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  • 451.
    Bolle, Quentin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    VAN DE POELE, MARTIN
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Assessment of Business model in the service industry on a global process perspective2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Service marketing is something new, and a lot of companies are working on answering the demand as best they can. Consumption behaviour implies a lot of changes in every market, and companies have to deal with all these changes. Companies must be able to adapt their strategy to be competitive. This has implications for the different models they use to adapt. Furthermore, there is a big difference between the theory and the practice. There are a lot of variables that must be taken into consideration in order to develop the best strategy and to offer the best service possible. During this research, the authors have used a qualitative case study with an abductive approach to develop a theoretical model based on the theory and the practice. Through interviews, the authors have discovered the importance of following the "flow". Companies need to be always be updated by developing a CRM. But also the variable technology that plays an important role in offering a certain product or service. Moreover, the industry is growing very fast, and companies must be able to change all the time and develop new product to be real competitors. So this investigation provides a model that varies from market to market with an explanation of how to develop a certain strategy based on all the information you can gather.

  • 452.
    Bollue, Sebastien
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Wackerbarth, Johannes
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Understand Complexity or Keep Fishing in the Dark: Generating Revenues as an International New Venture in the German Medtech Industry2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    International new ventures operate on international level at, or shortly after, their inception. However, many fail to generate revenues due to market complexity and lacking adaptation of the business model to the market. For outsiders, foreign markets are often difficult to understand, which is especially the case in highly regulated markets. The purpose of the study is to examine the role of market complexity in the internationalization process of an international new venture, and how to overcome such complexity to generate revenues through business model innovation. A single case study and qualitative interviewing has been used to examine market complexity in a particularly difficult market, the German medtech industry. A theoretical framework displaying the research assumption was created; that by understanding the complexity in a market, the entrepreneur can adapt the business model appropriately and generate revenues. To create an understanding of a complexity in the market, two theoretical models were constructed with different dimensions. The study shows that particular dimensions of market complexity were perceived more relevant than others. In this study, experience in the targeted market and knowledge of the local language were identified as the most important factors in overcoming market complexity. Further complexity factors were also identified, yet these may be greatly related to specific sectors and differ between industries, products, customers, and countries. Subsequently, a revised model for market complexity dimensions was constructed. This study focuses on the business model dimension of revenue streams. However, other dimensions of business model should also be considered in the internationalization process of INVs. It can be concluded that difficult markets can be made more understandable through analyzing the complexity dimensions, and revenues can be generated through business model innovation.

  • 453.
    Bolmsjö, Gunnar
    et al.
    Division of Machine Design, Department of Design Sciences LTH Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Petersson, Håkan
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Tillämpad konstruktion (Digitala verktyg). Division of Machine Design, Department of Design Sciences LTH Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Bjärnemo, Robert
    Division of Machine Design, Department of Design Sciences LTH Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Robot assisted framing: A concept for securing geometry in flexible production2008Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper describes a concept for securing the geometry in flexible production based on robot assisted framing. This uses the robot(s) as an active device during change-over between product variants and it is assumed that product variants can be produced in any mixed order. The case under study is cabs for trucks which in traditional production require large and heavy equipment which is above the payload of any robot. The idea within this study is to use carbon fibre composites in the fixtures in order to reduce the weight and through this make it possible to use the robots in assisting the framing process. The current work involves a generalization of the principle both considering the design of the fixtures with respect to issues such as materials properties and design principles, and design of the production system.

     

  • 454.
    Bolmstedt Svanqvist, Alma
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Carlén, Malin
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Visual merchandising of organic versus non-organic products in supermarkets: A study of Coop, Willys and ICA2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Title: Visual merchandising of organic versus non-organic products in supermarkets

    Authors: Alma Bolmstedt Svanqvist & Malin Carlén

    Supervisor: Mikael Hilmersson

    Examiner: Thomas Helgesson

    Level: Bachelor thesis - Marketing

    Keywords: Visual merchandising, Supermarkets, Groceries, Organic food.

    Research question: ”How and why do supermarkets distinguish and implement the presentation and visual merchandising of organic food from non-organic food?”

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to provide new theoretical contribution of how the major food chains are working with visual merchandising and specifically how they differentiate organic products from non-organic products. This is to increase understanding of the specific topic for future research as well as for established and new companies that enter the organic food market.

    Methodology: This study is based on a combining research approach, which includes both a deductive and an inductive approach to answer the developed research question.Frame of references: Previously research regarding theories of consumer behaviour, Visual merchandising, Sensory marketing and visual elements and visual merchandising techniques are presented.

    Empirical findings: Primary data was collected and presented from three Swedish supermarkets.

    Analysis: The analysis compares the collected empirical data with the theoretical framework.

    Conclusion: The findings shows that the supermarkets studied in some areas distinguish between organic and non-organic products when planning the product presentation. However, the empirical result does confirm that those supermarkets do invest in organic products and that they are trying to increase the sales. A conclusion can also be made that much effort are invested in the planning process of visual merchandising.

  • 455.
    Bonat, Ida
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Mellåker, Emelie
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Delaktighet och förtroende i partneringprojekt: – En fallstudie som belyser underentreprenörernas roll2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Problem:                      What role do sub-contractors have in a partnering project?

    Purpose:                       The purpose of the case study is to describe, explain and understand the sub-contractor’s role in a partnering project. The study will complement existing partnering research that is one-dimensional.

    Method:                       The study had an abductive approach and was based on a literature study, which collected secondary data and created the theoretical framework, and a qualitative case study, where semi-structured interviews collected primary data and created the empirical chapter. The empirical study is based on interviews with six respondents, all participants in the same project, three sub-contractors, one main contractor and one project manager. To ensure that the empirical study answered the issue and is relevant in relation to the theoretical framework, an operationalization scheme was used in the development of the interview guide. The interviews were transcribed, commented, categorized and coded. The empirical study was built around the themes presented in the theoretical framework. The analysis was done by systematically testing the empirical material against the theories. The study has limited generalization possibilities since it only highlights one project but the study is not meant for generalization.

    Conclusion:                  The case study complements existing knowledge through the factors participation and trust where the sub-contractors role is explained, described and understood in the Swedish construction industry. Organisations and individuals who want to understand the role of the sub-contractor in a partnering project can use the case study. It can also be used in a more general meaning to raise knowledge about partnering. The study shows that formal means are not as crucial as earlier research states; instead the informal means are the important ones.

  • 456.
    Bondeby, Alexander
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Johansson, Mikael
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Logistikhantering vid produktion i innerstadsmiljö: Inkluderar fallstudie av projektet kvarteret Hjärtat, Halmstad.2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 457.
    Bondéus, Emilia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Ellmarker, Josefin
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    CareEagle - Det unika hjälpmedlet för ambulanssjukvården: CareEagle – The unique stand-by for the pre-hospital medical care2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Every year SOS Alarm receives 3.5 million emergency calls via 112 and an ambulance is needed in one million of these situations. Working as a paramedic is very physically demanding and the profession is over-represented, in terms of attritional wear on the lower back and the shoulders. Every day the paramedics need to perform many heavy lifts and the deadlift is one of the most demanding. They perform a deadlift when a patient should be lifted from the ground up to height of the haunch. When the deadlift is completed, the paramedics transport the patient to the ambulance.

    Work below the knees and over the shoulders should not occur by ergonomic recommendations. When the paramedics perform a deadlift it’s always start below their knees which means that the start position is not advantageous and there is a high risk to be injured. There are many factors that can affect the lifting situation in a negative way for example uneven surfaces, tight spaces and worried patients.

    In this project a unique product has been developed to replace the deadlift which is a huge problem that no one else has solved before. By using the product, the deadlift can now be done with minimal use of human power. The product significantly simplifies the care of the patients and will reduce work-related injuries in the pre-hospital medical care.

