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  • 51.
    Thiere, G.
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Wetland Research Centre.
    Stadmark, J.
    Lund University.
    Weisner, Stefan
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Wetland Research Centre.
    Retention capacity achievements versus climate gas emission by constructed agricultural wetlands2007In: 2nd International Symposium on Wetland Pollutant Dynamics and Control - WETPOL 2007: Extended abstracts / [ed] Ülo Mander, Margit Kõiv, Christina Vohla, Institute of Geography, University of Tartu , 2007, p. 302-304Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 52.
    Thiere, Geraldine
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Wetland Research Centre.
    Biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in created agricultural wetlands2009Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This doctoral dissertation was produced in a cooperation between Halmstad University (Wetland Research Centre, School of Business and Engineering) and Lund University (Limnology & Marine Biology, Department of Ecology).

    Abstract . Wetland creation at large, regional scales is implemented as a measure to abate the biodiversity loss in agricultural landscapes and the eutrophication of watersheds and coastal areas by non-point source nutrient pollution (mainly nitrogen). The consequences of creating many new wetlands for biodiversity conservation and nutrient reten- tion (ecosystem functioning) in agricultural landscapes are still relatively unknown, both on local (per wetland) and regional (per landscape) scales. In Sweden, wetland creation has progressed already since the 1990s, and by now larger numbers of created wetlands are present, mainly in the intensively farmed landscapes of southwestern Sweden. This thesis aimed to investigate the following aspects in these systems: (i) their large-scale effects on biodiversity, (ii) their functional diversity of bacterial denitrifiers, (iii) the abiotic and biotic influences on wetland ecosystem functioning, (iv) the potential for biodiversity-function links, and (v) the potential for functional links and joint functioning.(i) Created wetlands hosted diverse assemblages of macroinvertebrates and plants. They maintained a similar com- position and diversity as natural ponds in agricultural landscapes. The environmental conditions per wetland did hardly affect macroinvertebrate and plant assemblages, and the prerequisites for nutrient retention did neither. In landscapes were wetland creation efforts had increased the total density of small water bodies by more than 30%, macroinver- tebrate diversity of created wetlands was facilitated on both local and regional scales. (ii) Diverse communities of denitrifying bacteria with the capacity for conducting different denitrification steps (functional types) were present in all investigated wetlands. The richness of denitrifying bacteria communities was affected by nitrate concentration and hydraulic loading rate, which may potentially be relevant for the nitrogen retention function of created wetlands. The diversity across different functional types of bacterial denitrifiers increased with nitrate concentration. (iii) Both abiotic and biotic factors influenced ecosystem functions of created wetlands. Variation in nitrogen retention was associated to nitrate load, but even to vegetation parameters. In wetlands with constant nitrate load, planted emergent vegetation facilitated nitrogen retention compared to other vegetation types. In wetlands with variable loads, nitrogen retention was facilitated if nitrate load was high and many different vegetation types were present; nitrogen load could explain the majority of the variation in nitrogen retention compared to vegetation parameters. Phosporus retention of created wetlands was best explained by vegetation parameters. Litter decomposition was inhibited at high nitrate to phosphorus ratios. Methane production increased with age and decreased with plant cover. (iv) Biodiversity may facilitate wetland ecosystem functions, particularly in dynamic wetland ecosystems. Nitrogen retention increased with vegetation type diversity, phosphorus retention capacity with plant richness, and litter decomposition with macroinvertebrate diversity. (v) Created wetlands have the capacity of sustaining several parallel ecosystem services. Some wetland functions were coupled; nitrogen retention increased with fast litter decomposition. On the other hand, methane emission and nitro- gen retention were independent of each other, as were nitrogen and phosphorus retention.In conclusion, created wetlands have the potential to at least partly abate the lost biodiversity and multifunctionality caused by the past extensive destruction of natural wetlands in agricultural landscapes.

  • 53.
    Thiere, Geraldine
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Wetland Research Centre.
    Milenkovski, Susann
    Department of Ecology, Ecology Building, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Lindgren, Per-Eric
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Sahlén, Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Berglund, Olof
    Department of Ecology, Ecology Building, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Weisner, Stefan E.B.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Wetland Research Centre.
    Wetland creation in agricultural landscapes: Biodiversity benefits on local and regional scales2009In: Biological Conservation, ISSN 0006-3207, E-ISSN 1873-2917, Vol. 142, no 5, p. 964-973Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wetland creation aiming at a simultaneous increase in nutrient retention and species diversity in agricultural landscapes has recently become applied as a catchment-scale compensation measure for past wetland losses. Here, we evaluate if, and to what extend, dual-purpose wetlands benefit local and regional diversity of agricultural landscapes. We analysed composition and α, β, and γ diversity of aquatic macroinvertebrate assemblages among dual-purpose wetlands in an agricultural region in southwest Sweden in relation to local (water quality, wetland morphology, succession stage, proximity to other aquatic habitats) and landscape parameters (regional connectivity, wetland density). Diversity of mature agricultural ponds was used as a standard to evaluate the value of dual-purpose wetlands. Dual-purpose wetlands sustained α, β, and γ diversity similar to that of natural lentic water bodies in agricultural landscapes in the region and elsewhere. Over 80% of the overall species richness was attributed to β diversity, and each created wetland contributed to overall species accumulation. Ecosystem parameters explained 19% of the compositional variation among assemblages, but were only marginally related to diversity. Wetland density promoted α and γ diversity, while spatial heterogeneity (β) remained equally high, independent of wetland density. Our results indicate that catchment-scale wetland creation for simultaneous retention and diversity purposes benefits the biodiversity of agricultural landscapes, particularly if the density of aquatic habitats is increased by at least 30%.

