different proceedings affect the final surface quality; which are the crucial factors in order to achieve a high gloss polished surface with low defect levels?

    The sample analysis is based on visual estimations as well as interferometer measurements and belonging surface parameters; e.g. seems the number of preparation steps be crucial to the final surface quality.

  • 84.
    Rebeggiani, Sabina
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.
    Rosén, Bengt-Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.
    Quantitative evaluation of the surface finish of high gloss polished tool steels2014In: Surface Topography: Metrology and Properties, ISSN 2051-672X, Vol. 2, no 1, article id 014002Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Standardized procedures to measure and estimate surface qualities of moulds for injection moulding of plastic components do not exist. Instead, steel producers as well as polishers and mould-users need to rely on master plaques for tactile comparisons and/or their own visual estimations for surface quality controls. This paper presents an overview of various surface evaluation methods of steels, including existing standards and available surface metrology. A new method to evaluate high gloss polished tool steel surfaces, based on a three-dimensional non-contacting measurement technique, is presented. The suggested method is based on defect extraction, and should be useful for both specifications and quality controls. Included defects were found to be quality criteria for polished tool steel surfaces. The surface acceptance levels and defect classification are based on interviews and questionnaires, as well as literature studies and visual estimations of test samples made by experienced polishers. © 2014 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  • 85.
    Rebeggiani, Sabina
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.
    Rosén, Bengt-Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.
    Quantitative evaluation of the surface finish of high gloss polished tool steels2013In: Metrology and Properties of Engineering Surfaces, 2013: Proceedings of the 14th International Conference, Taipei, Taiwan, June 17-21, 2013, 2013, p. 207-218Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Standardised procedures to measure and estimate surface qualities of moulds for injection moulding of plastic components do not exist. Instead, steel producers as well as polishers and mould-users need to rely on master plaques for tactile comparisons and/or their own visual estimations for surface quality controls.

    This paper presents an overview of various surface evaluation methods of steels, including existing standards and available surface metrology. A new method to evaluate high gloss polished tool steel surfaces, based on a 3D non-contacting measurement technique, is presented. The suggested method is based on defect extraction, and should be useful for both specifications and quality controls. Included defects were found to be quality criteria for polished tool steel surfaces. The surface acceptance levels and defect classification are based on interviews and questionnaires, as well as literature studies and visual estimations of test samples made by experienced polishers.

  • 86.
    Rebeggiani, Sabina
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.
    Rosén, Bengt-Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.
    Sandberg, Alf
    Uddeholms AB, Hagfors, Sweden.
    A quantitative method to estimate high gloss polished tool steel surfaces2011In: Journal of Physics, Conference Series, ISSN 1742-6588, E-ISSN 1742-6596, Vol. 311, no 1, article id 012004Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Visual estimations are today the most common way to assess the surface quality of moulds and dies; a method that are both subjective and, with today’s high demands on surfaces, hardly usable to distinguish between the finest surface qualities. Instead a method based on non-contact 3D-surface texture analysis is suggested. Several types of tool steel samples, manually as well as machine polished, were analysed to study different types of surface defects such as pitting, orange peel and outwardly features. The classification of the defect structures serves as a catalogue where known defects are described. Suggestions of different levels of ‘high surface quality’ defined in numerical values adapted to high gloss polished tool steel surfaces are presented. The final goal is to develop a new manual that can work as a ‘standard’ for estimations of tool steel surfaces for steel producers, mould makers, polishers etc.