  • 458.
    Bonnot, N. C.
    et al.
    Grimsö Wildlife Research Station, Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Riddarhyttan, 730 91, Sweden.
    Bergvall, U. A.
    Grimsö Wildlife Research Station, Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Riddarhyttan, 730 91, Sweden.
    Jarnemo, Anders
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Kjellander, P.
    Grimsö Wildlife Research Station, Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Riddarhyttan, 730 91, Sweden.
    Who’s afraid of the big bad wolf?: Variation in the stress response among personalities and populations in a large wild herbivore2018In: Oecologia, ISSN 0029-8549, E-ISSN 1432-1939, Vol. 188, no 1, p. 85-95Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Faced with rapid environmental changes, individuals may express different magnitude and plasticity in their response to a given stressor. However, little is known about the causes of variation in phenotypic plasticity of the stress response in wild populations. In the present study, we repeatedly captured individual roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) from two wild populations in Sweden exposed to differing levels of predation pressure and measured plasma concentrations of stress-induced cortisol and behavioral docility. While controlling for the marked effects of habituation, we found clear between-population differences in the stress-induced cortisol response. Roe deer living in the area that was recently recolonized by lynx (Lynx lynx) and wolves (Canis lupus) expressed cortisol levels that were around 30% higher than roe deer in the human-dominated landscape free of large carnivores. In addition, for the first time to our knowledge, we investigated the stress-induced cortisol response in free-ranging newborn fawns and found no evidence for hypo-responsiveness during early life in this species. Indeed, stress-induced cortisol levels were of similar magnitude and differed between populations to a similar extent in both neonates and adults. Finally, at an individual level, we found that both cortisol and docility levels were strongly repeatable, and weakly negatively inter-correlated, suggesting that individuals differed consistently in how they respond to a stressor, and supporting the existence of a stress-management syndrome in roe deer. © 2018, The Author(s).

  • 459.
    Borg, Cecilia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Bengtsson, Malin
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Ställtidsreducering: av vald pilotmaskin enligt SMED-metodiken2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In today's society there are strict requirements for manufacturing companies and they have to

    be efficient to maintain and increase their profitability, thus meeting the competition that

    exists. Effective transitions are becoming increasingly important for companies as customers

    demand a variety of their products, therefore, it is imperative to keep the setup time low in

    order to be able to offer customers the quality and variety demanded.

    Set Time Reduction means reducing changeover times at the machine without reducing

    production capacity. The SMED-method helps to get a better understanding of how, through

    a structured approach, companies can reduce setup times at the machine.

    The company DS Smith had a need to get control of their set-up times and get a structured

    approach that operators can work with. The authors' assignments / thesis has been to chart

    the current situation across 8 converting machines available at DS Smith in Värnamo, and

    then get an overview of how operators are working in the current situation. In order to map

    the current situation, the authors made use of qualitative studies, such as interviews and

    observations. They then selected one of the eight machines for the implementation of the

    SMED-method in five steps, where the authors have used literature studies and article search

    to gain knowledge on the subject and achieve results that were reliable.

    The work has resulted in an approach that operators can use in the future and according to

    reducing changeover times at the machines.

  • 460.
    Borghede, Mikael
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Johlbring, Pontus
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Styrelsens funktion i små- och medelstora företag: Kontrollerande, hjälpande eller obetydlig?2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 461.
    Borgström, Karin Margaretha
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Sustainability, Innovation and Management in Building (SIMB).
    Determination of the thermal conductivity of the insulation in district heating mains: Field measurements1994Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis concerns the development of a measurement method for determination in the field of the thermal conductivity of the insulation in buried district heating mains.

    The thermal conductivity of the insulation is calculated from the measured value of the radial heat flow through the heating main, the measured temperature difference across the insulation, and the dimensions of the heating main. The heat flow has been measured with a heat flux sensor which was fitted to the surface of the casing. The temperature has been measured with copper/constantan thermocouples.

    It is a necessary condition for the method used in the project for determination of the thermal conductivity of the heating main insulation that the heating main is uncovered and is not in contact with the surrounding soil over a distance of about 1.5 m and that the measurements are made directly on the heating main. In this way, no account need be taken of the material surrounding the heating main, nor of the effect of this material on the measurements. No interference is needed with the heating main which would affect the distribution of the district heating water, and the heating main can remain in operation during measurements.

    Shielding insulation consisting of preformed insulation sections which were placed over the casing of the heating main and covered the heat flux sensor and some of the casing. The function of this insulation was to shield the heat flux sensor from external thermal disturbances. In the field measurements, a copper guard plate of 0.5 mm thickness, the temperature of which could be adjusted, was also placed over the shielding insulation in order to maintain the temperature on the heat flux sensor as constant as possible.

    When temperature and heat flow are measured, the instruments used will be affected by conditions which prevail at the time of measurement. It is therefore very important to analyse the sources of error which may arise in the measuring situation at hand.

    The effect of these factors on the measured values has been studied by

    ' laboratory measurements

    ' theoretical calculations

    ' field measurements

    On the basis of the resulting values of heat flows and temperatures obtained in field measurements on plastic heating mains which were operating under normal conditions, the thermal conductivity of the insulation of the main has been estimated.

    The method has been tested on plastic heating mains with directly foamed insulation, since this is the most common type of heating main both in the existing district heating network and in new construction. The measuring method can also be used on other circular heating mains.

     

  • 462.
    Borgström, Karin Margaretha
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Sustainability, Innovation and Management in Building (SIMB).
    Effects of energy saving actions in reconstruction: An evaluation of dwellings built in the period 1965-74 - proposal2003In: Construction economics and organization: Proceedings of the 3rd Nordic Conference on Construction Economics and Organization, 23-24 April 2003, Lund, Sweden / [ed] Bengt Hansson & Anne Landin, Lund: Division of Construction Management, Lund Institute of Technology, Lund University , 2003, p. 91-95Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 463.
    Borgström, Karin Margaretha
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Sustainability, Innovation and Management in Building (SIMB).
    Effects of Energy Saving Measures at Renovation2008In: Proceedings of the 2008 World Sustainable Building Conference: world SB08 Convention Centre 21-25 September 2008 / [ed] Greg Foliente et al, Balnarring, Vic.: ASN Events Pty , 2008, p. 441-444Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study focuses on the necessity of having knowledge about different energy saving measures when renovations and reconstructions are planned and designed. It is also of great importance to have routines to follow up what effects the actions taken have had on the energy consumption as well as on the indoor climate when the renovation is completed. A big part of the existing buildings in Sweden are built during a ten-year period between 1965 and 1974. When these buildings are to be renovated there is a great potential for energy saving.

  • 464.
    Borgström, Karin Margaretha
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Sustainability, Innovation and Management in Building (SIMB).
    Energy efficiency in buildings after renovation2005In: Proceedings of the International Conference Sustainable Building 2005 SB05, Tokyo, 2005, p. 326-331Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 465.
    Borgström, Karin Margaretha
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Sustainability, Innovation and Management in Building (SIMB).
    Energy Efficiency in Buildings with a Good Indoor Climate: An Evaluation of Actions Taken at Reconstruction2006In: Proceedings of Healthy buildings 2006: Vol. 1 : Indoor air quality (IAQ), building related diseases and human response, Lisboa: Lisboa Institute of Mechanical Engineering (IDMEC) , 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 466.
    Borgström, Karin Margaretha
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Sustainability, Innovation and Management in Building (SIMB).
    Böhm, Benny
    A comparison of different methods for in-situ determination of heat losses from district heating pipes1996Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the IEA Network Supervision project a special method, the Tx-factor method, is investigated. Several other methods exist for in-situ heat loss determination from district heating (DH) pipes. These methods have advantages and disadvantages compared to the Tx-factor method. It is the purpose of this work to make a comparison of the methods on a particular DH pipe. This makes this investigation special as in most previous work only one or very few methods have been applied on the same DH pipe. The purpose of this work was thus to go out to the site and make measurements of the heat loss from the DH pipe at this particular time of the year - an estimate of annual heat losses could then to be made afterwards. The aim of this work being to develop methods for practical applications not very sophisticated tools were used at the experimental site. This means that although very advanced equipment could have been used for determining the centre line and the depth of the DH pipe only measurement sticks, water levels and strings were used. For the same reasons the temperature sensors were installed by using measurement sticks

  • 467.
    Borgström, Karin Margaretha
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Sustainability, Innovation and Management in Building (SIMB).
    Böhm, Benny
    Technical University of Denmark.
    A method for using thermistors to measure thermal conductivity1996Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents some measurements for determining thermal conductivity in different materials, using a single thermistor. This thermal conductivity measurement technique is appropriate for materials like fine-grained soils, gel-like materials such as silicon grease, and insulation materials. To verify the usefulness of this method, additional measurements are needed for several materials with well-known thermal conductivities, especially solid materials with thermal conductivity in the range of 0.5-2.5 W/m C.

