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  • 51.
    Al Shalabi, Ammar
    et al.
    Multimedia University, Melaka, Malaysia.
    Omar, Mohammed K.
    Multimedia University, Melaka, Malaysia.
    Rundquist, Jonas
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Processes and strategies of NPD: A survey of Malaysian Industry2008In: International Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology, ISSN 1524-1548, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 91-95Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, there has been a considerable interest in Malaysian manufacturing firms in New Product Development (NPD) which is considered to be indirectly a booster for the success of a firm. The purpose of the study is to highlight the NPD processes and methods used in Malaysian industry. This paper focuses only on the formal NPD-processes and NPD-strategies. From the available database, it is found that there are 250 confirmed companies from automotive, chemical, and electrical industries, which have R&D facilities; out of which 36% have agreed to participate in the survey, and 29% questionnaires have been used. The results show that the best firms have their R&D and NPD departments either overseas or partially in Malaysia.

  • 52.
    Albertsson, Anton
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Skoglund, Lukas
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Rullarmering: Att adoptera en armeringsmetod2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Rebar carpet is an innovation that favors the working environment of the rebar workers and saves time. Reinforcement workers today are a vulnerable group. Heavy lifts and backbreaking postures are a part of their everyday work. It is already established that work with rebar carpets is both time-saving, economically beneficial and from a working environment point of view better than traditional reinforcement work. Despite all benefits it is used in rather few projects today.

    The purpose of this study is to identify how the construction industry embraces new innovations related to in situ concrete with post-tensioned reinforcement. The goals are to find out how designers, contractors and manufacturers are working to adopt rebar carpets in the construction process and to shed light on, factors affecting the adoption.

    The study is based on semi-structured interviews with designers, contractors and a representative of a rebar manufacturing company.

    Designers and contractors have not, generally speaking, been actively working to adopt rebar carpet. The governing factors for the use of rebar carpets is the designers and contractors knowledge and previous experience of rebar carpet. The contractors who have previous experience of rebar carpet can imagine using rebar carpet again and contractors with no previous experience believe that they need more knowledge of rebar carpet before they dare to try. Design engineers who have designed for rebar carpet before has it in mind when they design other projects. Designers who have no previous experience of rebar carpet demand more knowledge about how they can facilitate the use of rebar carpet.

  • 53.
    Albinsson, John
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Brorsson, Sofia
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Lindgren, Finn
    Lund University.
    Rydén Ahlgren, Åsa
    Lund University.
    Cinthio, Magnus
    Lund University.
    Combined use of Iteration, Quadratic Interpolation and an Extra Kernel for high-resolution 2D particle tracking: a first evaluation2010In: 2010 ieee international ultrasonics symposium, New York: IEEE Press, 2010, p. 2000-2003Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel 2D particle tracking method, that uses 1) iteration, 2) fast quadratic sub-pixel estimation (with only 28 multiplications per movement), and 3) a previous kernel, has been evaluated and compared with a full-search block-matching method. The comparison with high-frequency ultrasound data (40 MHz) was conducted in silico and on phantoms, which comprised lateral, diagonal, and ellipsoidal movement patterns with speeds of 0–15 mm/s. The mean tracking error was reduced by 68% in silico and 71% for the phantom measurements. When only sub-pixel estimation was used, the decrease in the tracking error was 61% in silico and 57% for the phantom measurements. As well as decreasing the tracking error, the new method only used 70% of the computational time needed by the full-search block-matching method. With a fast method having good tracking ability for high-frequency ultrasound data, we now have a tool to better investigate tissue movements and its dynamic functionality.

  • 54.
    Albinsson, John
    et al.
    Lund Univ, Dept Biomed Engn, S-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Brorsson, Sofia
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Rydén Ahlgren, Åsa
    Lund Univ, Dept Clin Sci, Clin Physiol & Nucl Med Unit, Malmo, Sweden..
    Cinthio, Magnus
    Lund Univ, Dept Biomed Engn, S-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Improved tracking performance of lagrangian block-matching methodologies using block expansion in the time domain: In silico, phantom and invivo evaluations2014In: Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology, ISSN 0301-5629, E-ISSN 1879-291X, Vol. 40, no 10, p. 2508-2520Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to evaluate tracking performance when an extra reference block is added to a basic block-matching method, where the two reference blocks originate from two consecutive ultrasound frames. The use of an extra reference block was evaluated for two putative benefits: (i) an increase in tracking performance while maintaining the size of the reference blocks, evaluated using in silico and phantom cine loops; (ii) a reduction in the size of the reference blocks while maintaining the tracking performance, evaluated using in vivo cine loops of the common carotid artery where the longitudinal movement of the wall was estimated. The results indicated that tracking accuracy improved (mean - 48%, p<0.005 [in silico]; mean - 43%, p<0.01 [phantom]), and there was a reduction in size of the reference blocks while maintaining tracking performance (mean - 19%, p<0.01 [in vivo]). This novel method will facilitate further exploration of the longitudinal movement of the arterial wall. (C) 2014 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology.

  • 55.
    Aldegård, Alexander
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Gapinski, William
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Metodjämförelse för fixturkonstruktion till prototyptillverkning2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis work is done in collaboration with Prodtex AB, which works to

    develop digital tools to facilitate the constructor´s work in virtual environments,

    for instance CAFD within CATIA V5. What the client wanted the project

    participants to perform was a comparison of the company's semi-automatic

    software for fixture design, and the traditional construction method with CATIA.

    The reason for the method comparison is because Prodtex AB requires data,

    which they can present to potential customers.

    The participants produced a method to enable the necessary components of the

    project, the method consisted of training in fixture design, fixture construction and

    work with the consulting company´s application. These elements have been

    essential for the comparison to be reliable. The main part of the assignment

    consisted of constructing units for the given fixture. The reason behind this is due

    to the necessity of a certain level of experience in fixture design, which is required

    to be able to assemble units with an accurate and efficient procedure.

    The method comparison generated data in terms of time in the measurement areas,

    input, design and export that the project participants analyzed and compiled in the

    result section. Based on the statistics, participants were able to find answers about

    which features the software made the most time savings of, and how abundant

    these were in relation to the traditional design method. A conclusion about when it

    was beneficial for a company to invest in the software was based on reasoning

    deduced from the outcome discussion.

  • 56.
    Alex, Ansu
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Comparison study of various current and potential liquid biofuels in road freight transport: Application on a case study on Transport Centralen in Halmstad2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The role of liquid biofuels in transportation to minimize the effects of climate change is  evident and has led to a number of studies on finding effective solutions to replace fossil fuels. Liquid biofuels are especially important for heavy duty transports as the effective ‘green’ alternatives are not as many compared to light duty vehicles; for which for e.g. electrification is an option. This thesis presents a comparison study of 8 liquid biofuels with a total of 13 different fuel pathways for use in road freight transports; both current and potential future fuels are assessed in terms of their environmental effects, fuel properties and compatibility with the heavy duty vehicle engines (see Table 10, page 36). Furthermore, a case study is performed to assess the practicality of the results of the study.  Hydro-treated vegetable oil, Bio Dimethyl ether, Liquefied Bio Methane/ ED95 are identified as fuels with considerable potential in the shorter term. Algal biofuel and Biomass to liquid (BTL) fuels from synthesis gas, if realized commercially would be a breakthrough for biofuels in overall transportation sector. However, life cycle analysis has to be performed for the different fuel pathways to completely understand the various impacting factors.

  • 57.
    Alexander, Mattsson
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Engine stability: A study of the events occurring prior to thecombustion in a small two-stroke engine2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is a study conducted in collaboration with the engine performance group atHusqvarna AB. The study focuses on engine stability of smaller two stroke handheld enginesrunning on E10 (10% ethanol mixture in gasoline). The reason for the study is the new EUproposition that by 2020 all fuel must have 10 % renewable fuel content. To meet thisproposition Husqvarna has evaluated E10 and found that the engine stability of smaller twostroke engines are affected in a negative way by the fuel.The study focuses on events occurring prior to the combustion and mainly the carburetor. Theobjective for the thesis is to seek what contribution the events occurring prior to thecombustion have to the engine stability and find simple and implantable solution to improvethe stability with regards to the carburetor.The study has been conducted in three different work packages, system understanding to buildknowledge of how the carburetor operates, fault finding to seek potential attributes that canaffect the stability and fault mode analysis to seek why the attributes affect the stability.Furthermore, all the attributes found has been tested and validated on the engine to seek theircontribution to the stability.The conclusion made of the thesis is that with simple and implementable improvements of thecarburetor the engine stability could be increased with 40 %. A total of five differentattributes were found to affect the stability of the engine. Furthermore, a very detailedexplanation of how the carburetor operates and components inside the carburetor has beenestablished during the thesis.

