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  • 401.
    Bergman, Martin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK).
    Rosén, Bengt-Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK).
    Eriksson, Lars
    Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden .
    Anderberg, Cecilia
    Getinge Infection Control AB, Research & Development Department, Sweden.
    Surface design methodology: challenge the steel2013In: Metrology and Properties of Engineering Surfaces, 2013: Proceedings of the 14th International Conference, Taipei, Taiwan, June 17-21, 2013, Bristol, UK: Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP), 2013, p. 192-199Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The way a product or material is experienced by its user could be different depending on the scenario. It is also well known that different materials and surfaces are used for different purposes. When optimizing materials and surface roughness for a certain something with the intention to improve a product, it is important to obtain not only the physical requirements, but also the user experience and expectations. Laws and requirements of the materials and the surface function, but also the conservative way of thinking about materials and colours characterize the design of medical equipment. The purpose of this paper is to link the technical- and customer requirements of current materials and surface textures in medical environments. By focusing on parts of the theory of Kansei Engineering, improvements of the companys' products are possible. The idea is to find correlations between desired experience or «feeling» for a product, -customer requirements, functional requirements, and product geometrical properties -design parameters, to be implemented on new improved products. To be able to find new materials with the same (or better) technical requirements but a higher level of user stimulation, the current material (stainless steel) and its surface (brushed textures) was used as a reference. The usage of focus groups of experts at the manufacturer lead to a selection of twelve possible new materials for investigation in the project. In collaboration with the topical company for this project, three new materials that fulfil the requirements -easy to clean and anti-bacterial came to be in focus for further investigation in regard to a new design of a washer-disinfector for medical equipment using the Kansei based Clean ability approach CAA. © Published under licence by IOP Publishing Ltd.

  • 402.
    Bergman, Rebecca
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Hermansson, Sanna
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Erfarenhetsåterföring av egenkontroller i byggproduktionen2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 403.
    Bergman, Stefan
    et al.
    FoU Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden; The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden & Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Bremander, Ann
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine. FoU Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden & Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Bergman, Anna-Carin
    Sannarpsgymnasiet, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Brorsson, Sofia
    Health and Welfare, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden.
    Chronic Widespread Pain in Adolescents Is Highly Associated to Stress and Anxiety2015In: Arthritis & Rheumatology, ISSN 2326-5191, E-ISSN 2326-5205, Vol. 67, no Suppl. S10, article id 917Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background/Purpose: Chronic widespread pain (CWP), one of the hallmarks of fibromyalgia, is not uncommon in adolescents and it has previously been shown that adolescents with pain often become young adults with pain. CWP often co-varies with anxiety, depression, and stress symptoms in adults, but the knowledge regarding this is small in youth and young adults.

    The aim was to study the associations between CWP, anxiety, depression and stress in adolescents attending first year of high school.

    Methods: A computerized questionnaire to 296 adolescents attending Swedish high school, with validated questions regarding presence and distribution of pain (Epipain mannequin), stress symptoms (ELO question), anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale – HADS), and health related quality of life (HRQL as measured by EQ5D). Pain was considered chronic when persistent for more than three months, and the subgroup CWP was defined according to the 1990 ACR criteria for fibromyalgia. Statistical analyses in SPSS v21 with comparison of means by Student’s t-test and proportions by chi2-test or Fischer’s exact test.

    Results: 257 (87%) out of 296 eligible students, mean (SD) age 16.1 (0.7) and 65.8% girls, responded to the questionnaire.  Prevalence of chronic pain was 20.8% and that of the subgroup CWP was 4.7%, without any gender differences (boys 18.2% vs girls 22.2%; p=0.224, and 3.4% vs 5.4%; p=0.692). High level (4 or 5 on a 5 point scale) of stress symptoms were less common in boys (16.0% vs 28.2%; p=0.015), as was possible or probable anxiety (17.1% vs 44.4%; p<0.001), but not depression (10.3% vs 12.5%; p=0.764). Students with high level of stress reported CWP five times more often than those with less stress (30.4% vs 5.8%; p=0.001). Students with probable anxiety reported CWP ten times more often than students with no anxiety (17.6% vs 1.8%; p=0.001), and CWP was also more common, but not statistically significant, in students with probable depression (20.0% vs 3.1%; p=0.163). Those reporting CWP had significantly lower HRQL (0.58 vs 0.87; p=0.038) than students with no chronic pain.