  • 468.
    Borgström, Karin Margaretha
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Sustainability, Innovation and Management in Building (SIMB).
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Distribution of heat use in Sweden2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current heat use refers normally to the average heat use in a country or a sector during the course of a year. But it is also important to be aware of the distribution of high to low use when estimating the potential for reducing total heat use.Energy statistical data published in the annual report from Statistics Sweden have been supplemented by a deeper analysis of distribution of heat use and systematic causes regarding high heat use.The aim of this paper is to explain the variation in heat use with respect to construction year, degree days and energy efficiency measures.In the Swedish energy efficiency debate, many voices refer to systematic causes for high heat use. However, the results from this study do not support this opinion, since the use distribution mostly comes from individual causes. The most important implication of the study results is that systematic policy measures will have a low impact on the total national energy efficiency.

  • 469.
    Borja, Álvaro
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Molten Salt Storage at CHP Plant2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays the main challenge for the energy system is the capability of storing the energy forlater use. To deal with this problem, molten salt storage technology is being used in some solarfacilities. By its implementation, the energy can be stored in the form of heat. However, thefeasibility of this technology is in a testing stage. Its implementation could be done in differentenergy fields. In this thesis, a novel implementation is suggested nearby a CHP, with the aim ofutilizing the excess electricity provided by the grid in high energy production days. Differentimplementation methods and a real scenario are presented. A study analysis of the tank’s sizeand the amount of molten salt needed as well as an economic analysis are provided. Numericalapproximations are given and results shown according to the theoretical analysis developed.

  • 470.
    Borodji, Jessica
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Stakeholders influence on CSR activities in a financially successful craft brewery: A case study of Oppigårds Bryggeri AB2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 471.
    Brahmakulam jacob, Dany Paul
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Johannesson, Gustaf
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Analyse and Improve Internal Water Treatment System at STENA Recycling: Master's Programme in Mechanical Engineering2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis work is done at STENA Recycling Halmstad. The recycling facility has a yearly capacity to process 110.000 tonnes of material. There is an internal water system that circulates water to each of the separation processes and cleans before recirculation. Due to environmental concerns and government regulations the internal water cannot be let out of the facility. In addition, the internal water treatment system at STENA was not efficiently cleaning the internal water causing frequent plant maintenance issues.   

    The aim of the thesis is to improve the quality of the cleaned water from the internal water system. Qualitative data such as interviews and observations were combined with quantitative data that is measurements to reach the results, using a method called triangulation. Six Sigma (DMAIC) model was followed for the work execution.  

    The internal water treatment has five process steps. Five improvements are identified, implemented and evaluated. The thesis work goal of less than 2% dirt in the clean water is achieved by improving the overall performance of the cleaning system by 48.5% after implementing improvements. As a part of the last phase of six sigma approach which is control phase, an operation manual is developed to maintain the internal water treatment system.

  • 472.
    Brandelius, Tom
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Olsson, Daniel
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Professionell identitet: En studie i chefskap bland första linjens chefer med utgångspunkt i Försvarsmakten2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Första linjens chefer utövar det direkta ledarskapet och verkställer organisationers beslut,

    inriktningar och visioner. Hur denne ser på ledarskap kan vara avgörande för framgång eller

    misslyckande. Genom en fallstudie med utgångspunkt i Försvarsmakten har denna studie

    undersökt hur officerare och specialistofficerare med koppling till första linjens chef ser på

    chefskap. Dessa två officerskategorier har olika bakgrunder avseende utbildning och

    erfarenhet då officeren ofta tjänstgör som första linjens chef omedelbart efter officersexamen

    och specialistofficeren bemannar samma typ av tjänst först efter många års tjänstgöring inom

    organisationen. En liknelse kan göras med en intern befordran respektive externt rekryterad

    chef där specialistofficeren ofta befordras inom förbandet och officeren påbörjar en

    anställning efter examen.

    Studien har med intervjuer som grund skapat ett underlag för hur båda officerskategorierna ur

    ledarskapssynpunkt ser på områdena Yrkesrollen, Chefen, Individen och Ledaren.

    Jämförelse mellan kategorierna är kontrollerade mot befintlig forskning och vi har funnit att

    första linjens chef är en central befattning i alla organisationer som ställer höga krav på

    individen. Som ”människan i mitten” måste denna hantera komplexa situationer som

    innefattar både uppgifter och personal genom att utöva chefskap och ledarskap.

    Vi har funnit att den övergripande skillnaden mellan en chef som blivit internt befordrad och

    externt rekryterad är mindre än förväntat med hänsyn till de olikheter i form av rekrytering,

    utbildning och erfarenhet som finns mellan de båda officerskategorierna. Vi ser dock att

    kategorierna har olika styrkor och svagheter som vi tycker är viktiga att belysa. De internt

    befordrade har sannolikt en fördel i mer kunskap, erfarenheter och skapade relationer inom

    aktuell organisation. Utmaningarna är att balansera relation med chefskap och att undvika att

    fastna i invanda mönster. De externt rekryterade har en närhet till chefskapet, de har (i

    fallstudiens kontext) större förståelse och perspektiv på helheten samt ett väl utvecklat kritiskt

    förhållningssätt som grundas i naturlig reflektion. Utmaningar ligger i att finna balans mellan

    chefskap och ledarskap. Då det ofta föreligger brister i detaljkunskaper vad gäller

    verksamheten ser vi dessutom en utmaning i att utnyttja underställdas fackkompetens utan att

    det egna ”medförda” perspektivet förringas.

    Vi ser att olika förutsättningar för att utveckla sin professionella identitet påverkar hur man tar

    sig an uppgiften som första linjens chef. En möjlig konsekvens av detta är att då ett högt

    karriärstempo kombineras med en hög arbetsbelastning finns risk att det uppstår ”luckor” i

    den professionella identiteten. Ett motsatsförhållande kan uppstå där den professionella

    identiteten sedan länge är utvecklad i ett lugnare karriärstempo och individen reflekterar inte

    över innebörden av sin professionella identitet.

  • 473.
    Brandt, Sofie
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Hjälpmedel som underlättar öppnandet av skruvkorkar: - ett produktutvecklingsprojekt2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Every day we encounter various types of packaging. For many people, the opening of these packages is a difficult task, since it requires a certain degree of hand strength to succeed. Reduced hand strength can be a result of injuries or diseases such as Parkinson's disease, finger-joint osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Aging also has a negative effect on hand strength and function. An example of packaging that is difficult to open, is the ones with a plastic screw cap. Many packages, containing juice and milk products, as well as PET bottles, have this design. Today there are many tools in order to open these packages, but tests of existing facilities indicate that they do not meet user demands for functionality and usability. Therefore, the aim of the project was to develop a functional product that fits so many cap sizes as possible, and also be designed so that it can access the cap on all packaging.

    As part of the product development process, a group of women, 67-85 years old, who all experience difficulties in opening packaging with screw caps, was interviewed. Their views and opinions were of great importance for the project. Furthermore, brainstorming, sketching, prototyping and CAD modeling were methods used in the project. The CAD model was used to manufacture the product.

    The project resulted in a functioning product made of aluminum, and fits all cap sizes with a diameter of 25-41 mm, which includes all caps in today's packaging for juice and milk products, as well as PET bottles. The product is using a lever, which reduces the power consumption by up to 92%, and will facilitate the opening of packaging with screw caps for people with reduced hand strength.

  • 474.
    Bratland, Lotta
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Bjering, Linnéa
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Räcker det inte bara med pengar?: En studie om ledarens betydelse för medarbetarnas motivation i fastighetsmäklarbranschen.2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Title: Isn’t money enough? A study about the leaders impact on the employees

    motivation in the real estate business.

    Subject: Candidate thesis, 15 hp

    Authors: Linnéa Bjering and Lotta Bratland

    Keywords: Leadership behaviour, motivation, real estate agent

    The main issue: Which significance do the situational leadership behaviours have for the employees motivation, in the real estate agent business?

    Purpose: The purpose with the study is to explain the situational leadership behaviours and its influence on motivation, in the real estate agent business

    Theory: Theories about task- and relationship oriented leadership behaviours have been used together with theory about situational leadership behaviour. Theories about internal and external motivators have been used for the study of motivation.

    Method: The study is deductive and the data have been collected through a case study. It is a qualitative study and a total of nine interviews have given the main data to find the result. The theory is collected from peer-reviewed articles and has been the foundation for the rest of the study.

    Conclusion: The companies that are investigated in the real estate agent business indicate that the leaders use a supporting situational leadership which leads to that the employees get internal motivation.