  • 54.
    Thiere, Geraldine
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Environmental Science, Wetland Research Centre.
    Schulz, Ralf
    Department of Zoology, University of Stellenbosch, South Africa.
    Runoff simulation with particle-associated azinphosmethyl in multispecies stream microcosms: implications for the field2004In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 23, no 8, p. 1984-1990Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated the acute (5 d) effects of particle-associated azinphosmethyl (AZP) in multispecies microcosms and assessed the results in the context to data obtained from a parallel field study undertaken in the Lourens River, South Africa. A runoff simulation was carried out in stream microcosms containing the macroinvertebrate fauna of an uncontaminated Lourens River site exposed to particle-associated AZP (control and 200, 1,000, 5,000, 20,000 μg/kg; three replicates each) for 1 h. Measured AZP concentrations in filtered microcosm water resulted in the following values: Not detectable (control) and 0.03, 0.2, 1.1, and 6.9 μg/L, respectively. The two highest treatments resulted in significantly (analysis of variance [ANOVA]) reduced total numbers of individuals, while the number of taxa was affected in the 20,000 μg/kg treatment only. A comparison with previous data suggests that observed effects partly resulted from particle-associated AZP. Particularly affected were six out of 14 macroinvertebrate taxa such as mayfly and stonefly taxa. In parallel, the distribution of macroinvertebrates at a pesticide-free and a contaminated stretch of the Lourens River was monitored five times during the spraying season in 2001 and 2002. Out of the 14 core taxa found in the microcosm study as well as in the field approach, 10 showed comparable reactions in the microcosm experiment and in their field distribution; they were either classified as affected or unaffected in both studies. Thus, we conclude that particle-associated AZP has the potential to affect the invertebrate community structure of the Lourens River and that microcosm studies employing field-relevant exposure scenarios may be valuable for a local risk assessment of pesticide-related community disruptions in the Lourens River.

  • 55.
    Thiere, Geraldine
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Environmental Science, Wetland Research Centre.
    Schulz, Ralf
    Department of Zoology, University of Stellenbosch, South Africa .
    Runoff-related agricultural impact in relation to macroinvertebrate communities of the Lourens River, South Africa2004In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 38, no 13, p. 3092-3102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A field study at the Lourens River, South Africa, was undertaken during the pesticide application period between November 2001 and January 2002 in order to investigate the potential relation of agricultural pollution to the aquatic macroinvertebrate fauna. The upper regions of the Lourens River were free of contamination (LR1), whereas subsequent stretches flowing through a 400-ha orchard area (LR2) received transient insecticide peaks. Continuously operating suspended-particle samplers as well as flood samplers operating during runoff events were used to measure pesticide contamination. In addition, various physicochemical and morphological parameters were examined. A survey of the macroinvertebrate communities associated with the rocky substrates was carried out every three weeks. Community indices were calculated using the South African Scoring System (SASS 5) for bioassessment of water quality in rivers.

    The two sites differed in pesticide pollution as well as in average turbidity levels (LR1 5.5 mg/L; LR2 64.3 mg/L), but were similar in bottom substrate composition and most other abiotic factors. At the downstream site (LR2), pesticide values of 0.05 μg/L azinphos-methyl in water as well as 49 μg/kg azinphos-methyl, 94 μg/kg chlorpyrifos and 122 μg/kg total endosulfan in suspended particles were found during runoff conditions. The macroinvertebrate communities of the two sampling sites were similar in terms of number of total individuals, but differed significantly (ANOVA) in average number of taxa (LR1 11.7, LR2 8.9). Seven out of 17 investigated taxa occurred in significantly reduced numbers or were even absent at the downstream site LR2. The community characteristics determined by SASS 5 showed a significantly less sensitive community structure at the downstream site (TS 41; ASPT 4.6), indicating continuously lower water quality compared to site LR1 (TS 80; ASPT 6.9). It is concluded that the Lourens River macroinvertebrate communities are affected by agricultural pollution, with pesticides and increased turbidity as the most important stressors.