    Conclusion: The high prevalence of chronic pain and the strong associations between CWP and reports of stress and anxiety in adolescents highlights that a multifactorial background to chronic pain must be considered early in life. An apparent lower score in EQ5D also indicates that the presence of CWP has an marked impact on HRQL also in adolescents.

  • 404.
    Bergman, Stefan
    et al.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden & University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden & RandD centre Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Haglund, Emma
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). RandD centre Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Aili, Katarina
    RandD centre Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden & Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Olsson, Cecilia
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bremander, Ann
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Lund University, Lund, Sweden & RandD centre Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Chronic widespread pain, sleep problems and pressure pain thresholds in a population sample2018In: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, ISSN 0003-4967, E-ISSN 1468-2060, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 1645-1646Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 405.
    Bergqvist, Mathias
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Comparison of ground reaction force and knee angle between parkour precision landing and traditional landing2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Parkour is a sport which has developed its own landing technique, precision landing (PL), which has shown to reduce vertical ground reaction forces (vGRF) in comparison to a more traditional landing (TL). However previous studies lacks control for intra group knee flexion between the TL and PL techniques. Aim. The aim of this study was to analyse the biomechanical differences between a parkour precision landing with a traditional landing in four knee flexion groups (Stiff landing (SL), 25-50o, 50-75o and 75-100o), comparing vGRF, time to peak force and average rate of force development (avgRFD) between both landing techniques within each group as well as between the groups. Method. 42 participants were recruited to participate in a single session of a randomized, experimental study. Participants were randomly placed into one of four groups and performed a practice session of the two different landing techniques at the knee flexion angle given. All participants performed 5 approved landings with a TL technique and thereafter 5 approved landing using PL. Results. A significant increase of vGRF was found with TL compared to PL within all groups (p ≤ 0.05). Reduced time to peak force and increased avgRFD was found in TL compared to PL across all groups (p = 0.01) with the exception of 25-50o (p = 0.27 for time to peak force and p = 0.73 for avgRFD). Conclusion. The results of current study shows that PL reduces vGRF, time to peak force and avgRFD compared to TL in recreationally trained individuals. The results varied when compared between knee flexion groups, however results shows that 50-75o seems to be the more optimal range of knee flexion in terms of reducing ground reaction forces.

  • 406.
    Bergqvist, Mathias
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Hip strength in Swedish soldiers: A correlation study between gluteus medius muscle strength and development of valgus during 2000 meter run with external load2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 407.
    Bergstedt, Eric
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Pettersson, Louise
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Svenska bankers kreditgivning till företag i Kina: En jämförelse mellan kreditgivning till svenska företag i utlandet och inhemska företag2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The lending process is considered as important for both banks as well as businesses. There are many variables that must be taken into account by the banks in the lending process for businesses. Many companies choose to go abroad to establish operations and many of these companies are in need of funding. Bank funding is one solution. A curiosity for how bank lending is made to companies abroad began to grow. Research in this area was limited, which made us wonder what’s taken into consideration when granting loans to companies abroad compared to domestic companies. With this in mind the following question arose; How is Swedish banks' lending process done to companies abroad compared to companies in Sweden?

    To answer this question the lending process has been described and explained, and by identifying five assessment criterias. These criterias are as follows; accounting, the business itself, assets, owners and management, business concept. These five assessment criterias along with research on risks regarding internationalization identified several factors that should be considered in the lending process to companies abroad. These factors are the company's previous experience in other international markets, the company's network in the country, the country risk and transfer risk. These five assessment criterias, together with the four factors were the starting point of this study but also the pillars in both the theoretical framework and analysis model, but also in the qualitative study. The qualitative study was carried out by eight interviews with lenders at Swedish banks in two different markets; Sweden and China. The conclusion that emerged from the study is that the lending process differs between companies abroad and domestic companies. The main differences identified were within the following credit steps; credit application, credit assessment and decisions and credit terms. The biggest difference identified in the study is that these three steps are done in cooperation between the Bank abroad and a credit manager in the domestic market. In the credit assessment this study could identify factors considered when granting loans to companies abroad but which are not taken into account in lending to domestic companies. The factors identified were those that could be identified by the theory, experience in international markets, networks in the country, the country risk and transfer risk. From these discoveries we devised a model that is practical useful both for banks and companies. This model can help banks identify the factors that should be assessed in the lending process to companies abroad and to reduce the bank's credit risk. This model can also help companies to gain an understanding of their own lending process to the bank and also provide the company with a scope for preparation. 