  • 475.
    Bratt, Linus
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Gilbert, Charles
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Ställtidsreducering: Med hjälp av SMED2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this project was to reduce setup time on a press machine at Nitator Hylte AB and to develop a Standard Operating Procedure (SOP), which will serve as a basis for the operators to carry out the work. When the company was contacted so considered site manager that the current change over time was far from optimal and had the desire that it would be reduced by 50%. In connection with the project they were made some boundaries to make the project possible.

    The methodology that the authors have followed was Shigeo Shingo theory, Single Minute Exchange of Die (SMED), which assumes that it will change the routine during transitions by making as much preparation work as possible, this is done by analyzes based on observation from observations, videotaping and timings. The resistance that can occur when trying to reduce setup time is the human aspect, this type of resistors most often occurs in the lack of education and lack of good communication.

    The results from the project led to a new routine for how the work should be executed during the changeover. During the project diffrent kind of technical solutions was created to simplify the work during the changeover. At the end of the project the aouthers conducted a pilottest to determinate how much time that had been reduced. The Results from the test showed that 50 % of the time had been reduced.

  • 476.
    Bremander, Ann
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS). FoU Spenshult & Lunds universitet, Lund, Sverige.
    Reumatoid artrit2015In: Fysisk aktivitet vid reumatisk sjukdom / [ed] Christina H. Opava, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2015, 1:1, p. 129-139Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Reumatoid artiri (RA) medför ofta konsekvenser för en persons funktionstillstånd, upplevda hälsa och livskvalitet. Att främja förmågan till fysisk aktivitet är en viktig uppgift för hälso- och sjukvården och ger stora vinster för den enskildes hälsa. Rekommendationer för om fysisk aktivitet och träning har gått från vila och passiv rörelseträning till att idag kunna jämställas med aktiv träning på samma nivå som finns i rekommendationer till befolkningen i allmänhet. Naturligtvis måste träningen anpassas till individens behov, förutsättningar och önskemål.

  • 477.
    Bremander, Ann
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Lund University, Lund, Sweden & Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Forslind, K.
    Lund University, Lund and Helsingborg, Sweden & Helsingborg's hospital, Helsingborg, Sweden.
    Eberhardt, K.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Andersson, M.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden & Spenshult Research and Devlopment Centre, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Functional Impairment in Patients with RA in an Eight Year Perspective2017In: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, ISSN 0003-4967, E-ISSN 1468-2060, Vol. 76, no Suppl. 2, p. 1513-1514Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In people with Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) impaired physical functioning is an acute as well as long term effect of the disease. Observational performance tests reflecting range of motion in upper as well as in lower extremities should be easy to perform in the clinic as well as in research as a complement to self-reported measures of physical functioning. The Signal Of Functional Impairment (SOFI)1 is a performance test which so far has been applied only in Sweden but commonly used in the clinic and in long term follow-up clinical studies.

    Objectives: The aim was to study performance-based function assessed with SOFI over 8 years and, secondly, to study which items included in SOFI that were associated with change in functioning over time.

    Methods: An inception cohort of 1 052 patients with early RA, from the BARFOT-study, recruited 1992–2006 was investigated, mean (SD) age was 54 years (14), 70% were women. The patients were followed by a structured protocol at baseline, 3 and 6 months and at 1, 2, 5, and 8 years. SOFI consists of 3 parts measuring hand, arm (upper), and leg (lower) function (1). Hand function is tested by 4 movements; cylinder grip (H1), pen grip (H2), pincer grip (H3) and opposition of the thumb (H4). Arm function is assessed by 3 movements; hand behind the head and the ability to touch the cervical spine processes with fingers (A1), elbow supination (A2) and elbow extension (A3). Leg function is tested by 4 movements; the ability to touch the opposite knee with the heel while sitting (L1), knee extension in supine position (L2), dorsiflexion of the foot standing on a balance board (L3), and the ability to stand on tip toes without shoes (L4). An assessor scores the patient's ability to perform the different tests on an ordinal scale (0=normal, 1= partly impaired and 2= unable to perform). The range of SOFI scores is 0–44 (best to worst).

    Results: At baseline the mean (SD) SOFI was 7.2 (5.8), and at 1 year follow-up the improvement was 2.75 (5.65), p<0.001. From 1 year to 8 year follow-up the deterioration was 1.5 (4.6), p<0.001. When studying hand, upper and lower function separately, the pen grip and the ability to stand on tip toes improves most during the first year. From 1 to 8 year the pincer grip and the ability to stand on tip toes are the items that deteriorate most (Figure). Assessment of the pen grip, the pincer grip and the ability to stand on tip toes explain 58% to 70% of the SOFI score over time, with the highest rate at 5 (65%) and 8 years follow-up (70%).

    Conclusions: Functioning as assessed by SOFI improved during the first year in patients with early RA and then deteriorated slowly. Over a longer period, pincer grip and the ability to stand on tip toes seemed to be the two most important items to measure when assessing functional impairment over time. © 2017, BMJ Publishing Group Limited

  • 478.
    Bremander, Ann
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Department of Clinical Sciences, Section of Rheumatology, Lund, Sweden & R&D centre, Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Haglund, Emma
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). R&D centre, Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Bergman, Stefan
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Section of Rheumatology, Lund, Sweden & R&D centre, Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden & Primary Health Care Unit, Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Measures of Physical Activity and Fear Avoidance in People with Chronic Pain2018In: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, ISSN 0003-4967, E-ISSN 1468-2060, Vol. 77, no Suppl. 2, p. 1829-1830, article id SAT0737-HPRArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Lifestyle factors such as physical activity (PA) has the possibility to contribute to improved health and quality of life in the population as well as in chronic diseases. Most often PA is self-reported while measures of the aerobic capacity are more seldom measured in subjects with chronic pain.

    Objectives To describe physical activity levels (self-reported and aerobic capacity) in people with chronic pain classified as regional or widespread and to compare the findings with a group that report no pain.

    Methods From the 2016 follow-up of the Swedish population based Epipain cohort (n 1321), 146 subjects were invited to a clinical assessment where the aerobic capacity was assessed by using a submaximal bicycle test, the Ekblom-Bak test, together with assessment of the Borg scale for perceived exertion (RPE). Aerobic capacity was also classified as low, average or high according to data from the general population. Self-reported physical activity was coded as MVPArec if recommended levels of PA was reported (physically active on a moderate level ≥150 min/week (MPA) or on an vigorous level ≥75 min/week (VPA) or not). The Fear Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire for PA (FABQ-PA, 0–24 best to worst) and for work (FABQ-W, 0–48 best to worst) were also assessed. The participants were classified as having chronic widespread pain (CWP), chronic regional pain (CRP) or no chronic pain (NCP) based on a pain mannequin presenting 0–18 pain regions and if pain had lasted for 3 months or more. Chi2 and Kruskal-Wallis tests were performed to study differences between the three pain groups.

    Results 141/146 (97%) subjects (mean (SD) age 59.4 (8.2) years) whereof 61% were women, could be classified into pain groups; 43 as CWP (84% women), 43 as CRP (42% women) and 55 as NCP (58% women). The group with CWP was slightly older than those with CRP (mean (SD) age 57.0 (7.6) years vs. 61.9 (6.9) years, p 0.02). The CWP group also had lower aerobic capacity (mean (SD) 2.2 (0.5) l/min vs. 2.6 (0.6) l/min, p 0.03), and a larger proportion was classified as having low aerobic capacity (CWP 21%, CRP 7% and NCP 10%, p 0.04). The proportion of MVPArec did not differ between the groups; CWP 70%, CRP 81% and NCP 74% (p 0.5). There was neither a difference between the groups in BMI, RPE or in sitting hours/week (p>0.6). However, differences were found in the FABQ where in the PA scale those with CRP had worse scores compared with NCP (mean (SD) 11.2 (7.3) vs. 6.0 (6.0), p<0.001), the difference between CWP (mean (SD) 8.9 (6.7)) and NCP was p 0.06. In the work subscale of FABQ, CWP had worse scores compared with CRP (mean (SD) 18.9 (15.7) vs. 10.0 (12.5), p 0.002) and CRP had worse scores compared to those with NCP (mean (SD) 10.0 (12.5) vs. 6.5 (9.1), p<0.001).

