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  • 401.
    Bexell, Tove
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Johansson, Maria
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Sarman, Stefan
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Specialistutbildade sjuksköterskans uppfattning av att kunna identifiera patienter med misstänkt stroke inom den prehospitala vården2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I Region Skåne finns tydliga behandlingsriktlinjer gällande prehospitalt omhändertagande av patienter med misstänkt stroke i vårdprogrammet "Rädda hjärnan". Det saknas ett enhetligt bedömningsinstrument som specialistutbildade sjuksköterskor inom ambulans kan använda för att känna sig säkrare och tryggare i sin identifiering av patienter med misstänkt stroke. Syftet med studien var att undersöka specialistutbildade sjuksköterskors uppfattning av att kunna identifiera patienter med misstänkt stroke inom den prehospitala vården. Studien genomfördes med en kvantitativ ansats i form av enkätundersökning som delades ut till 35 specialistutbildade sjuksköterskor. Resultatet av studien visade att en majoritet av respondenterna upplevde att det hade underlättat med ett enhetligt bedömningsinstrument i deras bedömning av patienter med misstänkt stroke. Det framkom även att respondenterna upplevde en större säkerhet med att fastställa debuttiden med hjälp av anhöriga eller vittnen, jämfört med om bedömningen gjordes enbart med hjälp av patienten. Det framkom även att respondenterna kände sig relativt säkra på när vårdprogrammet skulle aktiveras, trots att över hälften upplevde att det inte fanns klara direktiv om hur en neurologisk undersökning skall utföras. Vår rekommendation för vidare utbildning är en gemensam stroke dag för alla medarbetare i vårdkedjan. Om fler patienter kommer under behandling snabbare kan det vara en samhällsekonomisk besparing på grund av mindre restsymtom och kortare vårdtider.

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  • 402.
    Bigelius, Ulla
    et al.
    Kalmar County Hospital, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Eklund, Mona
    Department of Health Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden & Faculty of Health and Society, Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Erlandsson, Lena-Karin
    Department of Health Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    The value and meaning of an instrumental occupation performed in a clinical setting2010In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 4-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to investigate how patients in a clinical setting, combining acute stroke care and rehabilitation, perceived the value and meaning attached to a commonly used instrumental occupation, namely "Brewing coffee and making an open-face cheese sandwich with sliced vegetable". Another aim was to validate the ValMO model, proposing that value and meaning are related phenomena. Upon performing the occupation, 38 participants answered questionnaires concerning perceived meaning and occupational value. The results showed that the occupation was highly valued by the participants and that it was perceived as meaningful. No age or gender differences were found. The findings confirmed the proposed link between value and meaning. In conclusion, a commonly used and supposedly meaningful occupation was indeed found to be valued and meaningful by the patients and the findings validated the targeted aspects of the ValMO model. This study was unique in its focus on value and meaning in a clinical context. Futures studies should clarify if the link between meaningful occupation and well-being, which has been shown in many studies of everyday situations and is another of the assumptions in the ValMO model, can be proved in clinical contexts as well. © 2010 Informa UK Ltd.

  • 403.
    Billsten, Johan
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Fridell, Mats
    Department of Psychology, Lund University, Sweden.
    Holmberg, Robert
    Department of Psychology, Lund University, Sweden.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Organizational Readiness for Change (ORC) test used in the implementation of assessment instruments and treatment methods in a Swedish National study2018In: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, ISSN 0740-5472, E-ISSN 1873-6483, Vol. 84, p. 9-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organizational climate and related factors are associated with outcome and are as such of vital interest for healthcare organizations. Organizational Readiness for Change (ORC) is the questionnaire used in the present study to assess the influence of organizational factors on implementation success. The respondents were employed in one of 203 Swedish municipalities within social work and psychiatric substance/abuse treatment services. They took part in a nationwide implementation project organized by the Swedish Association of Local Authorities and Regions (SALAR), commissioned by the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare. Aim The aims were: (a) to identify classes (clusters) of employees with different ORC profiles on the basis of data collected in 2011 and (b) to investigate ORC profiles which predicted the use of assessment instruments, therapy methods and collaborative activities in 2011 and 2013. Design and recruitment The evaluation study applied a naturalistic design with registration of outcome at consecutive assessments. The participants were contacted via official e-mail addresses in their respective healthcare units and were encouraged by their officials to participate on a voluntary basis. Statistics Descriptive statistics were obtained using SPSS version 23. A latent profile analysis (LPA) using Mplus 7.3 was performed with a robust maximum likelihood estimator (MLR) to identify subgroups (clusters) based on the 18 ORC indexes. Results A total of 2402 employees responded to the survey, of whom 1794 (74.7%) completed the ORC scores. Descriptive analysis indicated that the respondents were a homogenous group of employees, where women (72.0%) formed the majority. Cronbach's alpha for the 18 ORC indexes ranged from α = 0.67 to α = 0.78. A principal component analysis yielded a four-factor solution explaining 62% of the variance in total ORC scores. The factors were: motivational readiness (α = 0.64), institutional resources (α = 0.52), staff attributes (α = 0.76), and organizational climate (α = 0.74). An LPA analysis of the four factors with their three distinct profiles provided the best data fit: Profile 3 (n = 614), Profile 2 (n = 934), and Profile 1 (n = 246). Respondents with the most favorable ORC scores (Profile 3) used significantly more instruments and more treatment methods and had a better collaborating network in 2011 as well as in 2013 compared to members in Profile 1, the least successful profile. Conclusion In a large sample of social work and healthcare professionals, ORC scores reflecting higher institutional resources, staff attributes and organizational climate and lower motivational readiness for change were associated with a successful implementation of good practice guidelines for the care and treatment of substance users in Sweden. Low motivational readiness as a construct may indicate satisfaction with the present situation. As ORC proved to be an indicator of successful dissemination of evidence-based guidelines into routine and specialist healthcare, it can be used to tailor interventions to individual employees or services and to improve the dissemination of and compliance with guidelines for the treatment of substance users. © 2017

  • 404.
    Birgersson, Rikard
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Eliasson, Eric
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Unilateralt och bilateralt genomförande av bänkpress och dess påverkan på varandra sett till muskelaktivering, effekt, och kraftutveckling2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: It has been studied whether strength-exercises performed with two arms (bilateral) leads to better performance when compared to exercises performed with only one arm (unilateral), and it has been shown that both implementations result in similar results after a short training period. At the same time, research shows that mixed results between different implementations in terms of muscle activation and force development exists.

    Objective: The main purpose of this study was to see the effect of unilateral or bilateral warm-up in the bench press and its influence on subsequent unilateral and bilateral performance in the bench press, investigating the factors: muscle activation, power, and force development. A secondary purpose was to relate the results of the study to bilateral index, to see if bilateral deficit or bilateral facilitation dominates.

    Method: Strength-trained men (n = 13, age 25 ± 3 years) warmed up with two different implementations (unilateral or bilateral), and after each individual warm-up they performed three submaximal lifts (40 and 80% of 1RM) in unilateral and bilateral bench press. Muscle activity, power, and force development were measured in muscles pectoralis major, anterior deltoid, and triceps brachii, after each individual warm-up during three submaximal lifts (40 and 80% of 1RM) in unilateral and bilateral bench press.

    Results: Significant results were found in unilateral performance in power and force development after unilateral warm-up (184 ± 36 W and 164 ± 31 W; 416 ± 76 N and 412 ± 74 N) compared with bilateral warm-up (p = 0.05). There were no significant differences between the different implementations in bilateral performance. Significant differences were neither found in the muscle activation of any of the implementations. The study also found evidence of a difference between the test participants regarding bilateral deficit and bilateral facilitation in terms of power and force development, where the majority of the test participants had bilateral facilitation.

    Conclusion: Regardless of warm-up, no difference was seen in the strength-trained men regarding muscle activation in the bilateral or unilateral bench press, however, the warm-up  was of importance to performance. Therefore, unilateral warm-up should be applied before unilateral performance, as this showed significant improvement. Although no significant improvement was observed, a bilateral warm-up should also preceed a bilateral performance.