  • 56.
    Thiere, Geraldine
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Wetland Research Centre.
    Stadmark, Johanna
    Department of Ecology, Limnology, Lund University, Ecology Building, SE-223 62 Lund, Sweden.
    Weisner, Stefan E. B.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Wetland Research Centre.
    Nitrogen retention versus methane emission: Environmental benefits and risks of large-scale wetland creation2011In: Ecological Engineering: The Journal of Ecotechnology, ISSN 0925-8574, E-ISSN 1872-6992, Vol. 37, no 1, p. 6-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Coastal eutrophication by nutrient fluxes from agricultural land to marine recipients is presently combated by measures such as the implementation of watershed-scale wetland creation programs aimed at nitrogen removal. Such created agricultural wetlands – termed ‘nitrogen farming wetlands’ (NFWs) – receive nitrogen (N) loads predominantly as nitrate, facilitating N removal by denitrification. However, the conversion of agricultural soils into waterlogged wetland area is likely to increase climate gas emissions, particularly methane (CH4). There is thus a need to evaluate the benefits and risks of wetland creation at a large, watershed-scale. Here we investigate N retention and CH4 emission originating from watershed-scale wetland creation in South Sweden, the relation between both processes, and how CH4 emission depends on individual wetland parameters. We combine data from intensively studied reference wetlands with an extensive wetland survey to predict N retention and CH4 emission with simple models, to estimate the overall process rates (large-scale effects) as well as spatial variation among individual NFWs. We show that watershed-scale wetland creation serves targeted environmental objectives (N retention), and that CH4 emission is comparably low. Environmental benefit and risk of individual wetlands were not correlated, and may thus be managed independently. High cover of aquatic plants was the most important wetland property that suppressed CH4 net production, potentially facilitating N retention simultaneously. Further, differences between wetlands in water temperature and wetland age seemed to contribute to differences in CH4 net production. The nationally planned wetland creation (12,000 ha) could make a significant contribution to the targeted reduction of N fluxes (up to 27% of the Swedish environmental objective), at an environmental risk equaling 0.04% of the national anthropogenic climate gas emission.

  • 57.
    Thiere, Geraldine
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Wetland Research Centre.
    Weisner, Stefan
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Wetland Research Centre.
    Biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in created agricultural wetlands.: Key note presentation.2009In: 3rd Wetland Pollutant Dynamics and Control - WETPOL2009- Barcelona / [ed] Josep M. Bayona & Joan García, 2009, p. 29-30Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 58.
    Tonderski, Karin S.
    et al.
    IFM div. Ecology, Linkoping University.
    Svensson, J. M.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Wetland Research Centre.
    Ekstam, Börje
    Högskolan i Kalmar.
    Eriksson, Peder
    Länsstyrelsen i Örebro län.
    Fleischer, Siegfried
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Wetland Research Centre.
    Herrmann, Jan
    Högskolan i Kalmar.
    Sahlén, Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Wetland Research Centre.
    Weisner, Stefan E.B.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Wetland Research Centre.
    Våtmarker: Närsaltsfällor och/eller myllrande mångfald?2003In: Vatten: tidskrift för vattenvård, ISSN 0042-2886, Vol. 59, no 4, p. 259-270Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper summarizes the state-of-the-art with respect to wetlands for nutrient removal and biodiversity enhancement, as expressed at a research workshop in December 2002. In the end of 2002, 260 and 884 wetlands had been constructed in Sweden with subsidies from LIP and the European Union, respectively. Most frequently, the aims were to remove nutrients from water and enhance biodiversity. The question raised is if we know how to design multifunctional wetlands. Should a wetland be deep or shallow, with or without macrophytes to be an efficient nutrient sink? Diverging opinions are presented, but generally it appears that fairly shallow wetlands at least partly covered by emergent macrophytes are favourable. The importance of extreme high flows and hydraulic short-circuiting is highlighted, and Danish and Norwegian approaches to wetlands construction are presented. Also, there is a risk that nutrient retaining wetlands develop a fairly trivial flora and fauna unless special care is taken. Intentional establishment of desirable and less common species, as well as creation of a variation of depth gradients to favour such species are such measures. Others are allowing for water level variations, as well as vegetation management such as grazing and harvesting.

  • 59.
    Tonderski, Karin
    et al.
    Department of Physics and Measurement Technology, Biology and Chemstry, Linköping University.
    Weisner, Stefan
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Wetland Research Centre.
    Ecological biotechnology in wetlands?2004In: Water research – what’s next? / [ed] Birgitta Johansson, Stockholm: Forskningsrådet Formas , 2004, p. 41-43Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 60.
    Tonderski, Karin
    et al.
    IFM, Linköpings Universitet.
    Weisner, Stefan E. B.Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Wetland Research Centre.Landin, JanIFM, Linköpings Universitet.Oscarsson, HansMiljöskyddsenheten, Länsstyrelsen Västra Götaland.
    Våtmarksboken: Skapande och nyttjande av värdefulla våtmarker2002Collection (editor) (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 61.
    Turesson, Kristin
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Environmental Science.
    Internationella och svenska erfarenheter av arbete med herrelösa katter2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 62.
    Vretare Strand, Viveka
    et al.
    Limnology, Department of Ecology, Lund University, Sweden.
    Weisner, Stefan E.B.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Wetland Research Centre.
    Interactive effects of pressurized ventilation, water depth and substrate conditions on Phragmites australis2002In: Oecologia, ISSN 0029-8549, E-ISSN 1432-1939, Vol. 131, no 4, p. 490-497Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pressurized ventilation acts to increase the oxygen supply to roots and rhizomes in some species of emergent plants. In a greenhouse experiment, we investigated how pressurized ventilation affected growth, biomass allocation and mineral content of Phragmites australis in two water depths (15 cm or 75 cm) and two substrates (organic sediment or sand). Through perforating each stem above the water surface, pressurized ventilation was inhibited without affecting oxygen diffusion. In controls, 10-20% of the stems were perforated to make certain that lack of efflux sites would not limit pressurized ventilation. Plants with inhibited pressurized ventilation had lower oxygen concentrations in their stem bases than control plants. Growth was lower in plants with inhibited pressurized ventilation compared to controls except when plants grew in a combination of sand and shallow water. In plants grown in an organic sediment, but not in those grown in sand, inhibition of pressurized ventilation resulted in decreased biomass allocation to soil roots but increased allocation to aquatic roots. Stem perforation affected the tissue concentrations of nitrogen, phosphorus, magnesium, manganese and aluminium but not of calcium or iron. We suggest that the lower growth in plants with inhibited pressurized ventilation was caused by decreased mineral uptake, which may have resulted from the decreased proportional allocation to soil root weight, from decreased mineral availability or from impaired root function. In plants grown in sand in shallow water, diffusion seemed to cover the oxygen demand, as pressurized ventilation did not affect growth.