    Conclusions In this sample of subjects with chronic pain or no pain, having widespread pain tended to affect the aerobic capacity negatively while self-reports of reaching recommended levels of physical activity did not differ between groups. Fear avoidance in relation to physical activity and especially in relation to work was more noticeable in subjects with chronic pain compared to those with no pain. Measures of aerobic capacity and information of fear avoidance beliefs might help health professionals to better tailor the non-pharmacological treatment for subjects with chronic pain.

    Disclosure of Interest None declared

    © 2018, Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited.

  • 479.
    Bremander, Ann
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Lund University, Lund, Sweden & Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Haglund, Emma
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Bergman, Stefan
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden; Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden & The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ndosi, M.
    University of the West of England, Bristol, United Kingdom.
    The Educational Needs of Patients with Undifferentiated Spondyloarthritis2017In: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, ISSN 0003-4967, E-ISSN 1468-2060, Vol. 76, no Suppl. 2, p. 1495-1496Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 480.
    Bremander, Ann
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Department of Clinical Sciences, Section of Rheumatology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden & Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Haglund, Emma
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Bergman, Stefan
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Section of Rheumatology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden & Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden & Primary Health Care Unit, Department ofPublic Health and Community Medicine,Institute of Medicine, The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ndosi, Mwidimi E.
    Department of Nursing and Midwifery, University of the West of England, Bristol, United Kingdom.
    The educational needs of patients with undifferentiated spondyloarthritis: Validation of the ENAT questionnaire and needs assessment2018In: Musculoskeletal Care, ISSN 1478-2189, E-ISSN 1557-0681, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 313-317Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to validate the Swedish version of the educational needs assessment tool (SwENAT) in undifferentiated spondyloarthritis (USpA) and use it to study the educational needs of patients with USpA.

    METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study, recruiting a random sample of patients with USpA from a hospital register in Sweden. Educational needs data were collected, together with disease activity and function indices (Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index [BASDAI] and Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index [BASFI]). Rasch analysis was utilized to evaluate the construct validity, internal consistency and unidimensionality of the SwENAT before studying differences in educational needs between patient subgroups (gender, age and disease severity).

    RESULTS: = 11.488; p = 0.119), including strict unidimensionality. Overall, the mean (SD) SwENAT score was 86 (32). Women reported higher needs than men in the domains of pain (mean [SD] 13.1 [6.8] versus 10.1 [6.0]; p = 0.05); movement (mean [SD] 13.0 [5.5] versus 9.9 [5.7]; p = 0.02) and self-help (mean [SD] 17.0 [5.8] versus 14.1 [5.0]; p = 0.03). Higher disease activity (BASDAI >4) was associated with higher educational needs (mean [SD] 92.6 [31.9] versus 73.7 [29.4]; p = 0.02).

    CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that the SwENAT is valid in USpA. Women and patients with higher disease activity are more likely to have high levels of educational needs, so special attention and strategies to target patient education are warranted. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • 481.
    Bremander, Ann
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine. Department of Rheumatology, Clinical Sciences Lund, Lund University, Lund, Sweden & Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Jacobsson, Lennart T. H.
    Department of Rheumatology and Inflammation Research, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden & Department of Clinical Sciences, Section of Rheumatology, Malmö, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Bergman, Stefan
    Department of Rheumatology, Clinical Sciences Lund, Lund University, Lund, Sweden & Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Haglund, Emma
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine. Department of Rheumatology, Clinical Sciences Lund, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Löfvendahl, Sofia
    Department of Orthopedics, Clinical Sciences Lund, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Petersson, Ingemar F.
    Department of Orthopedics, Clinical Sciences Lund, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Smoking is associated with a worse self-reported health status in patients with psoriatic arthritis: data from a Swedish population-based cohort2015In: Clinical Rheumatology, ISSN 0770-3198, E-ISSN 1434-9949, Vol. 34, no 3, p. 579-583Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to study possible associations between smoking habits and self-reported clinical features in a large population-based cohort of patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA). All subjects with PsA who had sought health care in the period 2003-2007 were identified using a regional health-care register. In 2009, all those identified who were 18 years of age or more (n = 2,003) were sent a questionnaire with questions on smoking, health-related quality of life [EuroQol five-dimension (EQ-5D)questionnaire], function [Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ)], pain, fatigue, and global health. We performed age- and sex-adjusted regression analysis to compare health status outcomes in never and ever smokers. Altogether, 1,185 subjects (59 %) returned the questionnaire. Mean age was 57 years (SD 13.5), and 58 % were women; 38 % were never smokers and 62 % were ever smokers. Mean age at disease onset was 38.2 years (SD 13.2) and 41.2 years (SD 13.6), respectively (p = 0.001). In age- and sex-adjusted data, ever smokers reported worse EQ-5D (p = 0.009); worse reports of global health (p = 0.01), pain (p = 0.01), and fatigue (p = 0.04); and a higher number of painful body regions (p = 0.04) compared to never smokers. In this population-based PsA cohort, patients who were ever smokers reported worse health status than never smokers. Besides being a possible result of a worse PsA in ever smokers, impaired health status could also be an effect of unstudied comorbidities. Further longitudinal studies are needed to gain a better understanding of cause and effect. However, smoking cessation should be recommended because of general health considerations as well as disease-specific issues.

  • 482.
    Bremander, Ann
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Jacobsson, Lennart T. H.
    Department of Rheumatology and Inflammation Research, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bergman, Stefan
    Research and Development Centre Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Haglund, Emma
    Research and Development Centre Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Petersson, Ingemar
    Department of Orthopedics, Clinical Sciences Lund, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Smoking is Associated with Worse and More Widespread Pain, Worse Fatigue, General Health and Quality of Life in a Swedish population Based Cohort of Patients with Psoriatic Arthritis2012In: Arthritis and Rheumatism, ISSN 0004-3591, E-ISSN 1529-0131, Vol. 64, no S10, p. S777-S778, article id 1828Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background/Purpose: Smoking has been found to be associated with an increased risk of developing psoriatic arthritis (PsA)1. The purpose of this study was analyse possible associations of smoking habits with self-reported clinical features in a large population based cohort of patients with a diagnosis of PsA.

    Methods: All health care seeking subjects with a diagnose of PsA according to ICD 10 codes (given at least once by a rheumatologist/internist or twice by any other physician) were identified by a regional health care register during 2003-20072. In 2009 all identified subjects aged 18 years or older (n=2003) were invited to participate in a cross sectional questionnaire survey. The questionnaire included self-reported data on smoking (never smokers or ever smokers), age at disease onset, physical function (HAQ, 0-3 best to worst), pain, fatigue and global health (numerical rating scales 0-10 best to worst) health related quality of life (EQ-5D, 0-1 worst to best), and number of painful regions noted on a pain mannequin (0-16, best to worst). Linear regression analysis was performed and all data were controlled for sex and age.

    Results: Response rate was 77% whereof 369 patients (18%) declined participation and 1185 (59%) returned the questionnaire,  mean age 57.5 (SD 13.5) years and 58% were women. 1173 subjects responded to the smoking question whereof 448 (38%) were never smokers and 725 (62%) were ever smokers.

    Mean age at disease onset was 42.3 (SD 13.4) years in never smokers vs. 46.0 (SD 13.2) in ever smokers. Never smokers vs. ever smokers had mean HAQ 0.59 (SD 0.6) vs. 0.71 (SD 0.6),  mean pain 3.9 (SD 2.4) vs.4.4 (SD 2.5),  mean fatigue 4.4 (SD 2.8) vs. 5.0 (SD 2.7),  mean global health 3.9 (SD 2.4) vs. 4.4 (SD 2.3), mean EQ-5D 0.68 (SD 0.23) vs. 0.63 (SD 0.26) and mean no of painful regions were 7.2 (SD 4.0) vs. 7.9 (SD 4.3).

    The regression analysis showed that ever smokers had worse pain with age-sex adjusted parameter estimates (B) = 0.38 (95% CI 0.09 ; 0.67), worse fatigue B = 0.34 (95% CI 0.02 ; 0.66), worse global health B = 0.36 (95% CI 0.09 ; 0.64), worse EQ-5D B = -0.04 (95% CI -0.07 ; -0.01) and an increased no of painful regions B = 0.54 (95% CI 0.02 ; 1.07) compared with never smokers.

    Conclusion: In this population based PsA cohort, patients who were ever smokers reported worse clinical features compared with never smokers. Further longitudinal studies are needed to better understand cause and effect. However, smoking cessation should be recommended due to general health perspectives and also due to disease specific issues.