  • 58.
    Alfredsson, Emil
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Möller, Emil
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Optimering av motorfäste2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 59.
    Algeröd, Oskar
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Davidsson, Tobias
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Hållfasthet i helväggselement av cementbunden träull2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Cement bonded wood-wool as external walls have been used around the world since the 1980s. They can have different appearances, wood-wool slabs connected to each other into larger wall elements that are raised between concrete columns and beams. Another type is hollow wood-wool blocks that are stacked on each other and filled with concrete to make an external wall. In 2004 a new building system was launched in Sweden, large prefabricated wall elements of wood-wool. They are connected to each other with concrete columns and beams integrated in the elements to make an external wall. This report is looking into if the concrete beams and columns for the building system are needed. In the report three different tests were made to get the mechanical properties of the prefabricated wood-wool elements. Results showed that there was a large different in the density between the wall elements and it also showed that the modulus of rupture varied between 0.248-0.449 MPa on three identical wall elements. The characteristic modulus of rupture was three times higher than documented in previous reports of a similar wall. The conclusion of this report is that the concrete beams and columns should still be in the wall system.

  • 60.
    Algotsson, Marcus
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Construct validity and test-retest reliability of a rotational maximum strength test and rotational power test in 1080 Quantum2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Explosive rotational movements are parts of many sports such as golf, tennis and baseball. Rotational strength and power tests exist, but valid and reliable tests to measure standing rotational strength and standing rotational power are lacking. 1080 Quantum is a machine wich can measure, speed, force and power and has several different resistance modes was used for testing rotational power and strength in this study. Aim: The aim was to investigate the validity and reliability of two new standing Quantum rotational tests; one measuring maximal rotational strength (1RM) and one measuring rotational power. Methods: Fifteen subjects, 8 men and 7 women, with at least one year of experience of resistance training participated in the study. The two new tests were: the Quantum power rotational test (PRT) and the Quantum 1RM rotational test (1RMRT). Testing occured during two sessions and during the first session construct validity of the two new rotational tests was assessed with a standing medicine ball throw (MB) and a sitting rotational power test (SRT). During the second session PRT and 1RMRT were tested for test-retest reliability. To study construct validity á priori hypothesis were stated and data were analyzed with Spearman´s correlation coefficent (rs). Intra correaltion coefficient (ICC) was used for test-retest reliability for PRT and 1RMRT. Results: Priori hypotheses were all fullfilled. Correlations found were considered good between PRT and MB (rs=0.80), moderate between PRT and SRT (rs=0.52), excellent between 1RMRT and MB (rs=0.90), moderate between 1RMRT and SRT (rs=0.73) and good between PRT and 1RMRT (rs=0.81). Excellent test-retest reliability was found for PRT (ICC=0.94, 95% CI (0.80-0.99)) and 1RMRT (ICC=0.98, 95% CI (0.92-0.99)) Conclusion: The two new rotational tests performed in 1080 Quantum both assessed construct validity and test-retest reliability. PRT can be used to measure standing rotational power and 1RMRT can be used to measure standing rotational maximum strength.

  • 61.
    Al-imarah, Amena
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Stenberg, Elin
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Tillämpning av batterilager som energitjänsten lastutjämnare: En studie om batterilagring för en medelstor abonnent i Varberg Energis elnät2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis, is a study of battery energy storage and its use as energy source and smoothening of power fluctuation. Studies have been made as a systematic review and a quantitative study. The study has consisted of analysing the power characteristic from a supermarket in the city of Varberg during year 2015. The object has been to evaluate the energy storage and the power smoothing qualities. Therefore the battery energy storages characteristics have been evaluated in this systematic review. For the quantitative study, calculations of the energy storage sizes were made for two separate operation modes. The two different operation modes were named technical dimensioning and economic dimensioning. The function of the technical dimensioning was to smooth the power outlet from the grid, while the function of the economic dimensioning was to enable the supermarket to buy more energy during low-price hours. Based on monthly power characteristics, each dimensioning gave as a result two energy storage possibilities, one in medium and one in small size. The technical dimensioning resulted in battery energy storage of the sizes 617 kWh and 555kWh which is comparable to 7,1% and 5,8% of the daily energy usage of the supermarket. The economic dimensioning resulted in battery energy storage of the sizes 597 kWh and 233kWh which is comparable to 6,8% and 2,8% of the daily energy usage of the supermarket. For optimizing the economic savings, a variation of technical and economic operation mode are needed, depending on calculated power usage through the day and elspot prices. The study shows that a battery storage is difficult to finance. The calculated economic savings were estimated during ideal conditions and without power loss or loss in performance. As a conclusion from this study a battery storage may have a good payback if there are several energy services to be filled.

  • 62.
    Alkiswani, Mutaz
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energy Science.
    Spectrum conversion in solar cells industry: Novel model concept and steps towards commercialization2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Solar photovoltaic industry is a hot research field, massive attempts are going on all over the world to increase its productivity in different ways. One of the challenges for solar cells is the light spectrum mismatch losses, which referred to the part of solar spectrum that cannot be utilized to electricity by the conventional cells.

    Two ways have been suggested to overcome solar spectrum mismatch losses, the first is multi layered cells (tandem cells) with a different light behavior for each layer, and the second is spectrum conversion which is this researches subject.

    Spectral modification or conversion in solar cells industry has been studied and different lab scale models have been introduced. According to nanoscale journal, such technology may be the base of the next generation solar cells, mentioning specifically the use of luminescence down conversion and up conversion techniques to control the light spectrum on the solar cell, these endeavors targets to produce solar cells that is not subjugated to Shockley-Queisser maximum efficiency limit of 31%.

    This research aims to draw a map of various ideas introduced to incorporate similar technologies in solar cell products, beside further suggestion to enhance its technical behavior and to push the commercialization of the technology forward. This is expected to reveal clear image about technology’s future development map for the upcoming studies, and to create a motivation for further studies towards a commercial production scale.

    The proposed commercialized model will result in enhancing the maximum theoretical efficiency limit to 48% if all spectral mismatch loses have been eliminated. Quantum energy level diagrams have been illustrated to describe each model’s performance under a theoretical light spectrum.

  • 63.
    Allert, Alexander
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Richloow, Emil
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Att följa ett hållbarhetsarbete: en longditudinell studie av SJs hållbarhetsrapporter2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title: To follow sustainability - through a longitudinal study of the sustainability reports of SJ.

    Introduction: Sustainability Reporting is a way for companies to show how they work with sustainability, where the companies ambitions, strategies and visions of sustainability are also presented. GRI (Global reporting initiative) is the largest framework in the world that companies use when designing the sustainability report. One way of looking at the sustainability report is that it is for communicating with stakeholders, society and within the management team. In this way, the sustainability report is a way of making sustainability challenges more visible and by creating perspectives and achievements that make changes.

    Problem: One of the main purposes of the sustainability reporting framework GRI is to provide greater transparency for stakeholders, thus providing the opportunity for comparison over time. When there is a lack of clear national provisions for the preparation of sustainability work, evaluations and comparisons are difficult for the rest of the world. The lack of accounting principles and common practice means that it is often not clear what has been measured, how it has been measured and what tasks are covered. Therefore, it is interesting to study what can complicate a comparison over several years, by studying the sustainability work over time in the company SJ, which has been actively working with the framework of GRI since 2007.

    Purpose: Analyze what in sustainability reports that can complicate the comparability of the results.

    Method: It is important that companies sustainability issues are linked to performance measures, just to measure sustainability performance. Therefore, we have chosen to look at the sustainability areas of SJ and the indicators that are linked to these areas. We wanted to see how well it was possible to compare the results of the sustainability areas of SJ over time? This is carried out through a longitudinal case study with inductive approach to the sustainability reports of SJ.

    Results: In this study, it has been found that there is a lack of information about several parts, where the reader of the report does not get enough insight. Information deficiency in definitions and measurement methods leads to a comparison being uncertain and less credible. In the examination of deviating outcomes, the complexity was shown to interpret what influenced an outcome and strongly suggested that there was a lack of transparency. It also emerged that there is a big room for companies to choose which performance indicators and measurement methods they want.

  • 64.
    Alm, Mikael
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Soccer players’ agility skills depending on their position on the field2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Soccer players, independent of positions, perform high-intensity movements such as agility for short periods and have longer periods of low-intensity and rest during a soccer game. Agility is considered to be dependent on perceptional and decision-making factors and physical factors related to changes in directions. Most research has displayed no differences in different preplanned agility test within playing positions. However, no studies have been done on reactive agility within different positions on the soccer field. Aim: The purpose of the study was to compare if soccer players ́ reactive – and preplanned agility performance differs between their positions in the team. The study will also examine the level of correlation between results from reactive agility and preplanned agility. Methods: Thirty male soccer players, 17-19 years old, were tested in reactive agility and preplanned agility. The subjects were divided into three groups depending on their playing position, including defenders (n=10), midfielders (n=10) and forwards (n=10). Mean scores for both agility tests were analyzed with a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the criterion level for significance was set at 5 % (p ≤ 0.05). Correlations were performed to study the relationship between reactive agility and preplanned agility. Following limits were used to determine the strength of the value of Pearson correlation; r=.10 to .29 small, r=.30 to .49 medium, r=.50 to 1.0 large. Results: No statistical significant differences between defenders, midfielders and forwards in neither reactive agility (p=0.624) or preplanned agility (p=0.481) were perceived. There was a small correlation (r=0.24) between all studied results from the reactive – and preplanned agility test. When positions were correlated within the two test, the highest correlation between reactive agility and preplanned agility was found in midfielders with a medium correlation (r=0.47) while small correlations appeared within defenders (r=0.28) and forwards (r=-0.11). Conclusions: The findings of this thesis showed no statistical significant differences between playing positions in reactive agility nor in preplanned agility. The impact of the soccer players’ integration with different soccer coaches could be an explanation to the reactive agility results where some coaches may focus on developing perceptual skills more than other coaches. The absence of differences in preplanned agility may suggest that the physical abilities needed to perform the Zig-Zag test did not differ among defenders, midfielders or forwards. It can also be suggested that reactive agility and preplanned agility are two independent variables who do not share characteristics. Future research should focus on incorporating a more valid reactive agility test for soccer players and study larger samples who are specialized in their positions. 