  • 63.
    Waara, Sylvia
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Wetland Research Centre.
    Dagvattnets sammansättning i Västerås stad - En kunskapssammanställning2010Report (Other academic)
  • 64.
    Waara, Sylvia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Environmental Science, Wetland Research Centre.
    Gajewska, Magdalena
    Gdańsk University of Technology, Gdańsk, Poland.
    Dvarioniene, Jolanta
    Kaunas University of Technology, Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Ehde, Per Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Environmental Science, Wetland Research Centre.
    Gajewski, Ryszard
    Gdańska Infrastructura Wodociągowo-Kanalizacyjna, Gdańsk, Poland.
    Grabowski, Pawel
    Grupa Lotos, Gdańsk, Poland.
    Hansson, Anna
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Environmental Science, Wetland Research Centre.
    Kaszubowski, Jacek
    Gdańska Infrastructura Wodociągowo-Kanalizacyjna, Gdańsk, Poland.
    Obarska-Pempkowiak, Hanna
    Gdańsk University of Technology, Gdańsk, Poland.
    Przewlócka, Maria
    Gdańsk University of Technology, Gdańsk, Poland.
    Pilecki, Adam
    Grupa Lotos, Gdańsk, Poland.
    Nagórka-Kmiecik, Dagmara
    City Hall of Gdańsk, Environment Department , Gdańsk, Poland.
    Skarbek, Jacek
    Gdańska Infrastructura Wodociągowo-Kanalizacyjna, Gdańsk, Poland.
    Tonderski, Karin
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Weisner, Stefan
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Environmental Science, Wetland Research Centre.
    Wojciechowska, Ewa
    Gdańsk University of Technology, Gdańsk, Poland.
    Towards Recommendations for Design of Wetlands for Post-Tertiary Treatment of Waste Water in the Baltic Sea Region – Gdańsk Case Study2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There are many challenges that need to be addressed if the far reaching objectives on high environmental status as required in the EU Water Framework Directive and the Marine Strategy Framework Directive will be met in the Baltic Sea Region within the next decade. For wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) this implies, in spite of the many improvements made during the last decade, development and introduction of new technology to further reduce eutrophying compounds, hazardous chemicals and pharmaceuticals. Constructed wetlands when properly designed and operated have been shown to be robust systems with low energy requirements that may not only reduce many types of pollutants but may also provide many additional ecosystem services beyond requirements generally imposed by authorities. For example, they may support and enhance biodiversity and be used to convert brownfield areas in urban landscapes to recreational areas. Reduced cost is possible if treated water is reused in industry or for irrigation. In a project, supported by the Swedish Institute, a group of scientists, a water company and water using industry has together with local authorities through workshops, field studies and literature studies worked on finding a general first recommendation on design and operation. In this paper we will present the scientific rational and legal constraints for the general design and operation of a wetland system for post-tertiary treatment of waste water from WWTPs using Gdańsk as an example. The proposal includes a first part, which mainly will be focusing on pollutant and pathogen removal using particle traps and a HSSF wetland on land owned by the WWTP and a second part consisting of a FWS wetland which, in addition to further polishing the water, will enhance biodiversity and provide recreational areas on derelict land owned by the city.

  • 65.
    Waara, Sylvia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Wetland Research Centre.
    Khokhotva, Oleksandr
    National Technical University of Ukraine, Kyiv Polytechnic Institute, Kyiv, Ukraine.
    The effect of environmental conditions on the stability of heavy meltal-filter material complex as assessed by the leaching of adsorbed metal ions2011In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 159, p. 146-1463Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study the influence of environmental conditions, most likely prevailing in filter beds used for intermittently discharged pollutant streams such as landfill leachate and storm water, on the stability of the heavy metalefilter complex was investigated for 2 filter materials; non-treated and urea treated pine bark, using leaching experiments. The metalefilter complex stability was higher for urea treated than for non-treated pine bark and dependent on the metal adsorbed. The type of environmental condition applied was of less importance for the extent of leaching.