  • 483.
    Bremander, Ann
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine. Research and Development Centre, Spenshult Hospital for Rheumatic Diseases, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Petersson, Ingemar F.
    Department of Orthopedics, Clinical Sciences Lund, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Haglund, Emma
    Spenshult Hospital for Rheumatic Diseases, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Bergman, Stefan
    Research and Development Centre, Spenshult Hospital for Rheumatic Diseases, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Jacobsson, Lennart T.H.
    Department of Rheumatology and Inflammation Research, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Smoking Is Associated with Worse and More Widespread Pain, Worse Disease Activity, Function, Fatigue and Health Related Quality of Life in Patients with Axial Spondyloarthritis: Results From a Population Based Cohort2012In: Arthritis and Rheumatism, ISSN 0004-3591, E-ISSN 1529-0131, Vol. 64, no S10, p. S43-S43, article id 95Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In subjects with early axial Spondyloarthritis (SpA) smoking has recently been associated with earlier onset of disease, worse lesions of the sacroiliac joints and in later stages syndesmophyte progression. The aim was to study associations of smoking habits with self-reported information in a large population based cohort of patients with axial SpA.

    Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey performed in 2009 included all health care seeking subjects aged >18 years with a diagnosis of SpA according to ICD 10 codes identified by a regional health care register (n=3711). Smoking habits were studied in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS, ICD M45) and in patients who fulfilled criteria for “non AS axial SpA” (without having one of AS). Criteria for non AS axial SpA were based on data from the questionnaire: pain for 3 months or more during the last 12 months together with 2 or more features out of 5 (inflammatory back pain, history of psoriasis, uveitis/tendinitis, inflammatory bowel disease or heredity). The questionnaire included data on smoking (never smokers vs. ever smokers), disease activity (BASDAI) physical function (BASFI), general health (BAS-G) all measured with numerical rating scales 0-10 (best to worst), health related quality of life (EQ-5D, 0-1 worst to best), pain, fatigue (numerical rating scales 0-10 best to worst) and number of painful regions noted on a pain mannequin (0-16 best to worst). Linear regression analysis was performed and all data were controlled for sex and age.

    Results:

    Response rate was 76% whereof 2167 (58%) returned the questionnaire and 18% declined participation in the study. 598 subjects had an AS diagnose and 572 fulfilled the criteria for non AS axial SpA.

    The AS group had a mean age of 54 (SD14) years and 35% were women. Never smokers constituted 48% of the AS group. Ever smokers had worse scores in all studied variables compared with never smokers.

    The linear regression analysis showed that ever smokers in the AS group had worse self-reported scores in BASDAI with age-sex adjusted parameter estimate (B) = 0.60 (95% CI 0.21 ; 1.00), BASFI B = 0.51 (95% CI 0.11 ; 0.91) and fatigue B = 0.51 (95% CI  0.06 ; 1.00) . There was a tendency to worse scores for ever smokers also in EQ-5D B = -0.04 (95% CI -0.09 ; 0.001)

    Mean age in the non AS axial SpA group was 55 (SD 14) years and 68% were women. Never smokers constituted 38% of this group. Also in the non AS axial SpA group the linear regression analysis showed that ever smokers had worse self-reported scores in BASDAI with age-sex adjusted parameter estimate (B) = 0.59 (95% CI 0.23 ; 0.94), BASFI B = 0.59 (95% CI 0.17 ; 1.00), pain B = 0.45 (95% CI 0.08 ; 0.82) and fatigue B = 0.43 (95% CI  0.03 ; 0.83), no of painful areas B = 0.73 (95% CI  0.06 ; 1.46) and also in EQ-5D B = -0.06 (95% CI -0.11 ; -0.002).                                                                                                                                                

    Conclusion: In a large population based axial SpA cohort, both patients with AS and non AS axial SpA who were ever smokers reported worse clinical features compared with never smokers. Further longitudinal studies are needed to better understand cause and effect. However, smoking cessation should be recommended not only due to general health perspectives but also due to disease specific issues.

    References

    1Smokers in early axial spondyloarthritis have earlier disease onset, more disease activity, inflammation and damage, and poorer function and health-related quality of life: results from the DESIR cohort. Chung HY, Machado P, van der Heijde D, D'Agostino MA, Dougados M. Ann Rheum Dis. 2012 Jun;71(6):809-16.

  • 484.
    Bremander, Ann
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS). Research and Development Center, Spenshult Hospital, Oskarström, Sweden.
    Wikström, Ingegerd
    Musculoskeletal Sciences, Department of Orthopedics, Clinical Sciences Lund, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Larsson, Ingrid
    Research and Development Center, Spenshult Hospital, Oskarström, Sweden.
    Bengtsson, Maria
    Department of Rheumatology, Clinical Sciences Lund and Malmö, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Hagel, Sofia
    Department of Rheumatology, Clinical Sciences Lund and Malmö, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Strömbeck, Britta
    Musculoskeletal Sciences, Department of Orthopedics, Clinical Sciences Lund, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Cultural adaptation, validity, reliability and responsiveness of the Swedish version of the effective musculoskeletal consumer scale (EC-17)2012In: Musculoskeletal Care, ISSN 1478-2189, E-ISSN 1557-0681, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 43-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Endorsed by the Outcome MEasures in Rheumatoid Arthritis in Clinical Trials (OMERACT) group, The Effective Consumer Scale (EC-17) was developed in English for patients with musculoskeletal diseases to assess the skills and perceptions important for participating in and managing health care. The objective of this study was culturally to adapt the questionnaire into Swedish and to study its psychometric properties.

    METHODS: After translation of the questionnaire into Swedish, two different groups of outpatients from two specialist rheumatology departments participated in the study. Face validity was assessed, together with internal consistency, test-retest and responsiveness of the questionnaire. Construct validity was assessed using the Arthritis Self-Efficacy Scale (ASES), and responsiveness to a five day educational intervention was analysed using the standardized response mean (SRM).

    RESULTS: Analyses were based on 124 patients with inflammatory rheumatic diseases, of whom 50 attended the intervention. Data quality met the requirements, with missing values <5%, and floor and ceiling effects <15%. Item total correlations were all >0.4, ranging from 0.49 to 0.88. Cronbach's alpha was 0.93 and 0.95 for the two groups. The test-retest correlation (ICC₂.₁) was 0.94, and there was a significant improvement as a result of the intervention, with an SRM of 0.43. However, the questionnaire had a higher construct validity with the ASES subscale 'other symptoms' than hypothesized a priori (r(s) 0.75).

    CONCLUSION: The Swedish version of the EC-17 met the required recommendations for face validity, internal consistency, test-retest reliability and responsiveness. Its construct validity needs to be further established, and the questionnaire needs further testing in different groups of patients and in different interventions. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • 485.
    Bremert, Carl
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Hake, Joel
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Rollatorer: undersökning och utveckling kring framkomlighet i hemmet2011Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 486.
    Brihs, Julia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Zandhers, Elvira
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Lean accounting: En undersökning av lean accounting i Svenska företag inom tillverkningsindustrin 2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As a result of globalization and increased competition, the West's interest in lean production as a production system has grown and is the business development practice that is used to the greatest extent in Sweden. After an implementation of lean production, organizations have discovered that the traditional financial control needs to be adjusted because it counteracts leans values. In addition, the traditional financial reports do not highlight the changes that occur as a result of lean production, which could result in a decision to cancel the implementation of lean production. As a result, lean accounting, which is based on lean principles and methods, has been developed in order to support lean production. Despite the advantages of lean accounting the implementation is limited in Sweden according to proponents.

    The survey is based on a qualitative study with an abductive onset. Six respondents consisting of advocates and economists in companies with lean production was interviewed individually. The thesis together with the empirical data has been collected based on a hermeneutic approach, which result in the analysis and conclusion.

    The study shows that the limited implementation of lean depends on the economics department's inadequate participation in the implementation of lean production. As the lack of participation depends on the management's inability to engage and involve the finance department, the company's management may be a reason to the limited implementation of lean accounting. When management involve and encourage the finance departments to participate in the lean implementation, knowledge of lean’s values and principles increase which results in the development of methods and tools. However, there is a general ignorance of the concept of lean accounting, as a result the financial departments are not aware that they apply methods and tools that can be considered lean accounting. A consequence of the misleading perception regarding lean accountings limited implementation is the lack of good examples and lack of interest. 

