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  • 401.
    Conache, Gabriela
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), MPE-lab.
    Gray, Struan M.
    Avd. f. Fasta Tillståndets Fysik, Lunds Universitet, Sweden.
    Ribayrol, Aline
    Avd. f. Fasta Tillståndets Fysik, Lunds Universitet, Sweden.
    Fröberg, Linus
    Avd. f. Fasta Tillståndets Fysik, Lunds Universitet, Sweden.
    Samuelson, Lars
    Avd. f. Fasta Tillståndets Fysik, Lunds Universitet, Sweden.
    Montelius, Lars
    Avd. f. Fasta Tillståndets Fysik, Lunds Universitet, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Håkan
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), MPE-lab.
    Comparative friction measurements of InAs nanowires on three substrates2010In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 108, no 9, p. 094307-094307-5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have investigated friction between InAs nanowires and three different substrates: SiO2, fluorosilanized SiO2, and Si3N4. The nanowires were pushed laterally with the tip of an atomic force microscope and the friction force per unit length for both static and sliding friction was deduced from the equilibrium shape of the bent wires. On all three substrates, thick wires showed a difference between sliding and static friction of up to three orders of magnitude. Furthermore, all substrates display a transition to stick-slip motion for nanowires with a diameter of less than about 40 nm. Hydrophobic and hydrophilic substrates display similar friction behavior suggesting that a condensed water layer does not strongly influence our results. The patterns and trends in the friction data are similar for all three substrates, which indicates that they are more fundamental in character and not specific to a single substrate. ©2010 American Institute of Physics.

  • 402.
    Conache, Gabriela
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), MPE-lab. Lund University, Solid State Physics/Nanometer Consortium, Box 118, S-221 00, Lund, Sweden.
    Gray, Struan M.
    Lund University, Solid State Physics/Nanometer Consortium, Box 118, S-221 00, Lund, Sweden.
    Ribayrol, Aline
    Lund University, Solid State Physics/Nanometer Consortium, Box 118, S-221 00, Lund, Sweden.
    Fröberg, Linus
    Lund University, Solid State Physics/Nanometer Consortium, Box 118, S-221 00, Lund, Sweden.
    Samuelson, Lars
    Lund University, Solid State Physics/Nanometer Consortium, Box 118, S-221 00, Lund, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Håkan
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), MPE-lab.
    Montelius, Lars
    Lund University, Solid State Physics/Nanometer Consortium, Box 118, S-221 00, Lund, Sweden.
    Nanowire friction with an applied bias2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, we have shown how the friction acting on nanowires pushed across a surface by an AFM tip can be determined by measuring the radius of curvature of the bent wire aŸer manipulation. This technique allows us to study the friction properties of an extended mesoscale contact. Our main focus has been to determine whether such contacts behave like macroscopic objects, in which dišerences between the 'true' and 'apparent' contact areas play a key role and friction varies linearly with the applied normal force, or whether they are more like atomic-scale point contacts, wheremore fundamental processes dominate and friction oŸen is independent of the normal force. In this work we show how the friction between InAs nanowires and an insulating silicon nitride layer on a conductive silicon substrate varies when a DC voltage is applied to the AFM tip during manipulation. e tip charges the capacitor formed by the wire and the grounded silicon back contact, giving rise to attractive Coulomb forces and thus increasing the contact pressure between the wire and the silicon nitride. In this way we can vary the normal force on the sliding surfaces using a single wire, with a constant structure and contact geometry. Using nanowires of about 40-50 nm diameter and a few microns in length we have applied tip voltages in the range +12 to -12 V. Simplemodeling indicates that these voltages su›ce to give similar levels of band-lling and depletion to when the same wires are used in working wrap-gate or back-gate devices. A monotonic increase of the sliding friction with the voltage applied on the tip was observed. is implies that the friction increases with the normal force and that this mesoscopic system behaves more like a macroscopic contact, despite the nanometer size of the contact in the direction of motion.

  • 403.
    Conache, Gabriela
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), MPE-lab.
    Ribayrol, Aline
    Avd. f. Fasta Tillståndets Fysik, Lunds Universitet, Sweden.
    Fröberg, Linus
    Avd. f. Fasta Tillståndets Fysik, Lunds Universitet, Sweden.
    Borgström, Magnus T.
    Avd. f. Fasta Tillståndets Fysik, Lunds Universitet, Sweden.
    Samuelson, Lars
    Avd. f. Fasta Tillståndets Fysik, Lunds Universitet, Sweden.
    Montelius, Lars
    Avd. f. Fasta Tillståndets Fysik, Lunds Universitet, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Håkan
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), MPE-lab.
    Gray, Struan M.
    Avd. f. Fasta Tillståndets Fysik, Lunds Universitet, Sweden.
    Bias-controlled friction of InAs nanowires on a silicon nitride layer studied by atomic force microscopy2010In: Physical Review B Condensed Matter, ISSN 0163-1829, E-ISSN 1095-3795, Vol. 82, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By studying how nanowires lying on a surface bend when pushed by an atomic force microscopy tip we are able to measure the friction between them and the substrate. Here, we show how the friction between InAs nanowires and an insulating silicon nitride layer varies when a dc voltage is applied to the tip during manipulation. The bias charges the capacitor formed by the wire and the grounded silicon back contact. Electrostatic forces increase the contact pressure and allow us to tune the friction between the wire and the silicon nitride surface. Using nanowires of about 40-70 nm diameter and a few microns in length we have applied biases in the range +12 to -12 V. A monotonic increase of the sliding friction with voltage was observed. This increase in friction with the normal force implies that the mesoscopic nanowire-surface system behaves like a macroscopic contact, despite the nanometer size of the contact in the direction of motion. The demonstrated bias-controlled friction has potential applications in MEMS/NEMS devices.

  • 404.
    Cooney, Martin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Berck, Peter
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Designing a Robot Which Paints With a Human: Visual Metaphors to Convey Contingency and Artistry2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Socially assistive robots could contribute to fulfilling an important need for interaction in contexts where human caregivers are scarce–such as art therapy, where peers, or patients and therapists, can make art together. However, current art-making robots typically generate art either by themselves, or as tools under the control of a human artist; how to make art together with a human in a good way has not yet received much attention, possibly because some concepts related to art, such as emotion and creativity, are not yet well understood. The current work reports on our use of a collaborative prototyping approach to explore this concept of a robot which can paint together with people. The result is a proposed design, based on an idea of using visual metaphors to convey contingency and artistry. Our aim is that the identified considerations will help support next steps, toward supporting positive experiences for people through art-making with a robot.

  • 405.
    Cooney, Martin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Bigun, Josef
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    PastVision+: Thermovisual Inference of Recent Medicine Intake by Detecting Heated Objects and Cooled Lips2017In: Frontiers in Robotics and AI, E-ISSN 2296-9144, Vol. 4, article id 61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article addresses the problem of how a robot can infer what a person has done recently, with a focus on checking oral medicine intake in dementia patients. We present PastVision+, an approach showing how thermovisual cues in objects and humans can be leveraged to infer recent unobserved human-object interactions. Our expectation is that this approach can provide enhanced speed and robustness compared to existing methods, because our approach can draw inferences from single images without needing to wait to observe ongoing actions and can deal with short-lasting occlusions; when combined, we expect a potential improvement in accuracy due to the extra information from knowing what a person has recently done. To evaluate our approach, we obtained some data in which an experimenter touched medicine packages and a glass of water to simulate intake of oral medicine, for a challenging scenario in which some touches were conducted in front of a warm background. Results were promising, with a detection accuracy of touched objects of 50% at the 15 s mark and 0% at the 60 s mark, and a detection accuracy of cooled lips of about 100 and 60% at the 15 s mark for cold and tepid water, respectively. Furthermore, we conducted a follow-up check for another challenging scenario in which some participants pretended to take medicine or otherwise touched a medicine package: accuracies of inferring object touches, mouth touches, and actions were 72.2, 80.3, and 58.3% initially, and 50.0, 81.7, and 50.0% at the 15 s mark, with a rate of 89.0% for person identification. The results suggested some areas in which further improvements would be possible, toward facilitating robot inference of human actions, in the context of medicine intake monitoring.