  • 66.
    Waara, Sylvia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Wetland Research Centre.
    Wojciechowska, Eva
    Faculty of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Gdansk University of Technology, Gdansk, Polen.
    Distribution and removal efficiency of heavy metals in two constructed wetlands treating landfill leachate2011In: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 64, no 8, p. 1597-1606Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The results of heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Zn, Ni, Cu, Cr, Pb, Cd) removal and partitioning between aqueous and solid phases at two treatment wetlands (TWs) treating municipal landfill leachates are presented. One of the TWs is a surface flow facility consisting of 10 ponds. The other TW is a newly constructed pilot-scale facility consisting of three beds with alternately vertical and horizontal sub-surface flow. The metals concentrations were analysed in leachate (both TWs) and bottom sediments (surface flow TW). Very high (90.9-99.9%) removal rates of metals were observed in a mature surface flow TW. The effectiveness of metals removal in a newly constructed pilot-scale sub-surface flow wetland were considerably lower (range 0-73%). This is attributed to young age of the TW, different hydraulic conditions (sub-surface flow system with much shorter retention time, unoxic conditions) and presence of metallic complexes with refractory organic matter

  • 67.
    Weisner, Stefan
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Wetland Research Centre.
    Potential hos våtmarker anlagda för fosfor- och kväveretention i jordbrukslandskapet: analys och tolkning av mätresultat2012Report (Other academic)
  • 68.
    Weisner, Stefan
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Environmental Science, Wetland Research Centre.
    Problems in determining the amounts of nutrients removed in wetlands created to abate run-off from agricultural fields without using excessively costly measurements2012In: Proceedings from the 7th SWS 2012 European chapter meeting: Wetland restoration – challenges and opportunities : Programme and abstracts, 17-21 June 2012 / [ed] Brian Kronvang, Carl Christian Hoffmann & Mirela Lăcrămioara Vlad, Aarhus: Aarhus University, DCE - Danish Centre for Environment and Energy , 2012, p. 53-53Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Creation of wetlands in the agricultural landscape has in Sweden been identified as a cost-effective way of decreasing nutrient transports to the Baltic Sea. Approximately 3,000 wetlands have been constructed so far in southern Sweden through different subsidy systems. The purpose is that these wetlands should counteract eutrophication by removing nitrogen and phosphorus while simultaneously contributing to increased biodiversity in the landscape.

    Continuous automatic (flow or time proportional) water sampling for nitrogen and phosphorus removal measurements were carried out in the inlet and outlet of 7 wetlands during 1.5 to 10 years. Strategic grab sampling, also in the inlet and outlet, was conducted in 14 wetlands during 2 years. Flow was measured only in the outlet in most wetlands. The wetlands were all located in agricultural areas and were chosen to represent wetlands with different nutrient loads from agricultural field run-off.

    Large temporal variations in water flows and concentrations complicated the interpretation of data. Analyses of the large dataset, in some cases comprising parallel measurements using different methods, showed that estimations of nutrients removal were, for example, sensitive to if short intensive inflows were adequately captured with the measurements or not. This led in particular to substantial underestimations of phosphorus removal.

    This suggests that removal rates or coefficients used in models to estimate the total amounts of nutrients removed from agricultural run-off in large-scale national programs for creating wetlands may be based on field measurements with severe shortcomings. National assessments may therefore have given misleading results and, at least for phosphorus, seriously underestimated the amount of removal that has been obtained. We need to find ways to accurately determine nutrient removal levels of a large amount of wetlands without using too costly measurements so that created wetlands retain their status as a cost-effective way to reduce nutrient transports from agriculture.

  • 69.
    Weisner, Stefan
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Wetland Research Centre.
    Vilka faktorer styr kväveretentionen ianlagda våtmarker?: Resultat från experimentvåtmarker vid Plönninge2008Report (Other academic)
  • 70.
    Weisner, Stefan
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Wetland Research Centre.
    Våtmarker i jordbrukslandskapet som åtgärd mot övergödning: kväveretention och  kostnadseffektivitet2008Report (Other academic)
  • 71.
    Weisner, Stefan E. B.
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Environmental Science, Wetland Research Centre.
    Strand, John A.
    Rural economy and agricultural society, Lilla Böslid, Eldsberga.
    Ecology and management of plants in aquatic ecosystems2002In: Handbook of ecological restoration: Vol. 1, Principles of restoration / [ed] Martin R. Perrow, Anthony J. Davy, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press , 2002, p. 242-256Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The central role of macrophytes for the functioning of aquatic systems means that the most effective way to manage these systems is often through vegetation management. For this we need to understand the mechanisms regulating vegetation distribution. Submerged macrophyte distribution is mainly related to water depth, water transparency and epiphytic growth. The distribution of emergent vegetation can largely be predicted from water depth and substrate characteristics. Also, in both submerged and emergent macrophytes, the effects on the vegetation of grazing can be dramatic. Management should aim at providing environmental conditions favouring the desired ecosystem state, rather than methods directly aimed at the vegetation. For example, the best method for promoting establishment of emergent vegetation is often lowering of the water level. To establish submerged vegetation, water transparency can be increased through biomanipulation (the removal of zooplanktivorous fish leading to increased zooplankton grazing pressure on phytoplankton). Changes in water depth and introduction of grazers are often effective measures to control growth of aquatic weeds.