  • 65.
    Almaw Tefera, Chalachew
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Nilsson, Felix
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    MARKET ENTRY MODES OF INTERNATIONAL SERVICE FIRMS2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 66.
    Almgren Mason, Suzanne
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Center for Social Analysis (CESAM), Social Change, Learning and Social Relations (SLSR).
    Hansson, Agneta
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Svensson, Bertil
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Börjesson, Emma
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Bridging Scientific Cultures in a Regional Health Care Context2010In: VIII Triple Helix International Conference on University, Industry and Government Linkages: BOOK OF ABSTRACTS, 2010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Embedded Intelligent Systems (EIS) is the joint research field of the four collaborating laboratories at the School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE) at Halmstad University. The research of the four labs is integrated into a strong concerted research environment within embedded systems (EIS) - with a perspective reaching from the enabling technology via new system solutions and intelligent applications to end user aspects and business models. It is an expanding research area with many applications, not least ones that exist in everyday life.EIS is an important research environment contributing to the regional Triple Helix innovation system Healthcare Technology which the region has pointed out as a prioritised development sector. With its strong connections to both established and new, expanding firms hived off from the university, the research environment is active in the Healthcare Technology Alliance, a network of around sixty companies, counties and health care providers in south-western Sweden with the aim of developing the region into a leading arena for the development of health technology products and services. Several projects together with these participants concern both research and technology transfer.An integrated gender and gender equality perspective in innovations within the health technology area is necessary in order to be able to meet the needs of an ageing population with quality innovations. The relevancy of a gender perspective is clear in relation to the fact that about 70% of all those older than 75 years are women. Older women are on average cared for in hospital twice as long as men, partly due to differing disease panoramas, but also because men are more often cared for in the home by a woman while the women who live longer more often live alone. With the expansion of home-help and home nursing new needs follow and it is likely that a gender perspective will become necessary for the development of products and services that can make daily life easier for the elderly. The gender perspective also has relevance from the point of view of care staff. New technology is developed for application within the health and care sector where the larger professional groups consist mainly of women. The technology, most often designed by men, is used by women. With this in mind it is clear that an important aspect of good innovations is that the end users are involved in the innovation process.Based on an awareness of the need for a more articulated gender perspective within the research environment, in order to meet the needs expressed above, an application for a gender inclusive R&D project was handed in to the VINNOVA programme Applied Gender Research in Strong Research and Innovation Environments. The G-EIS project (Gender Perspective on Embedded Intelligent Systems - Application in Healthcare Technology) was approved and started in 2009. The project involves researchers from the EIS research environment as well as representatives from companies and the public sector.The project participants are on the whole agreed on the need for a gender perspective in the R&I environment, but struggle with the meeting of two epistemologically opposed theories of science. The understanding within gender studies that research and production both create reality and are informed by it is not always accepted within the areas of natural science. Engineering and other technological sciences not only consider aspects of science to be separate from reality, but also seek positivistic proof in research, something not always possible in the more qualitative research of the social sciences. Researching how these two perspectives meet within this specific project is the topic of this paper.

  • 67.
    Al-Mimar, Samer
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energy Science. Halmstad University.
    Integration of solar and wind power at Lillgrundwind farm.: Wind turbine shadow effect on solar farm atLillgrund wind farm.2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The supply of energy is a key factor in modern societies. As the old fossil sources for energy are dwindling, conflicts arise between competing nations and regions. Fossil energy sources also contribute to the pollution of the environment and emission of greenhouse gases.

    With renewable energy sources many of these drawbacks with fossil fuels can be eliminated as the energy will be readily available for all without cost or environmental impact.

    Combining the renewable energy sources will be very effective, particularly in commercial areas where lake of electricity is high. The cost of combining onshore wind and solar power plant is affordable. Furthermore there is no power failure or load shedding situation at any times. When it is manufactured in a large scale, cost of this integrated natural resources power generation system is affordable. Moreover there is no power failure or load shedding situation at any times. Therefore, it is the most reliable renewable power or electricity resources with less spending and highly effective production. ref [1].

    The thesis work would take planning of offshore renewable plant (Lillgrund) with considering the resources of renewable power. The study would take in account combining the Lillgrund wind farm with solar system and take close look into the advantage and disadvantage of combining the renewable resources together and figure out if such station can work in proper way and provide sufficient power production. The study would take in account the effect of each resource on other resource, also calculations would be done.

    The study site is Lillgrund in south of Sweden. The Lillgrund wind farm is the most important offshore wind power plant installed in Sweden with a total capacity of 110 MW, corresponding to 48 turbines. ref [2].

  • 68.
    Al-Mimar, Samer
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science. Halmstad University.
    The Swedish sustainable energy market:Opportunities and barriers for new actors.: Barriers and obstacles to Swedish solar market2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden is moving from the fossil-atomic age, making ready for photovoltaics (PV) to assume a noteworthy part in a future formed by renewable power production. Sweden is a global leader in renewable energy, environment technology, and Clean-tech. The country fully embraces green technologies and this area has a major business potential. The goal is to reach a 50 percent share of renewable energy by 2020. Photovoltaic (PV) system is one of the main sources of renewable energy sources, the rate of installed PV increased in Sweden. During 2014 36.2 MWp installed, which is almost double installed power 19.1 MWp during 2013. During 2013 and 2014 1.1 MWp sold to the electrical grid and 9.5 MWp of the off-grid system been sold. It was and will be always a problem to start a business or to enter a new market or technology, struggle to understand the market, solve the problems, and increase the sales to achieve the success. Since many companies face difficulties, selling products and getting more projects, for that a research document made to investigate more and find solutions. The purpose of this research to identify solar market entrance obstacles and barriers, and how can new entrants makes solar market entrance. Investigate the statues que of today market and the predict future for solar market in Sweden. Data collection sequence started with identifying customer needs, then review the literature, and finally interview Swedish solar firms. The interviewed firms were five firms operating in Southern of Sweden. The information outcome from the process identifies market obstacles and barriers, providing ideas about the today market situation, predicting the market future, and setting a plan for market entrance for a new entrant. The research neglected the firm size, concentrating on market obstacles and barriers. 

  • 69.
    Alonso Rodríguez, Marta
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Calmès, Anne-Gaëlle
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Advertising and the role of gender: A study of Sweden,France and Spain magazine advertisements2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The gender portrayals study aims to understanding how the roles of men and women are portrayed in magazine advertisements. This has been an issue investigated over the past decades as companies try to achieve a higher level of sales of their products and services and the gender issue influences in how this companies plan one advertising program or another. However, there is a debate among authors: some of them believe that advertising reflects what is already on society and others express that advertisers use the most convenient reality to sell their products. Thus, it makes us wonder what is the actual truth behind this debate. This thesis tries to answer the question of how men and women are portrayed in advertising campaigns. There are several studies on gender portrayals across countries but none that compares France, Spain and Sweden. This thesis tries to fill this gap.

     

    The study is conducted following Hofstede framework that classifies countries whether masculine or feminine, and is completed by analyzing the data gathered from four magazines of these three countries. We classified this data following Courtney and Lockeretz classification scheme and analyzed the data obtained with theories of some other authors.

     

    The results of this thesis show that males were dominant among working roles while females were in non-working roles. The findings might not add a huge contribution to this field of study but may be used as guiding tool for further research.

