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  • 51.
    Bremander, Ann
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS). FoU Spenshult & Lunds universitet, Lund, Sverige.
    Reumatoid artrit2015In: Fysisk aktivitet vid reumatisk sjukdom / [ed] Christina H. Opava, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2015, 1:1, p. 129-139Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Reumatoid artiri (RA) medför ofta konsekvenser för en persons funktionstillstånd, upplevda hälsa och livskvalitet. Att främja förmågan till fysisk aktivitet är en viktig uppgift för hälso- och sjukvården och ger stora vinster för den enskildes hälsa. Rekommendationer för om fysisk aktivitet och träning har gått från vila och passiv rörelseträning till att idag kunna jämställas med aktiv träning på samma nivå som finns i rekommendationer till befolkningen i allmänhet. Naturligtvis måste träningen anpassas till individens behov, förutsättningar och önskemål.

  • 52.
    Bremander, Ann
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine. Department of Rheumatology, Clinical Sciences Lund, Lund University, Lund, Sweden & Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Jacobsson, Lennart T. H.
    Department of Rheumatology and Inflammation Research, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden & Department of Clinical Sciences, Section of Rheumatology, Malmö, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Bergman, Stefan
    Department of Rheumatology, Clinical Sciences Lund, Lund University, Lund, Sweden & Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Haglund, Emma
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine. Department of Rheumatology, Clinical Sciences Lund, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Löfvendahl, Sofia
    Department of Orthopedics, Clinical Sciences Lund, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Petersson, Ingemar F.
    Department of Orthopedics, Clinical Sciences Lund, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Smoking is associated with a worse self-reported health status in patients with psoriatic arthritis: data from a Swedish population-based cohort2015In: Clinical Rheumatology, ISSN 0770-3198, E-ISSN 1434-9949, Vol. 34, no 3, p. 579-583Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to study possible associations between smoking habits and self-reported clinical features in a large population-based cohort of patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA). All subjects with PsA who had sought health care in the period 2003-2007 were identified using a regional health-care register. In 2009, all those identified who were 18 years of age or more (n = 2,003) were sent a questionnaire with questions on smoking, health-related quality of life [EuroQol five-dimension (EQ-5D)questionnaire], function [Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ)], pain, fatigue, and global health. We performed age- and sex-adjusted regression analysis to compare health status outcomes in never and ever smokers. Altogether, 1,185 subjects (59 %) returned the questionnaire. Mean age was 57 years (SD 13.5), and 58 % were women; 38 % were never smokers and 62 % were ever smokers. Mean age at disease onset was 38.2 years (SD 13.2) and 41.2 years (SD 13.6), respectively (p = 0.001). In age- and sex-adjusted data, ever smokers reported worse EQ-5D (p = 0.009); worse reports of global health (p = 0.01), pain (p = 0.01), and fatigue (p = 0.04); and a higher number of painful body regions (p = 0.04) compared to never smokers. In this population-based PsA cohort, patients who were ever smokers reported worse health status than never smokers. Besides being a possible result of a worse PsA in ever smokers, impaired health status could also be an effect of unstudied comorbidities. Further longitudinal studies are needed to gain a better understanding of cause and effect. However, smoking cessation should be recommended because of general health considerations as well as disease-specific issues.

  • 53.
    Bremander, Ann
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Jacobsson, Lennart T. H.
    Department of Rheumatology and Inflammation Research, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bergman, Stefan
    Research and Development Centre Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Haglund, Emma
    Research and Development Centre Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Petersson, Ingemar
    Department of Orthopedics, Clinical Sciences Lund, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Smoking is Associated with Worse and More Widespread Pain, Worse Fatigue, General Health and Quality of Life in a Swedish population Based Cohort of Patients with Psoriatic Arthritis2012In: Arthritis and Rheumatism, ISSN 0004-3591, E-ISSN 1529-0131, Vol. 64, no S10, p. S777-S778, article id 1828Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background/Purpose: Smoking has been found to be associated with an increased risk of developing psoriatic arthritis (PsA)1. The purpose of this study was analyse possible associations of smoking habits with self-reported clinical features in a large population based cohort of patients with a diagnosis of PsA.

    Methods: All health care seeking subjects with a diagnose of PsA according to ICD 10 codes (given at least once by a rheumatologist/internist or twice by any other physician) were identified by a regional health care register during 2003-20072. In 2009 all identified subjects aged 18 years or older (n=2003) were invited to participate in a cross sectional questionnaire survey. The questionnaire included self-reported data on smoking (never smokers or ever smokers), age at disease onset, physical function (HAQ, 0-3 best to worst), pain, fatigue and global health (numerical rating scales 0-10 best to worst) health related quality of life (EQ-5D, 0-1 worst to best), and number of painful regions noted on a pain mannequin (0-16, best to worst). Linear regression analysis was performed and all data were controlled for sex and age.

    Results: Response rate was 77% whereof 369 patients (18%) declined participation and 1185 (59%) returned the questionnaire,  mean age 57.5 (SD 13.5) years and 58% were women. 1173 subjects responded to the smoking question whereof 448 (38%) were never smokers and 725 (62%) were ever smokers.

    Mean age at disease onset was 42.3 (SD 13.4) years in never smokers vs. 46.0 (SD 13.2) in ever smokers. Never smokers vs. ever smokers had mean HAQ 0.59 (SD 0.6) vs. 0.71 (SD 0.6),  mean pain 3.9 (SD 2.4) vs.4.4 (SD 2.5),  mean fatigue 4.4 (SD 2.8) vs. 5.0 (SD 2.7),  mean global health 3.9 (SD 2.4) vs. 4.4 (SD 2.3), mean EQ-5D 0.68 (SD 0.23) vs. 0.63 (SD 0.26) and mean no of painful regions were 7.2 (SD 4.0) vs. 7.9 (SD 4.3).

    The regression analysis showed that ever smokers had worse pain with age-sex adjusted parameter estimates (B) = 0.38 (95% CI 0.09 ; 0.67), worse fatigue B = 0.34 (95% CI 0.02 ; 0.66), worse global health B = 0.36 (95% CI 0.09 ; 0.64), worse EQ-5D B = -0.04 (95% CI -0.07 ; -0.01) and an increased no of painful regions B = 0.54 (95% CI 0.02 ; 1.07) compared with never smokers.

    Conclusion: In this population based PsA cohort, patients who were ever smokers reported worse clinical features compared with never smokers. Further longitudinal studies are needed to better understand cause and effect. However, smoking cessation should be recommended due to general health perspectives and also due to disease specific issues.

  • 54.
    Bremander, Ann
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine. Research and Development Centre, Spenshult Hospital for Rheumatic Diseases, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Petersson, Ingemar F.
    Department of Orthopedics, Clinical Sciences Lund, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Haglund, Emma
    Spenshult Hospital for Rheumatic Diseases, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Bergman, Stefan
    Research and Development Centre, Spenshult Hospital for Rheumatic Diseases, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Jacobsson, Lennart T.H.
    Department of Rheumatology and Inflammation Research, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Smoking Is Associated with Worse and More Widespread Pain, Worse Disease Activity, Function, Fatigue and Health Related Quality of Life in Patients with Axial Spondyloarthritis: Results From a Population Based Cohort2012In: Arthritis and Rheumatism, ISSN 0004-3591, E-ISSN 1529-0131, Vol. 64, no S10, p. S43-S43, article id 95Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In subjects with early axial Spondyloarthritis (SpA) smoking has recently been associated with earlier onset of disease, worse lesions of the sacroiliac joints and in later stages syndesmophyte progression. The aim was to study associations of smoking habits with self-reported information in a large population based cohort of patients with axial SpA.

    Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey performed in 2009 included all health care seeking subjects aged >18 years with a diagnosis of SpA according to ICD 10 codes identified by a regional health care register (n=3711). Smoking habits were studied in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS, ICD M45) and in patients who fulfilled criteria for “non AS axial SpA” (without having one of AS). Criteria for non AS axial SpA were based on data from the questionnaire: pain for 3 months or more during the last 12 months together with 2 or more features out of 5 (inflammatory back pain, history of psoriasis, uveitis/tendinitis, inflammatory bowel disease or heredity). The questionnaire included data on smoking (never smokers vs. ever smokers), disease activity (BASDAI) physical function (BASFI), general health (BAS-G) all measured with numerical rating scales 0-10 (best to worst), health related quality of life (EQ-5D, 0-1 worst to best), pain, fatigue (numerical rating scales 0-10 best to worst) and number of painful regions noted on a pain mannequin (0-16 best to worst). Linear regression analysis was performed and all data were controlled for sex and age.

    Results:

    Response rate was 76% whereof 2167 (58%) returned the questionnaire and 18% declined participation in the study. 598 subjects had an AS diagnose and 572 fulfilled the criteria for non AS axial SpA.

    The AS group had a mean age of 54 (SD14) years and 35% were women. Never smokers constituted 48% of the AS group. Ever smokers had worse scores in all studied variables compared with never smokers.

    The linear regression analysis showed that ever smokers in the AS group had worse self-reported scores in BASDAI with age-sex adjusted parameter estimate (B) = 0.60 (95% CI 0.21 ; 1.00), BASFI B = 0.51 (95% CI 0.11 ; 0.91) and fatigue B = 0.51 (95% CI  0.06 ; 1.00) . There was a tendency to worse scores for ever smokers also in EQ-5D B = -0.04 (95% CI -0.09 ; 0.001)

    Mean age in the non AS axial SpA group was 55 (SD 14) years and 68% were women. Never smokers constituted 38% of this group. Also in the non AS axial SpA group the linear regression analysis showed that ever smokers had worse self-reported scores in BASDAI with age-sex adjusted parameter estimate (B) = 0.59 (95% CI 0.23 ; 0.94), BASFI B = 0.59 (95% CI 0.17 ; 1.00), pain B = 0.45 (95% CI 0.08 ; 0.82) and fatigue B = 0.43 (95% CI  0.03 ; 0.83), no of painful areas B = 0.73 (95% CI  0.06 ; 1.46) and also in EQ-5D B = -0.06 (95% CI -0.11 ; -0.002).                                                                                                                                                

    Conclusion: In a large population based axial SpA cohort, both patients with AS and non AS axial SpA who were ever smokers reported worse clinical features compared with never smokers. Further longitudinal studies are needed to better understand cause and effect. However, smoking cessation should be recommended not only due to general health perspectives but also due to disease specific issues.