  • 406.
    Cooney, Martin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Karlsson, Stefan M.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Impressions of Size-Changing in a Companion Robot2015In: PhyCS 2015 – 2nd International Conference on Physiological Computing Systems, Proceedings / [ed] Hugo Plácido da Silva, Pierre Chauvet, Andreas Holzinger, Stephen Fairclough & Dennis Majoe, SciTePress, 2015, p. 118-123Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Physiological data such as head movements can be used to intuitively control a companion robot to perform useful tasks. We believe that some tasks such as reaching for high objects or getting out of a person’s way could be accomplished via size changes, but such motions should not seem threatening or bothersome. To gain insight into how size changes are perceived, the Think Aloud Method was used to gather typical impressions of a new robotic prototype which can expand in height or width based on a user’s head movements. The results indicate promise for such systems, also highlighting some potential pitfalls.

  • 407.
    Cooney, Martin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Leister, Wolfgang
    Norsk Regnesentral, Oslo, Norway.
    Using the Engagement Profile to Design an Engaging Robotic Teaching Assistant for Students2019In: Robotics, E-ISSN 2218-6581, Vol. 8, no 1, article id 21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on an exploratory study conducted at a graduate school in Sweden with a humanoid robot, Baxter. First, we describe a list of potentially useful capabilities for a robot teaching assistant derived from brainstorming and interviews with faculty members, teachers, and students. These capabilities consist of reading educational materials out loud, greeting, alerting, allowing remote operation, providing clarifications, and moving to carry out physical tasks. Secondly, we present feedback on how the robot's capabilities, demonstrated in part with the Wizard of Oz approach, were perceived, and iteratively adapted over the course of several lectures, using the EngagementProfile tool. Thirdly, we discuss observations regarding the capabilities and the development process. Our findings suggest that using a social robot as a teachingassistant is promising using the chosen capabilities and Engagement Profile tool. We find that enhancing the robot's autonomous capabilities and further investigating the role of embodiment are some important topics to be considered in future work. © 2019 by the authors.

  • 408.
    Cooney, Martin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Pashami, Sepideh
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Järpe, Eric
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Ashfaq, Awais
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Ong, Linda
    I+ srl, Florence, Italy.
    Avoiding Improper Treatment of Dementia Patients by Care Robots2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The phrase “most cruel and revolting crimes” has been used to describe some poor historical treatment of vulnerable impaired persons by precisely those who should have had the responsibility of protecting and helping them. We believe we might be poised to see history repeat itself, as increasingly humanlike aware robots become capable of engaging in behavior which we would consider immoral in a human–either unknowingly or deliberately. In the current paper we focus in particular on exploring some potential dangers affecting persons with dementia (PWD), which could arise from insufficient software or external factors, and describe a proposed solution involving rich causal models and accountability measures: Specifically, the Consequences of Needs-driven Dementia-compromised Behaviour model (C-NDB) could be adapted to be used with conversation topic detection, causal networks and multi-criteria decision making, alongside reports, audits, and deterrents. Our aim is that the considerations raised could help inform the design of care robots intended to support well-being in PWD.

  • 409.
    Cooney, Martin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Sant'Anna, Anita
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Avoiding Playfulness Gone Wrong: Exploring Multi-objective Reaching Motion Generation in a Social Robot2017In: International Journal of Social Robotics, ISSN 1875-4791, E-ISSN 1875-4805, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 545-562Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Companion robots will be able to perform useful tasks in homes and public places, while also providing entertainment through playful interactions. “Playful” here means fun, happy, and humorous. A challenge is that generating playful motions requires a non-trivial understanding of how people attribute meaning and intentions. The literature suggests that playfulness can lead to some undesired impressions such as that a robot is obnoxious, untrustworthy, unsafe, moving in a meaningless fashion, or boring. To generate playfulness while avoiding such typical failures, we proposed a model for the scenario of a robot arm reaching for an object: some simplified movement patterns such as sinusoids are structured toward appearing helpful, clear about goals, safe, and combining a degree of structure and anomaly. We integrated our model into a mathematical framework (CHOMP) and built a new robot, Kakapo, to perform dynamically generated motions. The results of an exploratory user experiment were positive, suggesting that: Our proposed system was perceived as playful over the course of several minutes. Also a better impression resulted compared with an alternative playful system which did not use our proposed heuristics; furthermore a negative effect was observed for several minutes after showing the alternative motions, suggesting that failures are important to avoid. And, an inverted u-shaped correlation was observed between motion length and degree of perceived playfulness, suggesting that motions should neither be too short or too long and that length is also a factor which can be considered when generating playful motions. A short follow-up study provided some additional support for the idea that playful motions which seek to avoid failures can be perceived positively. Our intent is that these exploratory results will provide some insight for designing various playful robot motions, toward achieving some good interactions. © 2017, The Author(s).

  • 410.
    Costa Paiva, Sofia
    et al.
    University of Sao Paolo, São Carlos, Brazil.
    Simao, Adenilso
    University of Sao Paolo, São Carlos, Brazil.
    Varshosaz, Mahsa
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Mousavi, Mohammad Reza
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Complete IOCO Test Cases: A Case Study2016In: A-TEST 2016 - Proceedings of the 7th International Workshop on Automating Test Case Design, Selection, and Evaluation, co-located with FSE 2016, New York, NY: ACM Press, 2016, p. 38-44Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Input/Output Transition Systems (IOTSs) have been widely used as test models in model-based testing. Traditionally, input output conformance testing (IOCO) has been used to generate random test cases from IOTSs. A recent test case generation method for IOTSs, called Complete IOCO, applies fault models to obtain complete test suites with guaranteed fault coverage for IOTSs. This paper measures the efficiency of Complete IOCO in comparison with the traditional IOCO test case generation implemented in the JTorX tool. To this end, we use a case study involving five specification models from the automotive and the railway domains. Faulty mutations of the specifications were produced in order to compare the efficiency of both test generation methods in killing them. The results indicate that Complete IOCO is more efficient in detecting deep faults in large state spaces while IOCO is more efficient in detecting shallow faults in small state spaces. © 2016 ACM.

  • 411.
    Cotton, W. D.
    et al.
    National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Socorro, NM, USA.
    Owen, F. N.
    National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Socorro, NM, USA.
    Geldzahler, B. J.
    E. O. Hulburt Center for Space Research, Washington, DC, USA.
    Johnston, K.
    E. O. Hulburt Center for Space Research, Washington, DC, USA.
    Bååth, L.B.
    Onsala Space Observatory, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Romney, J.
    Max-Planck Institut für Radioastronomie, Bonn, Germany.
    High Resolution Observations of the Steep Spectrum Source 2147+1451984In: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 277, p. L41-L44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The results of an eight station, 18-cm intercontinental very long baseline interferometry for which the synthesized beam obtained was 0.008 x 0.003 arcsec are presented for the steep spectrum compact radio source 2147+145. These observations reveal a structure similar to flat spectrum compact sources and, if the source radiates due to the synchrotron process, a very weak magnetic field. The source consists of a line of knots 0.022 arcsec long along position angle of 38 deg dominated on one side by a component of size 0.0032 arcsec measured along a position angle of 38 deg. It is suggested that 2147+145 and, perhaps, related steep spectrum objects are similar to flat spectrum, optically active sources except that the magnetic field is much weaker.

  • 412.
    Cranen, Sjoerd
    et al.
    Department of Computer Science, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, NL-5600 MB Eindhoven, The Netherlands.
    Mousavi, Mohammad Reza
    Department of Computer Science, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, NL-5600 MB Eindhoven, The Netherlands.
    Reniers, Michel A.
    Department of Computer Science, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, NL-5600 MB Eindhoven, The Netherlands.
    A rule format for associativity2008In: CONCUR 2008 - Concurrency Theory: 19th International Conference, CONCUR 2008, Toronto, Canada, August 19-22, 2008. Proceedings, Berlin: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2008, Vol. 5201, p. 447-461Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose a rule format that guarantees associativity of binary operators with respect to all notions of behavioral equivalence that are defined in terms of (im)possibility of transitions, e.g., the notions below strong bisimilarity in van Glabbeek's spectrum. The initial format is a subset of the De Simone format. We show that all trivial generalizations of our format are bound for failure. We further extend the format in a few directions and illustrate its application to several formalisms in the literature. A subset of the format is studied to obtain associativity with respect to graph isomorphism.

