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  • 401.
    Björsing, Malin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Casparson, Ida
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Olofsson, Louise
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Skolsköterskans upplevelse av arbetet med att främja högstadieelevers psykiska hälsa2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Research shows that the mental health of Swedish students is increasing and that the school nurse has an important health-promoting role. The mental health among students can lead to a weaker performance capacity or that the students don´t manage to finish their studies. The aim of the study was to describe the school nurse´s experience of the mental health promoted work among high school students. Six school nurses from two municipalities in Skåne were interviewed from a strategic selection on the basis of demographic data. The interviews were processed using a qualitative content analysis. The result of the study is presented in a general theme; collaboration and good organization, with a student centered approach to prevent mental health which are prerequisites in order to pursue the health promoting work successfully. Three categories emerged from the theme that describes the school nurses´ experience of the health promoted work; cooperation is needed in the health promoted work, the school nurse is an active operator in the health promoted work and it requires that the school nurses work from a student perspective. The subcategories describe further aspects that are meaningful in the health promoted work such as parental cooperation, the school nurse´s commitment, availability, capacity to form relations and empowerment. The results of this study are important in the school nurse´s health promoted work in order to strengthen the students mental health. Further research within the health promoted work from the student´s perspective is needed in order to obtain both aspects of health promotion and to get the knowledge what the pupils want and need.

  • 402.
    Bladh, Matilda
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Norrström, Ida
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Att våga tala om sexualitet: en del av sjuksköterskans roll i kommunikation med patienten2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As sexuality is an integrated part of every person’s life and it is the nurse’s responsibility to talk about the subject with the patient in order to conduct a holistic health care. Many diseases and treatments may impact the patient’s sexuality. Most patients feel the need to communicate regarding this subject, but still sexuality is an area that the nurse often avoids. It is therefore important to examine why this is so and what factors promote the nurse's communication regarding sexuality. Therefore, the aim was to highlight what inhibits and promotes the nurse's communication regarding sexuality with the patient. The work was carried out as a literature study where 12 scientific articles were analyzed in order to identify inhibiting and promoting factors. These factors formed the basis for the result. The results showed that the nurse's education, age, gender, work experience and feelings about sexuality were factors that could both inhibit and promote the nurse's communication regarding sexuality with the patient. The workplace also has bearing on whether or not the nurse talks to the patient about the subject. Cultural differences between nurse and patient also affected the conversation about sexuality. Sexuality's impact on health should be elucidated in the nurse education and then through training in the workplace. Clear guidelines and more in-depth research is needed to promote nurses in the future to speak more openly about sexuality.

  • 403.
    Blank, J.
    et al.
    Department of Public Health and Community Health, Göteborg University, Sweden;.
    Nordin, P.
    Skaraborg Institute, Skövde, Sweden.
    Toivonen, Henri
    Children Health Care, Skaraborg, Sweden.
    Lindblad, Ulf
    Department of Public Health and Community Health, Göteborg University, Sweden.
    Nyholm, Maria
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Prevalence of overweight and obesity among preschool children between 2004 and 2008, in a rural area of Sweden: The Skaraborg Evaluation Child Obesity Prevention Project (SECOPP)2010In: Special Issue: Abstracts of the 11th International Congress on Obesity, 11-15 July 2010, Stockholm, Sweden, Chichester, England: Wiley-Blackwell, 2010, p. 73-74Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Childhood obesity is considered a serious public health problem and it has increased over the last two decades. The aim of this paper was to report 5-year change in prevalence of overweight and obesity among preschool children in a rural area of Sweden. Material and Method: Body height and weight were obtained in 2004, 2006 and 2008. A total of 1914 children (1014 boys and 900 girls), aged 4 years ± 4 months and were examined at Child Welfare Clinics in two municipalities in the Skaraborg area in Region of Västra Götaland, Sweden were included in the study. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated and categorized according to the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) and WHO cut-off as reference methods in defining overweight and obesity, and GLM methods were used to estimate the change with age as a covariate. Result: Between 2004 and 2008, overweight increased in boys according to IOTF 2.0% (P = 0.048), whereas no such trend was seen when using WHO cut-offs. In girls, overweight increased significant according to the both definitions IOTF 9.1% (P < 0.001) and WHO 2.8% (P = 0.010). Obesity has decreased in both boys and girls, however not significant. According to IOTF obesity decreased with 1.1% in boys and 1.9% in girls, and WHO with 2.1% in boys and 1.5% in girls. Conclusion: This study shows that overweight has increased in both sexes and obesity rates remained rather steady. However, public health strategies targeting the whole population is still needed.

  • 404. Blickander, Jacob
    Post Activation Potentiation – Effects onNumber of Repetitions and Average ForceOutput in Moderately Heavy Overhead Press2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 405.
    Blidell, Ylwa
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Kaire, Maria
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Upplevelser av att leva med astma: När livet begränsas2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden there are approximately 800 000 people living with asthma, which classifies it as a public disease. Asthma is a chronic inflammatory airway disease with varying degrees of difficulty that have consequences in everyday life. Aim: To illustrate adult asthmatic persons experiences of the disease. Method: The study was conducted as a general literature study with inductive approach. All articles have been searched in Cinahl, pubmed and PsycInfo. Result: The result was based on ten qualitative scientific articles. After coding the material three main categories emerged: Limitations in everyday life, Relating to the disease, The need for knowledge and support. Under Limitations in everyday life the associated subcategories are: Physical limitations, Social limitation and Emotional limitation. Under Relating to the disease are the associated subcategories: Not being able to accept the disease and Learning to live with the disease. Under Need for knowledge and support are the associated subcategories: Information and support from healthcare professionals and Social support. Conclusion: Breathing difficulties causes feelings such as anxiety, fear, depression and frustration. That everyday life is adversely affected in the form of avoiding social situations leads to a large impact emotionally. Several people with asthma experienced a lack of information and lack of knowledge of the disease. There are difficulties in accepting there asthma, which leads to the persons denying that they were sick and they felt ashamed when the symptoms appeared an predictable. In order to gain control of their disease and learn to live with asthma required acceptant and to get to know their symptoms and limitations.

  • 406.
    Blizniuk, Viktoryia
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Health literacy among young people in Sweden: Qualitative study of the school-based health education2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The basic components of the health literacy are ability to get access to the health-related informationand understand it. For the young people the most appropriate source of information, including abouthealth, is school. Studies on health education showed that there are some problematic issues in thehealth education in the schools in Sweden which result in non-application of the knowledge by thestudents.Thus, the aim of this study was to explore and analyze school-based health education in Sweden fromthe youth perspective. The purpose of the study was to indicate the best practices of health educationwithin schools in Sweden and reveal the most problematic fields and gaps in it from the point of viewof the youth.Qualitative research was conducted for exploring the research problem. Therefor semi-structuredinterviews were held with young people aged 18-25 having studied in the schools in Sweden. The datawas analyzed within social learning theory with application of thematic analysis methodology. Besides,literature and previous researches review has been conducted as a background study.In the result of this research it was revealed that although young people are satisfied with the resultsof the health classes and show trust to the school as a source of information, some information lacksin the health education, e.g. mental health education. Besides, some issues have been noticed as to theschool environment around health education which can impede application of the health knowledge.

  • 407.
    Blom, Cecilia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Fossheimer Stillfors, Evelina
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Self-management i relation till äldre personer som lever med kronisk sjukdom - en begreppsanalys2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research indicates that elderly people want to be independent and have the opportunity to stay in their own homes for as long as possible despite chronic disease. The district nurse can, by promoting the persons ability to self-management, create conditions for the elderly to be able to live at home. In this study, a conceptual analysis of self-management was done. Self-management is a term that has no clear definition and is under development. There is no matching swedish word. The purpose was to illustrate how self-management is used in relation to elderly people living with chronic disease. The study has an inductive approach. The method is based on Rodgers' evolutionary concept analysis, a valid method for developing knowledge in nursing science. The result shows that self-management in relation to elderly people with chronic disease can imply both benefits and risks. The benefits can be increased confidence in their own ability as well as increased knowledge about the disease. The risks may be loneliness and anxiety. In summary, the study shows that research should focus on how the district nurse can contribute knowledge in order for older people to adopt self-management, but also the importance of including the negative aspects that self-management can cause.

  • 408.
    Blom, Hanna
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Koobs Hultberg, Alice
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Sjuksköterskors upplevelser av att ge palliativ vård till patienter i särskilt boende och hospice: En litteraturstudie2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The palliative care is an overall care. The nurses’ must have an approach based on personal centred care. The care today is based in greater occurrence outside hospital services. It’s more common to die outside hospital services. The purpose was to illustrate nurses’ experiences of palliative care in nursing home and hospice. The study was conducted as a literature study based on eight qualitative scientific articles. The result showed three main categories: emotional experiences which included nurses’ emotional affects in caring of dying patients. The second main category relationships, intended the interplay between patients, relatives and nurses. The third main category different challenges of the work with associated subcategories: nurses’ competence in palliative care, experience of lack of time intended the valuable of time in caring of patients in the end of life. Communication between professions which included communication between nurses and physicians and teamwork between nurses, physicians, nurse assistants and other health care professionals. To care for patients in final stage of life in nursing home or hospice was emotional challenging. Nurses who constantly worked under time pressure experienced inadequacy which affected the palliative care negative. Corporation and communication between nurses, patients, relatives and other health care professionals were important parts for good nursing care. Nurses’ workload, work under constant time pressure and team work between healthcare professionals in nursing home and hospice should be illustrate through further research to develop national and local guidelines for palliative care in the end of life.