  • 87.
    Rebeggiani, Sabina
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.
    Rosén, Bengt-Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.
    Sandberg, Alf
    Uddeholm Tooling AB, Hagfors, Sweden.
    Polished injection moulds’ and surface defects’ influence on the quality of plastic components2009In: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Metrology and Properties of Engineering Surfaces / [ed] P. Pawlus, L. Blunt, B.-G. Rosén, T. Thomas, M. Wieczorowski, H. Zahouani, Rzeszów: Rzeszów University of Technology , 2009, p. 396-397Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The quality of injection mould surfaces is important as it has a major influence on tool performance. In the specific field of plastic moulding, many products require defect free, glossy, and very smooth mould surfaces (roughness parameters in the nm-range) to achieve a satisfactory surface appearance. The surface quality is also crucial for the mould to function properly in the actual tooling application; too rough surfaces might disturb the flow of the polymer melt and increase wear, while too smooth surfaces give rise to sticking problems.

     

    A key factor towards improved tool performance is the development of a metrology framework to characterise the polished surfaces. This paper summarises a study based on a non-contact 3D-surface texture analysis, where tool steel moulds and injection moulded plastic components are characterised in terms of surface quality. Different types of defects, such as non-metallic inclusions and carbides, are studied in more detail to better understand their effect on final plastic component surfaces. Critical defect size?, Types of defects? and Defect distribution? are typical questions at issue. A test mould with intentional manufactured pores and scratches in different sizes and distributions will be designed and verified in order to enable injection mould industry to optimize selection of polymer and process variables with respect to plastic component surface quality and tool material selection.

  • 88.
    Rebeggiani, Sabina
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.
    Rosén, Bengt-Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.
    Sandberg, Alf
    Uddeholms AB, Hagfors, Sweden.
    Surface characterisation of high gloss polished tool steels2009In: Proceedings of the 8th International Tooling Conference: TOOL 09: Tool Steels – Deciding Factor in Worldwide Production: RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany, June 2–4, 2009: Volume II / [ed] P. Beiss, C. Broeckmann, S. Franke & B. Keysselitz, Aachen: Mainz , 2009, p. 953-963Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well known that high quality tool steels, i.e. steels possessing low contents of defect structures, and the adoption of well developed polishing techniques are required to get satisfactory mould surfaces for plastic forming. However, there is still a lack of knowledge concerning how different defect structures on mould surfaces affect final plastic components, and how tool steel surfaces can be measured and analysed in convenient ways.

    Based on non-contact 3D-surface texture analysis, three test moulds and corresponding injection moulded plastic plaques were characterised with the objective to study how defect structures on the mould surfaces were transferred into the final plastic components.

    Surface structures, remaining scratches and to a certain extent pin-holes originated from the mould surface were all detected on the surface of the plastic components. However, more extensive studies need to be performed in order to understand why different defect structures on tool steels occur, how they can be avoided and, for different plastic products, which the critical limits are (in terms of amount, shape and size of the defects).

  • 89.
    Rebeggiani, Sabina
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.
    Sandberg, Alf
    Uddeholms AB, Hagfors, Sweden.
    Rosén, Bengt-Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.
    Tool steel polishing and topography characterization2007In: The Swedish Production Symposium in Göteborg 28-30 August 2007, 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Manual polishing is a common method to accomplish a mirror-like mould surface, although it is a cumbersome and time-consuming process. It is, thus, of great interest within the industry to find faster and better polishing techniques to decrease the costs and lead times. A key factor towards improved polishing techniques is to find ways to characterize polished surfaces; which parameters and instruments can be used and what is the definition of polishability? This paper summarises a study where three steel grades were analysed with five different measuring devices. The results showed that mechanical stylus instrumentations are not enough to describe very smooth surfaces, but measurement devices with better resolution are needed, such as interferometers.