  • 408.
    Bergström, Jakob
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Vedlevande Coleoptera och Hemiptera förekomst på öar i Kolsnaren i sydvästra Södermanland2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT

    Seven islands in the lake Kolsnaren have been investigated. I have inventoried saproxylic insects and investigated what characters on dead wood and characters at the islands that have affected species number of beetles (Coleoptera) and true bugs (Hemiptera). This study shows a relatively low number of species of beetles and true bugs but the study was too small to estimate a proper result. Probably there is many more species, especially more rare/threatened species. The characters vary between islands, but even the individual islands had different tree species, thickness, degradation stage and sun exposure of dead wood. Therefore there were favourable conditions for many different saproxylic species that have different demands of the habitat to find suitable substrate. The islands are partly isolated by water but no longer distances. With that in mind it was important that there is plenty of dead wood with varying characters around Kolsnaren so they get the opportunity to disperse and recolonise the islands when even the habitats are changing in time. The dead woods thickness and degradation stage was the characters with most impact of the number of species.

  • 409.
    Berjat, Estelle
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    How to improve customer satisfaction in luxury hotel industry2017Student paper other, 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 410.
    Berkan, Yaroslav
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Simris lokala energisystem2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 411.
    Bernander, Frida
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Lindhé, Kajsa
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Brandkrav, branddimensionering och brandskydd för trätakstolar: Ur ett konstruktörsperspektiv2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study contains a compilation and a clarification of the rules and requirements that can be applied to trusses and roof structures in consideration to fire. The different steps to decide the fire resistance of a truss or a roof construction is not that distinct and has to be combined with experience and subjective assessment. In case of fire the load combination for accidental load is used and in comparison with the ultimate limit state, the loads are reduced. Two different methods have been presented to determined the strength of construction timber, when exposed to fire. Both methods showed that construction timber, with a width of 45 mm, had a strength that correlate to a fire resistance of zero minutes. To improve the fire resistance of a roof construction different methods to protect the element has been presented. The most efficient ways to protect the construction is with gypsum boards and rockwool but for lower requirements wood covering can also be used. Fire retardant treatment (FTR) and fire protecting paint are also presented but are not applicable on wood trusses due to that FTR decreases the strength and fire protecting paint needs larger dimensions. In order to illustrate the different steps that are used when determining fire requirements of roof structures, two fictitious examples is presented. 

  • 412.
    Bernhardsson, Lina
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    EMG analys av M. Gluteus medius i sex kroppsviktsövningar2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Body weight resistance training has many applications, such as to become better at a sport, prevent lifestyle diseases, or prevent and rehabilitate injuries. M. gluteus medius (GMed) is a muscle that has strong correlation to injury of the foot, knee, hip and lower back. Research using electromyography (EMG) has examined exercises with the most muscle activity in GMed. Bilateral GMed has not been investigated in previous research for various exercises. More often it is only the dominant leg that is analysed. Aim. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether there was any difference in muscle activity of the GMed for the dominant and the non-dominant leg, total and individual, between A) the same exercise conducted bilaterally and unilaterally, b) similar exercises conducted standing and lying. Furthermore, the purpose was to study which of the six selected body weight exercises, hip thrust and squat performed on one and two legs as well as standing and lying hip abduction, yielded the highest muscle activation in GMed. Methods. 15 subjects (five men and ten women) participated in this study. Subjects warmed up and then preformed a maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC), which was used as a reference value. Test subjects performed six bodyweight exercises, bilateral and unilateral hip thrust and bilateral and unilateral squat and lying and standing hip abduction. Hip thrust and squat on one leg was performed on the dominant leg, the abduction motion in standing and lying hip abduction was performed with the dominant leg. Result. There was a significantly higher muscle activity in the dominant leg in all unilateral exercises compared to bilateral exercises. In standing hip abduction there was a significantly higher muscle activity in the non-dominant side compared to the lying hip abduction and opposite results were measured in the dominant leg. When the total muscle activity was calculated from both right and left sides, hip abduction gave highest muscle activity, unilateral exercises gave higher muscle activity than the same bilateral exercises. Conclusion. For a healthy and injury-free population standing hip abduction is recommended as the most effective of the exercises tested when it comes to training GMed. If variety of exercises for GMed and continued high activity are wanted, this study recommends unilateral exercises in front of bilateral exercises.