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    Unilateralt och bilateralt genomförande av bänkpress och dess påverkan på varandra sett till muskelaktivering, effekt, och kraftutveckling
  • 405.
    Bjur, Jenny
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Sangüesa, Paloma
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Olausson, Sara
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Ögonsjuksköterskors upplevelser av beslutsstöd vid telefonrådgivning2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Telephone counseling is one of the tasks in ophthalmic nursing and research within this area was found inadequate. The aim was to describe the ophthalmic nurses’ experiences of using a decision making system in when counseling. The method was a descriptive qualitative de sign. Six ophthalmic nurses at three different eye clinics were interviewed. The data were analyzed according to qualitative content analysis. The result was four categories: a source of knowledge source if needed, supportive to the professional role, deficiencies in decision system and good quality of care from a patient perspective. Ophthalmic nurses were positive using a decision making system if inexperienced and in infrequent and complex situations. The use of decision making system facilitated the prioritization and coordination of the care taken, high quality of care from a patient perspective and a sense of security. Decision making system facilitated communication with other health care providers and patients. The system though was not useful in every situation and there was a need of a continuous development and update. Active listening and thinking in the combination of experience and knowledge were considered to be important components in the telephone counseling. Further development of the system in use today is needed.

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  • 406.
    Bjurling-Sjöberg, Petronella
    et al.
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Publ Hlth & Caring Sci, Sect Caring Sci, Uppsala, Sweden.;Uppsala Univ, Ctr Clin Res Sormland, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Jansson, Inger
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Wadensten, Barbro
    Uppsala Univ, Sect Caring Sci, Dept Publ Hlth & Caring Sci, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Engström, Gabriella
    Florida Atlantic Univ, Christine E Lynn Coll Nursing, Boca Raton, FL 33431 USA..
    Pöder, Ulrika
    Uppsala Univ, Sect Caring Sci, Dept Publ Hlth & Caring Sci, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Prevalence and quality of clinical pathways in Swedish intensive care units: a national survey2014In: Journal of Evaluation In Clinical Practice, ISSN 1356-1294, E-ISSN 1365-2753, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 48-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rationale, aims and objectivesTo identify the prevalence of clinical pathways (CPs) in Swedish intensive care units (ICUs) and to explore the quality, content and evidence base of the documents. MethodsA descriptive and explorative survey of all Swedish ICUs (N84) and a review of submitted examples of CPs (n12) were conducted. ResultsCPs were in use at 20% of the Swedish ICUs. There was a significant geographic variation but no relationship between the use of CPs and category of hospital, type of ICU, size of ICU or type of health record applied. In total, 56 CPs were reported within a range of scopes and extensions. The content of the ICUs' CPs, as well as the degree to which they were interprofessional, evidence based, and renewed varied. ConclusionsProgress has been made in relation to CPs in recent years, but there is potential for further improvements. None of the ICUs had CPs that contained all key characteristics of a high-quality, interprofessional and evidence-based CP identified in the literature. Greater knowledge sharing and cooperation within the field would be beneficial, and further research is needed.

  • 407.
    Bjurwill, Christer
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Read and react: The football formula1993In: Perceptual and Motor Skills, ISSN 0031-5125, E-ISSN 1558-688X, Vol. 76, no 3_suppl, p. 1383-1386Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This essay is focused on the problem of vision and intelligence in football (soccer). One-touch play is the type of football that we are to see more often in the future. To prepare the players for such play, both managers and coaches must notice the importance of technical speed and tactical creativity. © Perceptual and Motor Skills 1993 

  • 408.
    Bjärbo, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Barn som anhöriga i ett västsvenskt ambulansområde: En pilotkartläggning2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Children as next of kin to patients who are treated by an ambulance nurse in Swedish ambulance service in unknown. Children under 18 years of age may sometimes be present when their parent or other next of kin, has to call the ambulance service due to illness or accident. How many children who experience their next of kin transported to hospital within a Western Swedish ambulance service district is unknown. The purpose of this survey is to identify how many children actually are present when their next of kin may need care and treatment from an ambulance service.

    Purpose: Survey how many children are present when an ambulance nurse cares and treats a next of kin due to illness or an accident, prioritized as priority 1 or 2.

    Method: a survey conducted by ambulance nurses in a western Swedish ambulance service. The survey has a quantitative design.

    Children as next of kin are present within a Swedish ambulance service district, in this survey 155 children was identified in a total of 95 ambulance missions. Children as next of kin are seen as adults, in most cases, a parent as well as children usually a sibling. Many children are present when their relative shows sign and symptoms of severe illness.

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  • 409.
    Bjärne, Jenny
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Thulin, Linn
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Patienters upplevelse av hopp i palliativ vård: En allmän litteratudstudie2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to highlight how hope is experienced by patients in a palliative care context. The background notes that about 90 000 palliative patients die in Sweden each year. The patients in palliative care experience several dimensions of pain, both physical and psychological. Hope is described as something that can lead patients towards more positive goals and actions and is therefore of great importance for their wellbeing. The method of this study is a general literature study based on qualitative research. The analysis is performed with an inductive approach. Following similarities identified 17 subcategories, six categories and two overall themes that where established. The result illustrates how hope is expressed in palliative care patients. Unchanged hope, transformational hope, strategic hope, overcoming hope and everyday hope were categories that emerged as hopeful. In contrast to the hope there were also a hopelessness. The hopelessness was identified as an obstacle to hope which increased passivity and the feeling of helplessness. The conclusion of this study is that the experience of hope is expressed in different ways through the care process. There are several categories that are recurring in earlier research. Most discoveries are identified as hopeful and proved to increase the quality of life for patients in the palliative care context. However, there is no research about how patients would like to be treated regarding their hope.

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  • 410.
    Björck, Carolina
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Svensson, Ingrid
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Organisationsfaktorer som påverkar sjuksköterskans omvårdnadsarbete2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    How healthcare is organized is significant to the nurse’s condition to perform nursing care. Leadership and the work environment are parts of the organization which influences the work of nurses. The purpose of this study was to examine which organizational factors that influence the work of nursing. A literature review was conducted in which 12 articles were reviewed and analyzed. Five categories emerged Support and Communication, Nurses' job satisfaction, Nurse’s experience of resource allocation effects, Nurse’s increased workload, and Changed terms of nursing care. The results showed that when the leader shared responsibility with the nurse, communicated and gave support he/she created a greater opportunity for nurses to provide adequate care. The leader influenced the nurse’s job satisfaction, which also favored patient satisfaction. It was considered important that the nurse felt in control over the work situation and that they were provided with enough resources to provide adequate nursing care. The technological development could increase the workload and lead to downsizing. The conclusions were that the workload could reduce patient safety and that the leader could create development possibilities for nurses and create a more patient-focused care, for example by increasing the collaboration among the workers. Future research should focus on organizational changes from the patients view, nurse’s experience before, during and after organizational changes and advantages and disadvantages with current organizational forms.

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  • 411.
    Björk, Anders
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Haag, Jonathan
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Psykologin bakom skadeprevention inom tyngdlyftning, styrkelyft, Crossfit och kroppsbyggning.: En Kvalitativ studie ur coachers perspektiv2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Huvudsyftet med föreliggande studie var att undersöka på vilket sätt coacher inom tyngdlyftning, styrkelyft, Crossfit och kroppsbyggning implementerar preventiva strategier designade för att förebygga skador genom inverkan på psykologiska riskfaktorer. Vidare var det av intresse att undersöka vilka personlighetsdrag hos en idrottare som coacher upplevde ökade risken för skador. Ett ytterligare syfte var att studera coachernas erfarenheter av relationen mellan idrottares stressnivå och skaderisk. Totalt genomfördes nio semistrukturerade intervjuer med coacher på distrikt till internationell nivå lokaliserade i Sverige. Samtliga coacher hade tidigare erfarenhet med skadade idrottare. Resultatet sammanställdes genom en deduktiv innehållsanalys. Under intervjuerna identifierades flera interventionsstrategier som kunde relateras till Williams och Andersens (1998) stress­skademodell. Det framgick att coacherna i studien fokuserar mycket på fysiologiska och stressrelaterade aspekter och inte personlighetsdrag när de implementerar interventioner för att förebygga skador. Implikationer för skadeförebyggande träning samt förslag på framtida forskning ges.

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    Psykologin bakom skadeprevention inom tyngdlyftning-styrkelyft-crossfit-och-kroppsbyggning
  • 412.
    Björk, Jessica
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Lindholm, Alina
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Att respektera varandras kompetenser: Sjuksköterskors erfarenheter av att arbeta i interprofessionella team2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the healthcare sector, interprofessional collaboration has proven to enhance patient safety. Nurses are often a part of interprofessional teams and collaboration is one of the core competencies of nurses. Knowledge about what affects collaboration is  needed to fulfill this core competence. The purpose was therefore to illustrate nurses experiences of interprofessional collaboration. The study was conducted as a literature review of nursing research. The literature review was based on 13 scientific articles whos results were analyzed with guidance from a qualitative content analysis and four categories of nurses experiences arose from the analysis. These categories were to respect each others competences, to have a clear job allocation, to work with different personalities and to work towards a common goal. According to nurses experiences, clinical competence, social competence, respect, communication, trust, education, understanding of roles and common goals were essential for succesfull collaboration. To prepare nursing students for interprofessional collaboration, theoretical and practical education with other healthcare students are suggested. Education for staff already working in the healthcare sector is also believed to be valuable. To enhace nurses competence in collaboration, further research of nurses experiences of interprofessional collaboration is necessary.