  • 409.
    Blom, Jennie
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Nilsson, Anna
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Ungdomars orsaker till och erfarenheter av tobaksrökning ur ett psykosocialt perspektiv: En litteraturstudie2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Tobaksrökning är idag ett utbrett folkhälsoproblem och den främsta orsaken till sjukdom och död inom den Europeiska Unionen. I Sverige börjar 15 000 ungdomar röka varje år och flickor är rökare i större utsträckning än pojkar.

    Syfte: Syftet med denna studie var att beskriva ungdomars orsaker till och erfarenheter av tobaksrökning ur ett psykosocialt perspektiv.

    Metod: För att besvara syftet gjordes en litteraturstudie som baserades på systematisk, metodisk och kritisk granskning av tidigare publicerat material inom området. Artikelsökning gjordes i databaserna PubMed, SciVerse, Psycinfo och Cinahl och begränsades till publikationsår 1995-2011. Arton stycken artiklar användes och målgruppen var ungdomar mellan 11 och 18 år.           

    Resultat: Ungdomars orsaker till och erfarenheter av tobaksrökning presenterades i fyra temaområden: Ungdomars attityd och självförtroende, Tobaksrökning vid stress och problem, Den sociala omgivningens betydelse och Tillgång till cigaretter. Ungdomars relation till rökning påverkades av den sociala omgivningen och tillgången till cigaretter. Ungdomar rökte för att hantera olika situationer i livet, framförallt för att öka sin sociala status men också för att uppnå psykiskt välbefinnande. Föräldrar, syskon och kamrater hade starka samband med att ungdomar rökte och införskaffandet av cigaretter innebar inga svårigheter för de minderåriga ungdomarna.

    Implikation: Det är viktigt att ha kunskap om varför ungdomar börjar röka och fortsätter. Denna studie ger en översikt över problemet och kan därmed vara användbar vid framtida folkhälsoarbeten för att öka de positiva effekterna av insatserna samt vid vidare forskning kring relationen mellan stress och rökning.

  • 410.
    Blom, Mathias Carl
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Ashfaq, Awais
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research. Halland Hospital, Region Halland, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Pinheiro Sant'Anna, Anita
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Anderson, Philip D.
    Department of Emergency Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA & Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
    Lingman, Markus
    Halland Hospital, Region Halland, Sweden & Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine/Cardiology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Training machine learning models to predict 30-day mortality in patients discharged from the emergency department: a retrospective, population based registry study2019In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 9, no 8, article id e028015Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Aggressive treatment at end-of-life (EOL) can be traumatic to patients and may not add clinical benefit. Absent an accurate prognosis of death, individual level biases may prevent timely discussions about the scope of EOL care and patients are at risk of being subject to care against their desire. The aim of this work is to develop predictive algorithms for identifying patients at EOL, with clinically meaningful discriminatory power.

    Methods: Retrospective, population-based study of patients utilizing emergency departments (EDs) in Sweden, Europe. Electronic health records (EHRs) were used to train supervised learning algorithms to predict all-cause mortality within 30 days following ED discharge. Algorithm performance was validated out of sample on EHRs from a separate hospital, to which the algorithms were previously unexposed.

    Results: Of 65,776 visits in the development set, 136 (0.21%) experienced the outcome. The algorithm with highest discrimination attained ROC-AUC 0.945 (95% CI 0.933 - 0.956), with sensitivity 0.869 (95% CI 0.802, 0.931) and specificity 0.858 (0.855, 0.860) on the validation set.

    Conclusions: Multiple algorithms displayed excellent discrimination and outperformed available indexes for short-term mortality prediction. The practical utility of the algorithms increases as the required data were captured electronically and did not require de novo data collection.

    Trial registration number: Not applicable.

  • 411.
    Blomberg, Elin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Öhmark, Ulrika
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Malnutrition hos äldre patienter: Hur kan det förebyggas?2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Malnutrition är ett vanligt förekommande tillstånd bland äldre som är inneliggande på sjukhus. Syftet med litteraturstudien var att belysa hur sjuksköterskan kan förebygga malnutrition hos äldre. Resultatet baseras på 15 vetenskapliga artiklar och visar hur sjuksköterskan kan förbygga tillståndet genom de fem teman som togs fram: att skapa delaktighet i vården med hjälp av information, att involvera anhöriga, struktur i vårdteamet, att använda sig av bedömningsinstrument och kunskap och utbildning. Resultatet visar hur god kommunikation och kunskap hjälper sjuksköterskan i arbetet att förebygga malnutrition. Det krävs även en struktur i vårdteamet för en tydlig rollfördelning bland professionerna. Patienternas delaktighet är en viktig faktor för att öka deras motivation, även anhörigas involvering lyfts fram. I framtiden behövs det fler studier på svenska förhållanden och mer uppmärksamhet till patienter som trots övervikt kan bli malnutrierade. Till sist måste information om äldre som aktivt väljer att sluta äta framarbetas, både till sjukvårdspersonal och anhöriga.

  • 412.
    Blomqvist, Marjut
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Erfarenheter hos barn till förälder med psykisk ohälsa2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the European union it has been estimated that 27% of adults suffer from at least one mental disorder; this is also one of the major public health problems in Sweden. About 36% of patients in psychiatric care have underage children and it is known that children of parents with mental illness have a higher risk of various problems but that there are many protective factors that can help these children. The Swedish Health and Medical Service Act obligates the professionals in psychiatric services to pay attention to these children. The aim of this study was to describe the experiences of the children to parents with mental disorder related to the parent’s illness and highlight the importance of professionals. Ten articles which were published in nursing journals were analyzed. The findings highlights the experiences of underage and adult children and the impact nursing staff may have on the children’s experiences. There is a need for further nursing research and development in clinical practice.

  • 413.
    Blomqvist, Marjut
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare. Psykiatrin Halland, Falkenberg, Sverige.
    LIV-P Levnadsvaneinterventioner för personer med psykossjukdom2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 414.
    Blomqvist, Marjut
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Nursing.
    Carlsson, Ing-Marie
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Jormfeldt, Henrika
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Experiences of data collection issues in qualitative studies involving people diagnosed with schizophrenia2016In: Abstracts: Narrative Nursing: Nordic Conference Of Mental Health Nursing: 14-16 September 2016, 2016, p. 41-41Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The viewpoint and special needs of individuals with severe mental illness are crucial for the development of mental health nursing. In-depth knowledge of the perspectives of people with schizophrenia is primarily established in dialogue with individuals with experience of the phenomenon investigated. Attaining trustworthiness in the findings in qualitative studies is of great importance and the interview approach used should assure trustworthiness in the data collection at different levels with regard to the perspectives of the individual, which is essential for developing nursing research and practice.

    Aim: The aim of the paper was to describe and discuss the issues related to data collection in qualitative studies involving people diagnosed with schizophrenia.

    Method: Six qualitative interview studies regarding experiences of different aspects of life among people diagnosed with schizophrenia were reflected on and discussed in terms of issues related to data collection involving people with severe mental illness such as schizophrenia (N=75).

    Results: The discussions that generated the results revealed three topics in qualitative studies involving individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia: 1) Selection of research context with respect to participants’ different aspects of life, 2) Sampling issues with regard to judgements of participants’ ability to contribute with information and 3) Choice of data collection methods to meet the aim of the enquiry.

    Conclusion: Three crucial areas in data collection in qualitative studies with individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia were revealed. Further studies regarding sampling procedures and analysis of collected data are needed to ensure trustworthiness of findings regarding interviews involving people with severe mental illness.

  • 415.
    Blomqvist, Marjut
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Nursing.
    Carlsson, Ing-Marie
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Sandgren, Anna
    Linneaus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Jormfeldt, Henrika
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    How to facilitate healthy living described by persons with persistent psychiatric disorders in psychiatric out-patient settings – challenging health care professionals2016In: Abstracts: Narrative Nursing: Nordic Conference Of Mental Health Nursing: 14-16 September 2016, 2016, p. 13-13Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Over the previous decades, scientific research has demonstrated that people with persistent mental illness like schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders have a reduced life expectancy and have a higher risk of being affected of preventable physical illnesses such as developing metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Additionally it have made evident for lower quality of life as well. These risk factors make health promoting essential in the care providing and therefore it ́s important for the health professionals to have a deeper knowledge about the facilitating factors to healthy living described by persons themselves.

    Aim: The aim of this qualitative study was to describe the experiences of persons affected by persistent mental illness such as schizophrenia or other psychotic disorders what facilitates healthy living in their everyday life. The presentation has the focus on the facilitative factors applying health professionals when providing care for persons in psychiatric out-patient settings.

    Method: The study was carried out in three different psychiatric out-patient settings in the southern Sweden. The data was collected through qualitative interviews (N= 16) and analyses by qualitative, inductive approach abased on Granheim and Lundmans ́ conceptualization of content analysis.

    Results: First, it is essential for persons with persistent and severe mental illness that they get support to bring out their needs to healthier living by having a dialogue about the issues of healthy living in their everyday life. In this dialog they may also need support to reflect and find out their own motivating factors to healthier living. Additionally, in this dialogue it is important to be aware of that they will be regarded as a whole person and include many areas of life like daily structure and social life. The professionals should show a truly involvement and active interest to persons when increasing healthy living.

    Conclusion: Many persons with persistent mental illness need practical support in their everyday life to maintaining healthier living. This requires the close cooperation between psychiatric out-patient settings, the housing support professionals from municipalities and the social services.