  • 70.
    Al-samuraaiy, Omar
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Efficiency comparison between Heat Pump andMicro CHP located in two different location inSweden2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Efficiency of a ground source heat pump with thermal capacity of 6 kW determined in two differentlocations in Sweden. In the north side with low average temperature which could go down to -10 ᵒCand in the south side, with low average temperature with +2 ᵒC. The heat pump has refrigerantR407c, which could be connected to both, ground source heat feeding methods the horizontal, andthe vertical model. The heat pump give heat for both space heating and domestic hot watercompared the micro CHP which has thermal capacity of 12.5 kW and electrical capacity of 4.4 kW. Ithas IC engine which means the engine has internal combustion work. It also works with two kinds offuel, natural gas and propane MOZ 92; the energy and exergy of the fuel in micro CHP feeding thethermal process by heat. That heat used for space heating and domestic hot water after going outthe process for the cooling which keep the heat in storage tank and it heat the liquid to the gas to beused in the turbine to produce the electricity. The two locations in the north and south of Swedenwill influence the thermal operation and that influence power used for compressor for heat pumpand somehow the pump in the micro CHP. The study shows that the different in exergy and energyefficiency between these two heat technologies by located them in the locations. Higher efficiencyof the micro CHP which give the advantage of use Micro CHP some technology give the benefit byusing the fuel for producing the heating and electricity , the benefit which give the customer manybenefit shows in the study. That’s comparing with the heat pump which is large use in Sweden. Inthis paper will introduce Micro CHP as heating technology which has been used in the rest of Europecould be used in Sweden for future heating technology with electricity producing, shall change thecostumer from energy consumption costumer to producing costumer.

  • 71.
    Al-Shalabi, Ammar
    et al.
    Centre of Computer Aided Design and Knowledge Manufacturing (CCADKM) Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Multimedia University, Melaka, Malaysia.
    Omar, Khaled
    Centre of Computer Aided Design and Knowledge Manufacturing (CCADKM) Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Multimedia University, Melaka, Malaysia.
    Rundquist, Jonas
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Outsourcing and organizing of NPD: A Survey of Malaysian industry2007In: Proceedings from EIASM 14th IPDMC, European Institute for Advanced Studies in Management (EIASM) , 2007, p. 12-Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Malaysian manufacturing firms are interested in New Product Development (NPD) methods, due to the fact that they are competitive tools for survival. The purpose of the present study is to investigate NPD practices in Malaysia, in particular the outsourcing of NPD and the organizing of NPD. We achieved our objectives by conducting a survey of 72 companies in the automotive, chemical, and electrical industries and analyzing the results. Managers involved in NPD will benefit from the findings presented in this paper. The results indicate that the NPD practices used in Malaysian firms focus more on production cost and manufacturability, whereas the need for increased knowledge receives lower priority.

  • 72.
    Altmann, Peter
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Engberg, Robert
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL). Getinge Sterilization AB, Getinge, Sweden.
    Frugal Innovation and Knowledge Transferability: Innovation for Emerging Markets Using Home-Based R&D2016In: Research technology management, ISSN 0895-6308, E-ISSN 1930-0166, Vol. 59, no 1, p. 48-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Western firms are generally advised to rely on emerging market partners when attempting to develop frugal innovations for these developing markets. Underlying such advice is the idea that the requirements of emerging market consumers may not be familiar to Western firms and local developers will better understand local needs. We propose an alternative approach for high-tech firms—one that relies on home-based breakthrough R&D focused on emerging market needs. Three frugal innovation projects at a Swedish medical devices manufacturer serve to illustrate both how home-based breakthrough R&D can help managers reconceptualize their core products and the contextual factors favoring such an approach. © 2016, Industrial Research Institute.

  • 73.
    Altmann, Peter
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Engberg, Robert
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Managing Human Resources and Technology Innovation: The Impact of Process and Outcome Uncertainties2015In: International Journal of Innovation Science, ISSN 1757-2223, E-ISSN 1757-2231, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 91-106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High technology innovation performance relies on a skilful utilization of human resources. The main purpose of this paper is to explore the impact of interpreted outcome and process uncertainties on the effective management of human resources for technology innovation. This is achieved through an insider-outsider based case study approach of three medical device innovations with varying degrees of radicalness. Findings suggest that uncertainties in process and outcome strongly influence what constitutes effective management of human resources for technology innovation. Findings also offer insights into when certain innovation theories hold, and suggestions on how to manage human resources and technology innovation under various conditions of uncertainty.

  • 74.
    Altmann, Peter
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Rundquist, Jonas
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Florén, Henrik
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Sustained innovativeness and human resource management2011In: Research on Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management 2009-2011: Introducing the Research Area of Innovation Science / [ed] Sven-Åke Hörte, Halmstad: Högskolan i Halmstad , 2011, p. 21-35Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Innovation is paramount to success. Over time firms must maintain their ability to innovate in order to maintain their competitive edge. In this paper we explore the role human resource management has in nurturing and enhancing the innovative capability of the firm. To explore HRM activities, functions and processes that enhance or impede innovativeness we conducted a literature review. Following this review, 10 propositions have been made that link HRM to both incremental and radical innovativeness respectively. Our results include suggestions for empirical studies to validate our propositions as well as some managerial implications.

  • 75.
    Alverdes, Lukas
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Short-term effects of 90/90 breathing with ball and balloon on core stability2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background Breathing is a life preserving mechanism that can influence muscles of the core and its stabilizing mechanisms, especially by the function of the diaphragm and intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) build-up. The 90/90 bridge with ball and balloon (90/90 breathing) is one technique doing so, thereby affecting the core and core stability (CS). Both have been shown to influence injury, and in some studies performance, and are therefore deemed important. In the Functional Training branch exercises that influence CS are used as core activations in the warm-up to increase performance in the short-term, but scientific proof for that is lacking. Objective The aim of this study was therefore to investigate if a core activation in the form of the 90/90 breathing can increase the short-term CS. Methods To test this an intervention trial was designed where the subjects were divided into a control group (CG) and a breathing group (BG). Three CS-tests were done to assess the CS at two times, Pre and Post. The double-leg-lowering (DLL), the unilateral-hip-bridge (UHB) and the single-leg-stand (SLS). The BG did the 90/90 breathing in between Pre and Post, whereas the CG did nothing. The data was checked for group differences at Pre and Post as well as the difference in the performance change from Pre to Post between groups using Independent t-test and Mann-Whitney U test. Improvements from Pre to Post within groups were calculated with Pared Samples t-test and Wilcoxon tests. Results No consistent effect of the intervention was found. The DLL showed the most positive results with a performance improvement in the BG and a greater performance change for the BG than for the CG. The UHB showed mixed results with a better performance at Post for the BG in both legs but only an improvement for the non-dominant leg in the BG. The SLS showed no improvement for the BG in any test. Conclusion The inconsistent results show no general positive effect of the 90/90 breathing on CS. However, the positive effects in the DLL make a position and task specific effect of the 90/90 breathing on CS possible. Practitioners and coaches should consider this task specificity when planning warm-ups. Future research should also choose CS tests and training exercises more task specific to the studied objectives to obtain more distinct results. More research on the short-term effects of CS interventions is needed for a clearer understanding of the subject.

  • 76.
    Amal, Mohamed
    et al.
    FURB, Blumenau, Brazil.
    Awuah, Gabriel
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Raboch, Henrique
    FURB, Blumeanau, Brazil.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Differences and similarities of the internationalization processes of multinational companies from developed and emerging countries2013In: European Business Review, ISSN 0955-534X, E-ISSN 1758-7107, Vol. 25, no 5, p. 411-428Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This paper aims, by a direct comparison, to address the differences and similarities of the internationalization processes of multinational companies both from developed and emerging countries.

    Design/methodology/approach: This study employed qualitative approach, using an integrated model of internationalization process. Multiple case studies, with two companies with significant involvement in foreign markets and originating in countries with different levels of development, were carried out.

    Findings: The results reveal that the case companies show some differences with regards to their use of ownership advantages to facilitate their internationalization. On the other hand, learning and experience of internationalization, coupled with the use of networks, have been factors that have influenced the pace and the pattern of the case companies' internationalization. An integrated model, which includes variables related to networks and learning/experience, may contribute to the understanding of the case of multinational companies from emerging economies.

    Originality/value: Although the research field of emerging multinationals has been growing lately, very few attempts have been made in the sense of directly comparing the internationalization process of firms from both developed and emerging countries. The authors proposed an integrated analytical model that draws on insights from the eclectic paradigm and the Uppsala internationalization model. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

  • 77.
    Amal, Mohamed
    et al.
    Blumenau Regional University, Santa Catarina, Brazil.
    Raboch, Henrique
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science. Blumenau Regional University, Santa Catarina, Brazil.
    Tomio, Bruno Thiago
    Blumenau Regional University, Santa Catarina, Brazil.
    Strategies and determinants of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) from developing countries: Case study of Latin America2009In: Latin American Business Review, ISSN 1097-8526, Vol. 10, no 2-3, p. 73-94Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to assess the importance of economic and institutional factors for outward Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) from Multinational Enterprises (MNEs) originating in the developing countries. The estimate drawn up through a panel data model for three countries in Latin America shows that these outflows are directly influenced by economic factors, such as gross-domestic product (GDP) growth and rising foreign exchange rates. Moreover, FDI is positively correlated with institutional variables such as globalization and education as well as with inward FDI stocks in their respective countries of origin. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  • 78. Amara, Yasmina
    et al.
    Solberg Søilen, Klaus
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Vriens, Dirk
    Radboud University Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    Using the SSAV model to evaluate Business Intelligence Software2012In: Journal of Intelligence Studies in Business, ISSN 2001-015X, E-ISSN 2001-015X, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 29-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Choosing the right Business Intelligence (BI) software is critical to increasing productivity and effectiveness in organizations today. At the same time it is a very elaborating and complex process to choose the right software due to the fact that a large number of BI products exist on the market, which are quite different and updated frequently. The objective of this study is to develop and test a model for the evaluation of BI Software. The findings of the study revealed that it is difficult to declare what is the most competitive BI software as what is good for one user might not be good for another depending on their different business needs. Having said that the study initiated a new classification of BI Software vendors depending on the degree to which they comply with the functions in the Competitive Intelligence (CI) cycle. The software tested was divided into five categories: Fully complete, Complete, Semi Complete, Incomplete and Insubstantial. We conclude that the SSAV (Solberg Søilen, Amara, Vriens) Model Together with some proposed non technological variables and a classification developed can be used as a user's selection tool for deciding which BI Software to purchase.