  • 90.
    Reddy, Vijeth Venkataram
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Vedantha Krishna, Amogh
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Schultheiss, Fredrik
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Rosén, Bengt Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces. Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Lead free Brass: Topography Characterization2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The negative effects of lead on human health and the recycling problems of copper alloys with lead content has led to the increase in concern for reducing/eliminating the use of lead in brass and other copper alloys. Many materials are considered to replace lead in brass; silicon is one such alternative. The real challenge prevails in sustainable manufacturing of lead free brass, to maintain control of the surface integrity when substituting the lead content in the brass with silicon. The investigation includes defined areal surface parameters measured on the turned samples of lead- and lead free brass using an optical coherence scanning interferometer, CSI.This paper deals with the study of surface topography of turned samples of lead and lead free brass. It is important to study the topographical characteristics of the brass samples which are the intermediate link between the manufacturing process variables and the functional behaviour of the surface. To numerically evaluate the sample’s surface topography and to validate the measurements for a significant study, a general statistical methodology is implemented. The results suggest that the surface roughness is higher in lead brass compared to lead free brass and tool coatings have significant influence on the hybrid (Sdr & Sdq) parameters in the surface topography of brass samples.

  • 91.
    Rosén, Bengt - Göran
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.
    Wiklund, Daniel
    Swerea, IVF, Gothenburg.
    Liljegren, M.
    Olofström School of Automotive Stamping.
    Berglund, J.
    Sandvik Tooling R & D Center, Olofström.
    Bay, Niels
    Department of Mechanical Engineering Technical University of Denmark.
    Kjellsson, K.
    Volvo Car Corp., Olofström.
    Friction in Sheet Metal Forming: A Comparison Between Milled and Manually Polished Die Surfaces2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The evolvement of product requirements in the automotive industry, e.g. reduced weight, means that the use of advanced high strength steels (HSS, EHSS,UHSS) in automotive applications is continuously increasing. The introduction of high strength steels in production implies increased tool wear and calls for functional tool surfaces that are durable in these severe tribological conditions. In this study the influence of tool surface topography on friction has been investigated. The frictional response was studied in a Bending Under Tension test. The results did show that a low frictional response was generated by low slope of roughness profiles combined with a strong anisotropy applied perpendicularly to the sliding direction. An improved machining strategy has a high potential to significantly reduce the need for manually polished surfaces.

  • 92.
    Rosén, Bengt Göran
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.
    Anderberg, C.
    Volvo Cars Corporation, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Ohlsson, R.
    Volvo Power Train Corp., Volvo Group, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Parameter correlation study of cylinder liner roughness for production and quality control2008In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part B, journal of engineering manufacture, ISSN 0954-4054, E-ISSN 2041-2975, Vol. 222, no 11, p. 1475-1487Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Surface roughness plays an important role in the control of emissions and friction losses in the cylinder liner–piston ring system as well as securing economically favourable manufacturing. A number of different commercial cylinder liner types have been characterized using traditional two-dimensional stylus and ISO parameters together with the latest three-dimensional characterization. The results highlight the weak and strong correlations between different families of parameters traditionally used for liner surface specifications. The bearing curve based Rxq and Rk parameter families have been evaluated and show systematic and consistent differences when characterizing the same surface features when trying to establish independent characterization of the highly stratified, two-process cylinder liner surfaces. No significant improvement in discrimination results from using ensemble averages. Presentation of correlations in the form of topological diagrams helps to show when parameters with a high intrinsic variability can be effectively replaced by other more robust parameters with which they have a high correlation. Plateau parameters are in general more highly correlated than valley parameters. Three-dimensional parameters show high internal correlations and also correlate highly with some corresponding two-dimensional parameters.

  • 93.
    Rosén, Bengt Göran
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.
    Garnier, Jérôme
    Laboratoire de Tribologie et Dynamique des Systèmes, UMR CNRS 5513, Ecole Nationale d'Ingénieurs de Saint Etienne, 58 rue Jean Parot, 42000 St Etienne, France.
    Uncertainties and optimized sampling in surface roughness characterization2011In: Wear, ISSN 0043-1648, E-ISSN 1873-2577, Vol. 271, no 3-4, p. 610-615Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Usage of 3D roughness parameters measurements requires knowledge of uncertainty causes in order to design proper measurement procedures. Even on apparently homogeneous machined surfaces, large local variations in 3D roughness parameters have previously been reported. This paper introduces and tests a concept for optimized sampling based on local-, and global topography analysis, using measurements of the Sa parameter on a large machined component as a practical example. It is shown that more than 40 measurements of Sa may be needed to attain a stable value, but that choice of an appropriate sampling strategy may reduce this requirement considerably. The results point to a possible route to minimize required measurements and contribute to the development of the "best-practice" when using 3D surface structure metrology.