  • 416.
    Blomqvist, Marjut
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Nursing.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Carlsson, Ing-Marie
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Sandgren, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Center for Collaborative Palliative Care , Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Växjö, Sweden.
    Jormfeldt, Henrika
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Nursing.
    Health Risks among People with Severe Mental Illness in Psychiatric Outpatient Settings2018In: Issues in Mental Health Nursing, ISSN 0161-2840, E-ISSN 1096-4673, Vol. 39, no 7, p. 585-591Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Life expectancy is greatly reduced in patients with schizophrenia, and cardiovascular diseases are a leading cause of mortality. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the prevalence of overweight, obesity, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and to investigate the relationships between self-rated health, sense of coherence, CVD risk, and body mass index (BMI) among people with severe mental illness (SMI) in psychiatric outpatient settings. Nearly 50% of the participants were exposed to moderate/high risk of CVD and over 50% were obese. The results showed no statistically relationships between the subjective and objective measures (Bayes factor <1) of health. The integration of physical health into clinical psychiatric nursing practice is vital. © 2018 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

  • 417.
    Blomqvist, Marjut
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Nursing.
    Jormfeldt, Henrika
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Nursing.
    Experiences of methodological issues in qualitative studies involving people with severe mental illness such as schizophrenia2016In: Programme: Second Nordic Conference in Nursing Research, 2016, p. 60-60Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The viewpoint and special needs of individuals with severe mental illness is crucial in development of mental health nursing. In-depth knowledge of the perspectives of people with severe mental illness is primarily established in dialog with individuals experienced in the phenomenon investigated. To reach trustworthiness of findings in qualitative studies is central and the interview approach used should assure trustworthiness in data collection regarding perspectives of the individual essential in developing nursing research and practice.

    Aim: The aim of the paper was to describe and discuss methodological issues related to research interviews involving people with severe and persistent mental illness.

    Method: Five qualitative interview studies regarding experiences of different aspects of life among people with severe mental illness were reflected and discussed regarding methodological issues related to the interview situation involving people with severe and persistent mental illness (N=51).

    Results: The discussions forming the results revealed three crucial topics in qualitative interview studies with individuals with severe mental illness. Use previous experiences of interactions with persons with mental disabilities with an open mind without prejudices. Balance the interviewee’s need of support and encouragement during the interview without manipulating contents of statements. Comprehend the essential meaning in the interviewee’s statements even when statements are short and narrow.

    Discussion: Three crucial topics in qualitative interview studies with individuals with severe mental illness were revealed. Further studies regarding sampling procedures and analysis of collected data are needed to ensure trustworthiness of findings regarding interviews involving people with severe mental illness.

  • 418.
    Blomqvist, Marjut
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Nursing.
    Sandgren, Anna
    Linneaus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Carlsson, Ing-Marie
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Nursing.
    Jormfeldt, Henrika
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Nursing.
    Enabling healthy living: Experiences of people with severe mental illness in psychiatric outpatient services2018In: International Journal of Mental Health Nursing, ISSN 1445-8330, E-ISSN 1447-0349, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 236-246Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well known that people with severe mental illness have a reduced life expectancy and a greater risk of being affected by preventable physical illnesses such as metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. There are still, however, only a few published studies focusing on what enables healthy living for this group. This study thus aimed to describe what enables healthy living among people with severe mental illness in psychiatric outpatient services. The data were collected in qualitative interviews (n = 16) and content analysis was used to analyze the data. The interviews resulted in an overall theme "Being regarded as a whole human being by self and others", which showed the multidimensional nature of health and the issues that enable healthy living among people with severe mental illness. Three categories emerged: (i) everyday structure (ii), motivating life events and (iii) support from significant others. The results indicate that a person with severe mental illness needs to be encountered as a whole person if healthy living is to be enabled. Attaining healthy living requires collaboration between the providers of care, help and support. Health care organizations need to work together to develop and provide interventions to enable healthy living and to reduce poor physical health among people with severe mental illness. © 2017 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  • 419.
    Blomster, Carola
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Johansson, Maria
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Kvinnors erfarenheter av våld i en nära relation: En litteraturstudie2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Intimate partner violence is a public health problem. 12 422 cases of indoor assault in the intimate partnership against women over 18 were reported in 2010. An average of 30 women dies each year in Sweden due to physical violence. 17 of them are killed by their current or former partner. Psychological violence may be constituted by threats, control and harassment and can be difficult to identify. Sexual violence can be abuse during sex and compulsion into various sexual acts. Intimate partner violence occurs in all social classes and children are affected directly or in-directly by domestic violence. The government has presented a plan of action with measures and efforts to, among other things, fight men’s violence against women. The police are trained to better treat and help vulnerable women. Women and children can receive help and support from nonprofit organizations. Aim: The aim of this study was to describe women’s experiences of violence in an intimate partnership. Method: The method that was used in this study was based on facts from literature. The Databases that were used was Academic Search Elite and PsycINFO. Result: The nice and charming man that women met proved over time to be a violent man. The violence came stealthy and it increased gradually in the relationship. Women blamed themselves for the violence. They were ashamed of their situation and tried to keep up an appearance. Pregnancy did not seem to be any protection against the violence. Women experienced both that there was support around them and that the support did not came them to the benefit. Protected identity became an alternative for some women. Implication: The complex and growing problem of intimate partner violence needs to be a frequent topic on the agenda. It is of great importance that further research is conducted in Sweden in this area and that the knowledge will be transformed into practical tools in the community.

  • 420.
    Bodell Pettersson, Maria
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Gyrling, Therese
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    När stöttepelaren inte håller: Erfarenheter av att lära sig leva med en ryggmärgsskada2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I Sverige drabbas varje år omkring 100-150 personer av en traumatiskt orsakad ryggmärgsskada. En ryggmärgsskada innebär ofta ett funktionshinder som gör att stora förändringar måste göras i livssituationen, vilket kan vara en svår anpassning. Stress, ångest och depressiva symtom är relativt vanligt bland personer som skadats. Syftet med studien var att beskriva vuxna patienters erfarenheter av att lära sig leva med en ryggmärgsskada. Studien gjordes som en litteraturstudie där 15 vetenskapliga artiklar valdes ut, granskades och analyserades via färgkodning för att finna likheter. Resultatet gav fem teman: bedömningar av skadan, medpatienter som hjälp och tröst, stöd från omgivningen, kämparglöd och hopp om framtiden och finna mening och gå vidare med livet. Det är av vikt att sjuksköterskor som arbetar med dessa patienter känner till hur andra gjort för att gå vidare, för att på så sätt kunna hjälpa och stödja patienter, vid såväl rehabilitering som vid senare vårdtillfällen. Mer forskning behöver göras på hur god omvårdnad kan ges till personer som drabbats av en ryggmärgsskada.

  • 421.
    Bogren, Emma
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Westberg, Johanna
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Att leva ett förändrat liv: Mäns upplevelse av att leva med prostatacancer2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Prostate cancer is the most common form of cancer that afflicts men in Sweden. The affliction creates different struggles that affect the men’s daily lives. During the progress of the disease the men experience a loss of their dignity. As a nurse it is important to care for the patient as a whole and provide a personal care, related to the nursing diagnosis of the patient. Aim: To shed light on the experiences of the men who are currently living with prostate cancer. Method: A study of literature focusing on qualitative data. Data was gathered from 12 scientific articles. Result: The study led to five categories that the men experienced: The lack of information, loss of dignity, anxiety surrounding own mortality, experience of different support forms and adjustment of the everyday life. Conclusion: The men’s daily lives are affected extensively by the disease prostate cancer and they need different forms of support. The nurse should level with the men in order to provide an individual care.

  • 422.
    Bohäll, Amanda
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Malmström, Emma
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Personliga assistenters psykosociala arbetsmiljö: En kvalitativ studie inom offentlig och privat sektor2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Personal assistance is a unique profession to the extent that the assistant comes the client close to life through participation in order to improve the individual's life and living conditions. The work is also unique as it uses the client’s home environment. The purpose of the following essay is to explore personal assistants’ experiences of a psychosocial work environment in order to increase knowledge about risk and health factors in work with people with disabilities. The collection of the empirical material has been done through a qualitative design to capture the respondents' experiences about the psychosocial work environment. The qualitative method which has been used is semi structured interviews with the aim of giving respondents a possibility to express themselves freely about their psychosocial work environment. In total seven interviews have been conducted through a selection from four respondents as in turn entered new people. The interviews have been transcribed to enable an analysis of the collected empiricism. The empiricism shows that personal assistants feel motivation in work when they witness the clients’ development. The empiricism also shows that demands and control especially come from the client’s family and affect the psychosocial work environment a lot. The empiricism at last shows that social support from both colleagues and managers represent a great value for the psychosocial work environment for personal assistants.

    The conclusion of the psychosocial work environment based on the results is a work situation based on high demands, low control and low social support. Although the psychosocial work environment is perceived to be difficult by the assistants they appreciate the possibility to enable a more worthwhile life for the clients. The conclusion is as well that each employer has an important work to do with the psychosocial work environment in order to make the personal assistants work environment better in the future. 