  • 413.
    Berntsson, Adrian
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Frantzich Johnsson, Daniel
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Klimatbokslut 2016 - Laholmsbuktens VA: En beräknings- och kartläggningsstudie av förvaltningens totala växthusgasemissioner på uppdrag av Halmstads kommun2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Earth’s average surface temperature is rising as a result of increased greenhouse gasemissions. This means that we face extensive challenges in reducing the anthropogenic climateimpact. With the ambition to map and reduce its climate impact, LBVA (Laholmsbuktens vattenoch avlopp, the administration of sewage treatment in municipalities of Halmstad and Laholm)has undertaken extensive work to compile a climate report for the year of 2016. This shows theoverall climate impact of their operation. The Climate Report covers all sources of emissionsthat occur directly from LBVA's activities, but also the indirect climate impact from purchasedproducts and services. The report apply the CEMAsys accounting tool that categorizes andconverts data into carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e). Emissions from logistics, energy supplyand the environmental impact of the wastewater treatment process are emissions that LBVAgenerates. This report shows the extent of process emissions in form of methane gas (CH4) andnitrous oxide (N2O) from treatment of wastewater, especially nitrous oxide, which have a veryhigh heating potential and therefore account for a major part of LBVA's climate impact.

  • 414.
    Berntsson, Amanda
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Karlsson, Jenny
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Användning av styrsystem i skolan: en kvalitativ studie om styrsystemens påverkan på lärares arbetsbelastning2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title: The use of management control systems in school - a qualitative study on the influence of control systems on teachers workload

    Authors: Amanda Berntsson and Jenny Karlsson

    Thesis supervisor: Eva Berggren

    Level: Bachelor thesis 15 HP in Business Economics, Management, VT 2018

    Background: By the year of 2035 it will be a lack of 79 000 teachers in Sweden. Simultaneously approximately half of the teachers in Sweden are always or often stressed at work and have to work leisure because the work time is insufficient. These statistics show that there is a practical problem and therefore this study aims to investigate if this problem can be linked to the management control system in municipal upper secondary schools.

    Problem: Previous studies have focused on management control affect on student results and not on its impact on teachers workload. A study conducted in healthcare has shown a connection between doctors fatigue and the occurrence of unnecessary and unreasonable task assignments. Therefore, it is interesting to analyze if there is a similar connection within the school system.

    Problem formulation: Which management control systems do the principal use at municipal upper secondary schools and how does it affect the teachers workload?

    Purpose: The purpose is to describe which management control systems principals at municipal upper secondary schools use. Furthermore, the purpose is to identify how the different control systems affect teachers workload.

    Theoretical framework: The theoretical framework contains management control systems and we chose to apply Merchant and Van der Stede’s division, which consists of result control, action control, personnel control and cultural control. Furthermore, negative consequences of the application of the various control systems are presented.

    Methodology: The thesis are based on a qualitative method with abductive approach. Interviews has been conducted with six respondents, four principals and two teachers. All of them are active in two municipal upper secondary schools.

    Empirical findings: Primary data for the six respondents are presented in each of the four management control systems and finally negative consequences of management control systems is presented.

    Analysis: In this chapter, empirics compared to the theoretical framework are analyzed each control system individually.

    Conclusion: The study has led to the following four conclusions:- Schools use of control systems is different- More focus on personnel control instead of results control will reduce teachers workload- The positive consequences of a schools culture will reduce teachers workload- Teacher's workload increases as a result of a lack of communication regarding the documentation 

    Keywords: Management control, management control system, management, workload, school system

  • 415.
    Bernzen, Noel
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Noellator: Vinterrollator2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Idag är det en hög andel av äldre personer, främst kvinnor, som använder rollatorer. De blir allt fler med tiden, då genomsnittsåldern av befolkningen blir allt högre. För att öka livskvalitet för de äldre, är det rekommenderat att promenera utomhus så ofta som möjligt, exempelvis med hjälp av en rollator. Ett problem som uppstår är att ingen rollator är anpassad för användning under vintern. I detta examensarbete har ett rollator-koncept tagits fram, speciellt anpassat för ”fyra årstider”. Detta innebär att konceptet har allt som en vanligt rollator har men även tillbehör som är användarvänliga i vilket väder som helst, såväl vid snö- som isförhållanden. Det innebär en komplettering med specialdesignade tillbehör som är enkla att byta oberoende av väderslag. En årstidsoberoende rollator blir dyrare än en vanligt rollator, men samtidigt skapas ett hjälpmedel som gör det lättare för användaren att vara en del av samhället och förbättra sin hälsa, vilket faktiskt är såväl viktigt som aktuellt