    References

    1Smokers in early axial spondyloarthritis have earlier disease onset, more disease activity, inflammation and damage, and poorer function and health-related quality of life: results from the DESIR cohort. Chung HY, Machado P, van der Heijde D, D'Agostino MA, Dougados M. Ann Rheum Dis. 2012 Jun;71(6):809-16.

  • 55.
    Bremander, Ann
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS). Research and Development Center, Spenshult Hospital, Oskarström, Sweden.
    Wikström, Ingegerd
    Musculoskeletal Sciences, Department of Orthopedics, Clinical Sciences Lund, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Larsson, Ingrid
    Research and Development Center, Spenshult Hospital, Oskarström, Sweden.
    Bengtsson, Maria
    Department of Rheumatology, Clinical Sciences Lund and Malmö, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Hagel, Sofia
    Department of Rheumatology, Clinical Sciences Lund and Malmö, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Strömbeck, Britta
    Musculoskeletal Sciences, Department of Orthopedics, Clinical Sciences Lund, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Cultural adaptation, validity, reliability and responsiveness of the Swedish version of the effective musculoskeletal consumer scale (EC-17)2012In: Musculoskeletal Care, ISSN 1478-2189, E-ISSN 1557-0681, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 43-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Endorsed by the Outcome MEasures in Rheumatoid Arthritis in Clinical Trials (OMERACT) group, The Effective Consumer Scale (EC-17) was developed in English for patients with musculoskeletal diseases to assess the skills and perceptions important for participating in and managing health care. The objective of this study was culturally to adapt the questionnaire into Swedish and to study its psychometric properties.

    METHODS: After translation of the questionnaire into Swedish, two different groups of outpatients from two specialist rheumatology departments participated in the study. Face validity was assessed, together with internal consistency, test-retest and responsiveness of the questionnaire. Construct validity was assessed using the Arthritis Self-Efficacy Scale (ASES), and responsiveness to a five day educational intervention was analysed using the standardized response mean (SRM).

    RESULTS: Analyses were based on 124 patients with inflammatory rheumatic diseases, of whom 50 attended the intervention. Data quality met the requirements, with missing values <5%, and floor and ceiling effects <15%. Item total correlations were all >0.4, ranging from 0.49 to 0.88. Cronbach's alpha was 0.93 and 0.95 for the two groups. The test-retest correlation (ICC₂.₁) was 0.94, and there was a significant improvement as a result of the intervention, with an SRM of 0.43. However, the questionnaire had a higher construct validity with the ASES subscale 'other symptoms' than hypothesized a priori (r(s) 0.75).

    CONCLUSION: The Swedish version of the EC-17 met the required recommendations for face validity, internal consistency, test-retest reliability and responsiveness. Its construct validity needs to be further established, and the questionnaire needs further testing in different groups of patients and in different interventions. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • 56.
    Bremert, Carl
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Hake, Joel
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Rollatorer: undersökning och utveckling kring framkomlighet i hemmet2011Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 57.
    Brorsson, Sofia
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Biomechanical studies of finger extension function. Analysis with a new force measuring device and ultrasound examination in rheumatoid arthritis and healthy muscles2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims:

    The overall aim of this thesis was to further our understanding of extensor muscles and their role for hand function.

    The aims of the studies were:

    To develop and evaluate a new device for finger extensor force measurements. To evaluate ultrasound as a tool for assessment of muscle architecture. To determine the correlation between extensor muscle force and hand function. To evaluate the degree of impaired finger extensor force in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and the correlation to impaired... mer hand function. To analyse the effect of hand exercise in RA patients and healthy subjects with ultrasound and finger extension force measurements.

    Method:

    A new finger extension force measuring device was developed and an ultrasound based method was used to be able to objectively measure the finger extension force and analyze the static and dynamic extensor muscle architectures. Measurements were made of healthy volunteers (n=127) and RA patients (n=77) during uninfluenced and experimental conditions. A hand exercise program was performed and evaluated with hand force measurements, hand function test, patient relevant questionnaires (DASH and SF-36) and ultrasound measurements.

    Results:

    The new finger extension force measurement device was developed and then validated with measurements of accuracy as well as test-retest reliability. The coefficient of variation was 1.8 % of the applied load, and the test-retest reliability showed a coefficient of variation no more than 7.1% for healthy subjects. Ultrasound examination on m. extensor digitorum communis (EDC) showed significant differences between healthy men and healthy women as well as between healthy women and RA patients. The extension and flexion force improved in both groups after six weeks of hand exercise (p<0.01). Hand function improved in both groups (p<0.01). The RA group showed improvement in the results of the DASH questionnaire (p<0.05). The cross-sectional area of the EDC increased significantly in both groups.

    Conclusions:

    A new finger extension force measuring device has been developed which provides objective and reliable data on the extension force capacity of normal and dysfunctional hands and is sufficiently sensitive to evaluate the effects of hand exercise. US provide useful information about muscle architecture. A significant improvement of hand strength and hand function in RA patients was seen after six weeks of hand training, the improvement was even more pronounced after 12 weeks. Hand exercise is thus an effective intervention for RA patients, providing better strength and function.

  • 58.
    Brorsson, Sofia
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Biomechanical studies on hand function in rehabilitation2012In: Human Musculoskeletal Biomechanics / [ed] Tarun Goswami, New York: InTech, 2012, p. 87-106Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 59.
    Brorsson, Sofia
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), PRODEA: Centrum för produktframtagning inom hälsoteknik. Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Extensor muscle force measurements and muscle architecture in rheumatoid arthritis patientsArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 60.
    Brorsson, Sofia
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Extensor muscle force measurements and muscle architecture in Rheumatoid Arthritis patients2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients frequently experience muscle weakness, limited information exists on disease specific muscle changes. The common hand deformity in RA includes disturbed finger extension with subsequent flexion deformities. The aims of this study were to measure finger extension force and finger flexion force in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and compare them with healthy subjects.  We also wanted to explore the possible causes of impaired finger extension force with the help of ultrasound muscle analyses.

    The study group comprised of 40 women: 20 patients with RA (median disease duration 20 years) and 20 healthy age-matched controls. The finger extension force measurements were performed with a newly developed device (EX-it), finger flexion force was measured with the Grippit. The extensor digitorum communis muscle was examined with ultrasound.

    Significant differences were found between the two groups, concerning extension and flexion force (p<0.001). Ultrasound measurements indicated significant differences in structural parameters (Cross Section Area (p< 0.05), muscle thickness (p < 0.05) and fascicle length (p < 0.05)). Overall changes in muscle architecture during contraction were more pronounced in the control group than in the RA group (p < 0.01).

    The results indicate differences in structural parameters as well as functional tests, i.e. contraction time and extension muscle force capacity, between normal and RA muscles. Whether these differences depend on a disease-specific effect on the muscles in RA, or are secondary to inactivity or hand deformities, remains to be elucidated.

  • 61.
    Brorsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden.
    Bremander, Ann
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS). Spenshult Hospital, Oskarström, Sweden.
    Qualitative differences in the muscle activities in the forearm flexor and extensor muscles in healthy men and women in different ages2012In: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, ISSN 0003-4967, E-ISSN 1468-2060, Vol. 71, no Suppl. 3, p. 755-755Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    Balance between flexor and extensor muscle activity is essential for optimal function. This has been demonstrated previously for the lower extremity, trunk and shoulder function, but information on the relationship in hand function is lacking.

    Objectives:

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether there are qualitative differences in finger extension force, grip force, force duration, force balance and the muscle activities in the forearm flexor and extensor muscles in healthy men and women in different ages.

    Methods:

    Healthy controls (men, n=65, women, n=40) were included. Primary outcome was muscle activity measured with S-EMG and finger flexion- and finger extension force in Newton (N). The maximal force from the first trial was used as reference value (maximal voluntary isometric contraction, MVIC). The S-EMG activity of the m. extensor digitorum communis (EDC) and the m. flexor carpi radialis (FCR) were measured on the dominant hand when performing seven clinically often used hand exercises. Hand function was also evaluated with the self-reported questioner Quick DASH and VAS pain and VAS stiffness.

    Results:

    The force balance between finger extension and flexion force was statistically significant for both men (r=0.51, p=0.000) and women (r=0.78, p=0.000). The finger extension force was not influenced by age, but flexion force was significantly correlated to age. The coefficient of determination showed that age and gender can explain 45-55% of differences in the force measurements. Muscle activity from hand exercises was significant related to gender for EDC and muscle activity in FCR showed significantly relation to age. Only 3 of the 7 hand exercise were adjustable for both men and women unrelatedly to age. Concerning the muscle activation in EDC and FCR in daily activities, the age and gender explain 31% respectively 19% of the differences.

    Conclusions:

    This study shows that there are differences between men and women's hand force capacity and that gender and age can explain 45-55% of the differences. Furthermore this study shows that the EDC muscle is related to gender and FCR is related to age. In a longer perspective this information is useful for designing optimal training program for adjusted for gender and age.

    References:

    Greig M, Wells R. A systematic exploration of distal arm muscle activity and perceived exertion while applying external forces and moments. Ergonomics. [Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]. 2008 Aug;51(8):1238-57.

    Nordenskiold U, Grimby G. Assessments of disability in women with rheumatoid arthritis in relation to grip force and pain. Disabil Rehabil. 1997 Jan;19(1):13-9.

    Kapandji I. The physiology of the joints - annotated diagrams of the mechanics of the human joints. Edingburgh London, Melborne and New York: Churchill Livingstone; 1982.

    Brorsson S, Nilsdotter A, Sollerman C, Baerveldt AJ, Hilliges M. A new force measurement device for evaluating finger extension function in the healthy and rheumatoid arthritic hand. Technol Health Care. 2008;16(4):283-92.

    Disclosure of Interest: None Declared

  • 62.
    Brorsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Gelzinis, Adas
    Kaunas University of Technology, Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden.
    Verikas, Antanas
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Intelligent systems (IS-lab).
    Differences in the muscle activities in the forearm muscles in healthy men and women2012In: Proceedings of the XIXth Congress of the International Society of Electrophysiology & Kinesiology / [ed] Kylie Tucker et al., Brisbane, Australia, 2012, p. 437-437Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Balance between flexor and extensor muscle activity is essential for optimal function. This has been demonstrated previously for the lower extremity, trunk and shoulder function, but information on the relationship in hand function is lacking. AIM: Was to evaluate whether there are qualitative differences in finger extension force(fef), grip force, force duration, force balance and the muscle activities in the forearm flexor and extensor muscles in healthy men and women in different ages. 