  • 423.
    Bokström, Malin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Svensson, Ingrid
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Tröst till personen med cancer som vårdas av sjuksköterska i livets slut: En begreppsanalys2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Comfort plays a central part in nursing care. The concept of comfort has been questioned whether it is relevant to the nursing care. Comfort associated with suffering and the importance of the concept of comfort are individually, physically, mentally and spiritually. The aim of the study was to investigate the concept from a nursing perspective at the end of life stage. Conceptual analysis follows Rodgers Evolutionary Concept Analysis. Article searches were conducted in 4 databases. 14 articles became the final selection. Where surrogate/related terms, antecedenter, features, examples and implications of consolation was identified. . The result shows that there are some common factors that promote comfort. Factors that emerged was the relationship with the nurse, family relationships and religious or spiritual beliefs. It is important that the nurse adapts the consolation to the individual when comfort is experienced individually. The results were discussed from the perspective of Ruland and Moore's nursing theory Peaceful End-Of-Life Theory and further analysis phase. More research is needed to further develop the concept of comfort in life´s final stage.

  • 424.
    Bokström, Malin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS). Halmstad University.
    Törnquist, Malin
    Halmstad University. Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    För patientens bästa: kommunikation mellan sjuksköterska och läkare2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    It requires better communication between medical staff to ensure patient safety. It’s proved that communication is linked to the mistakes that occur in patient care. A special need for further research on communication between nurses and doctors are needed, this for the communication between them is a big part of patient care and safety. The purpose of this study was to illuminate factors that affect communication between doctors and nurses related to patient safety. The study was conducted as a literaturestudy. The results showed that C-HIP and SBAR were useful methods for promoting good communication between the professions and to promote patient safety. It requires good quality of the information and relevant information to foster good communication. Humor, empathy, understanding and openness are factors in behavior that promotes good communication. The hierarchy that still exists is affecting communication between the nurse and doctor negative. Raising his voice, depreciate each other and show a disrespectful behavior are barriers that effects the communication. More courses need to be introduced in the nurse and physician education to promote communication. One suggestion might be to introduce a common course in which professions can practice and also get an insight into each other's work.

  • 425.
    Bolanca, Anna
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Kjellström, Johanna
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Patienters upplevelser av omvårdnaden på akutmottagningen efter ett trauma2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Trauma is something that appears unexpectedly and can lead to extensive consequences. Since the patients themselves cannot fully influence the situation itself, it is important that the nurse has the skills to offer the best possible care. Aim: The aim was to highlight patients' experiences of nursing care in the emergency department after experiencing a trauma. Method: A literature review was conducted with critical review and compilation of scientific articles within the chosen topic. A total of nine result articles were used. Results: Patients experiences could be divided into three themes: participation, security and hope. The result showed that patients' experiences of care in emergency rooms after a trauma alternated between positive and negative experiences. Participation was something that varied and affected patients' experience of nursing care. Being assigned information and relevant facts posed concerns and brought a sense of security. Hope was created by good quality care while lack of hope led to a reduced willingness to fight. Conclusions: Increased knowledge already in nursing education about trauma care in the emergency department can provide greater awareness about patients' experiences of care, which in turn can lead to better care. Research to raise awareness about patients' experiences of care after a trauma should be carried out.

  • 426.
    Bolinder, Emmelie
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Svensson, Patrik
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Barns motivation till fysisk aktivitet: En litteraturstudie2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In today's society there are several technical innovations that facilitate a child's daily life, that contribute children to be less active. Children are advised to be physically active for 60 minutes per day and only one of five children is take this advice seriously. Physical inactivity has major negative effects on health, including obesity, cancer and diabetes. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe the child's motivation to increase physical activity. Methods: To answer the purpose, a literature study that was based on a systematic, methodical and critical review of previously published articles. The articles were searched in databases such as Pubmed, Academic Search Elite and Sciens Direct, which were published between 2000-2011. The number of items that were selected was 16 articles and the results were reviewed and summarized in three themes. Result: The child's motivation to increase physical activity resulted in three themes: Play and movement that source of joy, environments that inspire increased physical activity and responsibility and the social environment influence physical activity. The results showed that children become more motivated to increase physical activity by being out and play with other children. A major motivating factor is a good collaboration between schools and parents for an increased activity in children. A major motivating factor for children is also that they themselves may be involved in deciding activities. Implication: This study gives schools, parents and communities to improve children's health and future of society such as municipalities, the number of green areas and that parents become aware of the importance of physical activity in children.

  • 427.
    Bolling, Viktor
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Dahl, Cathrine
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Dahlbäck, Archie
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Att förstå varandra: Kommunikation i omvårdnaden trots demenssjukdom2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As a result of a future with expected increased lifetime, more people will be diagnosed with various forms of dementia that causes communication problems. In order to promote good healthcare, it is important to use communication strategies that are adapted to persons with dementia’s potential. Focus should be on the person’s autonomy and integrity. The purpose was to illustrate communication in the care of persons diagnosed with dementia. The study was conducted as a case study where ten scientific articles formed the basis of the study’s results that formed three categories. Caregivers used, among other things, the voice pitch and encouraging comments in the verbal communication when nursing. It was also important that healthcare providers gave the time in the care that was needed to persons with dementia to communicate based on their conditions. Nonverbal communication included, inter alia, eye contact and physical touch. Songs and music was considered to affect the communication differently in the care of persons with dementia. Further research on communication strategies at specific dementias that strengthens the evidence for nurses’ ability to prescribe independent nursing interventions in nursing is considered essential. Education of nurses should include courses in communication strategies for specific dementia diseases.

  • 428.
    Bolse, Kärstin
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Caring for Patients with an Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator Experiences of Patients and Healthcare Professionals2009Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: An Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator (ICD) is a technical device used in the treatment of ventricular arrhythmias. After the implantation of an ICD the entire life situation can be affected with psychological and social consequences for the patient and his/her next of kin. The healthcare professionals play a vital role in providing educational information, support, and technical follow-up of the device. During recent years more and more hospitals have introduced a more team based organisation where the physicians collaborate with specialised ICD nurses.

    Aim: The overall aim of the thesis was to explore how patients with an ICD experienced their life situation and howhealthcare professionals described their experiences of delivering care to ICD patients.

    Methods: The design was descriptive, combining both quantitative and qualitative approaches, and the data was collected from Sweden and the USA. The Uncertainty of Illness Scale (MUIS-C) and Quality of life Index (QLI) instruments were used to determine the level of uncertainty and satisfaction with life (I), in-depth interviews with a phenomenographic approach was used to describe how Swedish and US patients living with an ICD conceived their life situation (II, III) and how healthcare professionals’ experienced delivering care to patients with an ICD, (IV). Finally, to explore clinical aspects of ICD care in Sweden, the Delivery of ICD Questionnaire (DOIQ) was used to describe the healthcare professionals’ experiences and a content analysis was used to describe the written educational information material provided to patients (V).

    Results: There were no differences in uncertainty between pre and post ICD implantation either in Swedish or the US patients. Satisfaction with life was significantly higher among US patients compared to Swedish patients both before and after ICD implantation within the health-functioning, socio-economic and psychological-spiritual domains. The Swedish ICD patients experienced a significantly higher satisfaction with life within the socioeconomic domain after 3 months. (I). The patients felt safe in having an ICD implanted, but the conceptions varied from seeing the device as a life saver to being worried about what could happen. Gratitude at having an ICD varied from happiness at being alive to something that was alien and disturbed the patient. Being more or less dependent included how patient experienced feelings from well-being to grief. Having a network varied from having sufficient support to loneliness. Having a belief in the future ranged from having confidence to look forward to resignation. Gaining awareness described patients’ adaptation to living with an ICD and limitations due to the ICD (II). The patients also underwent a transition from becoming aware of the restriction in the life situation through a process of adaption and having trust in the ICD. This phase was followed by a reorientation phase where they adapted to their life situation and the patient and his/her family regained of their lives (III). The healthcare professionals strove to provide competent and individualised care and infuse confirmation to the patients in form of information, education and support. They gave the patients tools to handle their life situation, through existential support and mediating security (IV). Half of the hospitals had nurse-based clinic and others planned to introduce them. Three hospitals performed follow-up in the form of remote home monitoring. The nurse had specific ICD education from ICD companies and/or various university courses. In the educational information material the biophysical dimensions dominated while the emotional dimension was scarcely described, and the spiritual-existential was not referred to at all (V).

    Conclusions: This thesis offers a further contribution to the scholarly discussion about the relationship between technology and human existence and how to cope with this transition. Our studies revealed that the embodiment of the ICD reflects a merger of experiences about its presence and potential from both patients’ and healthcare professionals’ perspective. This research hopefully encourages healthcare professionals to carefully reflect on what it is like to live with an ICD and to consider practice improvement for the patients’ and the next of kin.

  • 429.
    Bolse, Kärstin
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI). Linköpings Universitet, Linköping, Sweden.
    Living with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator: Swedish and US patients' experiences of their life situation2004Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 430.
    Bolse, Kärstin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Flemme, Inger
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Ivarsson, Anita
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Jinhage, Britt-Marie
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Carroll, Diane
    Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston.
    Edvardsson, Nils
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg.
    Hamilton, Glenys A.
    Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston.
    Fridlund, Bengt
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Life situation related to the ICD implantation: self-reported uncertainty and satisfaction in Swedish and US samples2002In: European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, ISSN 1474-5151, E-ISSN 1873-1953, Vol. 1, no 4, p. 243-251Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to describe changes in the life situation related to the ICD implantation of Swedish and US samples with regard to uncertainty and satisfaction. The life situation was measured by reference to the uncertainty caused by the condition and satisfaction with the life situation. Inferential statistics were used to analyse changes within and between the Swedish and US samples. Uncertainty showed a statistically significant difference between the Swedish and US samples before as well as after the ICD implantation. A higher level of uncertainty was indicated for the US sample prior to the ICD implantation and for the Swedish sample following the implantation. In the Swedish sample, satisfaction with life showed a statistically significant difference within the socio-economic domain, indicating a higher degree of satisfaction 3 months after implantation. Satisfaction within the domains of health and functioning, socio-economics and psychological-spiritual showed a statistically significant difference between the Swedish and US samples both before and after ICD implantation, indicating a higher degree of satisfaction in the US sample. The previous study shows that the ICD-patient's life situation is changed after the implantation and that it is necessary to provide the patient with information and education based on their own preconditions. The fact that US sample was investigated at a later stage after ICD implantation than the Swedish sample may have influenced the results of the study.