  • 94.
    Rosén, Bengt Göran
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.
    Wennerberg, Ann
    Department of Biomaterials, Institute for Surgical Science, SE-413 90 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Rosén, Stefan
    Toponova AB, TeknoCenter 1, Pilefeltsgatan 73, SE-302 50 Halmstad, Sweden.
    Topographical characterisation of artificial femoral heads: a Benchmarking study2004In: Wear, ISSN 0043-1648, E-ISSN 1873-2577, Vol. 257, no 12, p. 1275-1280Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main functional demands on artificial joints are that they last more than 20 years. This means optimising the friction coefficient to minimise forces transmitted to the surrounding bone and the wear of the contacting surfaces. Surface roughness has an important influence on friction and wear. Traditionally, the 2D Ra-parameter has been the preferred way to characterise the joint's topography. Today ongoing development of 3D techniques are available for the research, and the aim of the present paper is to highlight the importance and possibilities using high-resolution 3D atomic force microscope ( AFM) and the optical phase-shifting interferometer for texture characterisation of eight commercially available femoral heads. The results show a significant variation of topography and surface-lay for the different femoral heads in the study. The variation and difference between heads were further underlined by the use of different characterisation techniques and measuring strategy. Results highlight the importance of the selection of measurement strategy, parameters, instrumentation, and scale of measurement in order properly to characterise the femoral heads in this study.

  • 95.
    Rosén, Bengt-Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.
    Towards optimal sampling of surface roughness2008In: Proceedings / XII. International Colloquium on Surfaces January 28th and 29th, 2008, Chemnitz, Germany = XII. Internationales Oberflächenkolloquium / [ed] Michael Dietzsch, Aachen: Shaker Verlag, 2008, p. 383-392Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 96.
    Rosén, Bengt-Göran
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.
    Berglund, Johan
    Chalmers, Göteborg, Sverige.
    Liljengren, Magnus
    Chalmers, Göteborg, Sverige.
    Machine Hammer Peening: A Substitute for Polishing of Pressing Die Surfaces?2009In: Proceedings of the 3rd Swedish Production Symposium, 2009, p. 184-189Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Machine hammer peening (MHP) is a new method for finishing of surfaces. With this method, the workpiecesurface is hammered with a spherical carbide tool. The mainobjective of the study was to evaluate whether the MHPmethod could become a plausible substitute for manualpolishing in pressing die manufacturing where nodular castiron is a common workpiece material. To do this, samplenodular cast iron surfaces were hammered and evaluated. Changes to the surfaces were evaluated using surfaceroughness measurements, hardness measurements and opticalimages. First of all, the workpiece surface was smoothened. Secondly, the surface hardness was increased significantly. Thirdly, the nodules on the workpiece surface wereaffected. They appeared to be smaller and not as visible. This effect would likely create a die surface less prone to gallingsince the cavities would not be filled with sheet metal to thesame extent in a forming operation. In addition, withMHP, theamount of polishing needed to manufacture a die surface canbe reduced because of the smoothening effect.

  • 97.
    Rosén, Bengt-Göran
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.
    Blunt, Liam A.
    Centre for Precision Technologies, University of Huddersfield, United Kingdom.
    Thomas, Tom R.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.
    On in-vivo skin topography metrology and replication techniques2005In: Journal of Physics, Conference Series, ISSN 1742-6588, E-ISSN 1742-6596, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 325-329Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human skin metrology is an area of growing interest for many disciplines both in research and for commercial purposes. Changes in the skin topography are an early stage diagnosis tool not only for diseases but also give indication of the response to medical and cosmetic treatment. This paper focuses on the evaluation of in vivo and in vitro methodologies for accurate measurements of skin and outlines the quantitative characterisation of the skin topography. The study shows the applicability of in-vivo skin topography characterisation and also the advantages and limitations compared to conventional replication techniques. Finally, aspects of stripe projection methodology and 3D characterisation are discussed as a background to the proposed methodology in this paper.