  • 63.
    Brorsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Hilliges, Marita
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Sollerman, Christer
    R & D centre Spenshult Hospital for Rheumatic Diseases, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Nilsdotter, Anna
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    6 weeks of hand exercise significantly improved the hand-strength and -function in Rheumatoid Arthritis patients2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 64.
    Brorsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Hilliges, Marita
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Sollerman, Christer
    Department of Hand Surgery, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Göteborg.
    Nilsdotter, Anna
    R & D Center, Spenshults Hospital of Rheumatic Diseases .
    A six-week hand exercise programme improves strength and hand function in patients with rheumatoid arthritis2009In: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, ISSN 1650-1977, E-ISSN 1651-2081, Vol. 41, no 5, p. 338-342Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE:

    To evaluate the effects of hand exercise in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, and to compare the results with healthy controls.

    METHODS:

    Forty women (20 patients with rheumatoid arthritis and 20 healthy controls) performed a hand exercise programme. The results were evaluated after 6 and 12 weeks with hand force measurements (with a finger extension force measurement device (EX-it) and finger flexion force measurement with Grippit). Hand function was evaluated with the Grip Ability Test (GAT) and with patient relevant questionnaires (Disability of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) and Short Form-36). Ultrasound measurements were performed on m. extensor digitorum communis for analysis of the muscle response to the exercise programme.

    RESULTS:

    The extension and flexion force improved in both groups after 6 weeks (p < 0.01). Hand function (GAT) also improved in both groups (p < 0.01). The rheumatoid arthritis group showed improvement in the results of the DASH questionnaire (p < 0.05). The cross-sectional area of the extensor digitorum communis increased significantly in both groups measured with ultrasound.

    CONCLUSION:

    A significant improvement in hand force and hand function in patients with rheumatoid arthritis was seen after 6 weeks of hand training; the improvement was even more pronounced after 12 weeks. Hand exercise is thus an effective intervention for rheumatoid arthritis patients, leading to better strength and function.

  • 65.
    Brorsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Lundgren, Lina
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Olsson, Charlotte
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Ett fysiologiskt perspektiv på fysisk aktivitet och hälsa2010In: Hälsa & Livsstil: forskning och praktiska tillämpningar / [ed] Lillemor R-M Hallberg, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2010, 1, p. 87-112Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 66.
    Brorsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Nilsdotter, Anna
    R & D centre Spenshult Hospital for Rheumatic Diseases, Oskarström, Sweden.
    Hilliges, Marita
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Sollerman, Christer
    R & D centre Spenshult Hospital for Rheumatic Diseases, Oskarström, Sweden & Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Aurell, Ylva
    Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Halmstad Central Hospital, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Ultrasound evaluation in combination with finger extension force measurements of the forearm musculus extensor digitorum communis in healthy subjects2008In: BMC Medical Imaging, ISSN 1471-2342, E-ISSN 1471-2342, Vol. 8, article id 6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of an ultrasound-based method of examining extensor muscle architecture, especially the parameters important for force development. This paper presents the combination of two non-invasive methods for studying the extensor muscle architecture using ultrasound simultaneously with finger extension force measurements.

    Methods:

    M. extensor digitorum communis (EDC) was examined in 40 healthy subjects, 20 women and 20 men, aged 35-73 years. Ultrasound measurements were made in a relaxed position of the hand as well as in full contraction. Muscle cross-sectional area (CSA), pennation angle and contraction patterns were measured with ultrasound, and muscle volume and fascicle length were also estimated. Finger extension force was measured using a newly developed finger force measurement device.

    Results:

    The following muscle parameters were determined: CSA, circumference, thickness, pennation angles and changes in shape of the muscle CSA. The mean EDC volume in men was 28.3 cm3 and in women 16.6 cm3. The mean CSA was 2.54 cm2 for men and 1.84 cm2 for women. The mean pennation angle for men was 6.5° and for women 5.5°. The mean muscle thickness for men was 1.2 cm and for women 0.76 cm. The mean fascicle length for men was 7.3 cm and for women 5.0 cm. Significant differences were found between men and women regarding EDC volume (p < 0.001), CSA (p < 0.001), pennation angle (p < 0.05), muscle thickness (p < 0.001), fascicle length (p < 0.001) and finger force (p < 0.001). Changes in the shape of muscle architecture during contraction were more pronounced in men than women (p < 0.01). The mean finger extension force for men was 96.7 N and for women 39.6 N. Muscle parameters related to the extension force differed between men and women. For men the muscle volume and muscle CSA were related to extension force, while for women muscle thickness was related to the extension force.

    Conclusion:

    Ultrasound is a useful tool for studying muscle architectures in EDC. Muscle parameters of importance for force development were identified. Knowledge concerning the correlation between muscle dynamics and force is of importance for the development of new hand training programmes and rehabilitation after surgery.

    © 2008 Brorsson et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  • 67.
    Brorsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Nilsdotter, Anna
    Department of Research and Education, Halmstad County Hospital, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Pedersen, Eja
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Bremander, Ann
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Thorstensson, Carina
    Research and Development Centre, Spenshult Hospital for Rheumatic Diseases, Oskarström, Sweden.
    Relationship between finger flexion and extension force in healthy women and women with rheumatoid arthritis2012In: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, ISSN 1650-1977, E-ISSN 1651-2081, Vol. 44, no 7, p. 605-608Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: Balance between flexor and extensor muscle activity is essential for optimal function. The purpose of this pilot study was to compare the relationship between maximum finger flexion force and maximum finger extension force in women with rheumatoid arthritis and healthy women.

    METHODS: Twenty healthy women (median age 61 years) and 20 women with rheumatoid arthritis (median age 59.5 years, median disease duration 16.5 years) were included in the study. Finger extension force was measured with an electronic device, EX-it, and finger flexion force using Grippit. The Grip Ability Test and the score from the patient-reported outcome Disability Arm Shoulder and Hand were used to evaluate activity limitations.

    RESULTS: Patients with rheumatoid arthritis showed significantly decreased hand function compared with healthy controls. A correlation was found between extension force and flexion force in the healthy group (r = 0.65, p = 0.002),but not in the rheumatoid arthritis group (r = 0.25, p = 0.289).

    CONCLUSION: Impaired hand function appears to influence the relationship between maximum finger flexion and extension force. This study showed a difference in the relationship between maximum finger flexion and extension force in healthy controls and those with rheumatoid arthritis. © 2012 Foundation of Rehabilitation Information.

  • 68.
    Brorsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Nilsdotter, Anna
    R & D Center, Spenshult Hospital of Rheumatic Diseases, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Sollerman, Christer
    Department of Hand Surgery, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Baerveldt, Albert-Jan
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Hilliges, Marita
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    A new force measurement device for evaluating finger extension function in the healthy and rheumatoid arthritis hand2008In: Technology and Health Care, ISSN 0928-7329, E-ISSN 1878-7401, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 283-292Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although often neglected, finger extension force is of great importance for developing grip strength. This paper describes the design and evaluation of a new finger extension force measurement device (EX-it) based on the biomechanics of the hand. Measurement accuracy and test-retest reliability were analysed. The device allows measurements on single fingers as well as all the fingers (excluding the thumb) of both healthy and deformed hands. The coefficient of variation in the device was 1.8% of the applied load, and the test-retest reliability showed a coefficient of variation no more than 7.1% for healthy subjects. This study also provides reference values for finger extension force in healthy subjects and patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Significant differences were found in extension strength between healthy subject and RA patients (men, p < 0.05 and women, p < 0.001). EX-it provides objective and reliable data on the extension force capacity of normal and dysfunctional hands and can be used to evaluate the outcome of therapeutic interventions after hand trauma or disease

  • 69.
    Brorsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS). Health and Welfare, Dala Sports Academy, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden.
    Nilsdotter, Anna
    Department of Research and Education, Halmstad County Hospital, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Thorstensson, Carina
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience and Physiology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden & Department of Medicine, Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bremander, Ann
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS). Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund, Section of Rheumatology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden & Research and Development Center, Spenshult, Oskarström, Sweden.
    Differences in muscle activity during hand-dexterity tasks between women with arthritis and a healthy reference group2014In: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, ISSN 1471-2474, E-ISSN 1471-2474, Vol. 15, no 1, article id 154Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Impaired hand function is common in patients with arthritis and it affects performance of daily activities; thus, hand exercises are recommended. There is little information on the extent to which the disease affects activation of the flexor and extensor muscles during these hand-dexterity tasks. The purpose of this study was to compare muscle activation during such tasks in subjects with arthritis and in a healthy reference group.

    METHODS: Muscle activation was measured in m. extensor digitorium communis (EDC) and in m. flexor carpi radialis (FCR) with surface electromyography (EMG) in women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA, n = 20), hand osteoarthritis (HOA, n = 16) and in a healthy reference group (n = 20) during the performance of four daily activity tasks and four hand exercises. Maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) was measured to enable intermuscular comparisons, and muscle activation is presented as %MVIC.

    RESULTS: The arthritis group used a higher %MVIC than the reference group in both FCR and EDC when cutting with a pair of scissors, pulling up a zipper and-for the EDC-also when writing with a pen and using a key (p < 0.02). The exercise "rolling dough with flat hands" required the lowest %MVIC and may be less effective in improving muscle strength.

    CONCLUSIONS: Women with arthritis tend to use higher levels of muscle activation in daily tasks than healthy women, and wrist extensors and flexors appear to be equally affected. It is important that hand training programs reflect real-life situations and focus also on extensor strength. © 2014 Brorsson et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  • 70.
    Brorsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI). Lugnet Institute of Sport Science, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden.
    Nilsdotter, Anna
    Department of Research and Education, Halmstad Central Hospital, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Thorstensson, Carina
    Research and Development Centre, Spenshult, Oskarström, Sweden.
    Bremander, Ann
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS). Research and Development Centre, Spenshult, Oskarström, Sweden.
    Hand flexor and extensor muscle activity in daily activities and hand exercises in women with rheumatoid arthritis or hand osteoarthritis2012In: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, ISSN 0003-4967, E-ISSN 1468-2060, Vol. 71, no Suppl. 3, p. 754-754Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Impaired hand grip function is common and occurs early in the course of disease in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and hand osteoarthritis (HOA), affecting daily life activities and quality of life.