  • 413.
    Cronquist, Björn
    et al.
    Lund University, S-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Johansson, Lars-Olof
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    The CILO method: firm-supportive research approach enhancing enterprise performance2010In: Knowledge Management and Innovation: A Business Competitive Edge Perspective - Proceedings of the 15th International Business Information Management Association Conference, IBIMA 2010, Vols. 1-3 / [ed] Soliman, K S, International Business Information Management Association (IBIMA), 2010, Vol. 2, p. 1239-1251Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes a case of collaboration between academia and business firms in supporting innovation processes based on the CILO method, named after the CILO project (communication in learning organizations). The CILO method is an example of firm-supportive research approach. We describe the outcomes related to enhancing enterprise performance from applying the CILO-method in relation to one of the partner companies. The aim of the paper is to describe and discuss the concept of firm-supportive research in relation to the concept of innovation and to demonstrate how the specific characteristics of this research approach can enhance enterprise performance in one of our partner companies, Flower Systems Ltd.

  • 414. Crossley, Mark
    et al.
    Lindell, Joakim
    Lösenordsmönster: Att förebygga svaga lösenord2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Passwords are used more now than ever before. Their use is based on the ideathat the password is only known to the user and that its secrecy prevents othersfrom accessing potentially valuable or sensitive information. But how secret isa password in today's high tech world? Passwords are generally converted into hashsums and saved in databases. Cracking a password requires that the process is reversed so that the actual password can be derived from the hash sum. This cracking process can beachieved by two methods. An attacker can test all the possible combinations,(brute force cracking) or the attacker can compare the password with a list ofcommonly used passwords (cracking with wordlists). This paper investigates a passwords vulnerability to both brute force crackingand cracking via wordlists. It uses a modern computer's processing speedsto establish the amount of time to crack a certain password via brute forcecracking. It also deploys state of the art techniques to examine a password'scontent. It analyses three databases from dierent online communities to examineany possible correlation between a user's hobby interest and their choiceof password. This paper finds that the majority of passwords won't remain secret for very long. Short passwords which consist of a small alphabet are particularly vulnerable to brute force attacks. However due to the increasing speed of modern computers even passwords which are twelve characters long are still potentially vulnerable. This paper finds that users from a variety of online communities choose common passwords which are likely to be on a wordlist and thus susceptible to cracking via word list attacks.

    This paper provides suggestions on how a user can choose a stronger password.

  • 415.
    Cseplö, Madeleine
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE).
    Wilhelmsson, Anna
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE).
    Korsbo, Jonna
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE).
    Ungdomars medvetenhet om IT-relaterad brottslighet2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The world we live in is becoming more technological each day that goes by, but does our knowledge follow this development? Unfortunately that’s probably not the case, because it seems that all too few reflect over the risks caused by these developments and how the Swedish laws are applied in this environment. Because of this, it can be difficult for both young and adults to know what is allowed and not in the world of technology. In this modern age the use of technology has its debut in earlier ages and plays a major role in both the education and for social interactions. The social media has become a part of young people's everyday lives and also unfortunately contributed to the increase of actions like hate crimes over the Internet.

     

    The goal of this project was to create a dialogue about cyber crimes among young people, but also to educate the older generation of the problem. More than half of the students involved in our study, (59.2 %), said that they wanted devote some of their time at school to address cyber-crimes. With this at hand we can establish that there definitely is a need to inform young people about this subject. The pupils knowledge about cyber crimes varied between the ages, the youngest were more confident about what they are allowed to do on the Internet or not. While only 60.5 % of the oldest students felt sufficiently informed. Another finding is that several of the students have a disturbing attitude towards not only hate crimes over the Internet but also cyber crimes in general. They are under the impression that because of the increased frequency of the crimes they no longer consider it to be a major issue. Also, if they would perform an illegal act, there are only a few of the students that would worry about the consequences, in this case it was only about half of the older students.

     

    The extent of this study is far from substantial, since the study was limited to one school, this because there was only one of the schools that wanted to participate. Despite that fact, the results from the study are very interesting, and it says a lot about how the mentality towards these kinds of crimes are amongst young people today.

  • 416.
    Cukier, Wendy
    et al.
    Ted Rogers School of Management, Ryerson University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
    Ngwenyama, Ojelanki K.
    Ted Rogers School of Management, Ryerson University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
    Bauer, Robert
    Institute for Organizational Studies, Johannes Kepler University, Linz, Austria.
    Middleton, Catherine
    Ted Rogers School of Management, Ryerson University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
    A Critical Analysis of Media Discourse on Information Technology: Preliminary Results of a Proposed Method for Critical Discourse Analysis2009In: Information Systems Journal, ISSN 1350-1917, E-ISSN 1365-2575, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 175-196Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the 1980s, there has been a growing body of critical theory in information systems research. A central theoretical foundation of this research is Habermas’ theory of communicative action, which focuses on implications of speech and proposes general normative standards for communication. Habermas also places particular emphasis on the importance of the public sphere in a democratic society, critiquing the role of the media and other actors in shaping public discourse. While there has been growing emphasis on critical discourse analysis (CDA), there has been limited effort to systematically apply Habermas’ validity claims to empirical research. Moreover, while critical research in information systems has examined communication within the organizational context, public discourse on information technology has received little attention. The paper makes three primary contributions: (1) it responds to Habermas’ call for empirical research to ground and extend his theory of communication in every day critical practice; (2) it proposes an approach to applying Habermas’ theory of communication to CDA; and (3) it extends the reach of critical research in information systems beyond micro-level organizational concerns and opens up to critical reflection and debate on the impact of systematically distorted communication about technology in the public sphere.

  • 417.
    Czarnecki, Krzysztof
    et al.
    University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Canada.
    O’Donnell, John T.
    University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom.
    Striegnitz, Jörg
    Research Centre Jülich, Jülich, Germany.
    Taha, Walid
    Rice University, Houston, Texas, USA.
    DSL Implementation in MetaOCaml, Template Haskell, and C++2004In: Domain-Specific Program Generation: International Seminar, Dagstuhl Castle, Germany, March 23-28, 2003. Revised Papers / [ed] Christian Lengauer, Don Batory, Charles Consel & Martin Odersky, Berlin: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2004, Vol. 3016, p. 51-72Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A wide range of domain-specific languages (DSLs) has been implemented successfully by embedding them in general purpose languages. This paper reviews embedding, and summarizes how two alternative techniques - staged interpreters and templates - can be used to overcome the limitations of embedding. Both techniques involve a form of generative programming. The paper reviews and compares three programming languages that have special support for generative programming. Two of these languages (MetaOCaml and Template Haskell) are research languages, while the third (C++) is already in wide industrial use. The paper identifies several dimensions that can serve as a basis for comparing generative languages.

  • 418.
    Dahl, Oskar
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Johansson, Fredrik
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Khoshkangini, Reza
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Pashami, Sepideh
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Nowaczyk, Sławomir
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Pihl, Claes
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Understanding Association Between Logged Vehicle Data and Vehicle Marketing Parameters - Using Clustering and Rule-Based Machine Learning2020Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Trucks are designed, configured and marketed for various working environments. There lies a concern whether trucks are used as intended by the manufacturer, as usage may impact the longevity, efficiency and productivity of the trucks.

    In this paper we propose a framework that aims to extract costumers' vehicle behaviours from LVD in order to evaluate whether they align with vehicle configurations, so-called GTA parameters. GMMs are employed to cluster and classify various vehicle behaviors from the LVD. RBML was applied on the clusters to examine whether vehicle behaviors follow the GTA configuration. Particularly, we propose an approach based on studying associations that is able to extract insights on whether the trucks are used as intended. Experimental results shown that while for the vast majority of the trucks' behaviors seemingly follows their GTA configuration, there are also interesting outliers that warrant further analysis.

  • 419.
    Dahlborg, Anna
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Engberg, Johanna
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Hur framställer miljökonsekvensbeskrivningarna vindkraftens effekter på miljön?: Ett arbete om vindkraft och dess påverkan.2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 420.
    Dahlgren, Linnea
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Bumblebees in a region of northwestern Scania: Is species number correlated to the number of flowering angiosperms and does gene flow occur between four locations?2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Pollination, one of our ecosystem services, is considered to be in critical condition due to a worldwide reduction in pollinators and their biodiversity. As the agricultural landscape becomes more and more intense, the pollinators lose important food and living resources.