  • 98.
    Rosén, Bengt-Göran
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.
    Bååth, Lars
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.
    Dimkovski, Zlate
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.
    On Variation of Surface Topography and Robust Product Performance2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The customer’s demands for higher quality, faster delivery times and reduction of cost, give evidence for the need to develop new technologies or enhance existing technologies combined with research activities.

    The automotive industry's capability to develop new products in a shorter time is constantly improved.  Tool and die creation is a major part of the product creation for many industrial products and in particular for the automotive industry.  The higher product requirements on reduced weight, better safety, and lower emissions have meant that a larger number of automotive body parts must be made in advanced high strength steels.

    Improved functionality of surface textures and engineered tailor made component surfaces is one enabling technology for industry to increase compete ability by improved component function and reduced friction losses.

    However, material properties’ variation, un-evenly spread wear, unknown manufacturing process variations, the ”human factor”, faulty metrology procedures …   All factors interact to increase the problems of utilizing surface texturing on the micro metre level as a competitive tool for industry.

    Large variation of the micro topography created by industrial machining processes tends to reduce the impact of the usage of improved engineered surfaces on critical components.

    A proposal of a strategy for metrology using "intelligent" sampling techniques comprising of regionalization of the functional area and designed sampling patterns is presented.

    To efficiently make use of efficient sampling, an example of a recently developed optical scattering light in-line metrology of high precision surfaces is discussed as a tool to enable efficient control of machine tools in general.

    Future steps discussed include developing of control loops for implementation in CNC controllers to efficiently make use of the "smart" surface texture characterisation data from the developed in-line surface texture sensors.

  • 99.
    Rosén, Bengt-Göran
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.
    Dimkovski, Zlate
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.
    Cabanettes, Frédéric
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.
    Löfgren, Hans
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.
    Controlling variation of topography towards robust surface performance2010In: Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Surface Metrology: October 25-27, 2010, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Worcester, MA, USA / [ed] Bergstrom T. et al., Worcester, USA: Worcester Polytechnic Institute , 2010, p. 43-51Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 100.
    Rosén, Bengt-Göran
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces. Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden .
    Fall, Andreas
    SCA Hygiene Products AB, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Rosén, Stefan
    Toponova AB, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Farbrot, Anne
    SCA Hygiene Products AB, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bergström, P.
    SCA Hygiene Products AB, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Topographic modelling of haptic properties of tissue products2014In: Journal of Physics, Conference Series, ISSN 1742-6588, E-ISSN 1742-6596, Vol. 483, article id 012010Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The way a product or material feels when touched, haptics, has been shown to be a property that plays an important role when consumers determine the quality of products For tissue products in constant touch with the skin, softness" becomes a primary quality parameter. In the present work, the relationship between topography and the feeling of the surface has been investigated for commercial tissues with varying degree of texture from the low textured crepe tissue to the highly textured embossed- and air-dried tissue products. A trained sensory panel at was used to grade perceived haptic "roughness".

    The technique used to characterize the topography was Digital light projection (DLP) technique, By the use of multivariate statistics, strong correlations between perceived roughness and topography were found with predictability of above 90 percent even though highly textured products were included. Characterization was made using areal ISO 25178-2 topography parameters in combination with non-contacting topography measurement. The best prediction ability was obtained when combining haptic properties with the topography parameters auto-correlation length (Sal), peak material volume (Vmp), core roughness depth (Sk) and the maximum height of the surface (Sz). © Published under licence by IOP Publishing Ltd.

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