    Objectives: To evaluate muscle force and muscle activity in forearm flexors and extensors during daily activities and clinically well-known hand exercises in women with RA and HOA compared with healthy controls

    Methods: The RA group was consecutively included from a specialist clinic and had a disease duration of at least one year.  Women with HOA were allocated from out-patients primary health care clinics in the same area and clinically diagnosed with symptomatic HOA. The age matched control group had no history of hand/arm injuries, inflammatory or muscle disease. Full active finger extension ability was required for all subjects. Hand force (Newton) was measured with EX-it (extension) and Grippit (flexion), both validated instruments. Muscle activity was measured in m. extensor digitorum communis (EDC) and m. flexor carpi radialis (FCR) with surface EMG (S-EMG) on the dominant hand while performing four daily activities (ADL) and four hand exercises and described as percent of maximal voluntary isometric contraction (% MVIC) based on data from EX-it and Grippit. Pain was measured with Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) 0-10 (best to worst). Differences between groups were analyzed and controlled for age.

    Results: Fifty-six women were included; 20 with RA (age mean (SD) 59.2 (10.7) years, VAS pain 2.2 (1.6)), 16 with HOA (age 67.5 (9.3) years, VAS pain 4.1 (1.9)) and 20 healthy controls (age 56.0 (9.7) years). Women with RA and HOA showed decreased extension and flexion force compared with healthy women (p<0.03).There was a tendency towards higher % MVIC in all tests for women with RA or HOA compared with healthy women, with a statistically significant difference between HOA and healthy women for EDC (p<0.05).

    ADL activities “writing with a pen”, and “cutting with scissors” showed the highest % MVIC in both EDC and FCR in all groups. The exercises “isolated opposition”, and “rolling the dough with flat hands”, had high % MVIC in EDC, while “squeezing the dough” and “isolated opposition” had high % MVIC in FCR.

    Conclusions: Women with RA and HOA tend to use a higher % MVIC than healthy women in many daily activities and in hand exercises. Strengthening exercises should include both extensor and flexor specific training.

    Disclosure of Interest: None Declared

  • 71.
    Brorsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Nordenskiöld, U.
    Section for Clinical Neuroscience and Rehabilitation, The Sahlgrenska Academy University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Grip assistive devices studied in women with reumatic diseases2011In: Abstracts EULAR 2011 London, United Kingdom, 25-28 May 2011, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    Previous studies have shown that persons with reumatoid disease use assistive devices to manage activites of daily living and that loss of grip force and high factors of pain are the main indicator for the use of assitive devices. Furthermore, these studies have pointed out that activities as open and handle bottles, cans are hard items to performe.

    Objectives:

    This pilot project aimed to evaluate grip assistive devices adapted for people with reduced hand function as grip force and pain also disabilities as difficulties in some daily activities. Furthermore, the project aims to evaluate the participants' reflections and advice about the manageability of the products.

    Methods:

    The test group consisted of 14 female patients (mean age 60 years) with rheumatoid diseases (Rheumatoid arthritis (7), Osteoarthritis (5), Fibromyalgia (1), Psoriasis arthritis (1)). Eight different grip assistive devices, developed for opening and handle cans, bottles and canned food, were evaluated. The grip assistive devices was evaluated using a rated scale from 0-10 (0= not useful, 10=very useful) and the cut-off for classification as useful were at least five points.

    Hand activities were evaluated with the Grip Ability Test (GAT) and the questionnaire Quick DASH (Disability of Arm, Shoulder and Hand). The hand function as pain was marked using visual analogue scale (VAS) and grip force was measured using the electronic grip force device Grippit®.

    Results:

    The hand test, GAT, was 34.2 ± 12.0 points and the Quick DASH was 45.5 ± 18.1, VAS was 3.8 ± 3.0 and mean grip force was 76.1 ± 37.2 Newton. The grip force was correlated to pain (r= - 0.581, p=0.029) and also to DASH (r=-0.641, p=0.014). Furthermore there was a correlation between DASH and VAS (r=0.748, p=0.002). There was no correlation between GAT and Grip force, DASH or VAS. Concerning the grip assistive devices five of the eight devices were rated over six points and perceived as functional and useful for open bottles and cans. There was a significant correlation between grip force and the grip device (r=0.557, p=0.039) most useful for the patients and a tendency for correlation between grip force and the other four grip assistive devices that the patients has rated as useful.

    Conclusions:

    This pilot study shows that grip force is one important factor for patients when it comes to chose grip assistive devices. Furthermore, it is individual what grip assistive devices that will be chosen to perform a specific activity. Therefore it is important to measure both hand function and hand activities to maintain good possibilities to perform an active life style with reduced pain and increased grip force in patients with rheumatic diseases.

    References:

    1. Dellhag, B. and A. Bjelle (1995). "A Grip Ability Test for use in rheumatology practice." J Rheumatol 22 (8):1559-65
    2. Gummesson, C., M. M. Ward, et al. (2006). "The shortened disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand questionnaire (QuickDASH): validity and reliability based on responses within the full-length DASH." BMC Musculoskelet Disord 7: 44.
    3. Nordenskiold, U (1997). “ Daily activities in women with rheumatoid arthritis. Aspects of patients education, assistive devices and methods for disability and impairment assessment.” Scand J Rehabil Med Suppl 37:1-72.
    4. (2003). “Rheumatoid arthritis: hand function, activities of daily living, grip strength and essential assistive devices.” Curationis 26 (3):98-106.
  • 72.
    Brorsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Olsson, M Charlotte
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Bengtsson, Oscar
    Petersson, Johan
    Maximal strength in one leg squat correlates with acceleration capacity and agility2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: In many intermittent team sports capacities such as speed, agility and explosiveness are important for performance and are evaluated by sprint-, agility- and strength tests. Earlier studies have shown strong correlations between strength in the two leg squat exercise and sprint performance in various distances but not in sprint performance in agility. Studies evaluating squat strength predominantly perform tests on two legs even when they test athletes involved in intermittent sports where sprinting and agility are common features. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between maximal strength in a one leg squat (Bulgarian split squat) and acceleration capacity in various sprint distances and agility.

    METHODS: The test group consisted of 19 men (mean age 24 ± 2 years ) with experience in intermittent team sports. Acceleration capacity was assessed by sprint tests at 5, 10 and 20 meters and agility was evaluated using the zigzag agility test. The timing was made using photocells (Muscle lab,Ergotest Technology,Norway). The Bulgarian split squat was performed in a smith machine with the barbell on the shoulders to a depth of 110 degrees between tibia and femur.

    RESULTS: The results show significant correlation between maximal strength in the Bulgarian split squat and sprint capacity in the 5 and 10 meter sprint test (Rp= -0,56; p<0.01) as well as the agility test. Maximal strength relative to bodyweight showed significant correlation with the 5 and 20 meter sprint (Rp=-0,62; p< 0,01) as well as the agility test. The zigzag agility test also showed significant correlation between all distances in the sprint tests (p<0.01).

    CONCLUSION: The results from this study show that there maximal strength in one leg correlate significantly with both acceleration capacity and agility. Implementing one leg exercises in the strength and conditioning routine can be useful for athletes in intermittent sports wanting to improve agility and short sprinting capacity. Further implications is that the Bulgarian split squat could be a more functional test for agility performance than the squat on two legs which  predominantly is being used today.

  • 73.
    Brorsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Olsson, M Charlotte
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Fredriksson, Daniel
    Training program for young female soccer players with focus on increasing the acceleration capacity2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: Soccer is the world’s most popular team sport with over 240 million players around the world. About 20 million of the 240 million players are women and 80% of these women are adolescence or juniors. Acceleration capacity is one of the most important physical qualities for a soccer player. The aim of this study was to design, perform and evaluate a training program for young female soccer players with focus on increasing the acceleration capacity.

    METHODS: There were 22 young females (14,6 ± 1,0 years, 50,3 ± 5,1 kg, 160,2 ± 3,0 cm) from two different soccer teams participating. They were split into two groups, one test group (TG) (n=8) and one control group (CG) (n=14). The training period was 12 weeks, with soccer training 3 times per week for both groups. In the TG one workout per week was specifically designed to increase the acceleration capacity and took about 40 minutes to perform. The acceleration capacity was evaluated by a sprint test of 10-20-30 meter and vertical countermovement jump test using photocells.

    RESULTS: The TG showed a tendency to increased acceleration at the sprint test (p=0,08) and significant improvement at the jump test (p<0.05) after 12 weeks of training. The acceleration training also showed significant correlations between the sprint- and jump test in the TG after completed the 12 week training period (p<0.05). The CG showed decreased acceleration at the sprint test (p<0.05) and the vertical jump height was not significantly different. There were no significant differences between the two groups pre and post training.

    CONCLUSION: A 12 week training program can increase the acceleration capacity and the vertical jump height on young female soccer players. In sport were acceleration capacity is important it seems relevant to specifically train those qualities.

  • 74.
    Brorsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Olsson, M Charlotte
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Westerberg, Martin
    Maximal multiple repetitions in free weight strength training with different bar sizes2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: An individual’s grip strength is vital for performance of physical demanding tasks such as give some other example here? As well as strength training with free weights. Performing strength training with a thicker grip around the bar may enhance the strength of the grip in the athlete without other special routines for grip strength development. The purpose of this study was a) to examine the difference in performance in multiple repetitions in two strength training exercises using two different sizes on the bar, b) to investigate correlations between hand grip strength and the amount of repetitions performed with two different sizes of the  bar and c) to correlate hand size with the amount of performed repetitions with two different bar sizes.

    METHODS: Fifteen male participants (24 ± 4 years) with at least one year of strength training experience performed bench press and a prone lying rowing exercise with two different bar sizes (normal Olympic lifting bar with and with out Fat Gripz™). The participants performed test of maximal number of repetitions at a level of 80% of one repetition maximum (1RM), hand size was measured as well as maximum grip strength (using JAMAR).

    RESULTS: The use of a thicker diameter bar resulted in 22 % (p<0.01) reduction of weight performance in number of performed repetitions in the bench press compared to the normal diameter of the bar.  When performing lying bench row a 66 % (p<0.01) reduction in number of performed repetitions was seen with the thicker diameter of the bar. There was no significant correlation between hand size and the submaximal strength test (rp = 0,33 ; p = 0,23) or grip strength and submaximal strength test (rp = 0,31 ; p = 0,27).

    CONCLUSION: The results from this study indicated that the size of the bar diameter influences the performance in maximal number of repetitions in a prone lying rowing exercise and bench press.  Further studies have to be done to analyses the effect of strength training with thicker bar.