        In temperate ecosystems, bumblebees (Bombus spp) are an important group of wild pollinators, and as with pollinators in general, they are declining in both abundance and richness, in Sweden as well as other countries.

         The purpose of this study was to see if bumblebee species number of a location is linked to the location’s number of flowering angiosperm species in northwestern Scania when examining eight locations, and to see if gene flow existed between four chosen locations.  

         The result of this study suggests that it is not possible to tell from the flowering angiosperm species how many bumblebee species that will be abundant, but that it might be possible to tell the number of bumblebee individuals. With the number of bumblebee species, the abundant Fabaceae species was more important than the total number of flowering angiosperms of the location. The number of abundant Fabaceae species was strongly correlated to the bumblebee diversity index of the locations, indicating that it is a group of flowers closely linked to bumblebees.

         To see if gene flow occurred between the chosen locations, mtDNA sequences were compared in neighbor joining trees. The result showed that though some tendencies of isolation existed, gene flow seemed to occur in general between the locations in that fragmented and human dominated landscape of northwestern Scania.

  • 421.
    Dahlin, C.
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Aronsson, H.
    Department of Plant Physiology, Göteborg University, Box 461, SE-405 30 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Almkvist, J.
    Department of Plant Physiology, Göteborg University, Box 461, SE-405 30 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Sundqvist, C.
    Department of Plant Physiology, Göteborg University, Box 461, SE-405 30 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Protochlorophyllide-independent import of two NADPH: Pchlide oxidoreductase proteins (PORA and PORB) from barley into isolated plastids2000In: Physiologia Plantarum: An International Journal for Plant Biology, ISSN 0031-9317, E-ISSN 1399-3054, Vol. 109, no 3, p. 298-303Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The enzyme catalysing the reduction of protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) to chlorophyllide (Chlide), NADPH:Pchlide oxidoreductase (POR; EC 1.6.99.1), is a nuclear-encoded protein that is post-translationally imported to the plastid, In barley and Arabidopsis thaliana, the reduction of Pchlide is controlled by two different PORs, PORA and PORE. To characterise the possible Pchlide dependency for the import reaction, radiolabelled precursor proteins of barley PORA and PORE (pPORA and pPORB, respectively) were used for in vitro assays with isolated plastids of barley and pea with different contents of Pchlide, To obtain plastids with different endogenous levels of Pchlide, several methods were used. Barley plants were grown in darkness or in greenhouse conditions for 6 days. Alternatively, greenhouse-grown pea plants were incubated for 4 days in darkness before plastid isolation, or chloroplasts isolated from greenhouse-grown plants were incubated with delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), an early precursor in the Chi biosynthesis resulting in elevated Pchlide contents in the plastids, Both barley pPORA and pPORB were effectively imported into barley and pea chloroplasts isolated from the differentially treated plants, including those isolated from greenhouse-grown plants. The absence or presence of Pchlide did not significantly affect the import capacity of barley pPORA or pPORB, Assays performed on stroma-enriched fractions from chloroplasts and etioplasts of barley indicated that no post-import degradation of the proteins occurred in the stroma, irrespective of whether the incubation was performed in darkness or in light.

  • 422.
    Dahlin, Clas
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Plant Cell Biology: Energy transduction in plant cells.
    Surface charge densities and membrane fluidities in thylakoids with different degrees of thylakoid appression after Norflurazon treatment2003In: Photosynthetica (Praha), ISSN 0300-3604, E-ISSN 1573-9058, Vol. 41, no 4, p. 635-639Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wheat seedlings (Triticum aestivum L.) develop plastids (etioplasts and chloroplasts) which exhibit alterations in inner membrane organisation after treatment with Norflurazon (NF), an inhibitor of carotenoid biosynthesis. In dark-grown plants, results in a decreased amount of partitions (contact zones) between prothylakoids. In weak red light, the results in plants containing chloroplasts devoid of grana.

    Assays have been performed to investigate the membrane surface charge density in these membranes, and relate possible differences to the absence of (pro-)thylakoid overlap after NF teatment. Using the fluorescent probe 9- amino acridine (9-AA), the average surface charge density of isolated PTs was -21.8±3.2 mC m-2 and - 27.4±2.6 mC m-2 in the control and after, respectively. Thylakoid membranes isolated from plants grown in weak red light exhibited slightly more negative values, -23.5±2.9 mC m-2 and -29.0±2.1 mC m-2, in control and after, respectively. The surface charge density of destacked thylakoids from greenhouse-grown untreated plants, containing extensive grana stacking, was -34.3±2.5 mC m-2. Assays using the fluorescent probe of DPH (1,6- diphenyl- 1,3,5- hexatriene) showed that this probe exhibits a higher polarisation value when incorporated into thylakoids from NF- treated plants compared to untreated plants grown in weak red light. The highest polarisation value was found in untreated plants grown in the greenhouse. This indicates a lower rotation transition of the probe in the lipid environment of thylakoids after NF treatment, which can be interpreted as more rigid membranes. These results suggest that the surface charge density and the mobility of membrane components may play a major role for the formation of partitions in dark-grown plants and in the formation of grana in plants grown in weak red light.

    23 Additional key words: chloroplasts; etioplasts; (pro-)thylakoids; Triticum; stacking;

    wheat; 9- amino acridine.

  • 423.
    Dalzochio, Marina Schmidt
    et al.
    Laboratório de Ecologia e Evolução, Universidade do Vale do Taquari – UNIVATES, Lajeado, Brazil.
    Périco, Eduardo
    Laboratório de Ecologia e Evolução, Universidade do Vale do Taquari – UNIVATES, Lajeado, Brazil.
    Renner, Samuel
    Laboratório de Ecologia e Evolução, Universidade do Vale do Taquari – UNIVATES, Lajeado, Brazil.
    Sahlén, Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Description of the final stadium larva of Erythrodiplax media (Odonata: Libellulidae) with preliminary key to known South American larvae in the genus2018In: International Journal of Odonatology, ISSN 1388-7890, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 93-104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The larva of Erythrodiplax media is described and illustrated based on two exuviae of reared larvae and one final stadium larva collected in Xangri-lá, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The larva of E. media can be distinguished from other species of Erythrodiplax by the presence of lateral spines on S8 and S9, the number of premental setae (n = 22), palpal setae (n = 7) and by the mandibular formula. We also provide a preliminary key to known South American larvae in the genus. © 2018 Worldwide Dragonfly Association.

  • 424. Danielsson, Christopher
    Comparison in muscle activity between bench press and push-up exercise: An electromyography study2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background Physical activity has many benefits, including the prevention of multiple different diseases. One way to perform physical activity is through resistance training, where some sort of resistance is used to increase the load on the muscles during contraction. For training the upper-body, the bench press exercise is a good option. However, not everyone has the equipment to perform this exercise. The push-up exercise has a similar movement pattern and uses the same muscles as well as no requirement for equipment. Therefore, it would be interesting to see which exercise activates the pectoralis major and triceps brachii, respectably, more. Aim The aim of this study was to compare the muscle activation of the pectoralis major and triceps brachii during push-up and bench press with push-up replicated resistance through EMG-testing. Method 21 male subjects participated in this study. EMG measurement was used on the pectoralis major and triceps brachii to record muscle activity. Following a MVIC test for both muscles, to get a reference value, five repetitions of the bench press exercise at 64% of the subject’s body weight, at rate of 40 beats per minute. Following a three-minute rest, the subjects performed five repetitions of the push-up exercise at the same rate. Three of the five repetitions were selected for further analysis. All data collected was converted to percent of MVIC (%MVIC) before any analysis. Results The results of this study showed a significantly higher activation of the pectoralis major during the bench press exercise compared to the push-up exercise (p=0.014). The results did not show a significant difference in the activation of the triceps brachii during the two exercises. Conclusion This study shows that for training the pectoralis major, the bench press exercise is preferable to the push-up exercise at the same load. For training the triceps brachii, the bench press and pushup exercises seem interchangeable at the same load.