  • 79.
    Ambrus, Michael
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Jern, Henrik
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    New Product Development in a Medical Device Context: Managing Projects of different Novelty2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Healthcare is a topic that matters since it aims to ensure better well-being for people. An important and essential part of health care is medical devices since it has the potential to increase the quality of life for people with a health problem. Among the suppliers of innovation, the medical device industry is a dynamic field providing thousands of products to the market every year with the aim to enhance people's lives. However, there are many actors that influences the medical device development such as regulations that ensures that medical devices follow a specific procedure during development, at the same time buyers and end-users need to be integrated throughout the medical device design, this results in challenges during medical device development.

    This thesis focuses on new product development (NPD) and investigates how projects are managed in a medical device context. Furthermore, the thesis elaborates projects of different novelty and the influence from the characteristic of complexity. This is done with a single-case study of a case company that develop and market medical devices. The empirical findings shows that the main challenges are in the area of clinical studies and product development, furthermore, managing NPD projects in a medical device context deals with specialized knowledge that is dispersed among a group of actors which can influence the development of the medical device no matter the novelty. It was found that the difference between the studied projects was minor in terms of complexity. Though, it was noticed that the project of radical novelty had more interaction with the end-user, which can relate to uncertainty in the function of the product, as a consequence from being completely new product. As a result from the findings, the implication is that the projects can not be treated and managed similarly as a result from uncertainty, thus, it depends on the integration of actors, consequently, influencing time of development and resources.

    This thesis contributes to the community of companies operating in a medical device context where there is minor focus on complexity in projects, it was found that it might be beneficial to make distinctions in complexity characteristics when identifying challenges and addressing NPD projects in a medical device context. 

  • 80.
    Amjadi, Hamid Reza
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science. Halmstad.
    Technical and economic evaluations of the battery energy storage systems for a residential building along with the photovoltaic system2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Photovoltaic (PV) system and the battery energy storage system are promising to supply power for residential buildings. Solar panels along with the battery energy storage (BESS) presents an opportunity for the households to use a much greater proportion of the solar photovoltaic (PV) to generate the electricity and minimize the need of purchasing expensive electricity from the electricity grid. This project presents a framework for conducting the economic and technical analysis of residential house along with the integration of solar panel units and the BESSs. In this study, the electricity consumption of a multi flats building (Magnolia) in Helsingborg and the PV production profile under local weather conditions are compared and analyzed. The proposed framework is developed by considering different prices of electricity of the existing electricity market in Sweden as well as the investment costs for the solar PV units and BESSs. The economic analysis is carried out based on different economic measures such as electricity price, simple payback analysis, net present value, payback analysis based on funding and without funding, and reduction in carbon-di-oxide (CO2) emissions. Technical evaluations of the BESS are carried out based on peak shaving purpose and overproduction from the solar panels. and The results show that ten 28 kWh of the BESSs in Magnolia building is required in order to meet the customer electricity demand and reduce the stress on the electricity grid as well as power cost and size of the fuse. Furthermore, the customer saves 154256 kr yearly, with the payback period of 14 to 20 years, which is almost similar to the expected lifetime of such a BESS.

  • 81.
    Amoi, David
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Ekery, Sofie
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Byrårotationens påverkan på förhandlingen och relationen: En kvalitativ studie om hur byrårotationen påverkar revisorns agerande2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 240 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sedan 2000-talet har det skett ett antal redovisningsskandaler vilket fortsätter ske runt om i världen, även Sverige har drabbats i en mindre utsträckning. Det har medfört att revisorns oberoende och revisionskvalitén stundtals ifrågasatts. Genom åren har det därför debatterats om att förbättra revisionskvalitén genom att öka revisorns oberoende för att ge ett bättre skydd för intressenterna. Som en följd av detta utvecklade EU kommissionen revisionspaketet 2014 som är ett förslag för bolag. Detta för att öka oberoendet samt revisionskvalitén och för att återställa förtroendet för revisionen. Sverige accepterade direktivet 2016 och revisionspaketet trädde då ikraft. Revisionspaketet har olika krav bland annat att bolag av allmänt intresse bara får ha en revisionsbyrå i tio år med en möjlighet till ytterligare tio år om vissa krav uppfylls. Detta har bidragit till följande uppsats som har till syfte att skapa förståelse om hur revisorerna kommer agera när det tionde året inträffar och när revisorerna är medvetna om att klienten kommer lämna byrån. Uppsatsen har till syfte att beskriva och analysera hur förhandlingar sker samt skapa förståelse kring hur relationen utvecklas och bibehålls genom utbytesteorin. Därför har uppsatsen som avsikt att besvara forskningsfrågan: Hur kan det obligatoriska byrårotationskravet påverka förhandlingen och relationen mellan revisorn och klienten?  För att besvara forskningsfrågan och uppfylla uppsatsens syfte är studien baserad på en kvalitativ forskningsmetod. Den insamling av data som gjorts består av 12 intervjuer, som både varit besöksintervjuer och telefonintervjuer med revisorer som arbetar med bolag av allmänt intresse samt den sekundärdata som finns tillgänglig från tidigare studier. Studien visar att bolag av allmänt intresse inte kommer påverkas av den obligatoriska byrårotationen när det gäller förhandlingen mellan revisorn och klienten. Vidare visar studien att den obligatoriska byrårotationen inte heller kommer ha någon påverkan på relationen.

  • 82.
    Amos, Gideon Jojo
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Corporate social responsibility in the mining industry: an exploration of host-communities' perceptions and expectations in a developing-country2018In: Corporate Governance : The International Journal of Effective Board Performance, ISSN 1472-0701, E-ISSN 1758-6054, Vol. 18, no 6, p. 1177-1195Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The purpose of this paper is to explore how and what drives corporate social responsibility (CSR) in host communities of mining companies in developing countries.

    Design/methodology/approach

    To address this knowledge gap, this paper used Ghana as a test case and conducted 24 in-depth interviews with participants drawn from mining host communities.

    Findings

    The paper discovered that while CSR is broadly understood and encompasses six thematic categories in the mining host communities, there are emphases on philanthropic and environmental responsibilities. Contrary to the evidence found in other studies, this paper discovered that CSR rhetoric plays a more positive/significant role than so far explored in CSR research, as it incentivizes the host communities to push for the fulfilment of their CSR expectations and/or CSR initiatives proposed by mining companies.

    Research limitations/implications

    Quantitative studies are needed to strengthen the findings from the present paper.

    Practical implications

    Because developing countries share similar socio-economic and geo-political realities, the findings of this paper may be applicable not only for CSR advocates, but also for policy-makers in developing countries.

    Originality/value

    The paper provides new inputs from a developing country perspective to the current debate about the CSR performance of the extractive industry. © 2018, Emerald Publishing Limited.

  • 83.
    Amos, Gideon Jojo
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Corporate Social Responsibility, Innovation and Leadership: Exploring the Compatible Territories2017In: Journal of Developing Country Studies, ISSN 2224-607X, E-ISSN 2225-0565, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 149-160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The objective of this study is to provide insights into the role of leadership in promoting creativity and innovation at the level of the firm, and how these may translate into improving firms’ own context of competitiveness in their respective markets through CSR initiatives.

    Method/approach – This paper employs literature study, which is descriptive in nature, to explore the relationships between leadership, creativity/innovation, and CSR. We sought to describe the relationships between the three concepts: leadership, creativity/innovation, and CSR, as practically as possible. In employing exploratory research strategy, we draw insights from extant literature, drawn from the management sciences to describe leadership, creativity/innovation and CSR in organizations. In doing so, we explore, by arguing, how leadership can stimulate creativity/innovation in employees and how firm-level innovation-directed activities can connect to CSR activities.

    Findings - The model suggests that leaders can stimulate employees’ creativity/innovative behaviour and this in turn may influence the rate at which innovation manifest in the products and processes of the organization. These, in turn, may be closely related to the CSR initiatives that the organization pursues. The study has argued that for creativity/innovation to be embedded in the organization’s product and processes, leadership of organization remains a key factor in terms of either enabling or inhibiting individual employees’ innovative behaviour. Leadership of organizations and individual employees’ innovative behaviour appear to influence the nature of CSR initiatives that is undertaken and may contribute in defining organization’s own competitiveness. Organization’s CSR initiatives can connect with efforts at improving its own competitiveness through, leadership of organization and stakeholder partnerships.