     

  • 75.
    Brorsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Pedersen, Eja
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    12-weeks of hand exercise provides better hand function, muscle balance and muscle strength in the rheumatoid arthritis hand2010In: Abstract Archive Sessions Index 2010, EULAR , 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    Impaired grip ability in RA is due to reduced strength in the flexor muscles as well as by dysfunctional extensor muscles leading to inability to open the hand. Furthermore the extensor muscles are important for stabilization during flexion force production and active for developing a controlled grip force. There is today scientific evidence showing that various forms of hand exercise are beneficial for improving hand function and strength in RA patients (Ronningen and Kjeken 2008; Brorsson, Hilliges et al. 2009). However, comparatively little research has evaluated and specific designed hand exercise program for the extensor muscles controlling the hand and fingers (Weiss, Moore et al. 2004; O'Brien, Jones et al. 2006).

    Objectives:

    The objectives for this study were to evaluate the effect of an exercise program on hand strength, hand function and perceived function of daily life activities among RA patients and to explore the possibility to improve the balance between the extensor and flexor muscle forces in the hand.

    Methods:

    The study group comprised of 20 patients with RA (median disease duration 20 years) that performed a hand exercise program for twelve weeks. The finger extension force was measured with a newly developed device (EX-it), finger flexion force was measured with the Grippit. Hand function was evaluated with the Grip Ability Test (GAT) and self reported questionnaire Disability Arm Shoulder and Hand (DASH).

    Results:

    Hand strength (both extension and flexion force) and hand function improved significantly after twelve weeks. The RA group showed improvement in the results of the DASH questionnaire (p < 0.05), but on individual level, the result was partly significant. The relation between extension and flexion force in the hand was not correlated, however, after the exercise there was a strong association between flexion and extension force (p < 0.001). The result on individual level is related to age and duration time.

    Conclusion:

    Twelve weeks of hand exercise significantly improved hand strength, hand function and perceived function for RA patients. Furthermore, exercise improved the relation between the finger extension and flexion force. Hand exercise is thus an effective intervention for RA patients, providing better strength and function.

    References:

    1. Brorsson, S., M. Hilliges, et al. (2009). A six-week hand exercise programme improves strength and hand function in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. J Rehabil Med 41(5): 338-42.
    2. O'Brien, A.V., P. Jones, et al. (2006). Conservative hand therapy treatments in rheumatoid arthritis–a randomized controlled trial. Rheumatology (Oxford) 45(5): 577-83.
    3. Ronningen, A. and I. Kjeken (2008). ffect of an intensive hand exercise programme in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Scand J Occup Ther: 1-11.
    4. Weiss, A. P., D. C. Moore, et al. (2004). Metacarpophalangeal joint mechanics after 3 different silicone arthroplasties. J Hand Surg [Am] 29(5): 796-803.
  • 76.
    Bäckman, Sandra
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Produktutvecklingsprojekt: En applikation till användandet av oxygenbehandling i hemmet.2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    According to statistics, in 2010 there were 26 individuals seen by a group of 100,000 who were depending in home oxygen therapy (HOT). Oxygen treatment adds a certain amount of Oxygen to the patient because the ability to breathe correctly and sufficiently is negatively affected.

    The dominant disease that leads to HOT is COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. As the name suggests, it is a chronic disease which gives inflammatory changes to the lung bronchioles. These changes affect the breathing surface which results in that the individuals’ respiratory capacity becomes reduced.

    The project used methods from dynamic product development with the user in focus. This to obtain a functional prototype that could be used by the target group and to fulfill the purpose, goals and requirements set for the project's results. An important component of the project therefore was to work with the collection of data. For this, various methods were used to obtain information from users as well as prescribers of HOT. All of the methods used have been tested earlier and proven reliable. This project collected information from interviews, observations, matrix arrays, risk analysis and usability testing in patients with HOT.

    The prototype developed in the project resulted in that the target group could perform live test without any risks during testing. The results showed that the aim and objective for the project were fulfilled, expressed in that patients would be able to move the oxygen tube used in HOT.

    It was further concluded that the results fulfilled the patients' desire and opportunity to move the Oxygen tube in their home and at the same time answered the questions that the project was to answer. There were no existing solutions to the problem which is included in the project, but it was possible to develop a first prototype that met the purpose and object of the project.

  • 77.
    Carbonnier, Anders
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Martinsson, Ninni
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Examining muscle activation for Hang Clean and three different TRX Power Exercises: A validation study2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Resistance training has proven to increase athletic performance, traditionally barbell training and Olympic Lifting have been used for this purpose. Sling training has recently been developed as a complement or substitution to traditional resistance training. Research has shown an increase in sport specific athletic performance and core stability with sling training. TRX Suspension Trainer is a newly developed sling training tool and to date no independent research has been done with the TRX. Purpose: To examine and compare muscle activation using TRX and the Olympic Lifting movement Hang Clean. Methods: 32 senior high school male soccer players participated in the study. Surface electromyographic (sEMG) data were collected on mm.erector spinae (back), m.gluteus maximus (glutes), m.vastus lateralis (quadriceps), m.semitendinosus (hamstrings) and m.gastrocnemius caput laterale (calf). Surface EMG data was collected when the subjects performed five different exercises, Hang Clean, TRX Squat Jump, TRX Front Squat and TRX Power Pull. In addition a Squat Jump was used as reference. Results: A similar muscle activation was found between Hang Clean (674 µV), TRX Squat Jump (684 µV) and TRX Front Squat (691 µV). TRX Power Pull showed the highest activation for mm.erector spinae and m.gluteus maximus but the lowest when comparing total muscle activation for all measured muscles. Conclusion: The similar amount of muscular activation for Hang Clean, TRX Squat Jump and TRX Front Squat indicates that the TRX Suspension Trainer can be used as a complement, for experienced athletes, or a substitution, for novice athletes, to traditional strength training. Coaches and athletic trainers should acknowledge the need and the importance of resistance training for athletic performance.

  • 78.
    Cardol, Pierre
    et al.
    Genetics of Microorganisms, University of Liège, Liège, Belgium.
    Figueroa, Francisco
    Departamento de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Córdoba. Campus de Rabanalles, Edif. Severo Ochoa, Córdoba, Spain.
    Remacle, Claire
    Genetics of Microorganisms, University of Liège, Liège, Belgium.
    Franzén, Lars-Gunnar
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Plant Cell Biology: Energy transduction in plant cells.
    González-Halphen, Diego
    Departamento de Genética Molecular, Instituto de Fisiología Celular, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Exterior s/n, Colonia Copilco-Universidad, Delegación Coyoacán, México D.F., Mexico.
    Oxidative Phosphorylation: Building blocks and related components2009In: The Chlamydomonas Sourcebook: Organellar and Metabolic Processes, Volume 2, Second Edition / [ed] Elizabeth H. Harris, David B. Stern & George B. Witman, Oxford: Academic Press, 2009, p. 469-502Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter summarizes the knowledge of the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) constituents of Chlamydomonas and of the components involved in their biogenesis and addresses alternate dehydrogenases and oxidases which are particular to photosynthetic organisms, and several other mitochondrial components related to OXPHOS. Reference to the components of Polytomella sp., a colorless alga closely related to Chlamydomonas is clearly made. The main complexes involved in electron transport seem to share a similar number of subunits, and many of the algal polypeptides have plant homologues. Some differences are apparent, such as the presence of a fragmented COX2 subunit, which seems to be unique to chlorophyte algae. OXPHOS is defined as an electron transfer chain driven by substrate oxidation that is coupled to the synthesis of ATP through an electrochemical transmembrane gradient. The characterization of Arabidopsis mitochondrial components through proteomic approaches has advanced significantly. As a unicellular organism, Chlamydomonas offers the unique opportunity to study organelle-organelle interactions, particularly between mitochondria and chloroplasts. It has become evident that crosstalk between these organelles takes place, mainly through intracellular metabolite pools. © 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 79.
    Carlsson, Lena
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Johansson, Alexandra
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Sex veckors bålstabilitetsträning med FuncGym Training bands: Dess inverkan på manliga handbollsspelares kasthastighet på elitnivå2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Earlier studies refer to the fact that scientific research is lacking when it comes to functional training such as core strengthening and trunk stability in relation to athletic performance like throwing velocity. It is widely debated if instability when performed training exercises improves stability which in turn would improve athletic performance. The most equivalent study that has been made concerning training program with slings to improve trunk stability with the purpose to improve throwing velocity has shown significant results.

     The purpose of this study was to investigate if six weeks core stability training program with the functional training equipment Func.Gym training bands improved the throwing velocity in male elite handball players. 

    Two groups were used in this study, one test group consisting of six subjects (n=6) with an average age of 22,3 years, and one control group consisting of three subjects (n=3), with an average age 21 years. All the subjects were team players from HK Drott.

    The training program consisted of six exercises and was accomplished by the functional training equipment Func.Gym training bands.     

    To measure throwing velocity a Casio EX-F1 EXILIM was used, adjusted to high speed (hs) with 300 frames per second (fps). The clip from the high speed camera was analyzed in the Dartfish classroom edition program.

    One of the test persons in the test group showed improved result in throwing velocity. The remaining, both test group and control group, showed decreased measures in velocity after six week training. Measures of exercise repetitions and questionnaire showed improved strength in trunk stability. 

    Conclusion: Func.Gym Training bands improved trunk stability but did not in this study show any positive effect on throwing velocity.  

  • 80.
    Carlsson, Markus
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Utvärdering av protesfötter med hjälp av en konstruktion som kan utföra en mekanisk gång.2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper has evaluated a new type of prosthetic foot, X-Balance, which aim was to facilitate the performance on uneven ground for the user. This study have performed gait analyzes with three prosthetic feet, the X-Balance, Flex-Foot and assure Ottobock9192 on flat and uneven surfaces using 3D analysis system QTM (Qualisys Track Manager) and associated force plates. During the project a prototype of a design that can perform a mechanical gait were manufactured. The prototype has then been used to fulfill the purpose and objective of this study which is to make different final sets that demonstrate differences between prosthetic feet. Gait analyses of individuals have also been performed to get an idea of what normal gait is. The reliability of the prototype was measured and compared to the study with individuals. By comparison, it could be established that the structure had a higher reliability than the individuals, thus making it easier to compare prosthetic feet against each other. There are no measurements to show that proves that the mechanical gait with the prototype has a high validity. The evaluation findings shows that Ottobock9192 reduce the forces in the Z- and Y-direction most and thus contributes to a gentler heel strike than the other two prosthetics. The results also shows that X-Balance allows greater flexibility in sideway direction (supination) and contributing to a more gentle and easier gait for the user once operate the prosthetic foot over an object with the medial part of the forefoot.