  • 416.
    Berrimi, Chihab Eddine
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Chaparala, Anish
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    A STUDY ON THE SURFACE TOPOGRAPHY AND DIMENSIONAL ACCURACY OF FUSED DEPOSITION MODELING: THE EFFECTS OF SURFACE ORIENTATION AND DIFFERENT PRINT SETTINGS2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The ease of manufacturing complex geometries using fused deposition modeling (FDM) 3D-Printing reduces the overall production cost compared with the traditional manufacturing techniques. Because of the benefits of 3D printing technologies, it is proposed to be used in the manufacturing of different products. But there is still no definite characterization of the surface quality of objects manufactured by 3D printing. Hence in order to define the texture of the surfaces produced, measurements from different samples are taken and quantified.In this study, a 3D test model consisting of various slopes is printed at different layer thicknesses and different print speeds using different 3D printers.Thus, the effect of the surface orientation on the surface roughness was studied in relation to the different layer thicknesses and different print speeds. The study samples are measured using the state of the art equipment at Halmstad University.This thesis studies the surface roughness at different slopes of FDM models.A related study on the dimensional variation between the CAD model and the actual3D printed model, and causes/reasons for the variations are analyzed.It is observed that FDM produced part surface topography is directly affected by the orientation of the surface. Also, the surface roughness increases with increase in layer thickness. The observed correlations between surface roughness and layer thickness and surface orientation could be used to better understand the behavior of FDM surfaces, thus to better quantify the surface roughness. To improve quality, it must first be quantified. It is well observed that dimensional inaccuracy exists between the CAD model and the printed part. These results suggest that there is a lot of work and improvements to be done in order to close the gap of dimensional inaccuracy and achieve a high precision commercial FDM 3Dprinting.

  • 417.
    Bhatt, Punita
    et al.
    Open University Business School, Milton Keynes, Buckinghamshire, United Kingdom.
    Sanchez Preciado, Deycy Janeth
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Business Model Innovation (BMI). CREPIC, University of Cauca, Popayán, Colombia.
    Claes, Björn
    Open University Business School, Milton Keynes, Buckinghamshire, United Kingdom.
    Social Capital in Community-Based Enterprises: Case Study of Apropesca and Corseda, Colombia2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to explore how social capital facilitates the process of social innovation in community-based enterprises. We draw insights from two case studies of APROPESCA and CORSEDA in the El Cauca region of Colombia that engage local rural communities in trout fishing and silk production respectively. We draw upon qualitative responses collected through multiple methods including semi-structured interviews with organisational and external informants, workshops engaging local communities and participant observations.

    Findings of our study illustrate that where social capital of local communities and institutions involved were not developed, government interventions failed to ensure the sustainability of the CBE.  In contrast, when strong social capital was developed and maintained through active participation of community members the CBE’s viability and economic success were ensured. Our findings have implications for development initiatives aiming to empower local communities and bring about sustainable development.

  • 418.
    Bhatti, Harrison John
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    The future of sustainable society – The state of the art of renewable energy and distribution systems2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today society is facing numerous challenges associated with energy management system. The centralized power generation system is depending on the fossil fuels to generate energy which is harmful to the environment, and it is unable to fulfill the rising demand for electricity. The decentralized power generation system could easily be integrated with renewable energy sources which could satisfy the growing demand for electricity without damaging the environment. This thesis explores the proper energy distribution system (smart grid) which could be fully equipped with the digitalized technology and be integrated with renewable energy sources and decentralized system. Peer-reviewed articles and government reports have been reviewed in order to get the impact of digitalized technology on overall energy management system, as well as the smart grid services commercialized through the business models. The result shows that the cost of transmission lines is reduced by using decentralized power generation system which helps to provide clean energy at low price to the end consumers. Furthermore, the thesis claims that smart grid is a disruptive technology which encourages energy producers and distributors to adopt a rapid change in the energy market along with changing their business model.  Finally, it has been explored that smart grid could provide three services, such as demand response, integration of renewable energy, and grid to vehicle services. These services could successfully be commercialized through business model innovation which enables energy providing and distributing firms to create and capture value regarding profit. 