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  • 413.
    Björk, Josefine
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Skär, Sanna
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Wahlberg, Cia
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Att leva med fekal inkontinens: Ett begränsat liv2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to illustrate experiences of living with fecal incontinence. Fecal incontinence, also known as FI, is a symptom that up to 15% of the population suffers from. The symptom is physical, but can also have a negative impact on quality of life, both on an emotional and social level. The stigmatization of FI makes many individuals suffer in silence. The results from the literature study is based on eleven scientific articles, and resulted into seven categories: Loss of control, Social isolation, Body image and self-esteem, Desire for affirmation, Life limitations, Inadequate treatment of health care, Feelings of shame, humiliation and To keep fecal incontinence a secret. The results showed that the taboo surrounding FI led to feelings of shame of those who lives with the symptom. The results also showed that individuals with FI usually limited their social life, resulting in a reduced quality of life and self-esteem. The shameful experience of FI correlates with lack of knowledge about the symptom. More knowledge generally leads to reduced feelings of shame. The health care may provide the individual with information and insight about their symptoms. It is important for the health professionals to have adequate education about the appearance of negative feelings, in order to help individuals with FI managing their feelings of shame. In this way, the health professionals can treat and support individuals on an individualized level. Hence the need for further research conducted on the subject. 

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  • 414.
    Björk, Julia
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    The effect of a weight lifting belt and the use of valsalva maneuver on power output and velocity in a squat2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: A squat is a common exercise that is used in many areas of strength training and for different purposes and the literature is inconclusive when it comes to whether the weight lifting belt (WB) affects performance and/or is injury-preventing. The use of breathing techniques is common during heavy lifting and therefore the practice of the breathing teqnice; valsalva maneuver (VM) may be of interest to study and if this along with the WB can provide some advantages in power output and velocity. Aim: The specific aim of the study was to evaluate whether the velocity in the eccentric and the concentric phase of the squat, and the peak velocity in the concentric phases are affected in power output through the use of the VM when the subjects use or did not use a WB. Method: Fifteen subjects (10 men and 5 women) volunteered freely to participate and did a total of 12 squats divided in four different sets with three repetitions each on 75% of their self-reported one repetition maximum (1RM). The first two sets were either with or without WB and the third and fourth sets were either with or without the practice of the VM. The three conditions (with WB, with WB + VM and VA only) were compared to each other and to the control group (without any instructions and no WB) in terms of power output and velocity in the eccentric, concentric and peak velocity in the concentric phase of the squat. Result: There was no significant difference in power output when comparing the four different test conditions. The velocity in the eccentric, concentric and peak velocity in the concentric phase did not have a significant difference between the different test conditions. Conclusions: This study shows a different output compared to previous literature. The WB and the practice of VM did not affect the power output and velocity in a squat, alone or together. 

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  • 415.
    Björk, Julia
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Upper- & lower body strength and its correlation to performance in swimming2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: To learn how to swim with proper technique takes fairly large amount of time and practice to learn and anelite swimmer spends 6-7 days training for improving aerobic capacity, anaerobic capacity and strength training for energy saving technique. Freestyle is the fastest swimming style and is performed in many different distances, 50m is classified as a sprint and the 400m as a middle-distance. The research is inconclusive if there is a correlation in the lower body and the time in 50m and 400m and mostly in the middle distance which gives this study the importance reducing these uncertainties. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the strength of the correlation between the upper- and lower body muscle strengthwith time in 50m and 400m freestyle and to analyze which of the variables of height, sex, upper- and lower body strength contribute to velocity in sprint and middle distance in competitive swimmers. Method:A total of 14 participants (3 men and 11 women) participated in the study. The participants were tested at three occasions. The first was to determine their three-repetition maximum (3RM) in the squat and lat-pulldown. The second occasion was the collection the time in 50m freestyle and the third was to collect the time in 400m freestyle. Relative strength (kg/kg BW; %) and absolute strength (kg) in 1RM was calculated and correlated with the time in 50m and 400m freestyle. Analysis was done to see which variables of height, sex, relative strength in the squat and lat-pulldown contribute the most to the time in freestyle. Result: The result show that there was a high correlation between the absolute strength in the squat and the time in 50m (r=-0.769) a moderate correlation in the absolute strength in lat-pulldown and the 50m freestyle sprint (r=-0.513). There was also a moderate correlation for the relative strength in the lat-pulldown and 50m freestyle (r=-0.599). The 400m correlate with the relative strength in both lat-pulldown(r=-0.563) and the squat (r=-0.555). The lat-pulldown contributed most to the time in 50m freestyle as well as the male sex. Conclusions: The absolute strength in the squat had a high correlation to the time in 50m freestyle swim. The 400m there was a moderate correlation to the relative strength in the squat and lat-pulldown showing that for the overall performance in middle-distance the relative strength has the advantage over absolute strength. The relative and absolute strength in upper body correlated to both 50m and 400m freestyle and could therefore strengthen the importance of upper body strength in sprint and middle distance as previous researchers has stated. The upper body strength is the best predictor of time in 50m.

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  • 416.
    Björk, Maria
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Göransson, Christine
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Sjuksköterskans upplevelser av att vårda patienter med HIV/Aids2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today about 33 million people have conflicted HIV/Aids. A total of about 30 million people have died of Aids since the first case was diagnosed in 1981. In the Industrial states people infected with HIV have close contact with medical care units, since they attend regular examinations. Due to this, nurses often come in contact with these patients. In the developing countries it is unfortunately not like that, HIV-infected has sparse or none contact with medical units. The purpose of this study was to illustrate nurses' experiences when caring for patients diagnosed with HIV/Aids. The study was carried out as a literature study where 14 scientific articles were reviewed, processed and analyzed. The result shows that nurses' experiences during their care of HIV/Aids patients varies. Among the positive experiences could be noticed that nurses felt that their work was important and was developing them. Among the negative experiences occurred fear and lack of resources. Medical care of patients with HIV/Aids demands good knowledge about the disease and adequate nursing care. Additional education is needed during nurses' basic education. A suggestion concerning further research includes researching what suggestions nurses have on how to correct faulty views of the disease and how to correct areas that need improvement.

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  • 417.
    Björk, Oscar
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Post-activation Potentiation in Moderately Heavy Squats following a Heavy Pre-load Squat2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Post-activation potentiation (PAP) is a phenomenon where force output is acutely enhanced

    following muscular contraction. Previous research has documented enhanced performance in

    power-type light exercise following a heavy pre-load, such as vertical jumps following heavy

    squats. To date, the effect of PAP on moderately heavy exercise following a heavy pre-load

    has not been investigated. Purpose: The purpose was to examine whether PAP could be

    elicited in moderately heavy squats following a heavy squat pre-load, and if so, what intensity

    (as percentage of one repetition-maximum [1RM]) of pre-load elicited the highest PAP effect

    (measured as mean power, mean force and number of repetitions performed). Subjects:

    Seventeen resistance-trained males (age 24±2 years, length 182±8 cm, body mass 84.7±13.1

    kg, squat 1RM 147.6±29.6 kg) with at least 2 years of experience of the squat exercise.

    Methods: After testing parallel squat 1RM at a separate session, subjects performed three

    testing sessions in a randomized order in a cross-over design; performance test at 80% of

    parallel squat 1RM (control), one repetition at 85% of 1RM followed 8 minutes later by the

    same performance test (PAP85), and one repetition at 93% of 1RM followed 8 minutes later

    by the same performance test (PAP93). Sessions were separated by six days. Force and power

    output was recorded using a linear encoder. Friedman’s test was used to reveal differences

    between conditions, and a Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to identify these differences.

    Results: There was an increase in number of repetitions performed for PAP85 (p=0.009) and

    PAP93 (p=0.001) compared to control, but not for mean power or mean force. There was no

    significant difference between PAP85 and PAP93 for number of repetitions (p=0.091).

    Conclusion: PAP can be elicited to improve performance in moderately heavy squats

    following a heavy squat pre-load in trained subjects, but only measured as number of

    repetitions performed, not force or power. PAP could therefore be useful not only for

    designing power training, but also for strength and hypertrophy training.

    KEYWORDS: squat, post-activation potentiation, PAP, strength, power, hypertrophy.