  • 425.
    Dantas Mendes, Lipe Renato
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Long term assessment of created wetlands functioning within agricultural areas2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The polluted agricultural wastewater, after reaching marine recipients, can cause eutrophication. This problem can be tackled and mitigated by using constructed wetlands as water treatment systems. The fact that constructed wetlands work through long periods of time has led many scientists to evaluate how long they can still treat their influents effectively. The development and growth of vegetation and the accumulation of nutrients on the soils in a wetland are expected to occur. These processes change the wetland efficiency to remove pollutants. In this study, a set of wetlands constructed to treat agricultural wastewater were analyzed in different periods to assess if there is a difference in removal efficiency of nitrogen and phosphorus. This assessment was performed by analyzing the retention rate, k and k20 values, which are variables that quantify the nutrients removal, in different periods of each employed wetland. Some of the observations demonstrated differences when comparing different periods of the wetlands. The nitrogen removal presented better performance in one of the employed wetlands when this was older. Another employed wetland has not shown a clear difference between different periods. In the wetlands with high vegetation densities, the nitrogen removal was more stable over consecutive years. The occurrence of oscillations in nitrogen removal was observed more often in the wetlands with the highest vegetation densities over consecutive years. The phosphorus removal presented no clear differences between different periods. The results suggest that the removal of nitrogen improves after wetland creation due to the growth of vegetation. In addition, they suggest that wetlands with high vegetation densities tend to oscillate the nitrogen removal more or less often according to the density of the vegetation due to the balance between denitrification and decomposition. Further, the results suggest that the removal of phosphorus remains unchanged over longer periods than the periods considered in this study (four to six years) due to the deposition of organic matter on the soils.

  • 426.
    David, Jennifer
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Valencia, Rafael
    Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, USA.
    Philippsen, Roland
    Google Inc..
    Bosshard, Pascal
    ETH Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland.
    Iagnemma, Karl
    Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA.
    Gradient Based Path Optimization Method for Autonomous Driving2017In: 2017 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS), [Piscataway, NJ]: IEEE, 2017, p. 4501-4508Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses the possibilities of extending and adapting the CHOMP motion planner to work with a non-holonomic vehicle such as an autonomous truck with a single trailer. A detailed study has been done to find out the different ways of implementing these constraints on the motion planner. CHOMP, which is a successful motion planner for articulated robots produces very fast and collision-free trajectories. This nature is important for a local path adaptor in a multi-vehicle path planning for resolving path-conflicts in a very fast manner and hence, CHOMP was adapted. Secondly, this paper also details the experimental integration of the modified CHOMP with the sensor fusion and control system of an autonomous Volvo FH-16 truck. Integration experiments were conducted in a real-time environment with the developed autonomous truck. Finally, additional simulations were also conducted to compare the performance of the different approaches developed to study the feasibility of employing CHOMP to autonomous vehicles. ©2017 IEEE

  • 427.
    David, Jennifer
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Valencia, Rafael
    Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, USA.
    Philippsen, Roland
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Iagnemma, Karl
    Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, USA.
    Local Path Optimizer for an Autonomous Truck in a Harbour Scenario2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, functional gradient algorithms like CHOMP have been very successful in producing locally optimal motion plans for articulated robots. In this paper, we have adapted CHOMP to work with a non-holonomic vehicle such as an autonomous truck with a single trailer and a differential drive robot. An extended CHOMP with rolling constraints have been implemented on both of these setup which yielded feasible curvatures. This paper details the experimental integration of the extended CHOMP motion planner with the sensor fusion and control system of an autonomous Volvo FH-16 truck. It also explains the experiments conducted on the differential-drive robot. Initial experimental investigations and results conducted in a real-world environment show that CHOMP can produce smooth and collision-free trajectories for mobile robots and vehicles as well. In conclusion, this paper discusses the feasibility of employing CHOMP to mobile robots.

  • 428.
    David, M.
    et al.
    Inst. National de la Recherche Agronomique, UMR Environnement et Grandes Cultures, Thiverval-Grignon, France.
    Loubet, B.
    Inst. National de la Recherche Agronomique, UMR Environnement et Grandes Cultures, Thiverval-Grignon, France.
    Cellier, P.
    Inst. National de la Recherche Agronomique, UMR Environnement et Grandes Cultures, Thiverval-Grignon, France.
    Mattsson, Marie
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Schjoerring, J.K.
    Plant and Soil Science Laboratory, University of Copenhagen, Faculty of Life Sciences, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Nemitz, E.
    Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (Edinburgh Research Station), Bush Estate, Penicuik, Midlothian ,UK.
    Roche, R.
    Inst. National de la Recherche Agronomique, UMR Environnement et Grandes Cultures.
    Riedo, M.
    Inst. fur Agrarokologie, Bundesforschungsanstalt fur Landwirtschaft (FAL), Braunschweig, Germany.
    Sutton, M.A.
    Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (Edinburgh Research Station), Bush Estate, Penicuik, Midlothian ,UK.
    Ammonia sources and sinks in an intensively managed grassland canopy2009In: Biogeosciences, ISSN 1726-4170, E-ISSN 1726-4189, Vol. 6, no 9, p. 1903-1915Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Grasslands represent canopies with a complex structure where sources and sinks of ammonia (NH3) may coexist at the plant level. Moreover, management practices such as mowing, hay production and grazing may change the composition of the sward and hence the source-sink relationship at the canopy level as well as the interaction with the atmosphere. There is therefore a need to understand the exchange of ammonia between grasslands and the atmosphere better, especially regarding the location and magnitude of sources and sinks. Fluxes of atmospheric NH3 within a grassland canopy were assessed in the field and under controlled conditions using a dynamic chamber technique (cuvette). These cuvette measurements were combined with extraction techniques to estimate the ammonium (NH+4 ) concentration and the pH of a given part of the plant or soil, leading to an estimated ammo- nia compensation point (Cp ). The combination of the cuvette and the extraction techniques was used to identify the poten- tial sources and sinks of NH3 within the different compart- ments of the grassland: the soil, the litter or senescent “litter leaves”, and the functioning “green leaves”. A set of six field experiments and six laboratory experiments were performed in which the different compartments were either added or removed from the cuvettes.The results show that the cuvette measurements agree with the extraction technique in ranking the strength of compartment sources. It suggests that in the studied grassland the green leaves were mostly a sink for NH3 with a compensation point around 0.1–0.4 μg m−3 and   an NH3 flux of 6 to 7 ng m−2 s−1. Cutting of the grass did not increase the NH3 fluxes of the green leaves. The litter was found to be the largest source of NH3 in the canopy, with a Cp of up to 1000μgm−3 NH3 andanNH3 fluxupto90ngm−2 s−1. The litter was found to be a much smaller NH3 source when dried (Cp =160 μg m−3 and FNH3 =35 ng m−2 s−1 NH3 ). Moreover emissions from the litter were found to vary with the relative humidity of the air. The soil was a strong source of NH3 in the period immediately after cutting (Cp =320 μg m−3 and FNH3 =60 ng m−2 s−1 ), which was nevertheless always smaller than the litter source. The soil NH3 emissions lasted, however, for less than one day, and were not observed with sieved soil. They could not be solely explained by xylem sap flow extruding NH+4 . These results indicate that future research on grassland-ammonia relationships should focus on the post-mowing period and the role of litter in interaction with meteorological conditions.

  • 429.
    Davidenko, N.A.
    et al.
    Kiev Taras Shevchenko National University.
    Pavlov, V.A.
    Kiev Taras Shevchenko National University.
    Chuprina, N.G.
    Kiev Taras Shevchenko National University.
    Davidenko, I.I.
    Kiev Taras Shevchenko National University.
    Bååth, Lars B.
    Agellis Group AB, 22100 Lund, Sweden .
    Thermal influence on passing of polarized light through the SnO2: In2O3 layers2006In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 100, no 2, p. 023111-1-023111-3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermal dependent changes of light depolarization degree were observed in the SnO2:In2O3 (ITO) layers deposited onto the flat glass substrates which are used usually as electrodes for optoelectronic devices. The observed effect is reversible. It can be attributed to the changes of nanostructure geometry in the bulk of the ITO layer as well as on its surface. Such geometric changes involve dispersion of polarized light. The investigated effect should be taken into consideration when developing optoelectronic devices because it can provoke distortion of the optical information field.