  • 419.
    Bhatti, Harrison John
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science. Halmstad University.
    Alymenko, Andrii
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science. Halmstad University.
    A Critical Book Review: Exhibit Marketing and Trade Show Intelligence, Successful Boothmanship and Booth Design2017Student paper other, 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The public expo is a capacity concentrated under the heading of presentation promoting. Thatis a part of display advertising which concentrates on data social event and investigation. It isa result, we may state, of the Information Age and the acknowledgment that public expos, tobe genuinely powerful and beneficial today, need to take the full preferred standpoint of thedata opportunity which an expo is. The point of this book is twofold: to study the explorationwriting in the field, and to show how fruitful boothmanship and stall configuration isaccomplished at public expos. The point has been to compose a college course reading forunderstudies who plan to work in the field of occasion advertising and even more especiallyshow showcasing, while in the meantime delivering a book that may hold any importance withprofessionals. The accentuation is on display conduct. Exhibitors frequently ignore the waythat displays give them the open door to appropriate data, as well as to assemble data fromclients, from their rivals, and from partners. Show conduct draws on the investigation of marketbrain research, the brain research of promoting, and behavioral financial matters.

  • 420.
    Bhatti, Harrison John
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Alymenko, Andrii
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    A Literature Review: Industrial Espionage2017Student paper other, 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This is a literature review article. The purpose of this article is to explain and provide a deeperunderstanding of economic and industrial espionage. Furthermore, it describes legal andillegal methods of espionage and highlights the different aspects of preventing espionage suchas; technical, operational, physical and personnel security. A number of theoretical conceptshave been extracted and analyzed from different scientific articles which have beensummarized and anticipated in the form of theoretical framework. Incredible results are oftenproduced by exploiting industrial espionage. By concentrating on complete security, and notsimply specialized security, data security experts can altogether hamper enemy endeavors totake their association's data resources.

  • 421.
    Bhatti, Harrison John
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science. Halmstad University.
    Alymenko, Andrii
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science. Halmstad University.
    Geoeconomics and the impact of the rise of China2017Student paper other, 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    China's increasing geo-economic blow all-inclusive has pulled in remarkable researchconsideration during recent years. As opposed to entirely embrace a national-particular and waysubordinate viewpoint, this paper investigates Chinese economic developments abroad and itsimpact around the world. Data has been collected from some reliable resources and it’s beenreviewed and analyzed by the researchers. This paper gives a deeper insight of Geoeconomics andfocuses on Industrial policy, export and strategic trade of China. Furthermore, the influence ofChina’s growing geo-economic has been discussed in detail.

  • 422.
    Bhatti, Harrison John
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science. Halmstad University.
    Alymenko, Andrii
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science. Halmstad University.
    Marketing Intelligence: Strength and Weaknesses of E-Business Marketing2017Student paper other, 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The web based business is one of the greatest things that have surprised the world’s business. It ismaking a whole new economy, which has a gigantic potential and is in a general sense changingthe way of businesses. Organizations and associations must draw in and hold clients with the goalthat they can survive. Electronic trade is viewed as a suitable methodology for showcasing,offering and coordinating on the web administrations which can assume a critical part inrecognizing, acquiring and looking after clients. Online business advances and upgrades therelationship and correspondences between the association, makers, wholesalers and clients. In anycase, it ought to be noticed that accomplishment in web based business relies on trust and decidingpractical facts web based business. There is an arrangement of practicable inside hierarchical andoutside authoritative calculates online business which ought to be thought about. This paperdiscovers the strength, weaknesses and the online trust of the stakeholders in E-Businessmarketing. Furthermore, a model and system are proposed for indicating the practical componentson web based business achievement.