    © www.iiste.org

  • 84.
    Amos, Gideon Jojo
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    (Investigating) MNCs' CSR-related behaviour and impacts in institutionally and culturally distant markets: African developing-countries in focus2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall purpose of this thesis is to explore why and how institutional distance and contextual differences influence MNCs’ CSR-related behavior in African developing-countries. In order to achieve the purpose stated above, the thesis seeks to answer the overarching research question: How do institutional distance and contextual differences influence MNCs’ CSR-related behavior in African developing countries? To answer the research question this thesis employed an interpretive methodological approach in order to increase my understanding of the CSR phenomenon in a specific contextual environment characterized by different institutional distance through different theoretical and empirical perspectives (Guba and Lincoln, 1994; Lincoln and Guba, 2000). The thesis consists of two qualitative case studies, a systematic literature review, a conceptual paper focused on analyzing distance and MNC foreign subsidiaries’ CSR-related behaviour, and a longitudinal content analysis of annual CSR reports.

    The thesis found that the most prevalent CSR themes addressed in journal articles focused on developing-countries have been social issues, followed by environmental issues as a distant second, with ethics-related issues receiving the least attention. The findings further indicate that CSR rhetoric plays a more positive and significant role than so far explored in CSR research, as it incentivises the host-communities to push for the fulfilment of their CSR expectations or CSR initiatives proposed by the mining companies. Soft’ regulations to which members of industry associations voluntarily adhere mitigate the absence of enforcement of more stringent hard regulations by the state for companies. In doing business in distant or different institutional contexts, institutional duality of MNC subsidiaries renders business activities complex and even conflicting when it comes to seeking internal and external legitimacy. This finding and the proposed model extend Hillman and Wan’s (2005) argument of the existence of ‘institutional duality’ of MNC subsidiaries. The 60-item disclosure index is in itself a contribution to research as it provides a measure of ‘disclosure quality’ in relation to the disclosures of CSR-related performance information and CSR-related governance information.

    The main theoretical contribution of the thesis is that CSR expectations in developing-countries are distinct and may be more important to know how these empirical realities are taken into account when firms with their origin in developed-countries internationalize and enter markets in developing-countries. Second, an extended model is proposed which illustrates the roles of organizational fields, institutional pressures, legitimating environments, and legitimating strategies for MNC subsidiaries’ voluntary disclosure of CSR performance information. The overall contribution of the thesis is that it deepens our understanding of the CSR phenomenon, and of the role of host-communities and MNC subsidiaries’ managers from the context of developing-countries.

    © Gideon Jojo Amos

  • 85.
    Amos, Gideon Jojo
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL). University of Education, Winneba, Ghana.
    Multinational Enterprises and Distance: Exploring Opportunities and Challenges involved in Practicing CSR in Host-Countries2017In: Journal of Developing Country Studies, ISSN 2224-607X, E-ISSN 2225-0565, Vol. 7, no 4, p. 80-97Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores how multinational enterprises (MNEs) should implement corporate social responsibility (CSR) to build external legitimacy, especially in subsidiaries operating in host-countries, where the effects of distance is felt most by MNE foreign subsidiaries. For long, international business (IB) research has analysed the effects of distance on MNEs’ expansion to host-countries, while a parallel strand of work in economic geography investigates the dimensions of proximity and how they influence firms’ knowledge development, especially in the varying host-countries they operate. Despite the noticeable relatedness and complementarities, these two bodies of literature have so far poorly interacted. Moreover, despite increased strategic motivation for corporate social responsibility (CSR) practices, we still lack understanding of the effects of distance on MNEs’ CSR behaviour in host-countries. The present study addresses this limitation by analysing and integrating the extant literature on how MNEs can, through their CSR behaviour in host-countries, cope with and mitigate the effects of distance. It provides perspectives on what may constitute appropriate CSR strategies in varying host-countries’ institutional environments (i.e., what CSR strategies might be appropriate for MNEs to adopt in a more proximate/less distant and less proximate/more distant institutional contexts and their implications for the effects of distance). Based on an analysis of the extant literature, the present study discusses patterns of complementarities across distance and proximity, and draws attention to avenues for future research that, in a more effective way, interact the two strands of literature, thereby setting the ground for empirical testing of a conceptual framework proposed by this study.

  • 86.
    Amos, Gideon Jojo
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Researching corporate social responsibility in developing-countries context: A systematic review of the literature2018In: International Journal of Law and Management, ISSN 1754-243X, E-ISSN 1754-2448, Vol. 60, no 2, p. 284-310Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This paper aims to present a systematic review of scholarly articles focused on corporate social responsibility (CSR) in developing countries and published during the period 2004 to 2014 in international journals.

    Design/methodology/approach: This paper applied a bibliometric analysis to 101 articles on CSR research focused on developing countries.

    Findings: The study confirms that the most prevalent CSR themes addressed in journals have been social issues, followed by environmental issues in a distant second, with ethics-related issues receiving the least attention. Also, as CSR research in developing countries constitutes an emerging stream of literature, an overwhelming dominance of empirical (qualitative) papers aimed at exploring and/or seeking interpretations to CSR motivations have been confirmed.

    Research limitations/implications: An important limitation of this study is in relation to the methods applied. In the first place, this review is based on two electronic databases: ABI/INFORM Global (ProQuest) and Web of Science Core Collection: Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI) and Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED). This means that research published in international journals that are not included in either of these databases will be omitted.

    Practical implications: This review provides useful guidance for future CSR research focused on developing countries thereby providing a foundation for future research in this stream of CSR research.

    Social implications: The findings of this study suggest that much CSR knowledge in developing countries reflects the unique social issues that call for companies to adopt different CSR interventions when operating in developing countries.

    Originality/value: Although this paper is not the first to systematically review CSR research, but it is one of the initial attempts, to the best of the knowledge, to systematically review the state of CSR knowledge in the context of developing countries.

    © 2018, Emerald Publishing Limited.

  • 87.
    Amos, Gideon Jojo
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Social Responsibility in the Context of Multinational Enterprises: Exploring Perceptions and Expectations of Local Employees of Subsidiaries in a Developing-Country2017In: Journal of Developing Country Studies, ISSN 2224-607X, E-ISSN 2225-0565, Vol. 7, no 5, p. 96-109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This paper seeks to explore perceptions of local employees regarding MNE subsidiaries’ attitudes in relation to local customs, values, and belief systems prevalent in the settings in which they operate. Design/methodology/approach: A qualitative research design was used as the methodological grounding for the study. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted in Ghana with a total of 20 participants (16 males and 4 females). Interviews were audio-taped, with permission of the participants. A convenience sampling method was used, and all 20 participants were recruited via initial personal visits by the researcher and subsequent follow-up visits and phone call. Interviews were transcribed via thematic analysis. The views of participants were organized into four major themes: relevance of CSR (business ethics) to local employees; local employees’ attitude towards firms’ (un)ethical behaviour; educating managers and employees of foreign-owned companies; and attractiveness of company and ability to draw resources. Findings: Our interpretive research in the Ghanaian context suggests that most of the participants appreciate the salient role of cooperation between companies and traditional authorities in identifying and resolving potential tension that could evolve out of non-compliance with local socio-cultural values and belief systems. In respect to this, the findings from the present study reinforce the insights of Kjonstad and Willmott (1995) that reliance on rule-based approaches to business ethics is deficient, as it has been found to be ineffective or at best, less ‘empowering’ when it comes to influencing organizations in their ethical behaviour. The findings further suggest that inadequate information about local customs, values and belief systems, partly explains the seeming ‘irresponsible’ posture of foreign-owned companies towards aspects of local socio-cultural values and belief systems. Thus, as scanty information is available to the companies and their managers, few are able to either integrate them into their core CSR practices and/or encourage employees to uphold them in their processes. Research limitations/implications: Findings are based on a single-country investigation. This limitation, combined with a relatively small sample size (20 participants, across firms that belong to 6 industry-groupings), may have implications that the results might not be readily generalizable. Moreover, as the present study employed an interpretive methodological approach, the findings could have been impacted by self-evaluation (i.e., self-narratives from participants), resulting in socio-cultural preferences and response biases, on the part of the participants. Practical implications: Although results of this study is based on single-country (Ghana) study, given similarities in socio-cultural characteristics across developing-countries, this study is likely to have wider relevance and applicability in developing-countries, as a whole. Originality/value: The present study explored relatively unexplored ground by investigating the perceptions of local employees regarding MNE subsidiaries’ attitudes in relation to local customs, values, and belief systems, prevalent in the settings in which companies operate. Most importantly, these initial attempts at exploring the perceptions of local employees regarding MNE subsidiaries’ attitudes in relation to local customs, values, and belief systems, can hopefully be further explored and validated through future research directed at this topic. © www.iiste.org

  • 88.
    Amos, Gideon Jojo
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Awuah, Gabriel
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    In search of competitiveness through innovation-driven corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives in Multinational Enterprises (MNEs) subsidiaries2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 89.
    Amos, Gideon Jojo
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Baffour Awuah, Gabriel
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    In search of competitiveness through innovation-driven CSR initiatives in Multinational Enterprise subsidiaries in developing countries2017In: Journal of Developing Country Studies, ISSN 2224-607X, E-ISSN 2225-0565, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 161-173Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The objective of the present study is to investigate opportunities for integrating innovation and CSR in the context of firms’ activities. This is explored by investigating the extent to which innovation may complement CSR activities of MNE subsidiaries in developing-countries.