  • 431.
    Bolse, Kärstin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Group for Research on health promotion and disease prevention.
    Hamilton, Glenys
    University of Oslo, Center for Shared Decision Making and Nursing Research, Norway.
    Flanagan, Jane
    University of Massachusetts-Lowell, Lowell, MA, USA.
    Caroll, Diane L.
    Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.
    Fridlund, Bengt
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Ways of experiencing the life situation among United States patients with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator: a qualitative study2005In: Progress in Cardiovascular Nursing, ISSN 0889-7204, E-ISSN 1751-7117, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 4-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to describe how a selected group of United States patients with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator perceived their life situation. A qualitative design based on the phenomenographic approach was chosen to describe the patients' conceptions of their life situation. Fourteen patients-eight men and six women, aged 21-84-were strategically selected to obtain as broad a variation as possible. The descriptive categories to emerge from the analysis of the interviews were trust, adaptability, and empowerment. The category labeled trust describes how patients trusted in the organization around them. The category labeled adaptability describes how patients adapted to living with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator device. The category entitled empowerment describes how patients considered that they received support from family and friends as well as from health care professionals. This study suggests the need for a holistic intervention program comprising family, work, and leisure, focusing on patients' future life situation.

  • 432.
    Bolse, Kärstin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Johansson, I.
    Linköping University Hospital.
    Strömberg, Anna
    Linkoping University Hospital.
    Organisation of care for Swedish patients with an Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator, a national survey2010In: European Heart Journal, Supplement, ISSN 1520-765X, E-ISSN 1554-2815, Vol. 31, no Supplement 1, p. 236-236Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    ICD implantations have developed rapidly in recent years and is now an established arrhythmia treatment. The expanding indication for ICD implantation demands new competencies and resources in the ICD team members.

    Objectives:

    To describe the clinical aspects of Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators (ICD) care in Sweden with focus on organisation, the role and education of nurses, patient information and education, and areas in need of improvement.

    Methods:

    Participants were recruited among physicians and nurses in all of the hospitals implanting ICDs (N=16). Data was collected by a questionnaire. The questionnaire was constructed based on a systematic literature review and then guided by an expert group with clinical and research expertise within the ICD area. The format was inspired by existing questionnaires on heart failure care. The questionnaire comprised of 23 questions, including both multiple choice questions and open questions. Additionally, all written educational materials provided to patients pre- and post-ICD implant were collected from all 16 hospitals. Deductive content analysis using Sarvimäki and Stenbock-Hult's five holistic dimensions was employed to ascertain how information was provided in brochures and information materials.

    Results:

    This study revealed variations in the organisation and follow-up of ICD patients between the different centres in Sweden. Half of the hospitals (n=8) had nurse-based outpatient clinics and several others planned to introduce them. Three hospitals carried out distance follow-ups by means of tele-monitoring. The nurses had received specific ICD education from ICD companies and/or various university courses. In all hospitals, ICD patients received verbal and written information both before and after implantation. The biophysical dimension dominated in the information material while the emotional, intellectual, and socio-cultural dimensions were scarcely described, and the spiritual- existential was not referred to at all. The majority of the ICD teams were in favour of the development of research and quality assurance by means of check lists, guidelines and the ICD-registry.

    Conclusion:

    Holistic care of ICD patients can be achieved by means of a multi-disciplinary ICD team and more patient-centred educational strategies. In Sweden, the organisation of ICD care and follow-up is developing towards more nurse-based clinics. The content of the written educational materials need to be more holistic, rather than mainly focusing on the biophysical and technical aspects of living with an ICD.

  • 433.
    Bolse, Kärstin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Johansson, Ingela
    Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Nursing Science, Linköping University.
    Strömberg, Anna
    Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Nursing Science, Linköping University.
    Experiences of delivering care to patients with an Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator from the perspective of health care professionals2009Manuscript (preprint) (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To describe healthcare professionals’ experiences of delivering care to patients with an Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator (ICD).

    Methods: A qualitative, descriptive design based on a phenomenographic approach. Data was collected between October and December 2007 through interviews with 24 healthcare professionals representing all 16 implanting ICD centres in Sweden.

    Results: Two descriptive categories comprising seven subcategories emerged. Striving to provide competent care comprised: providing access to care, improving one’s quantifications, individualising care and Striving to infuse confirmation involved: promoting independence providing existential support, mediating security and comprising needs of next of kin.

    Conclusion: The healthcare professional striving to provide competent and confirming care based on a holistic perspective. The results describe a variation of how healthcare professionals’ strive to be professional in clinical care in order to give the patient tools to handle their life situation.

    Practice Implications: The findings from healthcare professionals’ experiences can complement studies from the patients’ perspective and are important when improving care or ICD patients. This study can serve as a base for developing and redefining holistic follow-up programmes for ICD patients.

  • 434.
    Bolse, Kärstin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Johansson, Ingela
    Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Nursing Science, Linköping University.
    Strömberg, Anna
    Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Nursing Science, Linköping University.
    Organisation of care for Swedish patients with an Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator, a national survey2011In: Journal of Clinical Nursing, ISSN 0962-1067, E-ISSN 1365-2702, Vol. 20, no 17-18, p. 2600-2608Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim.

    To describe the clinical aspects of implantable cardioverter defibrillators care in Sweden with focus on organisation, the role and education of nurses, patient information and education and areas in need of improvement.

    Background.

    Implantable cardioverter defibrillators implantations have developed rapidly in recent years and are now an established arrhythmia treatment. The expanding indication for implantable cardioverter defibrillators implantation demands new competencies and resources in the implantable cardioverter defibrillators team members.

    Methods.

    Participants were recruited among physicians and nurses in all of the hospitals implanting implantable cardioverter defibrillators (n = 16). Data were collected by a questionnaire. Additionally, all written educational materials provided to patients pre- and postimplant were collected from all 16 hospitals. Deductive content analysis using Sarvimäki and Stenbock-Hult's five holistic dimensions was employed to ascertain how information was provided in brochures and information materials.

    Results.

    Half of the hospitals (n = 8) had nurse-based outpatient clinics and several others planned to introduce them. Three hospitals carried out distance follow-ups by means of tele-monitoring. The nurses had received specific implantable cardioverter defibrillators education from implantable cardioverter defibrillators companies and/or various university courses. The biophysical dimension dominated in the information material, while the emotional, intellectual and socio-cultural dimensions were scarcely described, and the spiritual-existential was not referred to at all.

    Conclusion.

    Holistic care of implantable cardioverter defibrillators patients can be achieved by means of a multidisciplinary implantable cardioverter defibrillators team and more patient-centred educational strategies. In Sweden, the organisation of implantable cardioverter defibrillators care and follow-up is developing towards more nurse-based clinics.

    Relevance to clinical practice.

    Development and implementation of structured care programmes with a more holistic approach can improve future implantable cardioverter defibrillators care. The content of the written educational materials need to be more holistic, rather than mainly focusing on the biophysical and technical aspects of living with an implantable cardioverter defibrillators.

  • 435.
    Bolse, Kärstin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Thylen, Ingela
    Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping Sweden.
    Strömberg, Anna
    Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Healthcare professionals' experiences of delivering care to patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator2012In: European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, ISSN 1474-5151, E-ISSN 1873-1953, Vol. 12, no 4, p. 346-352Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: An implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) is a technical device used in the treatment of ventricular arrhythmias. After an ICD implantation, the entire life situation of the patient their next of kin can be affected psychologically and socially. Healthcare professionals play a vital role in providing educational counselling, support and technical follow-up of the device, but little is known about their experiences.

    AIM: This paper describes the experiences of Swedish healthcare professionals in delivering care to patients with an ICD.

    METHODS: A qualitative, descriptive design based on a phenomenographic approach was used. Data were collected through interviews with 12 specialist ICD nurses and 12 physicians, representing 16 ICD implantation centres in Sweden.

    FINDINGS: Two descriptive categories comprising seven subcategories emerged. Striving to provide competent care comprised the subcategories: providing access to care, improving one's qualifications and individualising care. Striving to infuse confirmation incorporated the subcategories: promoting independence, providing existential support, mediating security and comprising needs of next of kin.

    CONCLUSIONS: The healthcare professionals described how they wished to develop the care further. Both nurses and physicians were consistent in wanting to provide competent and confirming care based on a holistic perspective with high accessibility to the ICD team. The findings describe how healthcare professionals strive to provide professional clinical care in order to give the patients tools to handle their life situation. They suggested that more structured education and counselling according to guidelines should be provided. They also highlighted the need to increase their own competence by improving their knowledge and skills.