  • 430.
    Davidsson, Ida
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Karlsson, Emma
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Försvarsmaktens, kommuners och länsstyrelsers arbete med tillsyn och tillstånd inom miljö- och hälsoskyddsområdet2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Arbetet inriktar sig på två frågor, där den ena delen behandlar olika tillsynsmyndigheters arbete inom miljö- och hälsoskyddsområdet, där en jämförelse har gjorts mellan kommuner, länsstyrelser och Generalläkaren. Generalläkaren är tillsynsansvarig inom Försvarsmaktens verksamheter. Den andra delen fokuserar på tillståndsärenden där intressekonflikter har uppstått mellan intresset för totalförsvaret och övriga riksintressen samt andra skyddsvärda områden enligt miljöbalken. Bakgrundsfakta och information om de olika myndigheternas arbete har inhämtats genom litteraturstudier av relevant litteratur om tillsyn och ärenden, och genom intervjuer med tillsynspersonal samt studiebesök hos de nämnda myndigheterna. Arbetet med tillsyn inom miljö- och hälsoskyddsområdet skiljer sig inte nämnvärt mellan de olika myndigheterna när det gäller ett antal punkter. De skillnader som framkommit i studien har sammanställts i en tabell. Exempel på skillnader är hur de olika myndigheterna prioriterar sina tillsynsobjekt och hur de går tillväga för att bedöma dess miljöpåverkan. Skillnaderna grundar sig främst på att myndigheterna är uppbyggda på olika sätt. I delen som handlar om intressekonflikter studerades vattenskyddsområdet på Galgberget, stoppområden, Veckholms skjut- och övningsfält och Uppsala flygplats. Resultaten från dessa fall visar att när totalförsvaret har företräde framför andra intressen saknas ofta kunskap och förståelse hos övriga berörda parter för anledningen till företrädet, vilket ofta leder till överklaganden och långa rättsliga processer.

  • 431.
    Dawood, Sivan
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology.
    Frindt, Catharina
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology.
    Bluetooth Low Energy using Trilateration with Anybus Wireless Bolt2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 432.
    De Maeyer, Matthias
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE).
    How to implement a local aware messaging service easily2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During the last years the use of SMS had a lot of competition because of the rise of the social networks like Twitter and Facebook. If somebody wants to share something with his friends or even the world he can just post it on these social networks instead of sending an SMS to his friends. On the other hand this provides a lot of information to everyone that makes it impossible to see what is interesting or what is not.

    Using these networks the information a person sees gets filtered on content for Twitter, friendship connection for Facebook or people who now your phone number for SMS. But what if you want to know something about the people around you or if you want to share something with the people in your location?

    This thesis will look into the three main problems this creates to make a local messaging service for a smartphone. 1) The connection problem, where different connectivity possibilities that can be used will be studied. 2) The social problem, where the problem of filtering out interesting information will be studied. 3) The programming problem where we will take a look on the possibilities different implementation approaches have to offer.

    Using this information we implemented a proof of concept as a web application and used a server to store all the information. Therefore we made use of the mobile internet and the GPS sensor in a smartphone. To filter out interesting content we placed messages in categories.

    The biggest benefit using these technologies is the fact that there is no limit on the size and location of the area in which someone wants to send a message. Another benefit is the fact that receivers won’t poll for updates on the server because we made use of a Comet server that is able to push updates to the clients.

  • 433.
    Dechesne, Francien
    et al.
    Philosophy Section, Faculty of Technology, Policy and Management, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands.
    Mousavi, Mohammad Reza
    Department of Computer Science, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, The Netherlands.
    Interpreted Systems Semantics for Process Algebra with Identity Annotations2013In: Logic, Language, and Computation: 9th International Tbilisi Symposium on Logic, Language, and Computation, TbiLLC 2011, Kutaisi, Georgia, September 26-30, 2011, Revised Selected Papers / [ed] Guram Bezhanishvili, Sebastian Löbner, Vincenzo Marra & Frank Richter, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2013, Vol. 7758, p. 182-205Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Process algebras have been developed as formalisms for specifying the behavioral aspects of protocols. Interpreted systems have been proposed as a semantic model for multi-agent communication. In this paper, we connect these two formalisms by defining an interpreted systems semantics for a generic process algebraic formalism. This allows us to translate and compare the vast body of knowledge and results for each of the two formalisms to the other and perform epistemic reasoning, e.g., using model-checking tools for interpreted systems, on process algebraic specifications. Based on our translation we formulate and prove some results about the interpreted systems generated by process algebraic specifications. © 2013 Springer-Verlag.

  • 434.
    Dechesne, Francien
    et al.
    Department of Computer Science, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, NL-5600MB, Eindhoven, The Netherlands.
    Mousavi, Mohammad Reza
    Department of Computer Science, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, NL-5600MB, Eindhoven, The Netherlands.
    Orzan, Simona
    Department of Computer Science, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, NL-5600MB, Eindhoven, The Netherlands.
    Operational and epistemic approaches to protocol analysis: bridging the gap2007In: Logic for Programming, Artificial Intelligence, and Reasoning: 14th International Conference, LPAR 2007, Yerevan, Armenia, October 15-19, 2007. Proceedings, Berlin: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2007, Vol. 4790, p. 226-241Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Operational models of protocols, on one hand, are readable and conveniently match their implementation, at a certain abstraction level. Epistemic models, on the other hand, are appropriate for specifying knowledge-related properties such as anonymity. These two approaches to specification and analysis have so far developed in parallel and one has either to define ad hoc correctness criteria for the operational model or use complicated epistemic models to specify the operational behavior. We work towards bridging this gap by proposing a combined framework which allows modeling the behavior of a protocol in a process language with an operational semantics and supports reasoning about properties expressed in a rich logic with temporal and epistemic operators.

  • 435.
    Dechesne, Francien
    et al.
    Department of Computer Science, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, The Netherlands.
    Mousavi, Mohammad Reza
    Department of Computer Science, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, The Netherlands & Department of Computer Science, Reykjavík University, Reykjavík, Iceland.
    Orzan, Simona M.
    Department of Computer Science, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, The Netherlands.
    Operational and Epistemic Approaches to Protocol Analysis: Bridging the Gap2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Operational models of (security) protocols, on one hand, are readable and conveniently match their implementation (at a certain abstraction level). Epistemic models, on the other hand, are appropriate for specifying knowledge-related properties such as anonymity or secrecy. These two approaches to specification and verification have so far developed in parallel and one has either to define ad hoc correctness criteria for the operational model or use complicated epistemic models to specify the operational behavior. We work towards bridging this gap by proposing a combined framework which allows for modeling the behavior of a protocol in a process language with an operational semantics and supports reasoning about properties expressed in a rich logic which combines temporal and epistemic operators.

  • 436.
    Dejenfelt, Pontus
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Våtmarksfåglar i Stjärnarp, en inventering av nyanlagd våtmark utanför Halmstad, Halland2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    By doing a transect inventory combined with territory mapping at a recently constructed wetland in the area of Stjärnarp outside of Halmstad, during April-June in 2018, I have investigated species composition, species abundance and reproductive criteria shown by the bird species in the area. A comparison was made with five other wetlands in the county of Halland in matter of species composition and reproductive criteria to overlook if the age or area of the wetlands have an impact. After several visits in Stjärnarp, a total of 55 species of birds were recorded, of which 31 species were using the wetland area for reproduction, foraging or resting. Among all examined wetlands species richness varied more during 2018, when of different ages, compared to when they were about one year old. Overall analysis wasn’t significant for correlations, regressions or differences between the investigated variables of this study, though there were a significant correlation and regression between the amount of possibly reproductive species and the area of wetlands. According to others, characteristics of wetlands can have great impact on the presence of birds, e.g. size and age of wetlands, water depth, maintenance, location, presence of fish and more. According to this study, several reproductive species in particular have indicated attributes in Stjärnarp, e.g. early succession, nutrient rich waters, open meadows and more. Depending on what species or other biodiversity people which to benefit in the future, planning and continuous studies are needed here to find out if and how bird communities change with time, and to what causes.