  • 72.
    Weisner, Stefan E.B
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Wetland Research Centre.
    Bastviken Kallner, Sofia
    Department of Biology, Linköping University.
    Thiere, Geraldine
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Wetland Research Centre.
    Ehde, Per Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Wetland Research Centre.
    Tonderski, Karin S.
    Department of Biology, Linköping University.
    Influence of alternative states on nitrogen removal in experimental wetlands2007In: 2nd International Symposium on Wetland Pollutant Dynamics and Control - WETPOL 2007: extended abstracts / [ed] Mander Ülo, Koiv Margi, Vohla Chrisitna, Tartu: Institute of Geography, University of Tartu , 2007, p. 357-359Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Denitrification is the main process that remove nitrate from the water in wetlands. Plants can supply denitrifying bacteria with organic carbon and suitable attachment surfaces (Weisner et al. 1994). They also promote the development of anaerobic conditions through litter accumulation and decomposition, which would favour denitrification. The presence of plants has been shown to enhance nitrate removal in field studies (Bachand and Horne 2000). Toet et al. (2005) found a higher nitrogen removal in wetland compartments with emergent plants than with submersed plants. Results from microcosm studies have shown that the potential for denitrification is specific for different plant species (Bastviken et al. 2005).

    Wetlands may typically exist in alternative states, dominated by different kinds of vegetation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of alternative state on nitrogen removal under controlled conditions in experimental wetlands.

  • 73.
    Weisner, Stefan E.B.
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Wetland Research Centre.
    Miao, Shi Li
    Everglades Department, South Florida Water Management District, West Palm Beach, USA .
    Use of morphological variability in Cladium jamaicense and Typha domingensis to understand vegetation changes in an Everglades marsh2004In: Aquatic Botany, ISSN 0304-3770, E-ISSN 1879-1522, Vol. 78, no 4, p. 319-335Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The northern Florida Everglades have experienced an expansion of cattail (Typha domingensis) and a decrease of sawgrass (Cladium jamaicense) communities. In this study, spatial and temporal within-species variability in plant performance were used to explore the mechanisms causing the distributional changes of cattail and sawgrass. Biomass, shoot density, plant weight, shoot height, and biomass allocation to different plant components (leaves, shoot bases, roots and rhizomes), were sampled in cattail and sawgrass stands along a nutrient gradient within water conservation area 2A during two sequential years with different water level conditions. The shoot height–leaf weight relationships were analysed with allometric methods. Sawgrass exhibited responses to nutrient limitation that resembled functional responses to deep water, indicating that impact of deep water was stronger when plant growth was limited by nutrient deficiency. In cattail, responses along the nutrient gradient were less pronounced. Plant responses along the nutrient gradient differed between years. This was most evident in sawgrass, showing that this species was more affected by water depth than cattail. Responses in sawgrass suggested that this species had to sacrifice important plant functions in deep water at low-nutrient sites. The results in this study emphasise that, to preserve and restore sawgrass communities, lower water levels are required. For cattail, a combination of low phosphorus availability and disturbances (such as extended droughts and outbreaks of herbivores) is needed to stop the ongoing expansion. Management of these ecosystems must consider the relative roles of water level, nutrient enrichment, and disturbances, for vegetation development.

  • 74.
    Weisner, Stefan E.B.
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Wetland Research Centre.
    Strand, John A.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Wetland Research Centre.
    Sahlén, Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Wetland Research Centre.
    Thiere, Geraldine
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Wetland Research Centre.
    Ehde, Per Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Wetland Research Centre.
    Svensson, Jonas M.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Wetland Research Centre.
    Combating eutrophication and biodiversity loss in Sweden: importance of constructed wetlands in the agricultural landscape2007In: Multifunctions of wetland systems, Padua: PAN , 2007, p. 60-61Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The results of this evaluation show that constructed wetlands in the agricultural landscape are capable of a substantial reduction of the nutrient transport to downstream recipients, but only if properly located. These wetlands will also contribute to an increased biodiversity even if not planned primarily for this purpose. The use of wetlands for multiple functions needs to be developed to motivate large-scale wetland construction.

  • 75.
    Weisner, Stefan E.B.
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Wetland Research Centre.
    Thiere, Geraldine
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Wetland Research Centre.
    Effects of vegetation state on biodiversity and nitrogen retention in created wetlands: a test of the biodiversity–ecosystem functioning hypothesis2010In: Freshwater Biology, ISSN 0046-5070, E-ISSN 1365-2427, Vol. 55, no 2, p. 387-396Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. Nitrogen retention in wetlands provides an example of an ecosystem function that is desired by human society, and is a rationale for the creation of wetlands to decrease nitrogen fluxes from nitrate-loaded river catchments to coastal waters.

    2. Here, we tested the impact of different vegetation states on species diversity and nitrogen retention during 4 years in surface-flow wetlands receiving nitrate-rich water. Tall emergent vegetation or submerged vegetation was introduced to six experimental wetlands each and six wetlands were left as unplanted controls for free development of vegetation. This resulted in three vegetation states dominated by emergent vegetation, by a mixture of submerged vegetation and filamentous green algae or by filamentous green algae.

    3. Species diversity (species richness and Shannon diversity) of plants was initially lowest in free development wetlands, but during the study became lower in the emergent vegetation wetlands than in the other wetlands. Diversity of macroinvertebrates was initially lower in the submerged vegetation wetlands than in the other wetlands, but this difference disappeared during the study. Nitrogen retention was consistently higher in emergent vegetation wetlands than in the other wetlands throughout the study.

    4. We conclude that plant diversity in wetlands dominated by tall emergent vegetation gradually became lower than in other wetlands, due to dominant species competitively excluding other plants. However, these wetlands were more efficient at removing nitrogen than those dominated by filamentous algae or submerged macrophytes.