  • 436.
    Boman, Ida
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Tryggvesson, Emmy
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Sjuksköterskans oberoende omvårdnadsåtgärder för barn med funktionell obstipation: En allmän litteraturstudie2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Functional constipation is a common problem in children around the world. Functional constipation is defined as hard stools, feeling of incomplete defecation and difficulty in emptying the intestine. Experienced pain associated with intestinal emptying is the most common cause of children suffering from functional constipation, for this reason the child avoids defecation. Although laxantia can lead to a majority of side effects, it is often the first treatment for constipation. For this reason, the aim of this study was to investigate what independent nursing measures the nurse may use in the treatment of functional constipation of children in the ages 1-18 years. The nurse has a significant role in the care of functional constipation, therefore knowledge about the problem is required. The study is conducted as a general literature study and is based on ten scientific articles. The result has been processed and is being presented in three themes. It appears that teaching, encouragement and follow-up are parts that are of major importance in the treatment of functional constipation in children. The nurse should establish a supportive and encouraging relationship with the children and parents in order to achieve the best possible treatment outcomes. More research in the field is necessary to develop nurse's knowledge of independent nursing interventions in functional constipation.

  • 437.
    Bonafé, Fatima
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Donovan, Annie
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Omvårdnad av patienter med smärta ur ett genusperspektiv: En litteraturstudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I samhället råder ett genussystem som särhåller män och kvinnor och detta skapar genusskillnader där mannen är normen och kvinnan den avvikande. Genus är det människan formas till genom kultur och tänkande. Smärta är ett problem för patienter och omvårdnad av patienter med smärta är en viktig del av sjuksköterskeprofessionen. Omvårdnad av patienter med smärta baserat på inbillningar om genus kan skapa felaktig bedömning och behandling och kan leda till fara för patienten. Syftet med studien var att undersöka omvårdnad av patienter med smärta ur ett genusperspektiv. En litteraturstudie med systematisk sökning genomfördes. Artiklarna genomgick kvalitetsgranskning och etikgranskning. En kvalitativ innehållsanalys med en deduktiv ansats genomfördes utifrån sjuksköterskans omvårdnad av patienter med smärta. Resultatet är baserat på 13 vetenskapliga artiklar och presenteras i två kategorier; bedömning av patienter med smärta och behandling av patienter med smärta. Sjuksköterskor bedömer manliga patienters smärta som mer intensiv och trovärdig än kvinnliga patienters smärta som också rekommenderas mer psykologisk hjälp än manliga patienter. Resultatet visar också att sjuksköterskor kan låta egna fördomar påverka smärtbedömningen. Litteraturstudien både bekräftar och dementerar att det finns genusskillnader mellan manliga och kvinnliga patienter i farmakologisk smärtbehandling. Genuspåverkan kan ses genomgående från utbildningen som student till arbetsplatsen som sjuksköterska. För att skapa en mer personcentrerad omvårdnad av patienter med smärta är kunskap om genus något som behövs prioriteras, förslagsvis genom reflektion och utbildning, både i sjuksköterskeutbildningen och på arbetsplatsen. Ytterligare forskning om genusskillnader i andra delar av vården är önskvärt.

  • 438.
    Boon, Hanneke
    et al.
    Department of Human Biology, Nutrition and Toxicology Research Institute Maastricht (NUTRIM), Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands.
    Blaak, E. E.
    Department of Human Biology, Nutrition and Toxicology Research Institute Maastricht (NUTRIM), Maastricht University, Maastricht, Netherlands.
    Saris, W. H.
    Department of Human Biology, Nutrition and Toxicology Research Institute Maastricht (NUTRIM), Maastricht University, Maastricht, Netherlands.
    Keizer, H. A.
    Department of Movement Sciences, NUTRIM, Maastricht University, Maastricht, Netherlands & Department of Human Physiology and Sportsmedicine, Free University of Brussels, Brussels, Belgium.
    Wagenmakers, A. J.
    School of Sport and Exercise Science, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom.
    van Loon, L. J. C.
    Department of Human Biology, Nutrition and Toxicology Research Institute Maastricht (NUTRIM), Maastricht University, Maastricht, Netherlands & Department of Movement Sciences, NUTRIM, Maastricht University, Maastricht, Netherlands.
    Substrate source utilisation in long-term diagnosed type 2 diabetes patients at rest, and during exercise and subsequent recovery2007In: Diabetologia, ISSN 0012-186X, E-ISSN 1432-0428, Vol. 50, no 1, p. 103-112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Disturbances in substrate source metabolism and, more particularly, in fatty acid metabolism, play an important role in the aetiology and progression of type 2 diabetes. However, data on substrate source utilisation in type 2 diabetes are inconclusive. METHODS: [U-(13)C]palmitate and [6,6-(2)H(2)]glucose tracers were used to assess plasma NEFA and glucose oxidation rates and to estimate the use of muscle- and/or lipoprotein-derived triacylglycerol and muscle glycogen. Subjects were ten male patients who had a long-term (7 +/- 1 years) diagnosis of type 2 diabetes and were overweight, and ten matched healthy, male control subjects. Muscle biopsy samples were collected before and after exercise to assess muscle fibre type-specific intramyocellular lipid and glycogen content. RESULTS: At rest and during exercise, the diabetes patients had greater values than the controls for palmitate rate of appearance (Ra) (rest, 2.46 +/- 0.18 and 1.85 +/- 0.20 respectively; exercise, 3.71 +/- 0.36 and 2.84 +/- 0.20 micromol kg(-1) min(-1)) and rate of disappearance (Rd) (rest, 2.45 +/- 0.18 and 1.83 +/- 0.20; exercise, 3.64 +/- 0.35 and 2.80 +/- 0.20 micromol kg(-1) min(-1) respectively). This was accompanied by significantly higher fat oxidation rates at rest and during recovery in the diabetes patients (rest, 0.11 +/- 0.01 in diabetes patients and 0.09 +/- 0.01 in controls; recovery, 0.13 +/- 0.01 and 0.11 +/- 0.01 g/min respectively), despite significantly greater plasma glucose Ra, Rd and circulating plasma glucose concentrations. Furthermore, exercise significantly lowered plasma glucose concentrations in the diabetes patients, as a result of increased blood glucose disposal. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that substrate source utilisation in long-term-diagnosed type 2 diabetes patients, in whom compensatory hyperinsulinaemia is no longer present, shifts towards an increase in whole-body fat oxidation rate and is accompanied by disturbances in fat and carbohydrate handling. © 2006 Springer-Verlag.

  • 439.
    Boon, Hanneke
    et al.
    Department of Human Biology, Nutrition and Toxicology Research Institute Maastricht (NUTRIM), Maastricht University, Maastricht, the Netherlands.
    Bosselaar, M.
    Department of General Internal Medicine, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    Praet, S. F. E.
    Department of Movement Sciences, Nutrition and Toxicology Research Institute Maastricht (NUTRIM), Maastricht University, Maastricht, Netherlands.
    Blaak, E. E.
    Department of Human Biology, Nutrition and Toxicology Research Institute Maastricht (NUTRIM), Maastricht University, Maastricht, the Netherlands.
    Saris, W. H.
    Department of Human Biology, Nutrition and Toxicology Research Institute Maastricht (NUTRIM), Maastricht University, Maastricht, the Netherlands.
    Wagenmakers, A. J.
    School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom.
    McGee, S. L.
    Department of Physiology, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.
    Tack, C. J.
    Department of General Internal Medicine, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    Smits, P.
    Department of General Internal Medicine, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, Netherlands & Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    Hargreaves, M.
    Department of Physiology, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.
    van Loon, L. J.
    Department of Human Biology, Nutrition and Toxicology Research Institute Maastricht (NUTRIM), Maastricht University, Maastricht, the Netherlands & Department of Movement Sciences, Nutrition and Toxicology Research Institute Maastricht (NUTRIM), Maastricht University, Maastricht, Netherlands.
    Intravenous AICAR administration reduces hepatic glucose output and inhibits whole body lipolysis in type 2 diabetic patients2008In: Diabetologia, ISSN 0012-186X, E-ISSN 1432-0428, Vol. 51, no 10, p. 1893-1900Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway is intact in type 2 diabetic patients and is seen as a target for diabetes treatment. In this study, we aimed to assess the impact of the AMPK activator 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide riboside (AICAR) on both glucose and fatty acid metabolism in vivo in type 2 diabetic patients. METHODS: Stable isotope methodology and blood and muscle biopsy sampling were applied to assess blood glucose and fatty acid kinetics following continuous i.v. infusion of AICAR (0.75 mg kg(-1) min(-1)) and/or NaCl (0.9%) in ten male type 2 diabetic patients (age 64 +/- 2 years; BMI 28 +/- 1 kg/m(2)). RESULTS: Plasma glucose rate of appearance (R (a)) was reduced following AICAR administration, while plasma glucose rate of disappearance (R (d)) was similar in the AICAR and control test. Consequently, blood glucose disposal (R (d) expressed as a percentage of R (a)) was increased following AICAR infusion (p < 0.001). Accordingly, a greater decline in plasma glucose concentration was observed following AICAR infusion (p < 0.001). Plasma NEFA R (a) and R (d) were both significantly reduced in response to AICAR infusion, and were accompanied by a significant decline in plasma NEFA concentration. Although AMPK phosphorylation in skeletal muscle was not increased, we observed a significant increase in acetyl-CoA carboxylase phosphorylation (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: The i.v. administration of AICAR reduces hepatic glucose output, thereby lowering blood glucose concentrations in vivo in type 2 diabetic patients. Furthermore, AICAR administration stimulates hepatic fatty acid oxidation and/or inhibits whole body lipolysis, thereby reducing plasma NEFA concentration. © 2008 The Author(s).