  • 437.
    Demin, Mikhail
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), MPE-lab.
    Finite Volume Methods for Option Pricing2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 438.
    Deng, Der-Jiunn
    et al.
    Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, National Changhua University of Education, Changhua, Taiwan.
    Vinel, Alexey
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Atiquzzaman, Mohammed
    Department of Computer Science, The University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK, United States.
    Editorial: Recent Advances in Heterogeneous Networking for Quality, Reliability, Security and Robustness2017In: Mobile Networks and Applications , ISSN 1383-469X, E-ISSN 1572-8153, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 1-3Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 439.
    Denkiewicz, Sonia
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Ambient noise levels or single noise events at night in urban neighbourhoods: What causes sleep disturbance?2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Traffic noise exposure is a constant problem even though some measures against it are taken. It causes disturbances both during the day but also during the night when people are sleeping. A literature review, that was part of this thesis, showed that adverse response to noise from railways is more severe that from the main roads on sleep nighttime. Furthermore, exposure of noise from freight trains has a higher negative effect than that from passenger trains. The main adverse effects that have been found in these studies are on the sleep parameters and the cardiovascular system.

    A study made by Pedersen (2012) showed that there are some areas in the city Halmstad in Sweden where people are especially disturbed by traffic noise during their sleep nighttime. The aim of the study presented in this thesis was to find out if there is a connection between peoples’ reports of noise disturbance during sleep nighttime and the actual noise exposure. Two modes of measurements have been taken in three of the residential areas from the study by Pedersen (2012) which was Area H close to the harbour, Area MW close to the motorway E6/E20 and Area R close to the railway. The two modes of measurements were A-weighted equivalent sound pressure levels, representing ambient noise levels, and A-weighted maximum sound pressure levels, representing single noise events. These modes were used to identify the possible cause of sleep disturbance by the type of noise exposure. For ambient noise levels, 10 measurements at two occasions, each one minute long, were carried out during the same night at 23:00-24:00 and 03:00-04:00. These specific times have been chosen to obtain the traffic noise exposure when people go to sleep and when their sleep is very deep. Single noise events were measured when the harbour, motorway and railway were used nighttime. The Swedish Transport Administration and Halmstad Harbour were contacted for information on possible exposure times.

    The results show a relationship between peoples’ reported sleep disturbance nighttime and the exposure to single noise events. The highest maximum noise levels were measured in the area close to the railway which exceeded the recommended guidelines 55dB(A) outside the facades nighttime that have been set up by the World Health Organization. There was no connection found for the ambient noise levels and peoples’ reported sleep disturbance. The highest equivalent sound pressure levels were found in the area close to the motorway. The study in this thesis confirms the results from previous studies that show that railway noise have a higher effect on sleep than road traffic noise. It has been shown in other studies but also in this study that the highest noise exposure comes from freight trains. There has not been found any previous studies that investigate the possible relationship between sleep disturbance and noise coming from the harbour and no single noise events could be measured in the area close to the harbour in the current study.

    The conclusions are that the single noise events have higher negative effects especially at higher noise exposures. More studies should be made in this area to find the connection between noise exposure, sleep disturbance and long-term health effects. The focus should be on long-term studies and more studies should also be made on the noise exposure from harbours.

  • 440.
    Denkiewicz, Sonia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Goral, Aleksandra
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Genomgång av kemikalieförteckning som exempel på uppströmsarbete: en identifiering av utfasningsämnen i spillvattnet2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 441.
    Dennis Wilson, Dennis
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Estimation of Carbon Dioxide emissions from forest soils based on CO2 concentrations2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Forest soil is an important source of atmospheric CO2. Emission of CO2 from soil is the result of respiration of plant roots and soil organisms (Autotrophic and Heterotrophic respiration). This soil CO2 emission has a variation throughout the year with maximum emissions being in the summer. However, the seasonal variation affected by the external factors is not fully known. The aim of this thesis is to analyze a relationship between concentration of CO2 in the soil-atmosphere and CO2 emissions to the aboveground atmosphere. When knowing the relationship between CO2 concentration in the soil-atmosphere and the emission of CO2 from the soil atmosphere, a function (equation) can be established. Usually, the best fit is considered to establish the relationship. With the equations obtained, it is possible to calculate CO2 emissions using data different projects, where only soil-atmosphere CO2 concentrations were determined. Using the relationships, emissions rates in different soil types and in forest transect have been analyzed for a large number of samples. The effect of nitrogen deposition on CO2 emissions and seasonal variation of CO2 emission has also been studied. The sampled sites chosen for this study were located in different parts of Southern Scandinavia and Germany. A closed chamber was used to measure CO2 emission from soil. Soil CO2 concentrations were measured at every station and the equations were established. Finally, these relationships were used for analyses and comparison of the sites. An equation (best fit) obtained was used to calculate the emission values of CO2. The soil texture had a great influence on the CO2 from the soil besides the atmospheric pressure and temperature variations during the seasons. It is concluded that, therefore the soil texture and had a great influence on the CO2 emission from the soil besides the atmospheric pressure and temperature variations during the season. When knowing the equation between CO2 concentration and emission for a special type of soil, it is possible to estimate emissions based on CO2 concentrations. Therefore large scale sampling of CO2 concentrations could be done and this will facilitate the inventories carried out in e.g. global change studies.

  • 442.
    Diao, Zhu
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), MPE-lab.
    Sauer, Vincent T. K.
    National Institute for Nanotechnology, Alberta, Canada; Department of Biological Sciences & Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Alberta, Alberta, Canada.
    Hiebert, Wayne K.
    National Institute for Nanotechnology, Alberta, Canada & Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Alberta, Canada.
    Integrated On-Chip Nano-Optomechanical Systems2017In: International Journal of High Speed Electronics and Systems, ISSN 0129-1564, Vol. 26, no 1-2, article id 1740005Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent developments in integrated on-chip nano-optomechanical systems are reviewed. Silicon-based nano-optomechanical devices are fabricated by a two-step process, where the first step is a foundry-enabled photonic circuits patterning and the second step involves in-house mechanical device release. We show theoretically that the enhanced responsivity of near-field optical transduction of mechanical displacement in on-chip nano-optomechanical systems originates from the finesse of the optical cavity to which the mechanical device couples. An enhancement in responsivity of more than two orders of magnitude has been observed when compared side-by-side with free-space interferometry readout. We further demonstrate two approaches to facilitate large-scale device integration, namely, wavelength-division multiplexing and frequency-division multiplexing. They are capable of significantly simplifying the design complexity for addressing individual nano-optomechanical devices embedded in a large array. © 2017 World Scientific Publishing Company.

  • 443.
    Diehl, Sebastian
    et al.
    Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden & Integrated Science Lab (IceLab), Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Thomsson, Gustaf
    Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Kahlert, Maria
    Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Guo, Junwen
    Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Liess, Antonia
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Inverse relationship of epilithic algae and pelagic phosphorusin unproductive lakes: Roles of N2 fixers and light2018In: Freshwater Biology, ISSN 0046-5070, E-ISSN 1365-2427, Vol. 63, no 7, p. 662-675Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. Phosphorus (P) often limits the biomass of primary producers in freshwater lakes. However, in unproductive northern lakes, where anthropogenic nitrogen (N) deposition is low, N instead of P can limit primary producers. In addition, light can be limiting to primary producers at high concentrations of coloured dissolved organic matter (cDOM), as cDOM is the major determinant of light penetration in these lakes.

    2. To address resource limitation of epilithic algal biomass, we repeatedly sampled epilithon (periphyton on stony substrata) in 20 lakes covering a large, correlated cDOM and N-deposition gradient across boreal and subarctic Sweden. Across these lakes, pelagic total N (TN) and total P (TP) were positively correlated, and benthic light supply was negatively correlated, with cDOM. Microscopically determined algal biovolume and epilithic carbon (C), N and P were subsequently regressed against benthic light supply and pelagic TN and TP.

    3. Patterns in epilithic biovolume were driven by N2-fixing cyanobacteria, which accounted for 2%–90% of total epilithic biovolume. Averaged over the growing season, epilithic algal biovolume, C and N were negatively related to TP and positively to TN, and were highest in the clearest, most phosphorus-poor lakes, where epilithon was heavily dominated by potentially N2-fixing cyanobacteria.

    4. A structural equation model supports the hypothesis that cDOM had two counteracting effects on total epilithic algal biovolume: a positive one by providing N to algae that depend on dissolved N for growth, and a negative one by shading N2-fixing cyanobacteria, with the negative effect being somewhat stronger.