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  • 418.
    Björkegren, Adam
    Halmstad University.
    Mindfulness2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 419.
    Björklund, Cecilia
    et al.
    Division of Health and Rehabilitation, Department of Health Sciences, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Erlandsson, Lena-Karin
    Department of Health Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Lilja, Margareta
    Division of Health and Rehabilitation, Department of Health Sciences, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Gard, Gunvor
    Division of Health and Rehabilitation, Department of Health Sciences, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Temporal patterns of daily occupations related to older adults' health in northern Sweden2014In: Journal of Occupational Science, ISSN 1442-7591, E-ISSN 2158-1576, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 127-145Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to identify characteristics of temporal patterns of daily occupations that could be related to high and low subjective health among older adults in Northern Sweden. A cross-sectional design imprinted by time-geographic methodology was used and participants 70 years and older were purposively selected and divided into groups of high and low health using the SoC-29 and SF-36 questionnaires. Daily occupations data were registered and analysed using VISUAL Time-PAcTS and related to health conditions using SPSS. The results showed that the participants in the high- and low-health groups showed similar patterns of participation in occupations during the 24-hour sequences describing their daily routines. Some differences in patterns of frequency and duration of occupations were shown between health groups during the 24-hour sequences as well as within six intervals. The low-health group showed higher frequencies and longer durations for “care for oneself” and “reflection and recreation” occupations and lower for “house-keeping” and “procure and prepare food” occupations compared to the high-health groups. There were few significant differences between the high- and low-health groups' mean durations for occupations. The results of this study could contribute to the support and assistance of occupations of older adults in society. © 2014 The Journal of Occupational Science Incorporated.

  • 420.
    Björklund, M.
    et al.
    Centre for Health Promotion Research, Halmstad University, Halmstad and the Ear Clinic, Nordvastra Skanes Sjukvardsdistrikt, Sweden.
    Fridlund, Bengt
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Cancer patients' experiences of nurses' behaviour and health promotion activities: a critical incident analysis1999In: European Journal of Cancer Care, ISSN 0961-5423, E-ISSN 1365-2354, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 204-212Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Patients with head and neck cancer report several disease- and health-related problems before, during and a long time after completed treatment. Nurses have an important role in educating/supporting these patients about/through the disease and treatment so that they can attain well-being. This study describes the cancer patients' experiences of nurses' behaviour in terms of critical incidents after nurses had given them care to promote health. The study had a qualitative, descriptive design and the method used was the critical incident technique. Twenty-one informants from the Nordic countries diagnosed with head and neck cancer were strategically selected. It was explained to the informants what a critical incident implies before the interviews took place; this was defined as a major event of great importance, an incident, which the informants still remember, due to its great importance for the outcome of their health and well-being. The nurses' behaviour was examined, and critical incidents were involved in 208 cases-150 positive and 58 negative ones-the number of incidents varying between three and 20 per informant. The nurses' health promotion activities or lack of such activities based on the patients' disease, treatment and symptoms, consisted of informing and instructing the patients as well as enabling their participation. Personal consideration and the nurses' cognisance, knowledge, competence, solicitude, demeanour and statements of understanding were found to be important. Continuous health promotion nursing interventions were of considerable value for the majority of this group of cancer patients. Oncology nurses could reconfirm and update the care of head and neck cancer patients by including health promotion activities in individual care plans. By more frequent use of health promotion models, such as the empowerment model, the nurses could identify and focus on those individuals who needed to alter their Life-style as well as tailor their approach towards these patient by setting goals for well-being and a healthy life-style.

  • 421.
    Björkman, Jasmine
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Are there any difference between the levels of serum leptin, visceral fat area and body mass index in patients with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis, with and without radiographic changes?2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 422.
    Björkqvist, Kornelia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Svantesson, Eva
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Omvårdnad av patienter med smärta i palliativ vård.2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The definition of palliative care is to provide a diligent care to all patients no matter what disease they suffer from in the end of life. To manage pain with nursing care in palliative care is important and the nurse has a significant role. Pain in palliative care is a symptom that often occurs and can be manage through nurse interventions. The aim is to describe nursing care of patients with pain in palliative care. A content analysis was made where nine scientific articles were audited. The nine scientific articles that were audited resulted in three categories; Pain assessment, Complementary treatment methods, Psychosocial support. The results of this study indicated that nurse interventions can relieve pain; heat and cold, distraction, change of position, relaxation and touch. Psychosocial support is given to both patients and relatives through information and communication. Teamwork in the palliative team is important to assess and manage pain in palliative care. Pain assessment can be hard because some patients cannot verbally tell that they suffer from pain. When family members were mistrustful of the care it was hard for the nurse to assess and manage pain. In order to relieve pain with the help of nursing documents, knowledge, experience and good communication skills are required. Within the subject there is a need for further studies such as; how the use of pain assessment instruments and documentation can be expanded in palliative care.

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  • 423.
    Björn, Wihlborg
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Malin, Yderhag
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Ledarskap: en viktig nyckel till hälsa i arbetslivet: En litteraturstudie om transformativt ledarskap2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Psykosocial hälsa har en stor roll i bestämmandet av hälsa på arbetsplatser, svag psykosocial hälsa kan kopplas till försämrad allmän hälsa samt förhöjd sjukfrånvaro. Samtidigt visar forskning på hur transformativt ledarskap kan påverka arbetsmiljön och anställda vilket resulterade studiens syfte.

    Syfte: Syftet var att undersöka transformativt ledarskaps påverkan på anställdas psykosociala hälsa och arbetsmiljö.Metod: Studiedesign som antogs var en systematisk litteraturstudie där sju databaser genomsöktes och totalt 19 vetenskapliga artiklar som svarade på syftet användes. Alla artiklar genomgick granskning av vetenskaplig kvalité och en kvalitativ innehållsanalys som resulterade i tre kategorier.

    Resultat: Tre kategorier hittades och de benämns som medför positiva effekter på psykosocial hälsa, betydelse för den psykosociala arbetsmiljön samt hälsovinster i ett större perspektiv. Resultatet indikerar att transformativt ledarskap kan användas som ett kraftfullt salutogent verktyg för hälsopromotion på arbetsplatsen och att ledarskapet kan skapa bättre förutsättningar för förbättrad psykosocial hälsa.

    Implikation: Ytterligare forskning krävs för att kartlägga transformativt ledarskap i skilda kulturella, geografiska och praktiska kontexter samt att kvalitativa studier kan ge en mer nyanserad bild av effekterna och på så vis kan ge en tydligare indikation på hur integreringen av transformativt ledarskap kan ske i organisationer och verksamheter.

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  • 424.
    Björnell, Rebecha
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Kristensson, Michaela
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Kan ett 5-veckors hembaserat träningsprogram förbättra smärtan hos personer med fibromyalgi?2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka om ett 5-veckors enkelt styrketräningsprogram i hemmet minskar den upplevda smärtan hos personer med fibromyalgi.

    Metod: Antal deltagare med fibromyalgi var 10 stycken som rekryterades för att genomföra ett 5 veckors träningsprogram med fokus på styrka i buk-, rygg- och magmuskulatur. Före och efter träningsprogrammet mättes styrka (rygg, mage och ben – 3 tester) och smärta (Visual Analog Skala - VAS). Fyra frågor kring smärta besvarades med VAS-skala. Skillnad mellan undersökning före påbörjad träning (pretest) till undersökning efter avslutad träning (posttest) analyserades. Wilcoxons rangtest användes för att undersöka om där fanns en signifikant skillnad mellan pretest och posttest.

    Resultat: Efter avslutat träningsprogram hade inte smärtan förbättrats. I styrketesterna framkom signifikant förbättrad benstyrka medan rygg- och magstyrka var oförändrad. För sju av tio av deltagarna förbättrades styrkan i magtestet utan signifikant skillnad och för fem av tio deltagare förbättrades styrkan i ryggtestet utan signifikant skillnad. Smärtan var efter avslutad träning förbättrad, dock ej signifikant skillnad.  

    Slutsats: Det studerade styrketräningsprogrammet under 5 veckor ledde inte till en minskning av smärta.

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  • 425.
    Björnerhag, Linette
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Kärrbrand, Maria
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Sjuksköterskors erfarenheter av faktorer som påverkar bemötandet av närstående i sorg2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Grief may occur in many stages in life and nurses are meeting grieving people throughout their work. Nurses responsibility is to prevent illness in both families and patients and with the complexity in the grieving process nurses can find it difficult to meet grieving people adequately.

    The aim of this study was to describe nurses’ experiences of factors influencing the meeting with families in grief.