  • 487.
    Brink, Erik
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    A review of business case studies in Sweden2016Student paper other, 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 488.
    Brink, Erik
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Different usage of Facebook among age groups2017Student paper other, 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 489.
    Brink, Erik
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Perception of Facebook among age groups2017Student paper other, 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 490.
    Brink, Erik
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    David, Herfors
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Automatiserad rådgivning i Sverige: En studie om potentiella användare av automatiserad rådgivning i Sverige2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 491.
    Bristav, Anton
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Svantesson, Max
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Viktiga kommunikationsfaktorer för ökad utsortering av matavfall2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The environmental goal “God bebyggd miljö” states that 50 percent of the food waste should be collected, and 40 percent of it should go through biological treatment. This goal together with the prohibition on organic waste to landfill is a mean of control to get municipalities toimplement waste treatment systems for food waste. This study focused on what the localwaste treatment company in Halmstad municipality is doing to tackle the environmentalgoals and the system they’ve implemented, which is an optical sorting system. By talking to the local waste treatment company HEM (Halmstad Energi och Miljö AB) to get an idea of the current situation regarding what can be improved, the idea of communication aspects were brought up by the company as an area which could be developed and improved upon to increase the collection of food waste in the municipality.

    The study was conducted in mainly two ways. First a literature study and secondly interviews were conducted. The following questions were asked: Which communication factors areimportant and affect the result for a successful degree of sorting for the optical sorting system? What’s important to communicate to get customers to sort their waste correctly? How can the communication between the municipal waste treatment company and theinhabitants change over time to ensure a successful collection of food waste?

    The study resulted in an identification of different central components which are importantand affect the result for a successful waste collection - these are (1) audience targeting, (2) simplicity, (3) incentive, (4) continued communication (after the implementation of thesystem) and lastly (5) positive morale. To get customers to sort their waste correctly thestudy suggests that several of the central factors are included in the communication betweenthe municipality and the inhabitants. To also ensure a successful waste collection over timethe study also concluded that a continued communication is also needed.

    The conclusions drawn from the study is that the central factors gave good results for the interviewed municipalities and therefore would probably work for other municipalities.

  • 492.
    Broberg, Andreas
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Göransson, Calle
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Förhållandet mellan risk och avkastning vid fastighetsinvesteringar: En jämförelse mellan kommersiella fastigheter och bostadsfastigheter2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Twice a year, NAI Svefa publishes a report containing statistics on Sweden's real estate market.The report shows that commercial real estate on average has a clearly higher rate of returncompared to residential real estate. Risk and return have a close relationship where investorswho take a higher risk also expect a higher return. This indicates that commercial properties aremore risky to hold compared to residential properties. This paper examines the risks that cancause the difference in the yield requirement between the two property types. Six risks havebeen selected, three of which count as micro risks and three count as macro risks. The microrisks consist of financial risk, liquidity risk and business risk. The macro risks consist of cyclicalrisk, interest rate risk and political risk.The study is qualitative and includes personal interviews with eight respondents from wellestablishedSwedish real estate companies. Data collection has been done through interviewswhere respondents' responses have been compiled and then compared to each other. Theinterviews show that Swedish real estate companies agree with the reasoning between risk andreturn and that risk assessment is an important part of real estate investments.The study's results show that commercial real estate companies value financial, liquidity andbusiness risk higher than real estate companies focused on residential real estate. Interest raterisk and business risk are similarly assessed in both property types. However, the political riskis valued higher by real estate companies focused on residential real estate. The study showsthat all risks are linked, which makes it difficult to identify an individual risk that individuallycontrols the rate of return. However, after the study's implementation, the cyclical risk appearsto be the risk that has the greatest impact on the difference in the yield requirement between thetwo property types.

  • 493.
    Broberg, Benjamin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Erlandsson, Daniel
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Beslutsfattande vid förvärv av bostadshyresfastigheter2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Beslutsfattande innebär valet mellan två eller flera handlingsalternativ. Den som fattar beslut måste överväga fördelar och nackdelar med de olika handlingsalternativen som beslutsfattare ställs inför. Vid förvärv av hyresfastigheter ställs det stora krav på beslutsfattare eftersom det är en väldigt stor investering och det är många faktorer som påverkar beslutet. Problemet i beslutsfattandet beror dels på att det ställer stora krav på kunskap inom en rad olika aspekter. Det krävs kunskap inom bland annat marknaden på makronivå, fastighetsmarknaden och hyresfastigheters tekniska egenskaper.

    Tidigare studier inom beslutsfattande har delats in i två sidor, den normativa och den deskriptiva (French, 2001). Den normativa beslutsteorin beskriver enligt French (2001) hur beslut borde fattas och den deskriptiva beslutsteorin beskriver hur beslut faktiskt fattas (Simon, 1979). Utifrån den normativa beslutsteorin baserar beslutsfattare beslut på rationella beslutsunderlag för att nyttomaximera. Däremot tillåter den deskriptiva beslutsteorin att beslutsfattare inte alltid agerar fullt rationellt. Simon (1979) argumenterar om att beslutsfattares möjligheter att fatta rationella beslut begränsas eftersom beslutsfattare omvandlar ohanterbara beslutsproblem till hanterbara. Detta genom att beslutsfattare begränsar sökandet av alternativ och således letar efter ett tillfredsställande val istället för det optimala valet. Khatri & Ng (2000) genomförde en studie där det framkom att det intuitiva samspelet påverkar beslutsfattares beslut. Harung (1993) utförde en studie som indikerar att beslutsfattare litar mer på deras erfarenhet desto mer erfarenhet de har. Det är dessa påverkande faktorer av beslutsfattandet som inte har undersökts i någon större grad vid förvärv av hyresfastigheter som denna studie bland annat syftar till att undersöka.

    Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka vad beslutsfattare på privata fastighetsbolag baserar beslut på vid förvärv av hyresfastigheter samt skapa förståelse för vad besluten påverkas av.

    I denna studie har en deduktiv ansats valts vilket innebär att en teoretisk referensram har byggts upp av sekundärdata för att utgöra grunden till insamlingen av primärdata. Sekundärdatan utgörs av vetenskapliga artiklar, litteratur och andra källor som varit relevanta för studien. Vid utformningen av studiens intervjuguide utgick vi från studiens problemformulering och syfte. Genom att utgå från studiens teoretiska referensram och analysmodell kunde vi säkerställa att alla aspekter av vår problemformulering besvarades av respondenterna. Vid insamlingen av primärdata utfördes semistrukturerade intervjuer då det möjliggör en öppenhet och flexibilitet med utrymme för följdfrågor för att vidare fånga upp olika aspekter och nyansskillnader.

    Studien visar att beslutsfattare använder sig av fastställda kriterier som beslut baseras på vid förvärv av hyresfastigheter. För att kunna bedöma om en hyresfastighet uppfyller beslutskriterierna utförs fastighetsanalyser. Besluten påverkas av det intuitiva sambandet mellan erfarenhet, bedömningsförmåga och magkänsla. Studien visar att ju mer erfarenhet beslutsfattare har desto mer litar de på sin magkänsla. Denna magkänsla har visat sig ha en betydande roll vid förvärv av hyresfastigheter. 