  • 440.
    Boon, Hanneke
    et al.
    Department of Human Biology, Nutrition and Toxicology Research Institute Maastricht, Maastricht University, Maastricht, Netherlands & Department of Human Biology, Maastricht University, Maastricht, Netherlands.
    Jonkers, Richard A. M.
    Department of Human Biology, Nutrition and Toxicology Research Institute Maastricht, Maastricht University, Maastricht, Netherlands.
    Koopman, Rene
    Department of Movement Sciences, Nutrition and Toxicology Research Institute Maastricht, Maastricht University, Maastricht, Netherlands.
    Blaak, Ellen E.
    Department of Human Biology, Nutrition and Toxicology Research Institute Maastricht, Maastricht University, Maastricht, Netherlands.
    Saris, Wim H. M.
    Department of Human Biology, Nutrition and Toxicology Research Institute Maastricht, Maastricht University, Maastricht, Netherlands.
    Wagenmakers, Anton J. M.
    School of Sport and Exercise Science, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom.
    van Loon, Luc J. C.
    Department of Human Biology, Nutrition and Toxicology Research Institute Maastricht, Maastricht University, Maastricht, Netherlands & Department of Movement Sciences, Nutrition and Toxicology Research Institute Maastricht, Maastricht University, Maastricht, Netherlands.
    Substrate Source Use in Older, Trained Males after Decades of Endurance Training2007In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 39, no 12, p. 2160-2170Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to compare substrate source use in older, long-term exercising, endurance-trained males with sedentary controls. METHODS: [U-C]palmitate and [6,6-H2]glucose tracers were applied to assess plasma free fatty acid (FFA) and glucose oxidation rates, and to estimate muscle- and/or lipoprotein-derived triacylglycerol (TG) and muscle glycogen use. Subjects were 10 long-term exercising, endurance-trained males and 10 sedentary controls (age 57 +/- 1 and 60 +/- 2 yr, respectively). Muscle biopsy samples were collected before and after exercise to assess muscle fiber type-specific intramyocellular lipid and glycogen content. RESULTS: During exercise, plasma palmitate Ra, Rd, and Rox were significantly greater in the trained subjects compared with the controls (Ra: 0.36 +/- 0.02 and 0.25 +/- 0.02; Rd: 0.36 +/- 0.03 and 0.24 +/- 0.02; Rox: 0.31 +/- 0.02 and 0.20 +/- 0.02 mmol.min, respectively, P < 0.01). This resulted in greater plasma FFA and total fat oxidation rates in the trained versus sedentary subjects (P < 0.001). Muscle- and/or lipoprotein-derived TG use contributed 10 +/- 2 and 11 +/- 3% in the trained and control groups, respectively (NS). No significant net changes in muscle fiber lipid content were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Older, endurance-trained males oxidize more fat during moderate-intensity exercise than do sedentary controls. This greater total fat oxidation rate is attributed to a higher plasma FFA release, uptake, and oxidation rate. In contrast, intramyocellular triacylglycerol does not seem to represent a major substrate source during 1 h of moderate-intensity exercise in older trained or sedentary men. ©2007 The American College of Sports Medicine.

  • 441.
    Boon, Hanneke
    et al.
    Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Section for Integrative Physiology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kostovski, Emil
    Section for Spinal Cord Injury, Sunnaas Rehabilitation Hospital, Nesoddtangen, Norway & Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Pirkmajer, Sergej
    Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Section for Integrative Physiology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Song, Moshi
    Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Section for Integrative Physiology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lubarski, Irina
    Department of Biological Chemistry, The Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel.
    Iversen, Per O.
    Department of Nutrition, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway & Department of Hematology, Oslo University Hospital, Ullevaal, Oslo, Norway.
    Hjeltnes, Nils
    Section for Spinal Cord Injury, Sunnaas Rehabilitation Hospital, Nesoddtangen, Norway.
    Widegren, Ulrika
    Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Section for Integrative Physiology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Chibalin, Alexander V.
    Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Section for Integrative Physiology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Influence of chronic and acute spinal cord injury on skeletal muscle Na+-K+-ATPase and phospholemman expression in humans2012In: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN 0193-1849, E-ISSN 1522-1555, Vol. 302, no 7, p. E864-E871Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Na +-K +-ATPase is an integral membrane protein crucial for the maintenance of ion homeostasis and skeletal muscle contractibility. Skeletal muscle Na +-K +-ATPase content displays remarkable plasticity in response to long-term increase in physiological demand, such as exercise training. However, the adaptations in Na +-K +-ATPase function in response to a suddenly decreased and/or habitually low level of physical activity, especially after a spinal cord injury (SCI), are incompletely known. We tested the hypothesis that skeletal muscle content of Na +-K +-ATPase and the associated regulatory proteins from the FXYD family is altered in SCI patients in a manner dependent on the severity of the spinal cord lesion and postinjury level of physical activity. Three different groups were studied: 1) six subjects with chronic complete cervical SCI, 2) seven subjects with acute, complete cervical SCI, and 3) six subjects with acute, incomplete cervical SCI. The individuals in groups 2 and 3 were studied at months 1, 3, and 12 postinjury, whereas individuals with chronic SCI were compared with an able-bodied control group. Chronic complete SCI was associated with a marked decrease in [ 3H]ouabain binding site concentration in skeletal muscle as well as reduced protein content of the α 1-, α 1-, and (β1-subunit of the Na +-K +-ATPase. In line with this finding, expression of the Na +-K +-ATPase α 1-, α 1- subunits progressively decreased during the first year after complete but not after incomplete SCI. The expression of the regulatory protein phospholemman (PLM or FXYD1) was attenuated after complete, but not incomplete, cervical SCI. In contrast, FXYD5 was substantially upregulated in patients with complete SCI. In conclusion, the severity of the spinal cord lesion and the level of postinjury physical activity in patients with SCI are important factors controlling the expression of Na +-K +-ATPase and its regulatory proteins PLM and FXYD5. © 2012 the American Physiological Society.

  • 442.
    Boon, Hanneke
    et al.
    Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Section for Integrative Physiology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sjögren, Rasmus J.O.
    Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Section for Integrative Physiology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Massart, Julie
    Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Section for Integrative Physiology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Egan, Brendan
    Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Section for Integrative Physiology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kostovski, Emil
    Section for Spinal Cord Injury, Sunnaas Rehabilitation Hospital, Nesoddtangen, Norway; Department of Nutrition, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway & Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Iversen, Per Ole
    Department of Nutrition, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway & Department of Hematology, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.
    Hjeltnes, Nils
    Section for Spinal Cord Injury, Sunnaas Rehabilitation Hospital, Nesoddtangen, Norway.
    Chibalin, Alexander V
    Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Section for Integrative Physiology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Widegren, Ulrika
    Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Section for Integrative Physiology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Zierath, Juleen R.
    Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Section for Integrative Physiology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    MicroRNA-208b progressively declines after spinal cord injury in humans and is inversely related to myostatin expression2015In: Physiological Reports, E-ISSN 2051-817X, Vol. 3, no 11, article id e12622Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of long‐term physical inactivity on the expression of microRNAs involved in the regulation of skeletal muscle mass in humans are largely unknown. MicroRNAs are short, noncoding RNAs that fine‐tune target expression through mRNA degradation or by inhibiting protein translation. Intronic to the slow, type I, muscle fiber type genes MYH7 and MYH7b, microRNA‐208b and microRNA‐499‐5p are thought to fine‐tune the expression of genes important for muscle growth, such as myostatin. Spinal cord injured humans are characterized by both skeletal muscle atrophy and transformation toward fast‐twitch, type II fibers. We determined the expression of microRNA‐208b, microRNA‐499‐5p, and myostatin in human skeletal muscle after complete cervical spinal cord injury. We also determined whether these microRNAs altered myostatin expression in rodent skeletal muscle. A progressive decline in skeletal muscle microRNA‐208b and microRNA‐499‐5p expression occurred in humans during the first year after spinal cord injury and with long‐standing spinal cord injury. Expression of myostatin was inversely correlated with microRNA‐208b and microRNA‐499‐5p in human skeletal muscle after spinal cord injury. Overexpression of microRNA‐208b in intact mouse skeletal muscle decreased myostatin expression, whereas microRNA‐499‐5p was without effect. In conclusion, we provide evidence for an inverse relationship between expression of microRNA‐208b and its previously validated target myostatin in humans with severe skeletal muscle atrophy. Moreover, we provide direct evidence that microRNA‐208b overexpression decreases myostatin gene expression in intact rodent muscle. Our results implicate that microRNA‐208b modulates myostatin expression and this may play a role in the regulation of skeletal muscle mass following spinal cord injury. © 2015 The Authors

  • 443.
    Boqvist Schenell, Frida
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Åberg, Jenny
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Hur chefer inom finanssektorn beskriver hälsofrämjande ledarskap: - en intervjustudie2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Enligt arbetsmiljölagen bär arbetsgivaren ansvaret för det systematiska arbetsmiljöarbetet vilket påverkar den fysiska och psykosociala hälsan hos medarbetarna. Hälsofrämjande ledarskap är ett outforskat område där få studier har gjorts vilket gör att det är svårt att förstå begreppets innebörd. Syfte: Syftet med studien var att belysa hur chefer på ett företag inom finanssektorn beskriver hälsofrämjande ledarskap. Metod: För att besvara studiens syfte genomfördes en kvalitativ intervjustudie med åtta chefer på ett företag inom finanssektorn. Intervjuerna spelades in digitalt och transkriberades ordagrant för att sedan bearbetas och göra en tematisk analys av datamaterialet. Resultat: Utifrån temaanalysen framkom tre teman som cheferna ansåg vara hälsofrämjande ledarskap: 1) Särskilda ledaregenskaper som handlade om att vara tillgänglia, tydliga och omtänksamma 2) Skapa förutsättningar för en hälsofrämjande arbetsmiljö som innefattande den psykosociala och fysiska arbetsmiljön samt 3) Organisera friskvårdsaktiviteter på arbetsplatsen. Implikation: Begreppet hälsofrämjande ledarskap behöver uppmärksammas för att cheferna ska kunna leda organisationen och medarbetarna på ett hälsofrämjande sätt. Därför behövs det utbildning för chefer i hälsofrämjande ledarskap. Framtida forskning inom ämnet kan göras ur ett medarbetarperspektiv för att få deras kunskaper och erfarenheter kring ett hälsofrämjande ledarskap. Arbetsmiljön och kulturen ser olika ut beroende på vilken arbetsplats som studeras. Därför skulle det vara intressant att göra studier på hälsofrämjande ledarskap i andra branscher än finanssektorn.