    Method: The study was conducted as a structured literature review with an inductive approach.

    The result was constructed by nine scientific articles compiled in four categories: Stressful work environment, Coping with own uncertainty, Motivation and Nursing relationship.

    Conclusion: Several different factors contributed to the nurses experiencing a stressful work environment, affecting their meeting with families in grief negatively. Nurses experienced uncertainty in their meeting with families in grief, which they linked to a lack of experience and education. Even though it was difficult, the nurses felt motivated to meet families in grief and a deep relationship could be formed between them which affected the grieving process positively. Further research is needed to enable an improvement of nurses meeting families in grief.

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  • 426.
    Björnstad, Maria
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Karlsson, Linda
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Larynxmask: - en metod för att möjliggöra fri luftväg och adekvat ventilation2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Airway obstruction can in the case of an unconsciousness patient be caused by the tounge that falls back in the throat or by secretion, blood, stomach fluid or foreign body. The knowledge of airway management of the unconsciousness patient is a necessary qualification in every nurse anesthetist. The purpose of this study was to describe if laryngeal mask airway is a safe method to establish a secure airway and adequate ventilation. The study was performed as a literature study in which 19 articles were analysed. During the analyse five themes occurred: LMA is a secure way for airway management, LMA is a secure way to maintain adequate ventilation, the staff competence when using LMA, the risk of aspiration when using LMA with subtheme LMA in overweight and LMA in elective and acute situations. The result of the study shows that LMA is a secure way to establish a safe airway and adequate ventilation. Further studies could study if LMA can be used to elective patients with increased risk of aspiration, for example in cesarean and obesity surgery. Studies could also focuse on the patients´ postoperative experiences between LMA and tracheal intubation.

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  • 427.
    Björsing, Malin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Casparson, Ida
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Olofsson, Louise
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Skolsköterskans upplevelse av arbetet med att främja högstadieelevers psykiska hälsa2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Research shows that the mental health of Swedish students is increasing and that the school nurse has an important health-promoting role. The mental health among students can lead to a weaker performance capacity or that the students don´t manage to finish their studies. The aim of the study was to describe the school nurse´s experience of the mental health promoted work among high school students. Six school nurses from two municipalities in Skåne were interviewed from a strategic selection on the basis of demographic data. The interviews were processed using a qualitative content analysis. The result of the study is presented in a general theme; collaboration and good organization, with a student centered approach to prevent mental health which are prerequisites in order to pursue the health promoting work successfully. Three categories emerged from the theme that describes the school nurses´ experience of the health promoted work; cooperation is needed in the health promoted work, the school nurse is an active operator in the health promoted work and it requires that the school nurses work from a student perspective. The subcategories describe further aspects that are meaningful in the health promoted work such as parental cooperation, the school nurse´s commitment, availability, capacity to form relations and empowerment. The results of this study are important in the school nurse´s health promoted work in order to strengthen the students mental health. Further research within the health promoted work from the student´s perspective is needed in order to obtain both aspects of health promotion and to get the knowledge what the pupils want and need.

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    Skolsköterskans upplevelse av arbetet med att främja högstadieelevers psykiska hälsa
  • 428.
    Bladh, Matilda
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Norrström, Ida
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Att våga tala om sexualitet: en del av sjuksköterskans roll i kommunikation med patienten2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As sexuality is an integrated part of every person’s life and it is the nurse’s responsibility to talk about the subject with the patient in order to conduct a holistic health care. Many diseases and treatments may impact the patient’s sexuality. Most patients feel the need to communicate regarding this subject, but still sexuality is an area that the nurse often avoids. It is therefore important to examine why this is so and what factors promote the nurse's communication regarding sexuality. Therefore, the aim was to highlight what inhibits and promotes the nurse's communication regarding sexuality with the patient. The work was carried out as a literature study where 12 scientific articles were analyzed in order to identify inhibiting and promoting factors. These factors formed the basis for the result. The results showed that the nurse's education, age, gender, work experience and feelings about sexuality were factors that could both inhibit and promote the nurse's communication regarding sexuality with the patient. The workplace also has bearing on whether or not the nurse talks to the patient about the subject. Cultural differences between nurse and patient also affected the conversation about sexuality. Sexuality's impact on health should be elucidated in the nurse education and then through training in the workplace. Clear guidelines and more in-depth research is needed to promote nurses in the future to speak more openly about sexuality.

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    Att våga tala om sexualitet
  • 429.
    Blank, J.
    et al.
    Department of Public Health and Community Health, Göteborg University, Sweden;.
    Nordin, P.
    Skaraborg Institute, Skövde, Sweden.
    Toivonen, Henri
    Children Health Care, Skaraborg, Sweden.
    Lindblad, Ulf
    Department of Public Health and Community Health, Göteborg University, Sweden.
    Nyholm, Maria
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Prevalence of overweight and obesity among preschool children between 2004 and 2008, in a rural area of Sweden: The Skaraborg Evaluation Child Obesity Prevention Project (SECOPP)2010In: Special Issue: Abstracts of the 11th International Congress on Obesity, 11-15 July 2010, Stockholm, Sweden, Chichester, England: Wiley-Blackwell, 2010, p. 73-74Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Childhood obesity is considered a serious public health problem and it has increased over the last two decades. The aim of this paper was to report 5-year change in prevalence of overweight and obesity among preschool children in a rural area of Sweden. Material and Method: Body height and weight were obtained in 2004, 2006 and 2008. A total of 1914 children (1014 boys and 900 girls), aged 4 years ± 4 months and were examined at Child Welfare Clinics in two municipalities in the Skaraborg area in Region of Västra Götaland, Sweden were included in the study. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated and categorized according to the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) and WHO cut-off as reference methods in defining overweight and obesity, and GLM methods were used to estimate the change with age as a covariate. Result: Between 2004 and 2008, overweight increased in boys according to IOTF 2.0% (P = 0.048), whereas no such trend was seen when using WHO cut-offs. In girls, overweight increased significant according to the both definitions IOTF 9.1% (P < 0.001) and WHO 2.8% (P = 0.010). Obesity has decreased in both boys and girls, however not significant. According to IOTF obesity decreased with 1.1% in boys and 1.9% in girls, and WHO with 2.1% in boys and 1.5% in girls. Conclusion: This study shows that overweight has increased in both sexes and obesity rates remained rather steady. However, public health strategies targeting the whole population is still needed.

  • 430. Blickander, Jacob
    Post Activation Potentiation – Effects onNumber of Repetitions and Average ForceOutput in Moderately Heavy Overhead Press2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 431.
    Blidell, Ylwa
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Kaire, Maria
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Upplevelser av att leva med astma: När livet begränsas2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden there are approximately 800 000 people living with asthma, which classifies it as a public disease. Asthma is a chronic inflammatory airway disease with varying degrees of difficulty that have consequences in everyday life. Aim: To illustrate adult asthmatic persons experiences of the disease. Method: The study was conducted as a general literature study with inductive approach. All articles have been searched in Cinahl, pubmed and PsycInfo. Result: The result was based on ten qualitative scientific articles. After coding the material three main categories emerged: Limitations in everyday life, Relating to the disease, The need for knowledge and support. Under Limitations in everyday life the associated subcategories are: Physical limitations, Social limitation and Emotional limitation. Under Relating to the disease are the associated subcategories: Not being able to accept the disease and Learning to live with the disease. Under Need for knowledge and support are the associated subcategories: Information and support from healthcare professionals and Social support. Conclusion: Breathing difficulties causes feelings such as anxiety, fear, depression and frustration. That everyday life is adversely affected in the form of avoiding social situations leads to a large impact emotionally. Several people with asthma experienced a lack of information and lack of knowledge of the disease. There are difficulties in accepting there asthma, which leads to the persons denying that they were sick and they felt ashamed when the symptoms appeared an predictable. In order to gain control of their disease and learn to live with asthma required acceptant and to get to know their symptoms and limitations.

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  • 432.
    Blizniuk, Viktoryia
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Health literacy among young people in Sweden: Qualitative study of the school-based health education2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The basic components of the health literacy are ability to get access to the health-related informationand understand it. For the young people the most appropriate source of information, including abouthealth, is school. Studies on health education showed that there are some problematic issues in thehealth education in the schools in Sweden which result in non-application of the knowledge by thestudents.Thus, the aim of this study was to explore and analyze school-based health education in Sweden fromthe youth perspective. The purpose of the study was to indicate the best practices of health educationwithin schools in Sweden and reveal the most problematic fields and gaps in it from the point of viewof the youth.Qualitative research was conducted for exploring the research problem. Therefor semi-structuredinterviews were held with young people aged 18-25 having studied in the schools in Sweden. The datawas analyzed within social learning theory with application of thematic analysis methodology. Besides,literature and previous researches review has been conducted as a background study.In the result of this research it was revealed that although young people are satisfied with the resultsof the health classes and show trust to the school as a source of information, some information lacksin the health education, e.g. mental health education. Besides, some issues have been noticed as to theschool environment around health education which can impede application of the health knowledge.