  • 423.
    Bibri, Simon Elias
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    The human face of ambient intelligence: Cognitive, emotional, affective, behavioral and conversational aspects2015Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As a socially disruptive technology, Ambient Intelligence is ultimately directed towards humans and targeted at the mundane life made of an infinite richness of circumstances that cannot fully be considered and easily be anticipated. Most books, however, focus their analysis on, or deal largely with, the advancement of the technology and its potential only. This book offers a fresh, up-to-date, and holistic approach to Ambient Intelligence. As such, it addresses the interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary aspects of the rapidly evolving field of Ambient Intelligence by seamlessly integrating and fusing it with artificial intelligence, cognitive science and psychology, social sciences, and humanities. It is divided into two main parts: Part 1 is about different permutations of enabling technologies as well as core computational capabilities, namely context awareness, implicit and natural interaction, and intelligent behavior. It details the existing and upcoming prerequisite technologies, and elucidates the application and convergence of major current and future computing trends. Part 2 is an accessible review and synthesis of the latest research in the human-directed sciences and computing and how these are intricately interrelated in the realm of Ambient Intelligence. It deals with the state-of-the-art human-inspired applications which show human-like understanding and exhibit intelligent behavior in relation to a variety of aspects of human functioning - states and processes. It describes and elaborates on the rich potential of Ambient Intelligence from a variety of interrelated perspectives and the plethora of challenges and bottlenecks involved in making Ambient Intelligence a reality, and also discusses the established knowledge and recent discoveries in the human-directed sciences and their application and convergence in the ambit of Ambient Intelligence computing. This seminal reference work is the most comprehensive of its kind, and will prove invaluable to students, researchers, and professionals across both computing and the human-directed sciences. © 2015 Atlantis Press and the author(s).

  • 424.
    Billström, Anders
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Knowledge Entrepreneurship and Enterprise Research (KEEN). Nord University, Business School, Bodø, Norway.
    The Role of Social Network Actors in the Formation of University Spin-Offs: Case Studies of External and Inventor Entrepreneurs in Sweden2017In: The World Scientific Reference on Entrepreneurship, Volume 4: Process Approach to Academic Entrepreneurship – Evidence from the Globe / [ed] Siegel, D., Fini, R. & Grimaldi, R., World Scientific, 2017, p. 81-104Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent decades, policy makers and researchers have taken an increased interest in university spin-offs. Entrepreneurship research provides limited knowledge of the role of the social network actors of external entrepreneurs in the formation process of university spin-offs. External entrepreneurs, who come from outside the university, are likely to use other network actors than academic researchers. This may influence the subsequent development of the firm. The purpose is to develop a conceptual framework for the role of social network actors in the formation of university spin-offs managed by external and inventor entrepreneurs. Literature of social networking, university spin-off formation and external and inventor entrepreneurs guide this study. This study employs a case study design that contains three external and three inventor entrepreneurs of Swedish university spin-offs. The results demonstrate that business actors, support actors and technology actors influence the firm formation process. The study also shows that external entrepreneurs have strong ties (direct access) to business actors while inventor entrepreneurs have weak ties (indirect access) to business actors via the university incubator. University incubators are less important for external entrepreneurs than inventor entrepreneurs because of their strong ties to business actors. The chapter provides implications for researchers and policy makers. © 2017 by World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 425.
    Billström, Anders
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL). Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Gabrielsson, Jonas
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL). Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Politis, Diamanto
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Entrepreneurial Networks in University Spin-offs – An Analysis of the External Entrepreneur Model2014In: Entrepreneurship, People and Organisations: Frontiers in European Entrepreneurship Research / [ed] Robert Blackburn, Frédéric Delmar, Alain Fayolle & Friederike Walter, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2014, p. 136-154Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the study we examine whether external entrepreneurs show differences compared with inventor entrepreneurs in the way they interact and network with others in the start-up process, and – if so – how these differences become manifested in their venturing efforts. The study uses a case study design of four university spin-offs across different industries and development stages originating from a Swedish technical university. In general, our findings emphasize the critical role of incubators for supporting the commercialization and diffusion of technology as they bridge structural holes between research oriented and commercial networks. However, we also find evidence that the external entrepreneur model contains network elements that on the whole makes it more effective in the venturing process. As such, the external entrepreneur model seems to be a highly potent technology transfer mechanism with potential to orchestrate efforts to commercialize public research for the benefit of industry and broader society.