    5. Together, these findings suggest that (1) light and N are the main resources limiting epilithic algal biomass in boreal to subarctic Swedish lakes, (2) epilithic cyanobacteria are more competitive in high-light and low-nitrogen environments, where their N2-fixing ability allows them to reach high biomass, and (3) epilithic N increases with N2 fixer biomass and is—seemingly paradoxically—highest in the most oligotrophic lakes. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd

  • 444.
    Dillon, Tharam
    et al.
    Curtin University of Technology, Bentley, Australia.
    Parashar, Manish
    Rutgers University, New Jersey, USA.
    Taha, Walid
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Chen, Guolong
    Suzhou University, Jiangsu Sheng, China.
    Zomaya, Albert
    University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.
    Pan, Yi
    Georgia State University, Georgia, USA.
    Message from U-Science 2014 general chairs2014In: 2014 IEEE 12th International Conference on Dependable, Autonomic and Secure Computing, Piscataway: IEEE, 2014, article id 6945646Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Presents the introductory welcome message from the conference proceedings. May include the conference officers' congratulations to all involved with the conference event and publication of the proceedings record.© 2014 IEEE

  • 445.
    Dimkovski, Zlate
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.
    Bååth, Lars
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Fotonik och mikrovågsteknik. Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.
    Rosén, Stefan
    Toponova AB.
    Ohlsson, Robert
    Volvo Powertrain.
    Rosén, Bengt-Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.
    Interference Measurements of Deposits on Cylinder Liner Surfaces2011In: Wear, ISSN 0043-1648, E-ISSN 1873-2577, Vol. 270, no 3-4, p. 247-251Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The accumulation of deposits in the honing grooves of the cylinder liner surfaces of internal combustion engines is undesirable as they seal the grooves (reducing their oil retention capability) and increase engine's oil consumption. As part of a long-term programme of truck engine development, after different running times and under similar conditions of load, engine speed and lubrication, a number of grey iron cylinder liners were axially sectioned, measured, inspected and a presence of deposits was discovered. These deposits were characterised in order to gain knowledge about their origin and quantities. The X-ray energy dispersive analysis revealed elements stemming from the oil/fuel (C, O and S), from the detergent (Ca and Mg), from the anti-wear additive (Zn and P), and from some contaminants (K and Si). Higher concentration of S and Ca were mostly found in the honing grooves covered with deposits suggesting a domination of the detergent additive. Deposit thickness measurements obtained by a white light interferometer revealed patchy deposit topographies concentrated at the top region reducing towards the bottom of the liner which was also confirmed by scanning electron microscope measurements. Despite the limitations of the interferometer, it has been shown that the interference measurements are sufficiently reliable for a quick and objective quantification of the overall deposit accumulation.

  • 446. Ding, Lu
    Simulating Pollutant Removal in LID (Low-Impact Development) Facilities with SWMM (Storm Water Management Model)2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the 1990s, the United States proposed a new rainwater management pattern called low-impact development (LID) to alleviate the increasingly serious urban non-point source pollution caused by urbanization. With the wide acceptance of the LID concept, stormwater management model (SWMM) developed by United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) in 1970s, which can simulate the effects of LID facilities in its newest version, is gaining more applications in urban planning. With China's LID- based sponge city construction concept, SWMM has also been widely used in China. So, the study of the reliability and limitations of SWMM model simulation is very important. This study focusses on simulation of pollutant removal in LID facilities. I selected four experimental studies and built models based on the data presented in these studies. After that, the simulation results of the model were compared with the experimental results in the paper. The Wilcoxon signed rank test in the SPSS was used to analyze the reliability. The analysis showed that there is no significant difference between the model simulation results and the experimental results (0.689>0.05), indicating that the model is generally reliable. However, the high requirements of the model for parameter calibration and low flexibility lead to the limitations of the model. At present, the practical experience and theoretical research on the application of LID facilities simulation in SWMM are relatively weak, and further research is needed.

  • 447.
    Djupsjöbacka, Helene
    Halmstad University.
    Elektroniska journalsystem och informationsdelning: En studie om vilka utmaningar som påverkar tillgången till patientinformation från olika journalsystem2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 448.
    Doeleman, S.
    et al.
    MIT Haystack Observatory, Westford, MA, USA.
    Rogers, A.E.E.
    MIT Haystack Observatory, Westford, MA, USA.
    Bååth, L.B.
    Onsala Space Observatory, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Schalinski, C.
    Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique, Grenoble, France.
    Krichbaum, T.
    Max Planck Institut für Radioastronomie, Bonn, Germany.
    Inoue, M.
    Nobeyama radio Observatory/NAO, Minamimaki, Nagano, Japan.
    Zensus, A.
    National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Socorro, NM, USA.
    Padin, S.
    Owens Valley Radio Observatory, CA, USA.
    Carlstrom, J.
    Owens Valley Radio Observatory, CA, USA.
    Graham, D.
    Max Planck Institut für Radioastronomie, Bonn, Germany.
    Predmore, C.
    Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory, Amherst, MA, USA.
    Moran, J.
    Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, Cambridge, MA, USA.
    Backer, D.
    Radio Astronomy Labratory, Berkeley, CA, USA.
    Wright, M.
    Radio Astronomy Labratory, Berkeley, CA, USA.
    Whyborn, N.
    European Southern Observatory, Santiago, Chile.
    Nyman, L.
    European Southern Observatory, Santiago, Chile.
    Standke, K.
    Max Planck Institut für Radioastronomie, Bonn, Germany.
    Lerner, M.
    Onsala Space Observatory, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Kameno, S.
    Nobeyama radio Observatory/NAO, Minamimaki, Nagano, Japan.
    86 GHz Global VLBI Progress Report1993In: VLBI Technology: Progress and Future Observational Possibilities: Proceedings of the International Symposium Held at Kyoto International Conference Hall on September 6-10, 1993 / [ed] Tetsuo Sasao, Seiji Manabe, Osamu Kameya & Makoto Inoue, Tokyo: Terrapub , 1993, p. 89-92Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 449.
    Dolšak, Petra
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Environmental Science.
    SOURCE SPECIFIC FOG DEPOSITION OF BLACK CARBON FROM THE ATMOSPHERE2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Black carbon (BC) plays an important part in global climate change. In addition, long term exposure to BC is closely related to pulmonary and cardiovascular mortality. BC is formed by the incomplete combustion of carbonaceous compounds. In urban environments the main sources come from the burning of biomass for domestic heating and diesel vehicles. The typical lifespan of airborne BC is about a week and is treated as a short-lived climate pollutant. Wet deposition, which is more significant closer to the source, is the primary deposition mechanism and condensation of water is dependent on the sources of BC. Measurements with aethalometers determine the sources of BC concentrations, particularly fossil fuel combustion from traffic (ff) and wood smoke (bb).

     

    The in-situ measurements in this study reveal that the different source apportionment of BC emissions with different initial properties of BC behaves differently during the fog periods. Foggy periods from the March and January 2015 data set were carefully collected. In January, the fog occurred throughout the entire observation time, while in March the fog occurred for different durations, from 1 to 7 hours. A linear regression between the normalized BC, BCbb, BCff concentrations and 7-hour periods at night was calculated for each individual period. The comparison of slope values (k), standard errors and p-values of different sources of specific BC emissions was then made. Despite there not being a great difference between the slope values of BCbb and BCff in the January data set, the results revealed that BC emissions from biomass burning have fewer non-statistically significant values than the BC emissions from vehicle exhaust. This study corresponds to the different initial properties of fresh aerosols from both sources and indicated an increased fog deposition of BC from biomass burning.

  • 450.
    Domeij Hilliges, Isak
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Stendahl, Cecilia
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Ocean acidification effects on marine organisms: a study of Littorina littorea and Balanus improvisus 2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The world’s oceans are becoming more acid in a process called ocean acidification. The pH of the ocean have already decreased by 0.1 units from pre-industrial time until today. Scientists predict that by the year of 2100 the pH will decrease by as much as 0.4 units. This is a big potential problem to many marine species, because they have developed in such a stable environment that has not changed for millions of years. It is difficult to predict how they might be affected by such a decrease in pH during a relatively short time period. Several studies have been made on marine species exposed to decreased pH-levels, the results showed changes in their physiology but it is hard to predict how these changes will affect the organism in a long-term scale and if this might change ecosystem dynamics. Our study measured the activity of Littorina littorea and Balanus improvisus when exposed to lower pH, the results of our study showed an increase in activity for the lower pH (pH 6.0-7.5) when compared to the control (~pH8). The area of ocean acidification is a field that requires further studies to fully understand its effects on the marine ecosystems and the species within it.

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