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  • 433.
    Blom, Cecilia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Fossheimer Stillfors, Evelina
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Self-management i relation till äldre personer som lever med kronisk sjukdom - en begreppsanalys2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research indicates that elderly people want to be independent and have the opportunity to stay in their own homes for as long as possible despite chronic disease. The district nurse can, by promoting the persons ability to self-management, create conditions for the elderly to be able to live at home. In this study, a conceptual analysis of self-management was done. Self-management is a term that has no clear definition and is under development. There is no matching swedish word. The purpose was to illustrate how self-management is used in relation to elderly people living with chronic disease. The study has an inductive approach. The method is based on Rodgers' evolutionary concept analysis, a valid method for developing knowledge in nursing science. The result shows that self-management in relation to elderly people with chronic disease can imply both benefits and risks. The benefits can be increased confidence in their own ability as well as increased knowledge about the disease. The risks may be loneliness and anxiety. In summary, the study shows that research should focus on how the district nurse can contribute knowledge in order for older people to adopt self-management, but also the importance of including the negative aspects that self-management can cause.

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  • 434.
    Blom, Hanna
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Koobs Hultberg, Alice
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Sjuksköterskors upplevelser av att ge palliativ vård till patienter i särskilt boende och hospice: En litteraturstudie2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The palliative care is an overall care. The nurses’ must have an approach based on personal centred care. The care today is based in greater occurrence outside hospital services. It’s more common to die outside hospital services. The purpose was to illustrate nurses’ experiences of palliative care in nursing home and hospice. The study was conducted as a literature study based on eight qualitative scientific articles. The result showed three main categories: emotional experiences which included nurses’ emotional affects in caring of dying patients. The second main category relationships, intended the interplay between patients, relatives and nurses. The third main category different challenges of the work with associated subcategories: nurses’ competence in palliative care, experience of lack of time intended the valuable of time in caring of patients in the end of life. Communication between professions which included communication between nurses and physicians and teamwork between nurses, physicians, nurse assistants and other health care professionals. To care for patients in final stage of life in nursing home or hospice was emotional challenging. Nurses who constantly worked under time pressure experienced inadequacy which affected the palliative care negative. Corporation and communication between nurses, patients, relatives and other health care professionals were important parts for good nursing care. Nurses’ workload, work under constant time pressure and team work between healthcare professionals in nursing home and hospice should be illustrate through further research to develop national and local guidelines for palliative care in the end of life.

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  • 435.
    Blom, Jennie
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Nilsson, Anna
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Ungdomars orsaker till och erfarenheter av tobaksrökning ur ett psykosocialt perspektiv: En litteraturstudie2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Tobaksrökning är idag ett utbrett folkhälsoproblem och den främsta orsaken till sjukdom och död inom den Europeiska Unionen. I Sverige börjar 15 000 ungdomar röka varje år och flickor är rökare i större utsträckning än pojkar.

    Syfte: Syftet med denna studie var att beskriva ungdomars orsaker till och erfarenheter av tobaksrökning ur ett psykosocialt perspektiv.

    Metod: För att besvara syftet gjordes en litteraturstudie som baserades på systematisk, metodisk och kritisk granskning av tidigare publicerat material inom området. Artikelsökning gjordes i databaserna PubMed, SciVerse, Psycinfo och Cinahl och begränsades till publikationsår 1995-2011. Arton stycken artiklar användes och målgruppen var ungdomar mellan 11 och 18 år.           

    Resultat: Ungdomars orsaker till och erfarenheter av tobaksrökning presenterades i fyra temaområden: Ungdomars attityd och självförtroende, Tobaksrökning vid stress och problem, Den sociala omgivningens betydelse och Tillgång till cigaretter. Ungdomars relation till rökning påverkades av den sociala omgivningen och tillgången till cigaretter. Ungdomar rökte för att hantera olika situationer i livet, framförallt för att öka sin sociala status men också för att uppnå psykiskt välbefinnande. Föräldrar, syskon och kamrater hade starka samband med att ungdomar rökte och införskaffandet av cigaretter innebar inga svårigheter för de minderåriga ungdomarna.

    Implikation: Det är viktigt att ha kunskap om varför ungdomar börjar röka och fortsätter. Denna studie ger en översikt över problemet och kan därmed vara användbar vid framtida folkhälsoarbeten för att öka de positiva effekterna av insatserna samt vid vidare forskning kring relationen mellan stress och rökning.

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  • 436.
    Blom, Mathias Carl
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Ashfaq, Awais
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research. Halland Hospital, Region Halland, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Pinheiro Sant'Anna, Anita
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Anderson, Philip D.
    Department of Emergency Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA & Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
    Lingman, Markus
    Halland Hospital, Region Halland, Sweden & Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine/Cardiology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Training machine learning models to predict 30-day mortality in patients discharged from the emergency department: a retrospective, population based registry study2019In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 9, no 8, article id e028015Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Aggressive treatment at end-of-life (EOL) can be traumatic to patients and may not add clinical benefit. Absent an accurate prognosis of death, individual level biases may prevent timely discussions about the scope of EOL care and patients are at risk of being subject to care against their desire. The aim of this work is to develop predictive algorithms for identifying patients at EOL, with clinically meaningful discriminatory power.

    Methods: Retrospective, population-based study of patients utilizing emergency departments (EDs) in Sweden, Europe. Electronic health records (EHRs) were used to train supervised learning algorithms to predict all-cause mortality within 30 days following ED discharge. Algorithm performance was validated out of sample on EHRs from a separate hospital, to which the algorithms were previously unexposed.

    Results: Of 65,776 visits in the development set, 136 (0.21%) experienced the outcome. The algorithm with highest discrimination attained ROC-AUC 0.945 (95% CI 0.933 - 0.956), with sensitivity 0.869 (95% CI 0.802, 0.931) and specificity 0.858 (0.855, 0.860) on the validation set.

    Conclusions: Multiple algorithms displayed excellent discrimination and outperformed available indexes for short-term mortality prediction. The practical utility of the algorithms increases as the required data were captured electronically and did not require de novo data collection.

    Trial registration number: Not applicable.

  • 437.
    Blomberg, Elin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Öhmark, Ulrika
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Malnutrition hos äldre patienter: Hur kan det förebyggas?2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Malnutrition är ett vanligt förekommande tillstånd bland äldre som är inneliggande på sjukhus. Syftet med litteraturstudien var att belysa hur sjuksköterskan kan förebygga malnutrition hos äldre. Resultatet baseras på 15 vetenskapliga artiklar och visar hur sjuksköterskan kan förbygga tillståndet genom de fem teman som togs fram: att skapa delaktighet i vården med hjälp av information, att involvera anhöriga, struktur i vårdteamet, att använda sig av bedömningsinstrument och kunskap och utbildning. Resultatet visar hur god kommunikation och kunskap hjälper sjuksköterskan i arbetet att förebygga malnutrition. Det krävs även en struktur i vårdteamet för en tydlig rollfördelning bland professionerna. Patienternas delaktighet är en viktig faktor för att öka deras motivation, även anhörigas involvering lyfts fram. I framtiden behövs det fler studier på svenska förhållanden och mer uppmärksamhet till patienter som trots övervikt kan bli malnutrierade. Till sist måste information om äldre som aktivt väljer att sluta äta framarbetas, både till sjukvårdspersonal och anhöriga.

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  • 438.
    Blomqvist, Marjut
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Erfarenheter hos barn till förälder med psykisk ohälsa2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the European union it has been estimated that 27% of adults suffer from at least one mental disorder; this is also one of the major public health problems in Sweden. About 36% of patients in psychiatric care have underage children and it is known that children of parents with mental illness have a higher risk of various problems but that there are many protective factors that can help these children. The Swedish Health and Medical Service Act obligates the professionals in psychiatric services to pay attention to these children. The aim of this study was to describe the experiences of the children to parents with mental disorder related to the parent’s illness and highlight the importance of professionals. Ten articles which were published in nursing journals were analyzed. The findings highlights the experiences of underage and adult children and the impact nursing staff may have on the children’s experiences. There is a need for further nursing research and development in clinical practice.