  • 81.
    Castellano Jorge, Aurora
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Environmental Science.
    Species richness in riparian vegetation, a pilot study in Halmstad2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The riparian forests are hotspots of biodiversity and serve important roles in maintainingthe water quality. The study and understanding of this ecosystem is basic to know how theriparian zones respond to the threat and the changes produced by the urbanization. Theobjective of this pilot study was to know the species richness and check the status of theriparian vegetation along two different rivers in Halmstad, Nissan and Fylleån. The studywas focus on the status of trees at both rivers to see if the proximity of the city has anyimpact on the biodiversity. In total 9 different species were found, nevertheless only 3 ofthese species were founded on both localizations: Quercus robur, Betula pendula and Pinussylvestris. The Shannon Index showed a higher biodiversity on Nissan riparian zones, whichis the river that present the urban component. The urban area is the one that presentshigher level of biodiversity, tree species and number of individuals but there are notenough to be in a good standard. The result just show that the urban area is in a bettercondition that the natural one. The institutional efforts should be focusing on preserveboth environments with special attention to the natural environment.

  • 82.
    Cato, Hampus
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Correlation Between 3000-meter Running Performance, Yo-Yo IR1 & Submaximal Treadmill Jogging Test2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Physiologic functional capacity through maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2max) can be measured in many different ways depending on sport and qualities needed to be assessed.In handball a demanding 3000 meter (m) running test is used to evaluate V̇O2max. If this test is sport specific or if it could be replaced by a less strenuous test is unknown. Aim: The aim ofthis study was to compare performance on 3000-meter running with predicted V̇O2max from a submaximal treadmill jogging test (SMTJ) and performance of the Yo-Yo intermittentrecovery test 1 (IR1). Methods: Male handball players (n = 12) performed the 3000 m running test, the Submaximal Treadmill Jogging test and the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery test level 1. Measurements in seconds (s), ml ∙ kg-1 ∙ min-1 and meters where collected and correlated using Pearson r, interclass correlation. Results: A strong significant linear correlation (p < 0.01) was found between performance in 3000 m running (s) and Yo-Yo IR1 performance (m), r = - 0.724 (r2 = 0.524). A weak, not significant linear correlation (p > 0.05)was found between performance in 3000 m running (s) and predicted V̇O2max from submaximal treadmill test (ml ∙ kg-1 ∙ min-1), r = - 0.309 (r2 = 0.095). Conclusion: According to this study the 3000 m running test could be replaced by the Yo-Yo IR1 test or vice versa in adolescent male handball players. The submaximal treadmill test used in this study had several potential errors in estimating V̇O2max, this is probably the reason why only a weak correlation was found between the SMTJ and the 3000 m running test.

  • 83.
    Chaath, Alaaeddin
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energy Science. PRIVATE.
    Improving the Design of Wind Turbine Plants: Future Design of Wind Turbine Plants2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Applying the new ideas developed by the present study on the current design of WTP can lead to satisfactory results and give flexibility in terms of producing more electrical power during periods of low/medium wind velocity. The innovative ideas and methods included in the present work reveal the features of the future renewable energy designs that could, in the few coming years, revolutionize the field of wind turbine designs worldwide. Also, increase the capacity factor significantly, since the application of these ideas in areas where wind class II and III blows have proven to be very effective. Especially, when compares the result of new ideas with the current wind turbine designs.

    Testing the innovative ideas regarding the future wind turbines on a current WTP achieved a good results in increasing electric energy production over the year. For example applies the new ideas on a WTP model Enercon (E-101) will achieve an annual increase around 20% of electric power generation (wind class II, Cp = 36), i.e. when wind speed is ranging from 0-10 m/s (Level C – option 02) the production improved at the highest value, reaching up to +46%. Also, in Level B the generation of electricity witnessed an increase up to 10% when the wind velocity being always between level C with a minimum of 10 meters per second and Level A (Level A is the maximum output value, which is changing from one turbine type to the other). 

  • 84.
    Connolly, David
    et al.
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Lund, Henrik
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Mathiesen, Brian Vad
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Möller, Bernd
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Persson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Boermans, Thomas
    Ecofys, Köln, Germany.
    Trier, Daniel
    PlanEnergi, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Østergaard, Poul Alberg
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Nielsen, Steffen
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Heat Roadmap Europe: Combining district heating with heat savings to decarbonise the EU energy system2014In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 65, p. 475-489Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Six different strategies have recently been proposed for the European Union (EU) energy system in the European Commission’s report, Energy Roadmap 2050. The objective for these strategies is to identify how the EU can reach its target of an 80% reduction in annual greenhouse gas emissions in 2050 compared to 1990 levels. None of these scenarios involve the large-scale implementation of district heating, but instead they focus on the electrification of the heating sector (primarily using heat pumps) and/or the large-scale implementation of electricity and heat savings. In this paper, the potential for district heating in the EU between now and 2050 is identified, based on extensive and detailed mapping of the EU heat demand and various supply options. Subsequently, a new ‘district heating plus heat savings’ scenario is technically and economically assessed from an energy systems perspective. The results indicate that with district heating, the EU energy system will be able to achieve the same reductions in primary energy supply and carbon dioxide emissions as the existing alternatives proposed. However, with district heating, these goals can be achieved at a lower cost, with heating and cooling costs reduced by approximately 15%. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 85.
    Connolly, David
    et al.
    Department of Development and Planning Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Lund, Henrik
    Department of Development and Planning Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Vad Mathiesen, Brian
    Department of Development and Planning Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Möller, Bernd
    Department of Development and Planning Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Østergaard, Poul Alberg
    Department of Development and Planning Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Nielsen, Steffen
    Department of Development and Planning Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Persson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Trier, Daniel
    PlanEnergi, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    The role of district heating in decarbonising the EU energy system and a comparison with existing strategies2013In: Book of Abstracts: 8th Conference on Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many strategies have already been proposed for the decarbonisation of the EU energy system by the year 2050. These typically focus on the expansion of renewable energy in the electricity sector and subsequently, electrifying both the heat and transport sectors as much as possible. In these strategies, the role of district heating has never been fully explored system, nor have the benefits of district heating been quantified at the EU level. This study combines the mapping of local heat demands and local heat supplies across the EU27. Using this local knowledge, new district heating potentials are identified and then, the EU27 energy system is modelled to investigate the impact of district heating. The results indicate that a combination of heat savings, district heating in urban areas, and individual heat pumps in rural areas will enable the EU27 to reach its greenhouse gas emissions targets by 2050, but at a cheaper price than a scenario which focuses primarily on the implementation of heat savings.

  • 86.
    Connolly, David
    et al.
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Mathiesen, Brian Vad
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Østergaard, Poul Alberg
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Möller, Bernd
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Nielsen, Steffen
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Lund, Henrik
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Persson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energy Science.
    Nilsson, Daniel
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energy Science.
    Trier, Daniel
    PlanEnergi, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Heat Roadmap Europe 2050: First Pre-study for the EU272012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This pre-study presents the findings concerning a considerable outlined expansion of the district heating sector within the current EU27 member states until 2050. Heat deliveries are presumed to grow by a factor of 2.1 until 2030 and by a factor of 3.3 until 2050.

    The current energy policy context is that the latest energy communication from the European Commission (Energy Roadmap 2050) contains only a very modest growth in the future for district heating systems and additional industrial heat use from industrial CHP plants. A small increase is foreseen for industrial demands, while heat deliveries to the residential and service sectors are expected to decrease. In total, the heat delivered is expected to increase by less than one per cent per year, giving a total increase of 20% until 2030 and of 40% until 2050.

    In this prestudy, more ambitious growth rates are assessed for district heating in the EU27 between 2010 and 2050. The chosen methodology in this pre-study contains a combination of hour-by-hour energy modelling of the EU27 energy system and mapping of local conditions, which is essential for district heating analysis. However, the link between these two actions has not been fully utilised in this pre-study due to the limited working time available: The mapping action has only indicated the input to the energy modelling action.

  • 87.
    Connolly, David
    et al.
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Mathiesen, Brian Vad
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Østergaard, Poul Alberg
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Möller, Bernd
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Nielsen, Steffen
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Lund, Henrik
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Persson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energy Science.
    Grözinger, Jan
    Ecofys Germany GmbH, Cologne, Germany.
    Boermans, Thomas
    Ecofys Germany GmbH, Cologne, Germany.
    Bosquet, Michelle
    Ecofys Germany GmbH, Cologne, Germany.
    Trier, Daniel
    PlanEnergi, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Heat Roadmap Europe 2050: Second Pre-study for the EU272013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Many strategies have already been proposed for the decarbonisation of the EU energy system by the year 2050. These typically focus on the expansion of renewable energy in the electricity sector and subsequently, electrifying both the heat and transport sectors as much as possible. In these strategies, the role of district heating has never been fully explored system, nor have the benefits of district heating been quantified at the EU level. This study combines the mapping of local heat demands and local heat supplies across the EU27. Using this local knowledge, new district heating potentials are identified and then, the EU27 energy system is modelled to investigate the impact of district heating. The results indicate that a combination of heat savings, district heating in urban areas, and individual heat pumps in rural areas will enable the EU27 to reach its greenhouse gas emission targets by 2050, but at a cheaper price than a scenario which focuses primarily on the implementation of heat savings.

  • 88.
    Corral Alonso, Adriana
    et al.
    Halmstad University. Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Lapourré, Daphné
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    EXPLORING THE INFLUENCE OF CULTURE ON CORPORATE SUSTAINABILITY: The example of France, Spain and Sweden2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title: The influence of culture on corporate sustainability

    Authors: Adriana Corral Alonso and Daphné Lapourré

    Supervisor: Jean-Charles Languilaire

    Level: Bachelor Thesis in Business Administration, Marketing

    Key words: Sustainability, sustainable development, corporate sustainability, Tetra Pak, culture, cultural influence, cultural dimensions, France, Spain, Sweden…

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to explore how and to what extent cultural aspects can influence the corporate sustainability of a given company.

    Method: It is a qualitative case study enhancing on one hand primary research and on the other hand secondary data. The primary data based on three interviews of Tetra Pak key employees in France, Spain and Sweden are completed by the secondary research based on facts about Tetra Pak and on key authors’ books.

    Theoretical framework: The framework consists of theories and models about sustainability and its extensions and about cultural dimensions theories.

    Conclusion: Culture has an influence on corporate sustainability. However the extents are not easy to measure and vary according to the culture and the country’s means.