  • 494.
    Broberg, Pernilla
    et al.
    Department of Business Administration, School of Economics and Management, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Tagesson, Torbjörn
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Collin, Sven-Olof
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    What explains variation in voluntary disclosure?: A study of the annual reports of corporations listed on the Stockholm Stock Exchange2010In: Journal of Management and Governance, ISSN 1385-3457, E-ISSN 1572-963X, Vol. 14, no 4, p. 351-377Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The demand for information and transparency from listed corporations has recently increased. In spite of an increased demand for mandatory disclosures from regulators, corporations choose to voluntarily disclose additional information in order to satisfy demands from the capital market. However, the extent and content of information in those voluntary disclosures vary across corporations. The aim of this study is to explain the variation in the content of information in voluntary disclosures by listed corporations. The analyses are based on data collected from 431 annual reports from corporations listed on the Stockholm Stock Exchange during the years 2002 and 2005. The findings support explanations from agency theory and positive accounting theory that size and the debt ratio are positively correlated with the content of information in voluntary disclosures. Corporations with a high share of management ownership disclosed less information than corporations with a low share of management ownership. The study also shows that variations in voluntary disclosures can be explained by factors derived from institutional theory and ’international capital market pressures’. The results indicate that foreign ownership and international listing to some extent have a positive effect on the content of information in voluntary disclosures. Industry was another factor that had a significant influence on voluntary disclosures. One important finding is that regulation to some extent can stimulate voluntary disclosures; our results did not indicate an ’unintended chilling effect’ due to too much regulation. In general, the corporations disclosed more voluntary information after the introduction of IFRS. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  • 495.
    Broms, Alexander
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Perlaki, Rickard
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Omkonstruktion av rörelsemekanism till Cytoguide2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta examensarbete har utförts tillsammans med företaget Turon MedTech AB. Arbetets syfte är att göra en omkonstruktion av rörelsemekanismen till företagets instrument ”Cytoguide” som används inom bröstbiopsi. Detta då företaget anser den nuvarande lösningen är i behov av förändring då den inte uppdaterats på 20 år. Cytoguide ger ifrån sig en ljudnivå som anses vara för hög, denna ljudnivå vill företaget minimera. Företaget vill även implementera standardkomponenter i instrumentet. Målet är att ta fram en prototyp som uppfyller kraven och som ger en sänkt ljudnivå i drift.Den metod som till största del har använts är Freddy Olssons metoder Principkonstruktion och Primärkonstruktion som är metoder som används vid utvecklings- och konstruktionsprojekt.Ett principkoncept togs fram under principkonstruktionsetappen med hjälp av skisser och CAD-modeller för att därefter under primärkonstruktionen konstrueras i detalj för att sedan framställas som en prototyp för tester och utvärdering. Konstruktionen har testats om den uppfyller kraven och hur högt ljud den ger ifrån sig. Resultatet visar att ljudnivån har sänkts med 40% i jämförelse med den befintliga rörelsemekanismen.

  • 496.
    Brorsson, Sofia
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Biomechanical studies of finger extension function. Analysis with a new force measuring device and ultrasound examination in rheumatoid arthritis and healthy muscles2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims:

    The overall aim of this thesis was to further our understanding of extensor muscles and their role for hand function.

    The aims of the studies were:

    To develop and evaluate a new device for finger extensor force measurements. To evaluate ultrasound as a tool for assessment of muscle architecture. To determine the correlation between extensor muscle force and hand function. To evaluate the degree of impaired finger extensor force in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and the correlation to impaired... mer hand function. To analyse the effect of hand exercise in RA patients and healthy subjects with ultrasound and finger extension force measurements.

    Method:

    A new finger extension force measuring device was developed and an ultrasound based method was used to be able to objectively measure the finger extension force and analyze the static and dynamic extensor muscle architectures. Measurements were made of healthy volunteers (n=127) and RA patients (n=77) during uninfluenced and experimental conditions. A hand exercise program was performed and evaluated with hand force measurements, hand function test, patient relevant questionnaires (DASH and SF-36) and ultrasound measurements.

    Results:

    The new finger extension force measurement device was developed and then validated with measurements of accuracy as well as test-retest reliability. The coefficient of variation was 1.8 % of the applied load, and the test-retest reliability showed a coefficient of variation no more than 7.1% for healthy subjects. Ultrasound examination on m. extensor digitorum communis (EDC) showed significant differences between healthy men and healthy women as well as between healthy women and RA patients. The extension and flexion force improved in both groups after six weeks of hand exercise (p<0.01). Hand function improved in both groups (p<0.01). The RA group showed improvement in the results of the DASH questionnaire (p<0.05). The cross-sectional area of the EDC increased significantly in both groups.

    Conclusions:

    A new finger extension force measuring device has been developed which provides objective and reliable data on the extension force capacity of normal and dysfunctional hands and is sufficiently sensitive to evaluate the effects of hand exercise. US provide useful information about muscle architecture. A significant improvement of hand strength and hand function in RA patients was seen after six weeks of hand training, the improvement was even more pronounced after 12 weeks. Hand exercise is thus an effective intervention for RA patients, providing better strength and function.

  • 497.
    Brorsson, Sofia
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Biomechanical studies on hand function in rehabilitation2012In: Human Musculoskeletal Biomechanics / [ed] Tarun Goswami, New York: InTech, 2012, p. 87-106Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 498.
    Brorsson, Sofia
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), PRODEA: Centrum för produktframtagning inom hälsoteknik. Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Extensor muscle force measurements and muscle architecture in rheumatoid arthritis patientsArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 499.
    Brorsson, Sofia
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Extensor muscle force measurements and muscle architecture in Rheumatoid Arthritis patients2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients frequently experience muscle weakness, limited information exists on disease specific muscle changes. The common hand deformity in RA includes disturbed finger extension with subsequent flexion deformities. The aims of this study were to measure finger extension force and finger flexion force in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and compare them with healthy subjects.  We also wanted to explore the possible causes of impaired finger extension force with the help of ultrasound muscle analyses.

    The study group comprised of 40 women: 20 patients with RA (median disease duration 20 years) and 20 healthy age-matched controls. The finger extension force measurements were performed with a newly developed device (EX-it), finger flexion force was measured with the Grippit. The extensor digitorum communis muscle was examined with ultrasound.

    Significant differences were found between the two groups, concerning extension and flexion force (p<0.001). Ultrasound measurements indicated significant differences in structural parameters (Cross Section Area (p< 0.05), muscle thickness (p < 0.05) and fascicle length (p < 0.05)). Overall changes in muscle architecture during contraction were more pronounced in the control group than in the RA group (p < 0.01).

    The results indicate differences in structural parameters as well as functional tests, i.e. contraction time and extension muscle force capacity, between normal and RA muscles. Whether these differences depend on a disease-specific effect on the muscles in RA, or are secondary to inactivity or hand deformities, remains to be elucidated.

  • 500.
    Brorsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden.
    Bremander, Ann
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS). Spenshult Hospital, Oskarström, Sweden.
    Qualitative differences in the muscle activities in the forearm flexor and extensor muscles in healthy men and women in different ages2012In: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, ISSN 0003-4967, E-ISSN 1468-2060, Vol. 71, no Suppl. 3, p. 755-755Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    Balance between flexor and extensor muscle activity is essential for optimal function. This has been demonstrated previously for the lower extremity, trunk and shoulder function, but information on the relationship in hand function is lacking.

    Objectives:

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether there are qualitative differences in finger extension force, grip force, force duration, force balance and the muscle activities in the forearm flexor and extensor muscles in healthy men and women in different ages.

    Methods:

    Healthy controls (men, n=65, women, n=40) were included. Primary outcome was muscle activity measured with S-EMG and finger flexion- and finger extension force in Newton (N). The maximal force from the first trial was used as reference value (maximal voluntary isometric contraction, MVIC). The S-EMG activity of the m. extensor digitorum communis (EDC) and the m. flexor carpi radialis (FCR) were measured on the dominant hand when performing seven clinically often used hand exercises. Hand function was also evaluated with the self-reported questioner Quick DASH and VAS pain and VAS stiffness.

    Results:

    The force balance between finger extension and flexion force was statistically significant for both men (r=0.51, p=0.000) and women (r=0.78, p=0.000). The finger extension force was not influenced by age, but flexion force was significantly correlated to age. The coefficient of determination showed that age and gender can explain 45-55% of differences in the force measurements. Muscle activity from hand exercises was significant related to gender for EDC and muscle activity in FCR showed significantly relation to age. Only 3 of the 7 hand exercise were adjustable for both men and women unrelatedly to age. Concerning the muscle activation in EDC and FCR in daily activities, the age and gender explain 31% respectively 19% of the differences.

    Conclusions:

    This study shows that there are differences between men and women's hand force capacity and that gender and age can explain 45-55% of the differences. Furthermore this study shows that the EDC muscle is related to gender and FCR is related to age. In a longer perspective this information is useful for designing optimal training program for adjusted for gender and age.

    References:

    Greig M, Wells R. A systematic exploration of distal arm muscle activity and perceived exertion while applying external forces and moments. Ergonomics. [Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]. 2008 Aug;51(8):1238-57.

    Nordenskiold U, Grimby G. Assessments of disability in women with rheumatoid arthritis in relation to grip force and pain. Disabil Rehabil. 1997 Jan;19(1):13-9.

    Kapandji I. The physiology of the joints - annotated diagrams of the mechanics of the human joints. Edingburgh London, Melborne and New York: Churchill Livingstone; 1982.

    Brorsson S, Nilsdotter A, Sollerman C, Baerveldt AJ, Hilliges M. A new force measurement device for evaluating finger extension function in the healthy and rheumatoid arthritic hand. Technol Health Care. 2008;16(4):283-92.

    Disclosure of Interest: None Declared

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