  • 439.
    Blomqvist, Marjut
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Nursing.
    Health among people with psychotic disorders and effects of an individualized lifestyle intervention to promote health2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of the thesis was to increase knowledge of health among people with psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia and other long-term psychotic conditions. The aim was also to investigate health effects, in terms of clinical health outcomes and self-reported questionnaires, of atwo-year individualized lifestyle intervention implemented in psychiatric outpatient services involving cooperation with the municipal social psychiatry services. The motivation for the study was to generate new knowledge in order to be able to promote health in people with psychotic disorders and to improve the care and support provided for this target group. The thesis consists of four studies. A quantitative study (Study I), was conducted using a cross-sectional design to investigate the prevalence of overweight, obesity, risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and the relationships between self-rated salutogenic health, sense of coherence, CVD risk, and body mass index among people with psychoticdisorders (n=57). The study was conducted in four psychiatric outpatient services; questionnaires were completed by the participants and clinical health measurements were collected by the participant’s contact nurse at the psychiatric outpatient services. The participants showed a moderate/high risk of CVD, the mean for BMI was 31.9 (59.6% were obese) and 31.6% were overweight. The results did not reveal any relationships between the subjective and objective measuresof health indicating the need for both subjective and objective assessments of health in psychiatric care. In a qualitative study (Study II), data were collected with semi-structured interviews (n=16) andanalyzed with qualitative content analysis. The interviews resulted in an overall theme “Being regarded as a whole human being by self and others”, which showed the multidimensional nature of health and the issues that enable healthy living among people with severe mental illness. Three categories emerged: (i) everyday structure (ii), motivating life events and (iii) support from significant others. The results indicate that a person with severe mental illness needs to be encountered as a wholeperson if healthy living is to be enabled. In a quasi-experimental study (Study III), the potential effects of participation in the two-year lifestyle intervention (intervention group n=54 and control group (n=13) were investigated. The data were collected at baseline, after 12 months and after 24 months using the self-reported questionnaire the Salutogenic Health Indicator Scale (SHIS), the Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL-25) and the National Public Health Survey. Measures of clinical healthoutcomes were conducted by the participant’s contact nurse at the psychiatric outpatient services. Multilevel modeling was used to test differences in changes over time. Significant changes were foundin physical activity, HbA1c and waist circumference after participation in individualized lifestyle intervention. The relationship between changes in physical activity, levels of salutogenic health and glycated hemoglobin (Hb1Ac) were investigated (n=54) in Study IV. The data were collected atbaseline, after 12 months and after 24 months using the self-reported questionnaires Salutogenic Health Indicator Scale (SHIS) and National Public Health Survey. Within-person changes in physical activity between baseline and at the end of the twenty-four-month intervention were calculated. Selfreported increased physical activity was positively associated with self-rated salutogenic health and negatively associated with level of HbA1c after participation in the intervention. The thesis shows that a well-founded assessment of general health needs must consider both the individual's subjective experiences and objective measurements in order to form a solid foundation for dialogue and shareddecision-making about essential care services. The results also show that it is possible to stimulate healthy behavioral changes with a two-year individualized lifestyle intervention and bring both subjectively and objectively measured health benefits for people with psychotic disorders. The importance of nurses in psychiatric care applying a holistic approach and integrating lifestyle interventions into daily person-centered psychiatric care in collaboration with other healthcare providers to facilitate changes towards a healthy lifestyle in persons with psychotic illness is emphasized in the thesis.

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  • 440.
    Blomqvist, Marjut
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare. Psykiatrin Halland, Falkenberg, Sverige.
    LIV-P Levnadsvaneinterventioner för personer med psykossjukdom2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 441.
    Blomqvist, Marjut
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Nursing.
    Carlsson, Ing-Marie
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Jormfeldt, Henrika
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Experiences of data collection issues in qualitative studies involving people diagnosed with schizophrenia2016In: Abstracts: Narrative Nursing: Nordic Conference Of Mental Health Nursing: 14-16 September 2016, 2016, p. 41-41Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The viewpoint and special needs of individuals with severe mental illness are crucial for the development of mental health nursing. In-depth knowledge of the perspectives of people with schizophrenia is primarily established in dialogue with individuals with experience of the phenomenon investigated. Attaining trustworthiness in the findings in qualitative studies is of great importance and the interview approach used should assure trustworthiness in the data collection at different levels with regard to the perspectives of the individual, which is essential for developing nursing research and practice.

    Aim: The aim of the paper was to describe and discuss the issues related to data collection in qualitative studies involving people diagnosed with schizophrenia.

    Method: Six qualitative interview studies regarding experiences of different aspects of life among people diagnosed with schizophrenia were reflected on and discussed in terms of issues related to data collection involving people with severe mental illness such as schizophrenia (N=75).

    Results: The discussions that generated the results revealed three topics in qualitative studies involving individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia: 1) Selection of research context with respect to participants’ different aspects of life, 2) Sampling issues with regard to judgements of participants’ ability to contribute with information and 3) Choice of data collection methods to meet the aim of the enquiry.

    Conclusion: Three crucial areas in data collection in qualitative studies with individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia were revealed. Further studies regarding sampling procedures and analysis of collected data are needed to ensure trustworthiness of findings regarding interviews involving people with severe mental illness.

  • 442.
    Blomqvist, Marjut
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Nursing.
    Carlsson, Ing-Marie
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Sandgren, Anna
    Linneaus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Jormfeldt, Henrika
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    How to facilitate healthy living described by persons with persistent psychiatric disorders in psychiatric out-patient settings – challenging health care professionals2016In: Abstracts: Narrative Nursing: Nordic Conference Of Mental Health Nursing: 14-16 September 2016, 2016, p. 13-13Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Over the previous decades, scientific research has demonstrated that people with persistent mental illness like schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders have a reduced life expectancy and have a higher risk of being affected of preventable physical illnesses such as developing metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Additionally it have made evident for lower quality of life as well. These risk factors make health promoting essential in the care providing and therefore it ́s important for the health professionals to have a deeper knowledge about the facilitating factors to healthy living described by persons themselves.

    Aim: The aim of this qualitative study was to describe the experiences of persons affected by persistent mental illness such as schizophrenia or other psychotic disorders what facilitates healthy living in their everyday life. The presentation has the focus on the facilitative factors applying health professionals when providing care for persons in psychiatric out-patient settings.

    Method: The study was carried out in three different psychiatric out-patient settings in the southern Sweden. The data was collected through qualitative interviews (N= 16) and analyses by qualitative, inductive approach abased on Granheim and Lundmans ́ conceptualization of content analysis.

    Results: First, it is essential for persons with persistent and severe mental illness that they get support to bring out their needs to healthier living by having a dialogue about the issues of healthy living in their everyday life. In this dialog they may also need support to reflect and find out their own motivating factors to healthier living. Additionally, in this dialogue it is important to be aware of that they will be regarded as a whole person and include many areas of life like daily structure and social life. The professionals should show a truly involvement and active interest to persons when increasing healthy living.

    Conclusion: Many persons with persistent mental illness need practical support in their everyday life to maintaining healthier living. This requires the close cooperation between psychiatric out-patient settings, the housing support professionals from municipalities and the social services.

  • 443.
    Blomqvist, Marjut
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Carlsson, Ing-Marie
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Sandgren, Anna
    Center for Collaborative Palliative Care, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Jormfeldt, Henrika
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Health Effects of an Individualized Lifestyle Intervention for People with Psychotic Disorders in Psychiatric Outpatient Services: A Two Year Follow-Up2019In: Issues in Mental Health Nursing, ISSN 0161-2840, E-ISSN 1096-4673, Vol. 40, no 10, p. 839-850Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    People with psychotic disorders experience to a great extent avoidable physical illnesses and early mortality. The aim of the study was to investigate the potential effects for this group of participating in a lifestyle intervention. A multi-component nurse-led lifestyle intervention using quasi-experimental design was performed. Changes in biomedical and clinical measurements, self-reported health, symptoms of illness and health behavior were investigated. Multilevel modeling was used to statistically test differences in changes over time. Statistically significant changes were found in physical activity, HbA1c and waist circumference. A lifestyle intervention for people with severe mental illness can be beneficial for increasing physical activity. © 2019 Blomqvist et al. Published with license by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