  • 89.
    Dahlin, Clas
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Plant Cell Biology: Energy transduction in plant cells.
    Surface charge densities and membrane fluidities in thylakoids with different degrees of thylakoid appression after Norflurazon treatment2003In: Photosynthetica (Praha), ISSN 0300-3604, E-ISSN 1573-9058, Vol. 41, no 4, p. 635-639Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wheat seedlings (Triticum aestivum L.) develop plastids (etioplasts and chloroplasts) which exhibit alterations in inner membrane organisation after treatment with Norflurazon (NF), an inhibitor of carotenoid biosynthesis. In dark-grown plants, results in a decreased amount of partitions (contact zones) between prothylakoids. In weak red light, the results in plants containing chloroplasts devoid of grana.

    Assays have been performed to investigate the membrane surface charge density in these membranes, and relate possible differences to the absence of (pro-)thylakoid overlap after NF teatment. Using the fluorescent probe 9- amino acridine (9-AA), the average surface charge density of isolated PTs was -21.8±3.2 mC m-2 and - 27.4±2.6 mC m-2 in the control and after, respectively. Thylakoid membranes isolated from plants grown in weak red light exhibited slightly more negative values, -23.5±2.9 mC m-2 and -29.0±2.1 mC m-2, in control and after, respectively. The surface charge density of destacked thylakoids from greenhouse-grown untreated plants, containing extensive grana stacking, was -34.3±2.5 mC m-2. Assays using the fluorescent probe of DPH (1,6- diphenyl- 1,3,5- hexatriene) showed that this probe exhibits a higher polarisation value when incorporated into thylakoids from NF- treated plants compared to untreated plants grown in weak red light. The highest polarisation value was found in untreated plants grown in the greenhouse. This indicates a lower rotation transition of the probe in the lipid environment of thylakoids after NF treatment, which can be interpreted as more rigid membranes. These results suggest that the surface charge density and the mobility of membrane components may play a major role for the formation of partitions in dark-grown plants and in the formation of grana in plants grown in weak red light.

    23 Additional key words: chloroplasts; etioplasts; (pro-)thylakoids; Triticum; stacking;

    wheat; 9- amino acridine.

  • 90.
    Dalla Rosa, Alessandro
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark.
    Li, Hongwei
    Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark.
    Svendsen, Svend
    Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark.
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energy Science.
    Persson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energy Science.
    Rühling, Karin
    Dresden University of Technology, Dresden, Germany.
    Felsmann, Clemens
    Dresden University of Technology, Dresden, Germany.
    Crane, Martin
    Scottish & Southern Energy, Perthshire, United Kingdom.
    Burzynski, Robert
    Scottish & Southern Energy, Perthshire, United Kingdom.
    Bevilacqua, Ciro
    Building Research Establishment, Watford, United Kingdom.
    Annex X Final report: Toward 4th Generation District Heating: Experience and Potential of Low-Temperature District Heating2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and Objective

    The evolution of district heating (DH) has gone through three generations since the first introduction of distirct heating. It is characterized by the type of transport media and the network temperature levels: the 1st generation DH system is steam-based system, the 2nd generation DH uses high network supply temperature above 100oC, and the 3rd generation DH represents the current DH system with medium network supply temperature between 80oC to 100oC. Up until now, the 4th generation DH as the low-temperature district heating (LTDH) is emerging as a new system which is going to replace the existing 3rd generation DH system. Comparing with the existing DH system, the LTDH reduces the network supply temperature down to consumer required temperature level, thus greatly improves the quality match between the energy supply and the energy demand. Meanwhile, LTDH coupling with reduced network temperature and well-designed DH network can reduce network heat loss by up to 75% comparing with the current system. This makes DH economically competitive comparing with local heat generation units in the areas with low heat density or with low-energy buildings.

    The traditional approach to evaluating a DH system often focuses on the production/supply aspect and only afterwards on the final users. The LTDH concept switches the perspective, starting from end-user thermal comfort and a quality match between energy supply and energy consumption, and aiming to find the best and most economical way to satisfy the heat demand through efficient distribution networks and supply systems based on waste heat and RE. The new concept therefore starts by identifying suitable in-house substations for low-energy-demand buildings at low supply temperature, goes back to design efficient and reliable networks, and finally considers environmentally-friendly heat production units.

    This report describes the concept of LTDH, collects and discusses successful examples of implementation LTDH in the building heating sector. The objective of this report is to raise awareness and provide insights that will stimulate the research, development and implementation of LTDH systems. It will help to increase public recognition and assist policy makers and energy planners, both at local and governmental level, in promoting cost-effective and environmentally friendly DH systems, and in planning and realizing long-term sustainable urban area development. To this end, the report addresses the following research issues:

    1. What are the main advantages of LTDH?

    2. What technology options are available for LTDH, and what are the associated challenges to consider?

    3. How can the risk of Legionella be mitigated in LTDH?

    4. What lessons can be learned from early LTDH projects?

    5. What heat distribution costs are associated with LTDH?

  • 91.
    D'Ambrosio, Marco
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET). Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Medaglia, Marco
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET). Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Vertical Axis Wind Turbines: History, Technology and Applications2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In  this  Master Thesis  a  review  of  different  type  of  vertical  axis  wind turbines (VAWT)  and  a preliminary investigation of a new kind of VAWT are presented.

    After an introduction about the historical background of wind power, the report deals with a more accurate analysis of the main type of VAWT, showing their characteristics and their operations. The aerodynamics of the wind turbines and a review of different type on generators that can be used to connect the wind mill to the electricity grid are reported as well.

    Several statistics are also presented, in order to explain how the importance of the wind energy has grown  up  during  the  last  decades  and  also  to  show  that  this development  of  the  market  of  wind power  creates  new  opportunity  also  for VAWT,  that  are  less  used  than  the  horizontal  axis  wind turbine (HAWT).

    In the end of 2009 a new kind of vertical axis wind turbine, a giromill 3 blades type, has been built in Falkenberg, by the Swedish company VerticalWind. The tower of this wind turbine is made by wood,  in  order  to  get  a  cheaper  and  more environment  friendly  structure,  and  a  direct  driven synchronous multipole with permanent magnents generator is located at its bottom. This 200 kW VAWT represents the intermediate step between the 12 kW prototype, built in collaboration with the Uppsala University, and the common Swedish commercial size of 2 MW, which is the goal of the company.

    A  preliminary  investigation  of  the  characteristics  of  this  VAWT  has  been done, focusing  in particular on the value of the frequency of resonance of the tower, an important value that must be never reached during the operative phase in order to avoid serious damage to all the structure, and on the power curve, used to evaluate the coefficient of power (Cp) of the turbine. The results of this investigation and  the steps  followed  to  get  them  are  reported.  Moreover  a  energy production analysis of the turbine has been done using WindPro, as well as a comparison with and older type on commercial VAWT.

  • 92.
    Danielsson, Tommy
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET). Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Asymmetry in Elite Snowboarders: A Study comparing Range of Motion in the Hip and Spine, Power in Lower Extremities and Circumference of Thigh2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Snowboarding is a relatively young sport and has grown since the birth in the 1960-70.

    Today, snowboarding still is a lifestyle to many, but also an accepted mainstream sport and has been an Olympic sport since the Olympic Winter Games in Nagano, Japan 1998 (18,35,36). The movement pattern and body position is asymmetric, since you stand sideways with the front foot ahead of the rear foot in the line of direction (14,18,28). Several studies that have investigated the biomechanics of snowboarding have showed that the loading of the lower extremities are different in the front leg compared to the rear leg during riding (14,18, 22,23,28).

    The purpose of this study was to investigate if the asymmetric body position in snowboarding causes differences between front and rear leg considering; circumference of thigh, range of motion (ROM) in the hip joints, power in lower extremities, or causes asymmetrical ROM in the spine in the test group compared to the control group.

    Two groups were used, one test group consisting of ten elite snowboarders (n=10) with an average age of 18 years, and one control group consisting of eight high level skiers (n=8), average age 17,25 years. All subjects were students at Malung/Sälen Alpine Elite Gymnasium. Measurements of ROM in hip and spine were made with a myrin incline goniometer and universal plastic goniometer. A one leg countermovement jump (CMJ) was made as a test of power in the lower extremities using Ivar ump & speed analyzer. Measurements of circumference of thighs were made using a soft tape measure.

    The results show significant differences in four of the ten measurements in test group and in two of the ten measurements in the control group. There are significant differences in hip passive flexion (P<0,05) and adduction(P<0,05) in both groups (Tables 2,3) suggesting that in these movements there are individual differences. The one leg CMJ and circumference of thigh shows significant differences, (P>0,05) and (P<0,001), between front and rear leg in the test group (Table 2), but no such differences can be seen in the control group (Table 3) suggesting that these differences may be caused by the asymmetrical body position during snowboarding.

  • 93.
    David, M.
    et al.
    Inst. National de la Recherche Agronomique, UMR Environnement et Grandes Cultures, Thiverval-Grignon, France.
    Loubet, B.
    Inst. National de la Recherche Agronomique, UMR Environnement et Grandes Cultures, Thiverval-Grignon, France.
    Cellier, P.
    Inst. National de la Recherche Agronomique, UMR Environnement et Grandes Cultures, Thiverval-Grignon, France.
    Mattsson, Marie
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Schjoerring, J.K.
    Plant and Soil Science Laboratory, University of Copenhagen, Faculty of Life Sciences, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Nemitz, E.
    Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (Edinburgh Research Station), Bush Estate, Penicuik, Midlothian ,UK.
    Roche, R.
    Inst. National de la Recherche Agronomique, UMR Environnement et Grandes Cultures.
    Riedo, M.
    Inst. fur Agrarokologie, Bundesforschungsanstalt fur Landwirtschaft (FAL), Braunschweig, Germany.
    Sutton, M.A.
    Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (Edinburgh Research Station), Bush Estate, Penicuik, Midlothian ,UK.
    Ammonia sources and sinks in an intensively managed grassland canopy2009In: Biogeosciences, ISSN 1726-4170, E-ISSN 1726-4189, Vol. 6, no 9, p. 1903-1915Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Grasslands represent canopies with a complex structure where sources and sinks of ammonia (NH3) may coexist at the plant level. Moreover, management practices such as mowing, hay production and grazing may change the composition of the sward and hence the source-sink relationship at the canopy level as well as the interaction with the atmosphere. There is therefore a need to understand the exchange of ammonia between grasslands and the atmosphere better, especially regarding the location and magnitude of sources and sinks. Fluxes of atmospheric NH3 within a grassland canopy were assessed in the field and under controlled conditions using a dynamic chamber technique (cuvette). These cuvette measurements were combined with extraction techniques to estimate the ammonium (NH+4 ) concentration and the pH of a given part of the plant or soil, leading to an estimated ammo- nia compensation point (Cp ). The combination of the cuvette and the extraction techniques was used to identify the poten- tial sources and sinks of NH3 within the different compart- ments of the grassland: the soil, the litter or senescent “litter leaves”, and the functioning “green leaves”. A set of six field experiments and six laboratory experiments were performed in which the different compartments were either added or removed from the cuvettes.The results show that the cuvette measurements agree with the extraction technique in ranking the strength of compartment sources. It suggests that in the studied grassland the green leaves were mostly a sink for NH3 with a compensation point around 0.1–0.4 μg m−3 and   an NH3 flux of 6 to 7 ng m−2 s−1. Cutting of the grass did not increase the NH3 fluxes of the green leaves. The litter was found to be the largest source of NH3 in the canopy, with a Cp of up to 1000μgm−3 NH3 andanNH3 fluxupto90ngm−2 s−1. The litter was found to be a much smaller NH3 source when dried (Cp =160 μg m−3 and FNH3 =35 ng m−2 s−1 NH3 ). Moreover emissions from the litter were found to vary with the relative humidity of the air. The soil was a strong source of NH3 in the period immediately after cutting (Cp =320 μg m−3 and FNH3 =60 ng m−2 s−1 ), which was nevertheless always smaller than the litter source. The soil NH3 emissions lasted, however, for less than one day, and were not observed with sieved soil. They could not be solely explained by xylem sap flow extruding NH+4 . These results indicate that future research on grassland-ammonia relationships should focus on the post-mowing period and the role of litter in interaction with meteorological conditions.