  • 444.
    Borcak Walder, Linda
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Johansson, Caroline
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Patienters upplevelser av utmattningssyndrom: En litteraturstudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    If you are exposed during a certain period of time to prolonged stress without time to recover, you may develop exhaustion disorder. The diagnosis of exhaustion disorder is a relatively new diagnosis in Sweden; the diagnosis was formally accepted in year 2005. Aim: This study referred to lighten exhaustion disorder from the patient's perspective. Method:  A literature review was performed; the search was made by using selected keywords and were conducted in the databases Cinahl, PubMed and PsycInfo. The searches in this study included ten articles. Through content analysis the articles was structured and analysed. Results: Results are presented under five topics: Letting go, insight balance and self-image, perceptions of the warning signs and symptoms, assistance and support and recovery. The results of the literature study highlights the importance of patients' experience to come to the knowledge of the reason why they suffered exhaustion disorder, not until then could they begin their journey towards recovery. Evidence shows that patients working with their behavior patterns had their self-esteem and self-respect back. By learning strategies to manage stress patients learned to recognize the body's signals. Further research of patients’ experiences is important when the effects of rehabilitation methods for exhaustion disorders is deficient.

  • 445.
    Borg, Alexandra
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Burman, Evelina
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    "Se mig som en människa": Upplevelser av värdighet i omvårdnad av personer med demens2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Då demografiska förändringar sker i samhället där fler blir äldre och allt fler drabbas av demenssjukdom kommer vårdpersonal i större grad vårda personer med demens där det är av stor vikt som vårdpersonal att inte låta värdigheten negligeras. Syftet var att belysa upplevelser av värdighet i omvårdnad av personer med demens. Studien genomfördes som en litteraturstudie där 12 kvalitativa artiklar användes till resultatet. Artiklarna granskades och analyserades och fyra teman framkom som innehöll omvårdnad av personer med demens relaterat till värdighet. Upplevelser av delaktighet, sociala interaktioner, tid samt kunskap och säkerhet relaterat till värdighet upplevdes viktigt i omvårdnad av personer med demens vid bevarande av värdighet. Forskning gällande omvårdnad av personer med demens relaterat till värdighet kommer vara betydelsefullt för såväl anhöriga som vårdpersonal genom en fördjupad kunskap som kan leda till att värdighet bevaras och återupprättas. Ytterligare forskning i framtiden om demenssjukdom hos äldre med annan etnisk bakgrund än svensk kommer vara av stor betydelse då den ökade invandringen leder till att fler vårdas i Sverige.

  • 446.
    Borg, Christin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Spång, Ingela
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Att leva med en stomi: – upplevelser av livskvalitet2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden about 20 000 people live with an ostomy, which is a surgically constructed opening in the abdominal cavity. However, many patients have difficulty in dealing with this newly emerging circumstance in life. Frequently, a nurse’s daily activities will include the caretaking of people with an ostomy. Since the nurse's task is to support people in their recovery and their return to normal patterns in their lives, it is important to describe these people's experiences of quality of life. The purpose of this study was to describe patients’ experiences of quality of life after a surgery with an ostomy. A literature review was carried out with 13 articles related to the purpose. The results from these articles are sorted under two headings, which highlight the experiences that lead to reduced or increased quality of life. The ostomy involves a change in life, which initially leads to a reduction in quality of life and social life may also initially suffer. These experiences will over time transform into an awareness that the ostomy has saved their lives. Many, especially those with a permanent ostomy, learn to accept their ostomy and to adapt to it, resulting in improved quality of life. Research on quality of life in relation to the experiences related to living with an ostomy, should continue to enhance nurses’ understanding when meeting people with an ostomy.

  • 447.
    Borge, Fredrik
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Winberg, Lena
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Patienters erfarenheter av att leva med angina pectoris2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Ett stort antal personer insjuknar varje år i kranskärlssjukdom, vilket inkluderar angina pectoris. Sjuksköterskan behöver ha goda kunskaper om hur patienter med angina pectoris erfar olika symptom relaterat till sjukdomsbilden, samt hur patienter anterar och lever med sin sjukdom. Detta för att kunna ge bästa stöd och arbeta på ett personcentrerat sätt. Syftet var att beskriva patienters erfarenheter av att leva med angina pectoris. Metoden som användes var litteraturstudie vilken grundades på tolv vetenskapliga artiklar vilka analyserades och sammanställdes. Resultatet visade att patienter med angina pectoris har olika erfarenheter av sjukdomen. Tre teman framkom i resultatet; Patienters erfarenheter av smärta och obehag, Patienters erfarenheter av stress och oro samt Patienters erfarenheter av stöd. Då befintlig forskning mer generellt inriktas på patienter med kranskärlssjukdomar, behövs mer specifik forskning där situationen för patienter med angina pectoris belyses.

  • 448.
    Borgkvist, Maja
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Theander, Caroline
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Livshistoriens betydelse i omvårdnaden av personer med demenssjukdom: En litteraturstudie2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Life story work is a method used in care of people with dementia that assist these people from losing them selves while the disease progresses. People with dementia are in the need for an as person centred care as possible and life story is a tool that can be used by staff to better treat the persons needs and desires. The aim of the study was to describe experiences from the point of view of people with dementia, caregivers and close relatives while using life story work. The method used is a general literature review and a total of nine scientific articles with a qualitative method was read with content analysis. The result was put together in three categories: Life story confirms the identity of people with dementia, Life story improves comunnication and interplay and Life story is challenging to apply to care. Communication and interplay improves because the told story increases the staffs understanding of the behaviours that the disease creates and people with dementia are happy to tell their story. It is a challenge to apply life story to care according to all informants in the study. Life story work is perceived in different ways that results in different contents, a mix of time to use lifes story and close relatives part in establishing the life story can be questioned.

  • 449.
    Borglin, Lina
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Westerlund, Sofia
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Sjuksköterskans omvårdnadsåtgärder vid postoperativt illamående2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is a common surgical complication. The cause of PONV is not precisely clear, in contrast to the pathophysiology of general nausea. Consequences of PONV include increased care suffering and longer duration in hospital care. To prevent or relieve PONV, nurses can identify risk factors. Surgical procedures have been shown to have various degrees of nausea, such as laparoscopy have an increased risk for PONV. It is significant that the nurse has knowledge about the relevant symptoms and can identify early signs of the patient. The aim of this study was to illuminate nursing interventions to prevent postoperative nausea and vomiting. The results of this literature study were based on 12 scientific articles. The results showed that the combination of antiemetic and non-pharmacological measures gave some relief of PONV. Desirable would be to identify nursing interventions that could decreased the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting of the surgical patients as they constitute a large proportion of patients within the health care. Recommended nursing strategies are not entirely clear and need to be clarified through further research on this topic, nursing care intervention.

  • 450.
    Borgman, Anni
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Kvinnors sömn i relation till arbetssituation, en jämförelse mellan1980 och 2005: -utifrån Populationsundersökningen av kvinnor i Göteborg2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Sleep prevents stress; it helps us meet stressors accordingly and is therefore essential for good health. A great part of the visits to health centers involve sleeping disturbances. Research implies that women have sleeping problems to a greater extent than men. Stress, computer use, irregular working hours are associated with sleep problems. Women in Sweden are working to approximately the same extent as men, even though they possess less powerful positions with lower salary. The aim of the study was to compare women’s sleep in relation to their work situation. Method: With data from the Populations Study of Women in Gothenburg a cohort comparison, with education as covariate, of the 38 year old women in the examinations 1980/81 and 2004/05 is done. SPSS is used to describe the statistics and logistic regression analysis to do the analysis. The results show that the amount of women sleeping nine hours or more have halved in 2004/05 from 8.20 %, 1980/81 to 3.47 %, 2004/05 and the number of women sleeping four hours or less has doubled. Moreover, there is an indicated doubled risk of experiencing inferior sleep in 2004/05 (OR 2, 31), compared with 1980/81. There is a strong significant association between experiencing inferior sleep when having a poor situation at work. Women sleep less today probably depending on higher societal individual demands. Implication: Research on working family women’s experience of stress or housewife’s equality opinion. There is a need for broad interventions, where people can meet and learn about sleep hygiene as well as participating in anti-stress seminars. These could be given at Sweden’s health centers, within reach for everyone in order to enable better health for all

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