    Method/approach – This paper employs literature study to describe how innovation complements CSR in the search for competitiveness at the level of the firm. In doing so, the competitiveness of firms, which is often driven by the demands for responsible behaviour and innovativeness, is derived from studying the extant literature. By drawing from multiple theoretical lenses (i.e., legitimacy theory, stakeholder theory, CSR literature, firms’ reputation, and innovativeness), we aim at evaluating their collective impact on firms’ competitiveness.

    Findings - The model suggests that firm’s contextual capabilities (e.g. legitimacy, innovation, and stakeholders) can define its CSR activities (e.g. CSR ethical, CSR social, and CSR environmental). The cumulative effects of these, define firm’s reputation, which eventually, produces firm’s own competitiveness. The study has argued that there is more to firms’ stakeholders than ordinary resources required in furtherance of firms’ economic objectives. It therefore follows that stakeholders’ potential to constitute a pool of resources and capabilities that the firm can blend with to realize its strategic objectives ought to be stressed. Consequently, markets and for that matter firms, are subject to CSR and innovation demands through, for example, more socially responsible productive behaviour. This requires that MNE subsidiaries in developing-countries connect different strategies towards improving their own competitiveness. This may be accomplished through, re-packaging CSR into bundles of interrelated activities, collaborating with stakeholders to jointly create and deliver social and economic values, and integrating CSR into productive activities that may lead to bundles of products to suit local market conditions.

    © www.iiste.org

  • 90.
    Anand, Anagha
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Preparing for the Next Big Wave of Disruption: A Case Study in Auto Industry2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Problem

    The year 1886 is regarded the birth year of the modern automobile. Since then, there have been many innovations that have seen the surface and some that have had an influential effect in changing the paradigm itself. One of the major disruptions the world is talking about currently is in the transport industry, with ‘autonomous vehicles’ (often referred to as self- driving or driverless cars). The automobile industry has embarked upon a period of significant innovation and change. It is extremely important to understand what exactly this change means for the auto industry, the customers and the society and be prepared for this next big wave of a change.

    Purpose

    The main purpose of this paper is to increase the understanding of how the fundamental changes of driver replacement system has an effect on the auto industry (the auto business and customers)

    Research Question

    “How technological advances have led to business model changes in the auto industry” “How Advanced driver assistance system technology has an effect on the business model change in the auto industry”

    Research design/ methodology

    A multi qualitative method with inductive approach is used. To analyse the auto industry data is collected and supported by narrative inquiry strategy with in-depth interviews, and secondary document sources. Since the data is analysed over a period of time, a longitudinal time horizon is chosen. The philosophy governing this thesis is that of pragmatism with an awareness that interpretation is involved.

    Conclusion

    Since the 1970’s most of the innovations since then have been incremental. The beginning of technological diffusion from Information and Communications Technology industry from the 1990’s has resulted in some radical/ revolutionary technological innovations. There have been only two innovations, Internal Combustion Engines and Mass production that has had a significant change in the way business is seen and done. The other technological innovations have contributed to the change in either one side of the business model canvas or none. The current trend of Advanced Driver Assistance System technology is focused on replacing the driver and electric engines replacing Internal combustion engines , a pattern is that is seen from the history where horses were replaced by engines. The use of self-driving cars and electric engines would create a new paradigm in the auto industry.

    Research limitations implications

    The cause-effect relation between business model and technological change is not analysed. The research is analysed with the principle that a technological change would lead to a business model change. Non-technological innovations that has resulted in a business model change is not discussed. Contribution of technological innovations to change in revenue model is not discussed in detail.

  • 91.
    Ananthu, Ottakuttiyankel Saji
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Small Scale Biogas Production by using Food Waste- Examples from three Restaurants  2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Global warming is the one of the most dangerous threats that the entire world is facing today. The emission of greenhouse gases is increasing the impact of global warming. In such a situation, reduction of GHG emissions and finding an alternative source of energy is more and more important. The production of biogas from food wastes is considered as a suitable way for the reduction of GHGs emission. The production of this type of renewable energy is very popular in Asian countries, especially in countries like India and China. Biogas production never creates any harmful effects to the environment but at the same time it also produces byproducts that are not harmful for the environment.  This study tries to investigate the possibility for the production of biogas from food wastes in restaurants under Swedish conditions. In order to do so, three different models of biogas plants in three different restaurants were used as a case study. The results showed that biogas production from food waste in restaurants are practically possible in Sweden and it can be used as an alternative source of cooking fuel with many benefits both economically and environmentally. Temperature problems in Sweden during winter season can be avoided by using pre-heating technique.

     

  • 92.
    Anckar, Marcus
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Lundström, Marcus
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Investeringsbeslut i fastighetsutveckling: En studie om vilka faktorer som styr bygg- & fastighetsbolagens investeringsbeslut gällande deras fastighetsutveckling2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Problem description: The Swedish housing situation is a complex matter. For the last couple

    of years the construction rate has been high, but the housing shortage continues to be a

    problem. A lot of people can’t afford the homes that are built. The market has been in favor

    for real estate developers for a few years now. They’ve been able to develop expensive

    projects which they’ve easily been able to sell. As the economy changes more and more

    people will face difficulties in financing the expensive homes on the housing market.

    Research question: Which factors control investment decisions for construction and real

    estate companies regarding their real estate development?

    Purpose: The primary purpose of the study is to identify and describe how privately-owned

    real estate and construction companies manage investment decision, and the factors, choices

    and priorities in which the investment decision is based on.

    The study aims to analyse empirical data with existing theories to widen the understanding of

    how construction and real estate companies make their investment decisions and their choice

    of path in their real estate development.

    Limitation: The study does not incorporate businesses outside of Sweden, nor does it

    incorporate any other fields within real estate, such as management or agencies, than real

    estate development.

    Methodology: The study is qualitative to gain deeper knowledge and information in the area,

    and interviews were conducted with six of the largest construction and real estate companies

    in Sweden.

    Conclusion: There are several factors behind the investment decision made by real estate

    developers, and the impact they have on the housing market. Economic cycles have made it

    profitable for real estate developers to invest in new developments, which has led to increased

    housing prices. The local councils have had an increased impact in the development process,

    resulting in difficulties keeping the costs down. There has also been an overbalance in

    developing new projects instead of existing real estates, because the market for new projects

    is more lucrative. Private real estate companies are primarily interested in generating as much

    profit as possible, leading to them investing mostly in condominium apartments.

  • 93.
    Anderberg, Cecilia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.
    Cabanettes, Frederic
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.
    Dimkovski, Zlate
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.
    Ohlsson, Robert
    Rosen, Bengt-Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.
    Combined SEM and Stylus Profiling Sensoring for Improved Cylinder Liner Honing2006In: Proceedings of Austrib 06 - International Tribology Conference, Brisbane: Queensland University of Technology , 2006, p. 6-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The demands on decreased environmental impact from vehicles are resulting in a strong push for decreased engine oil and fuel consumption.

    Recent engine tests have shown a promising reduction in oil consumption when using cylinder liners with a smoother finish than the current plateau honing.

    One approach to produce smoother liner surfaces is to replace SiC ceramic honing stones with diamond tools. However, even though the diamond honing process results in higher productivity, improved quality control is needed to monitor the degree of cold worked material - “blechmantel” (German), and the resulting risk of increased wear and scuffing.

    A number of petrol and diesel engine cylinder liners have been mapped to be able to verify the quality and consequences, in terms of wear and function, of the honing process. A new mapping method, combining SEM images and quantitative image analysis with traditional 2D profilometry has been developed and tested in this study. The surface mapping method developed was employed before and after the test to study effect of running-in wear on the surface, features characterized with the SEM- and the 2D profilometer.

    The results show that combining SEM- and profilometric methods gives a good picture of the effects of varying the cylinder liner pressure and roughness. The core roughness decreases more for diesel liners than for petrol liners.. A probable cause is that the more severe diesel high pressure run-in conditions are able to effectively “truncate” the plateaux and remove residing plastically deformed un-cut honing residues while the less severe petrol liner conditions do not manage to remove the blechmantel and irregularities to an important extent.