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  • 444.
    Blomqvist, Marjut
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Nursing.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Carlsson, Ing-Marie
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Sandgren, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Center for Collaborative Palliative Care , Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Växjö, Sweden.
    Jormfeldt, Henrika
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Nursing.
    Health Risks among People with Severe Mental Illness in Psychiatric Outpatient Settings2018In: Issues in Mental Health Nursing, ISSN 0161-2840, E-ISSN 1096-4673, Vol. 39, no 7, p. 585-591Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Life expectancy is greatly reduced in patients with schizophrenia, and cardiovascular diseases are a leading cause of mortality. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the prevalence of overweight, obesity, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and to investigate the relationships between self-rated health, sense of coherence, CVD risk, and body mass index (BMI) among people with severe mental illness (SMI) in psychiatric outpatient settings. Nearly 50% of the participants were exposed to moderate/high risk of CVD and over 50% were obese. The results showed no statistically relationships between the subjective and objective measures (Bayes factor <1) of health. The integration of physical health into clinical psychiatric nursing practice is vital. © 2018 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

  • 445.
    Blomqvist, Marjut
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Nursing.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Carlsson, Ing-Marie
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Nursing.
    Sandgren, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Jormfeldt, Henrika
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Relationship between physical activity and health outcomes in persons with psychotic disorders after participation in a two-year individualized lifestyle interventionIn: Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    People with psychotic disorders have a significantly increased risk of cardiovascular disease, Type 2 diabetes, and excessive mortality rates which makes lifestyle interventions imperative in mental health care. The aim of the study was to investigate relationships between changes in physical activity, levels of salutogenic health, and glycated hemoglobin (Hb1Ac) among people with psychotic disorders after participation in a two-year individualized lifestyle intervention in psychiatric outpatient services. The results from latent change score (LCS) analyses showed that self-reported increased physical activity was positively associated with the level of salutogenic health and negatively associated with the level of HbA1c after participation in a two-year lifestyle intervention. The results of this study suggest that an individualized two-year lifestyle intervention brings benefits regarding both subjectively and objectively measured health for people with psychotic disorders.

  • 446.
    Blomqvist, Marjut
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Nursing.
    Jormfeldt, Henrika
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Nursing.
    Experiences of methodological issues in qualitative studies involving people with severe mental illness such as schizophrenia2016In: Programme: Second Nordic Conference in Nursing Research, 2016, p. 60-60Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The viewpoint and special needs of individuals with severe mental illness is crucial in development of mental health nursing. In-depth knowledge of the perspectives of people with severe mental illness is primarily established in dialog with individuals experienced in the phenomenon investigated. To reach trustworthiness of findings in qualitative studies is central and the interview approach used should assure trustworthiness in data collection regarding perspectives of the individual essential in developing nursing research and practice.

    Aim: The aim of the paper was to describe and discuss methodological issues related to research interviews involving people with severe and persistent mental illness.

    Method: Five qualitative interview studies regarding experiences of different aspects of life among people with severe mental illness were reflected and discussed regarding methodological issues related to the interview situation involving people with severe and persistent mental illness (N=51).

    Results: The discussions forming the results revealed three crucial topics in qualitative interview studies with individuals with severe mental illness. Use previous experiences of interactions with persons with mental disabilities with an open mind without prejudices. Balance the interviewee’s need of support and encouragement during the interview without manipulating contents of statements. Comprehend the essential meaning in the interviewee’s statements even when statements are short and narrow.

    Discussion: Three crucial topics in qualitative interview studies with individuals with severe mental illness were revealed. Further studies regarding sampling procedures and analysis of collected data are needed to ensure trustworthiness of findings regarding interviews involving people with severe mental illness.

  • 447.
    Blomqvist, Marjut
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Nursing.
    Sandgren, Anna
    Linneaus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Carlsson, Ing-Marie
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Nursing.
    Jormfeldt, Henrika
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Nursing.
    Enabling healthy living: Experiences of people with severe mental illness in psychiatric outpatient services2018In: International Journal of Mental Health Nursing, ISSN 1445-8330, E-ISSN 1447-0349, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 236-246Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well known that people with severe mental illness have a reduced life expectancy and a greater risk of being affected by preventable physical illnesses such as metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. There are still, however, only a few published studies focusing on what enables healthy living for this group. This study thus aimed to describe what enables healthy living among people with severe mental illness in psychiatric outpatient services. The data were collected in qualitative interviews (n = 16) and content analysis was used to analyze the data. The interviews resulted in an overall theme "Being regarded as a whole human being by self and others", which showed the multidimensional nature of health and the issues that enable healthy living among people with severe mental illness. Three categories emerged: (i) everyday structure (ii), motivating life events and (iii) support from significant others. The results indicate that a person with severe mental illness needs to be encountered as a whole person if healthy living is to be enabled. Attaining healthy living requires collaboration between the providers of care, help and support. Health care organizations need to work together to develop and provide interventions to enable healthy living and to reduce poor physical health among people with severe mental illness. © 2017 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  • 448.
    Blomster, Carola
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Johansson, Maria
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Kvinnors erfarenheter av våld i en nära relation: En litteraturstudie2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Intimate partner violence is a public health problem. 12 422 cases of indoor assault in the intimate partnership against women over 18 were reported in 2010. An average of 30 women dies each year in Sweden due to physical violence. 17 of them are killed by their current or former partner. Psychological violence may be constituted by threats, control and harassment and can be difficult to identify. Sexual violence can be abuse during sex and compulsion into various sexual acts. Intimate partner violence occurs in all social classes and children are affected directly or in-directly by domestic violence. The government has presented a plan of action with measures and efforts to, among other things, fight men’s violence against women. The police are trained to better treat and help vulnerable women. Women and children can receive help and support from nonprofit organizations. Aim: The aim of this study was to describe women’s experiences of violence in an intimate partnership. Method: The method that was used in this study was based on facts from literature. The Databases that were used was Academic Search Elite and PsycINFO. Result: The nice and charming man that women met proved over time to be a violent man. The violence came stealthy and it increased gradually in the relationship. Women blamed themselves for the violence. They were ashamed of their situation and tried to keep up an appearance. Pregnancy did not seem to be any protection against the violence. Women experienced both that there was support around them and that the support did not came them to the benefit. Protected identity became an alternative for some women. Implication: The complex and growing problem of intimate partner violence needs to be a frequent topic on the agenda. It is of great importance that further research is conducted in Sweden in this area and that the knowledge will be transformed into practical tools in the community.

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  • 449.
    Bodell Pettersson, Maria
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Gyrling, Therese
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    När stöttepelaren inte håller: Erfarenheter av att lära sig leva med en ryggmärgsskada2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I Sverige drabbas varje år omkring 100-150 personer av en traumatiskt orsakad ryggmärgsskada. En ryggmärgsskada innebär ofta ett funktionshinder som gör att stora förändringar måste göras i livssituationen, vilket kan vara en svår anpassning. Stress, ångest och depressiva symtom är relativt vanligt bland personer som skadats. Syftet med studien var att beskriva vuxna patienters erfarenheter av att lära sig leva med en ryggmärgsskada. Studien gjordes som en litteraturstudie där 15 vetenskapliga artiklar valdes ut, granskades och analyserades via färgkodning för att finna likheter. Resultatet gav fem teman: bedömningar av skadan, medpatienter som hjälp och tröst, stöd från omgivningen, kämparglöd och hopp om framtiden och finna mening och gå vidare med livet. Det är av vikt att sjuksköterskor som arbetar med dessa patienter känner till hur andra gjort för att gå vidare, för att på så sätt kunna hjälpa och stödja patienter, vid såväl rehabilitering som vid senare vårdtillfällen. Mer forskning behöver göras på hur god omvårdnad kan ges till personer som drabbats av en ryggmärgsskada.

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  • 450.
    Bodmar, Alexandra
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Jeréz, Jacqueline
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Sjuksköterskors behov av stöd i samband med orosanmälan vid misstanke om att barn far illa: En litteraturstudie2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Children around the world suffer from abuse such as physical, psychological and sexual violence and neglect. Nurses meet children and adults in families in their work where children have been harmed or are at risk of harm. Nurses have an ethical responsibility and duty to report when children are at risk of harm in a report of concern. Although there are ethical codes and an obligation to report, there are circumstances that affect nurses to not always make a report when a child is at risk. The aim of this literature study was to investigate what support nurses need to make a proper report of concern, when there is a suspicion of a child at risk. The study revealed that nurses need emotional, informative and instrumental support to make a complaint. Nurses demand support through knowledge, which can be obtained through education, in order to identify children who are at risk of harm. In addition, organizational support and a good cohesion within a multidisciplinary team is of great importance in promoting nurses' handling of a report of concern, where everyone in healthcare can reflect and share knowledge with each other. Nurses' own upbringing and individual judgement of norms and values have an impact in their decision of what is acceptable in an adult / child relationship, which affect the application process. As a result, nurses need support so that they share the same base of values and duties towards the child and the offender.

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