    5. Management of wetlands often aims to decrease the dominance of tall emergent vegetation for the benefit of plant species diversity and habitat heterogeneity. Our results demonstrate a biodiversity benefit, but also show that this strategy may decrease the ability of wetlands to remove nitrogen. In this case, there is no support for the hypothesis that biodiversity enhances ecosystem function.

  • 76.
    Weisner, Stefan
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Environmental Science, Wetland Research Centre.
    Johannesson, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Linköping, Sverige.
    Tonderski, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Linköping, Sverige.
    Näringsavskiljning i anlagda våtmarker i jordbruket: Analys av mätresultat och effekter av landsbygdsprogrammet2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Measurements of removal of phosphorus and nitrogen in created wetlands in agricultural areas in Sweden have been compiled and analysed. The results indicate the level of phosphorus and nitrogen removal that can be achieved in created wetlands in agricultural areas in Sweden. The results have also been used to develop new models for calculating removal of phosphorus and nitrogen in created wetlands in which measurements have not been done. Finally, these models have been used to estimate the removal effects that can be expected in the wetlands that have received financial support within the Swedish Rural Develop­ ment Programme in 2007–2013, and how much the transport of phosphorus and nitrogen to the sea will decrease due to the creation of these wetlands.

    The new results show that phosphorus removal has been underestimated in earlier measurements as well as in models used in previous evaluations. In individual well designed and located wetlands, a removal of 100 kilo phosphorus and 1 000 kilo nitrogen per hectare wetland area and year can be obtained. The new results also indicate that it should be possible to achieve a removal of 50 kilo phosphorus and 500 kilo nitrogen per hectare wetland area and year in wetland creation programs prioritizing wetlands that are located and designed primarily for nutrient removal. The costs are estimated to 100 SEK per kilo phosphorus and 10 SEK per kilo nitrogen, if 50 percent of the costs are allocated to biodiversity and other ecosystem services.

    Model calculations based on a selection of representative wetlands within the Rural Development Programme were scaled up to the 5 261 hectare wetland area that have been granted financial support during 2007–2013. The evaluation show that the Rural Development Programme will result in a reduced transport to local waters­ heds of about 25 tons of phosphorus and 200 tons of nitrogen per year. Therefore, the transport to the sea will decrease with about 18 tons of phosphorus per year and about 170 tons of nitrogen per year, corresponding to 1.9 and 0.5 percent, respectively, of the transport to the sea from agricultural land.

    Creation of wetlands within the Rural Development Programme has thus resulted in significant decreases of transports of phosphorus and nitrogen to inland waters and the coastal sea. However, a comparison of removal per hectare wetland area and year between what has been achieved within the Rural Development Programme and in individual wetlands suggests that the effect could be substantially increased with a better location and design of wetlands.

  • 77.
    Weisner, Stefan
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Wetland Research Centre.
    Mietto, Anna
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Wetland Research Centre.
    Ehde, Per Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Wetland Research Centre.
    Persson, Jesper
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp, SWEDEN.
    Influence of vegetation on hydraulics in experimental surface-flow wetlands2009In: 3rd Wetland Pollutant Dynamics and Control - WETPOL 2009 - Barcelona / [ed] Josep M. Bayona & Joan García, 2009, p. 179-180Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 78.
    Weisner, Stefan
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Wetland Research Centre.
    Svensson, Jonas M.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Wetland Research Centre.
    Strand, John A.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Wetland Research Centre.
    Svengren, Henrik
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Wetland Research Centre.
    Combating eutrophication in Sweden: Importance of constructed wetlands in agricultural landscapes2005In: Is living water possible in agricultural areas?: Seminar on ecological engineering tools to combat diffuse pollution: June 20-22, 2005, Norway: Proceedings from NJF seminar no. 374 / [ed] Bent C. Braskerud, Ås, Norway: Jordforsk , 2005, p. 66-69Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Wetland Centre at Halmstad University was commissioned by the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency and the Swedish Board of Agriculture to evaluate the effects of artificially created wetlands in Sweden between the years 1996 and 2002 with regard to nutrient retention and biodiversity. The creation of these wetlands has been financed either by Rural Development Support (RDS: Miva, Project support or Lmiva without Project support) or by Local Investment Programmes (LIP). The results are presented separately for the four different categories of constructed wetlands:

    • Constructed wetlands financed by LIP (Local Investment Programmes) (1998-2002).
    • Constructed wetlands financed by PS (Project Support) (2000-2002).
    • Constructed wetlands financed by Miva (Restoration and Establishment of Wetlands and Ponds on Arable land and Semi-natural Grazing land) (1996-1999).
    • Constructed wetlands financed by Lmiva (RDS wetlands that only get management support) (2000-2002).

    The main purpose of this study has been to evaluate the extent to which wetlands created by means of these different support systems have contributed to reduced eutrophication and increased biodiversity. The purpose has not been to evaluate individual wetlands but to give an overview of the differences in efficiency between the various support systems and, to some extent, the difference in results between various geographical regions within Sweden. It has therefore been necessary to include a large number of wetlands in the evaluation, which means that extensive field sampling in the individual wetlands has not been possible. The estimates concerning nutrient retention has therefore been based on modelling, and the biodiversity has been assessed by using dragonflies (Odonata) as indicator organisms.