  • 94.
    Deutschmann, Oliver
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energy Science.
    Johansson, Thomas
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energy Science.
    Framtidens elbilar utmanar nutidens elnät: Påverkan av ett ökat antal elbilar på ett halländskt elnät2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The challenges facing low voltage grids are rising as an increasing number of domestic houses transition from fossil fueled heating to electricity based heating. Several environmental goals and visions have the same transition from fossil based power to electricity based power in mind for the transportation sector. One of the most important tools for this transformation is widely regarded to be the electric vehicle. With the demands of the electric vehicle pressuring the power grid, several questions arise regarding the growth of the electric vehicle market and what repercussions it may have on the grid. This paper focuses on a typical low voltage grid in southern Sweden and what effects a growing electric vehicle market may have on it. Through computer-assisted simulations based on several future scenarios regarding the EV market, this paper finds that few modifications and reinforcements are needed on this particular grid within the next 10 to 15 years. After this timeframe the voltage drop becomes a serious concern and should be addressed.

  • 95.
    Dhivya Nandhini Dayanandan, Dhivya Nandhini
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energy Science. Halmstad University.
    PERSPECTIVES OF ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN INDUSTRIES: PERSPECTIVES OF ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN INDUSTRIES1994Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Now a days, there is lot of alternatives available, which provides green and renewable energy. Through these alternatives, the consumer’s demand for energy is being satisfied. It is important to use the available energy in a systematic and efficient way so that there are many benefits. The purpose of this study is to briefly identify the various prospects, problems, and policies for energy efficiency in industries. Basis of purpose on the negative impacts caused due to the increased use of energy consumption in industries. This literature study is based from practical examples of industries, industrial applications and other new technology. As the electric motor system operates most of the industrial processes, the electricity consumption of motors in industries accounts for two thirds of total energy consumption. Influencing energy efficiency in industries provides substantial advantages. Various motor applications such as pumps, fans, air compressors, cooling compressors, variable speed drives is studied for their operation and working conditions. The utilization of energy efficient technologies to a greater extent can perceive savings to the industries. In spite of being aware of potentials of using energy efficient technologies in industries, energy efficient technologies are not widely used. A barrier to energy efficiency is explained as a practice that inhibits the industrial decision of being efficient in terms of energy and finance. The barriers consent with energy efficiency in industries is fair enough to be considered, while compromising energy for temporary prosperity is not upright. Influence of increased energy efficiency in market areas need coordination of all industries and commercial area throughout the country. The coordination between the industries and commercial sectors can be closely achieved by raising energy policies and energy regulations. The energy efficient policies are considered as cognizance for market transformation and this can maintain the industry, the environment, and the energy. The options available for market transformation are enormous. It is suggested to implement the energy efficient policies as energy efficiency is important for sustainable future. By adopting the right policy, at right situation can provide enormous benefits to the process, industry, and nation. A basis of energy efficiency in industrial application can provide potential energy savings for the present and future industrial situation. This can provide a balance between INDUSTRY-ENVIRONMENT-ENERGY.

  • 96.
    Dolšak, Petra
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Environmental Science.
    SOURCE SPECIFIC FOG DEPOSITION OF BLACK CARBON FROM THE ATMOSPHERE2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Black carbon (BC) plays an important part in global climate change. In addition, long term exposure to BC is closely related to pulmonary and cardiovascular mortality. BC is formed by the incomplete combustion of carbonaceous compounds. In urban environments the main sources come from the burning of biomass for domestic heating and diesel vehicles. The typical lifespan of airborne BC is about a week and is treated as a short-lived climate pollutant. Wet deposition, which is more significant closer to the source, is the primary deposition mechanism and condensation of water is dependent on the sources of BC. Measurements with aethalometers determine the sources of BC concentrations, particularly fossil fuel combustion from traffic (ff) and wood smoke (bb).

     

    The in-situ measurements in this study reveal that the different source apportionment of BC emissions with different initial properties of BC behaves differently during the fog periods. Foggy periods from the March and January 2015 data set were carefully collected. In January, the fog occurred throughout the entire observation time, while in March the fog occurred for different durations, from 1 to 7 hours. A linear regression between the normalized BC, BCbb, BCff concentrations and 7-hour periods at night was calculated for each individual period. The comparison of slope values (k), standard errors and p-values of different sources of specific BC emissions was then made. Despite there not being a great difference between the slope values of BCbb and BCff in the January data set, the results revealed that BC emissions from biomass burning have fewer non-statistically significant values than the BC emissions from vehicle exhaust. This study corresponds to the different initial properties of fresh aerosols from both sources and indicated an increased fog deposition of BC from biomass burning.

  • 97.
    Druyts, Jan
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Control induction motor by frequency converter: Simulation electric vehicle2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Summary

     Today we are probably on a point of change for the car industry. The last century was the century of vehicles with internal combustion engines. Fossil fuels were relative cheap, easy accessible and they have a high specific energy. The pollution and dependency on oil caused the last decade an increasing demand for alternatives. Alternatives for electric power plants and for car drives. Yet the turnover to hybrids is a fact and much research is done for pure electric vehicles. Research about the control of electric motors is by that become a hot topic.

    To simulate an electric vehicle drive with an induction motor, a frequency converter is needed. This combination of motor and converter led to many possible experiments. With a few experiments already done and a broad theoretical background report this thesis provides a good bundle of information to start with further experiments. The experiments can become even broader when a flywheel is added as mass inertia momentum and a DC source on the DC-link. Both elements contribute for a better simulation of an electric motor in an electric vehicle.

    What is described in this theoretical report about the combination of an induction motor and converter is only the tip of the iceberg. I had too less time to begin experimenting with the flying wheel. The DC-link voltage becomes ca. 540V. From the perspective of safety I could never work alone with the DC-link. Even with a companion it was too dangerous because the equipment of the Halmstad University is not made for such dangerous voltages. That’s why this thesis contains more theoretical background and less actual practical data.

  • 98.
    Edman, Sebastian
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Esping, Tobias
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Squats as a predictor of on-ice performance in ice hockey2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The National Hockey League Entry Draft Combine (NHLED Combine) is

    considered one of the toughest physical fitness tests an ice hockey player has to go through. The NHLED Combine consists of several fitness tests evaluating the athlete’s aerobic- and anaerobic capacity; lower body power, upper body strength and power, flexibility and anthropometrics; no lower body strength test are employed. Squats are the only exercise used by all National Hockey League (NHL) strength and conditioning coaches yet it is not included in the NHLED Combine.

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine which off-ice test correlates best with on-ice performance measured as forward skating speed. We hypothesised that squat one repetition maximum (squat 1RM) would be a better or equal predictor of on-ice performance compared to the current NHLED Combine tests standing long jump (SLJ) and Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT).

    Method: Eleven male subjects, aged 17.8 ± 0.8 years, performed an on-ice sprint followed by the off-ice tests SLJ, WAnT and squat 1RM.

    Results: A correlation was found between sprint time on-ice and SLJ (r= -0,727, p= 0.006), Wingate anaerobic test mean power/ body weight (WAnT MP/BW) (r= -0,607, p= 0,024), squat 1RM (r= -0,600, p= 0.026) and squat 1 repetition maximum/body weight (squat 1RM/BW) (r= -0,609, p= 0.023).

    Conclusion: The results indicate that squat 1RM and squat 1RM/BW are equally good predictors of hockey performance as SLJ and WAnT MP/BW.

  • 99.
    Egeskog, Andrea
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Hansson, Julia
    Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Berndes, Göran
    Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Co-generation of biofuels for transportation and heat for district heating systems: An assessment of the national possibilities in the EU2009In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 37, no 12, p. 5260-5272Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biomass gasification with subsequent synthesis to liquid or gaseous biofuels generates heat possible to use in district heating (DH) systems. The purpose here is to estimate the heat sink capacity of DH systems in the individual EU nations and assess the possibilities for biomass-gasification-based co-generation of synthetic biofuels for transportation and heat (CBH) for DH systems in the EU countries. The possibilities are assessed (i) assuming different levels of competiveness relative to other heat supply options of CBH corresponding to the EU target for renewable energy for transportation for 2020 and (ii) assuming that the potential expansion of the DH systems by 2020 is met with CBH. In general, the size of the DH heat sinks represented by the existing national aggregated DH systems can accommodate CBH at a scale that is significant compared to the 2020 renewable transportation target. The possibilities for CBH also depend on its cost-competitiveness compared to, e.g., fossil-fuel-based CHP. The possible expansion of the DH systems by 2020 represents an important opportunity for CBH and is also influenced by the potential increase in the use of other heat supply options, such as, industrial waste heat, waste incineration, and CHP. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 100.
    Ehde, Per Magnus
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Wetland Research Centre.
    Weisner, Stefan
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Wetland Research Centre.
    Nutrient retention in constructed wetlands in an agricultural landscape in southwest Sweden2007In: 2nd International Symposium on Wetland Pollutant Dynamics and Control - WETPOL 2007: extended abstracts, Tartu: University of Tartu, 2007, p. 91-92Conference paper (Other academic)
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