  • 94.
    Anderberg, Cecilia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.
    Cabanettes, Frederic
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.
    Dimkovski, Zlate
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.
    Ohlsson, Robert
    Volvo Power Train Corp., Volvo Group, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Rosén, Bengt-Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.
    Cylinder Liners and Consequences of Improved Honing2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The demands on decreased environmental impact from vehicles are resulting in a strong push for decreased engine oil and fuel consumption. Engine oil and fuel consumption are to a great extent controlled by the topography of the cylinder liner surface.

    Recent engine tests have shown a promising reduction in oil consumption when using cylinder liners with a smoother finish than the current plateau honing.

    One approach to produce smoother liner surfaces is to replace SiC ceramic honing stones with diamond tools. However, event though the diamond honing process results in higher productivity, improved demands of quality control is needed to monitor the degree of cold worked material - “blechmantel” (German), and the resulting risk of increased wear and scuffing.

    A number of petrol and diesel engine cylinder liners have been mapped to be able to verify the quality and consequences, in terms of wear and function, of the honing process. A new mapping method, combining SEM images and quantitative image analysis with traditional 2D profilometry has been developed and tested in this study. The liners where tested in a reciprocating rig of 8 mm stroke and with a frequency of 10 Hz, simulating the top-dead center conditions in a running engine.

    The tests where carried out in high- and low pressure conditions with smooth respectively rough liner roughnesses against PVD coated piston rings. The developed surface mapping method was employed before and after the test to study effect of running-in wear on the surface, features characterized with the SEM- and the 2D profilometer.

    The results show that combining SEM- and profilometric methods gives a good picture of the effects of varying the cylinder liner pressure and roughness. The core roughness decrease more for diesel liners than for petrol liners. In average (rough and smooth liners) the diesel core roughness decrease 265% while the petrol liners average on a 60% decrease. Blechmantel- and Irregularities ratio show a high sensitivity to varying conditions and decrease 1180% to 100% for the diesel liners while the parameters increase between 106% to 18% for all the petrol liners. A probable cause is the more severe diesel high pressure run-in conditions are able to effectively “truncate” the plateaux and remove residing plastically deformed un-cut honing residues while the less severe petrol liner conditions not manage to remove the blechmantel and irregularities in an important extent.

  • 95.
    Anderberg, Cecilia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.
    Cabanettes, Frederic
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.
    Dimkovski, Zlate
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.
    Rosén, Bengt-Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.
    Liner Surface Improvements for Low Friction Piston Ring Packs2009In: Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers annual meeting & exhibition 2009: Lake Buena Vista, Florida, USA, 17 - 21 May 2009, Red Hook, NY: Curran Associates, Inc., 2009, p. 455-459Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 96.
    Anderberg, Cecilia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK). Getinge Sterilization AG, Getinge, Sweden.
    Dimkovski, Zlate
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.
    Rosén, Bengt - Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK).
    Liner surface improvements for low friction piston ring packs2014In: Surface Topography : Metrology and Properties, ISSN 2051-672X, Vol. 2, no 1, article id 014009Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of engine components in the automotive industry is governed by several constraints such as environmental legislation and customer expectations. About a half of the frictional losses in an internal combustion engine come from the interactions between the piston assembly and cylinder liner surface. The tribological considerations in the contact between the piston ring and cylinder liner have attracted much attention over the past few decades. Many non-conventional cylinder liner finishes have been, and are being, developed with the aim to reduce friction losses and oil consumption, but the effects of the surface finish on piston ring pack performance is not well understood. One way of reducing friction in the cylinder system is to reduce the tangential load from the piston ring pack, focusing on the oil control ring. However, the side-effect of this is a disappointingly increased oil consumption. In this study a number of different cylinder liner surface specifications were developed and implemented in test engines with the aim of maintaining the level for oil consumption when decreasing the tangential load for the piston ring pack. To improve our understanding of the result, the same surfaces were evaluated in elastic and elasto-plastic rough contact and hydrodynamic flow simulation models. It is shown that oil consumption is strongly related to surface texture on the cylinder liners and at lower speeds (900–1200 rpm), a 'rougher surface' with a high core (e.g. Sk) and valley roughness (e.g. Svk) results in higher oil consumption. At the medium speed range (1200–3600 rpm), oil consumption continues to dominate for the 'rough' surfaces but with a visible influence of a lower oil consumption for a decreased roughness within the 'rough' surface group. 'Smooth' surfaces with a 'smooth' core (Sk), irrespective of the valley component (Svk), show similar oil consumption. For engine speeds above 3600 rpms, an increase in plateau roughness results in higher oil consumption. Throughout the study, standard roughness parameters were computed to compare with the results from engine testing and simulation. Future work will be directed to continuous optimization between oil consumption and friction. Improving the understanding of the functional cylinder system surfaces' ability to form oil films in the cylinder system opens up opportunities, not only in reducing the tangential load of piston ring packs but also in optimizing oil viscosity in order to reduce friction.

  • 97.
    Anderberg, Cecilia
    et al.
    Volvo Cars Corporation, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Dimkovski, Zlate
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Rosén, Bengt Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Thomas, Tom R.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Low friction and emission cylinder liner surfaces and the influence of surface topography and scale2019In: Tribology International, ISSN 0301-679X, E-ISSN 1879-2464, Vol. 133, p. 224-229Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A low friction piston ring pack, with tangential load halved, was tested in engines with four different cylinder liner finishes. Oil consumption, oil temperature and liner surface temperature were monitored at different load and speed levels, under similar test conditions. The two smoother surfaces generally kept lower oil consumption compared to the two rougher ones. Results were correlated using an area-fractal analysis. The relative area of the surface was calculated at different scales and the result was compared with the level of oil consumption for the different liner surfaces at different engine speeds. It was found that oil consumption was strongly correlated with scale for areas of above 1000 μm2 and below 20 μm2.

  • 98.
    Anderberg, Cecilia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.
    Pawlus, P.
    Rzeszow University of Technology, Poland.
    Rosén, Bengt-Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.
    Thomas, T. R.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK).
    Alternative descriptions of roughness for cylinder liner production2009In: Journal of Materials Processing Technology, ISSN 0924-0136, E-ISSN 1873-4774, Vol. 209, no 4, p. 1936-1942Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The roughness of stratified surfaces such as cylinder liners, produced by plateau honing, is functionally important in their tribology but is notoriously difficult to characterise. An issue in manufacturing quality control related to their tribological function is the comparative ability of various roughness characterisation systems. In this paper the Rk family of parameters is compared with the Rq family as regards stability and discrimination. When coefficients of variation of the two parameter families are compared as a measure of stability, CVs of individual parameters vary between 8% and 20% but do not seem to indicate a clear advantage to either family. When the correlation of parameters within and between the two groups is computed as a measure of relative discriminative ability, many parameters are found to be highly correlated, to the point where values of Rpk and Rpq are effectively indistinguishable. The relative robustness of the parameters is also established by simulation of surface or measurement artefacts: outlying peaks and valleys, high-frequency noise, changes in stylus or skid radius, changes in high-pass filter and in assessment length. Outlying peaks cause a large increase in Rpk, while outlying valleys have little effect. The Rq parameters are more sensitive to high-frequency noise than the Rk parameters. Increasing the stylus radius reduced the valley parameters, while adding a 25 mm radius skid increased Rk and Rpq by as much as 15%. Increasing the short-wavelength cut-off from 2.5 m to 8 m reduced most parameters, particularly the peak parameters, while replacing the robust Gaussian filter used throughout by a valley-suppression filter had little effect. Finally reducing the assessment length from 17 mm to 4 mm decreased the values of many parameters by up to 11%. Increasing plateau honing time decreased plateau roughness, while increasing pressure during coarse honing increased valley roughness, but these changes could not be correlated with roughness parameters. This suggests that the optimum parameter set has not yet been found. 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 99.
    Andersdotter, Katarina
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Tempo50: En temporär mästerskapsbassäng2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 100.
    Andersen, Emelie
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Aeshna viridis distribution and habitat choices in South and Central Sweden and the possibility to use a database as a tool in monitoring a threatened species2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aeshna viridis, a dragonfly generally considered to be a specialist as it in most cases choosesStratiotes aloides as its habitat, have suffered badly from habitat loss and fragmentationsthroughout Europe under the last century as the human demand of land use have grown. It´sthereby considered near threatened on EU red list and is included in the Habitat Directive.This means that it is protected by EU law as all EU Member States is committed to protect,monitor and report back to EU the status of the species. Several European countries havedesigned protection plans for S. aloides to improve the preservation of A. viridis. My study inSouth and Central Sweden shows that the strong connection between A. viridis and S. aloidesmay not be consistent all over the distribution range of A. viridis, as my survey showed thatlarvae occur among other water plants when S. aloides is not present. Another aim in thisstudy was to evaluate the possibility to use occurrence data on A. viridis and S. aloides fromthe Species Observations System to monitor A. viridis distribution and dispersal. My studyimplies uncertainties of how well the datasets reflects reality and more research is necessarybefore clarifying if datasets could be a possible tool in conservation management of A. viridis.

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