    Information on 908 wetlands with a total area of 2860 hectares financed by RDS has been compiled and registered. In terms of area, these wetlands divide into 1815 ha financed by Miva, 920 ha financed by PS and 125 ha by Lmiva. In addition, 274 wetlands created by means of LIP, with a total area of 439 ha, have been registered. Field surveys and sampling has been conducted in more than 100 wetlands randomly selected from this register. It is mainly the results from these selected wetlands that are presented here.

  • 79.
    Weisner, Stefan
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Wetland Research Centre.
    Thiere, Geraldine
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Wetland Research Centre.
    Mindre fosfor och kväve från jordbrukslandskapet: Utvärdering av anlagda våtmarker inom miljö- och landsbygdsprogrammet och det nya landsbygdsprogrammet2010Report (Other academic)
  • 80.
    Weisner, Stefan
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Wetland Research Centre.
    Tonderski, Karin
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Biomassa kan produceras och näring återvinnas: Ett framtidsperspektiv2002In: Våtmarksboken: Skapande och nyttjande av värdefulla våtmarker / [ed] Karin Tonderski , Stefan Weisner, Jan Landin, Hans Oscarsson, Göteborg: Vattenstrategiska forskningsprogrammet (VASTRA) , 2002, p. 123-134Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 81.
    Wiborg, Irene
    et al.
    Knowledge Centre for Agriculture, Denmark.
    Sørensen Langvad, Anne Mette
    Knowledge Centre for Agriculture and Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Hansson, Anna
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Wetland Research Centre.
    Balskilde Stoltenborg, Trine
    Bridging the gaps between science, regulation and practice in water environment management2011In: Science for the environment - environment for society: Bridging the gap between scientists and practitioners in environmental science, Aarhus: Aarhus University , 2011, p. 31-31Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    AQUARIUS is an interreg North Sea Programme project carried out by 15 partners from 6 countries (Norway, Sweden, Germany, Holland, Scotland, and Denmark) all dealing with the implementation of the Water Frame Directive. A primary objective of the project is to find ways for sustainable water environment management which by AQUARIUS is defined as management that in respect of the rules both leads to “good water environment”, enables continued viable agricultural production, and is cost efficient in the interest of society. AQUARIUS works from social-ecological management perspective emphasizing the intricate linkages between ecological and social systems and the interdependent relationships among humans, that are mediated through interactions with biophysical and non-human biological units. As a project AQUARIUS copies the presently ongoing struggle by all EU member countries to create a public participatory approach to water management planning and implementation such as is launched by the EU Water Water Frame directive. it does so by engaging central water authorities, representatives from agriculture including agricultural advisors as well as research institutions in carrying out localized pilot studies in 7 pilot areas. Drawing on localized experiments with and locally founded experiences with different measures the project derives recommendations that may contribute to an EU policy approach. The special session aims at discussing the preliminary findings of the ongoing project. It includes the presentation of a heuristic tool consisting of relevant considerations to beware of when engaging in stakeholder collaboration on specific measurements whilst acknowledging the farmer as the central water management practitioner. The session also discusses some of the different pilot approaches to bridging the gaps between science, regulation and practice i.e. the concrete challenges faced by the approaches in trying to create outcomes that are mutually beneficial to various stakeholder interests. How can different stakeholders challenges be solved in cooperation creating a win-win situation for all? How can stakeholders (landowners) willingness to participate increase by seeing them as professional providers of eco-system services? When do stakeholders’ overlapping interests allow for collaborative action and when do they hinder it? These questions are among the issues to be addressed. One legal recommendation that may be derived from project experiences is a need to further to take the precautionary principle in public administration into account. In order to make sustainable solutions in an ever changing complexity, authorities need to make room for dynamic collaboration between science and practice.

  • 82.
    Widenfalk, Anneli
    et al.
    Department of Environmental Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7050, SE-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Svensson, Jonas M.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Environmental Science, Wetland Research Centre.
    Goedkoop, Willem
    Department of Environmental Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7050, SE-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Effects of the pesticides captan, deltamethrin, isoproturon, and pirimicarb on the microbial community of a freshwater sediment2004In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 23, no 8, p. 1920-1927Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In three microcosm experiments, we exposed microbial communities of a natural sediment to environmentally relevant concentrations of the fungicide captan, the herbicide isoproturon, and the insecticides deltamethrin and pirimicarb. Exposure concentrations were estimated negligible concentrations (NCs), maximum permissible concentrations (MPCs), and 100 times MPC (100MPC). Experimental endpoints were microbial community respiration and biomass, bacterial activity, and denitrification. All four pesticides inhibited bacterial activity by 20 to 24% at MPC, which corresponded to concentrations in the range of μg/kg dry-weight sediment. Treatments with deltamethrin and isoproturon showed inhibiting effects on bacterial activity at NC exposures. Surprisingly, for captan, deltamethrin, and isoproturon, this inhibiting effect was not observed at 100MPC treatments. Microbial biomass was negatively effected in MPC treatments with deltamethrin and in NC treatments with isoproturon. The tested pesticides did not affect community respiration and denitrification rates. These results show that exposure to the tested pesticides may induce toxic responses in sediment microbial communities at concentrations that are predicted to be environmentally safe.

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