  • 426.
    Billström, Anders
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Svensson, Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Satisfaction: Antecedents and postcedents in Swedish Business relationships2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 427.
    Billström, Anders
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Svensson, Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Mysen, Tore
    Oslo School of Management, Norway.
    Rindell, Anne
    Hanken School of Economics, Finland.
    Satisfaction as a mediator of Swedish Business Relationships2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 428.
    Billström, Anders
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Knowledge Entrepreneurship and Enterprise Research (KEEN).
    Ulvenblad, Pia
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Winborg, Joakim
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Knowledge Entrepreneurship and Enterprise Research (KEEN).
    Lindholm Dahlstrand, Åsa
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Knowledge Entrepreneurship and Enterprise Research (KEEN).
    To get them on board: The role of communication for attracting stakeholders to incubator businesses2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 429.
    Binnås, Caroline
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Lindgren, Fredrik
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Utvärdering av ett modelleringsverktygs förmåga att prediktera koncentrationen av TCE i inomhusluft2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Polluted areas are places where the level of contamination can be harmful for human health and the environment. There are about 80 000 possibly polluted areas in Sweden, 25 000 of which have been classified according to the risk of specific site. To evaluate the risk and distribution of a contamination on polluted areas, the most common way is to do a risk assessment. In addition to environmental engineering studies and surveys of the site, modelling tools can be used as a complement to try and predict the risk of polluted areas. The purpose of this study is to evaluate such a modelling tool called JAGG 2.1 (Jord, Afdampning, Gas and Grundvand) and its applicability to predict concentrations of the chlorinated solvent trichloroethylene (TCE) in indoor air of buildings located on contaminated sites. The questions that are to be answered in this study is whether the modelling tool can be used to predict concentration of TCE in indoor air and what parameters that affect the calculated value the most? The work with risk assessment could be facilitated by validating this modelling tool.

    The modelling tool was tested on three different contaminated sites in Sweden. When testing the modelling tool, relevant data was used to calculate the concentration of TCE in indoor air and thereafter the results were analyzed.

    This study showed that the modelling tool underestimated the concentrations of TCE for three out of four tested rooms in the buildings on the contaminated areas for all the tested parameters taken into account. The one room where JAGG 2.1 predicted correct TCE concentrations, compared to the measured result, is considered to have all the right parameters. The parameters are ceiling height, ventilation, the slab-on-grade thickness and the depth where the sample was taken and other geological conditions suitable for a successful calculation. This led to the conclusion that this modelling tool only can be used as an assisting tool and cannot replace environmental engineering studies. The obtained results must also be critically reviewed, before using it for risk assessments.

    Keywords: JAGG 2.1, modelling tools, vapor intrusion, chlorinated solvents, trichloroethylene. 

  • 430.
    Birgersson, Johan
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Larsson, Linus
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Ledarskap och Personligt Varumärke: En kvalitativ studie om hur det personliga varumärket påverkar ledarskapet inom banksektorn2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Ever since the concept of the personal brand had been coined, observations and surveys of it have become more interesting since it has been proven to have positive effects for leadership and the organization. Since bank employees are responsible for doing business directly to thebank's customers, they are considered to be the organization's most important resource. It is this freedom and independence that puts high demands on clarity on the leadership within the banking sector. Since previous studies have shown that a leader's personal brand can contribute to this clarity of the leadership, we decided to do a study with an abductive approach, with the problem formulation: How does the personal brand affect the leadership within the banking sector?

    The study aims at investigating how the personal brand affects the leadership within the banking sector, viewed from the perspective of leaders and employees. It was done through a qualitative study where we focused on identify the basics about the personal brand and how it shows in the leadership. We chose to use Kapferer's model - Brand Identity Prism (2008) as an analysis model throughout the study. Our theoretical reference frame has been derived from scientific articles and literature. The empirical data consisted eight personal interviews in total, where six of them were with employees and two of them were with leaders. The interviews were conducted with a semi-structured interview guide. The conclusion of our study showed that the personal brand affects leadership through trust, clarity and communication. Therefore, it should be of outmost importance for a leader to become aware of it. Our hope is that individuals will use the studys’ result on how the personal brand affects leadership.

  • 431.
    Birgersson, Rikard
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Eliasson, Eric
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Unilateralt och bilateralt genomförande av bänkpress och dess påverkan på varandra sett till muskelaktivering, effekt, och kraftutveckling2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: It has been studied whether strength-exercises performed with two arms (bilateral) leads to better performance when compared to exercises performed with only one arm (unilateral), and it has been shown that both implementations result in similar results after a short training period. At the same time, research shows that mixed results between different implementations in terms of muscle activation and force development exists.

    Objective: The main purpose of this study was to see the effect of unilateral or bilateral warm-up in the bench press and its influence on subsequent unilateral and bilateral performance in the bench press, investigating the factors: muscle activation, power, and force development. A secondary purpose was to relate the results of the study to bilateral index, to see if bilateral deficit or bilateral facilitation dominates.

    Method: Strength-trained men (n = 13, age 25 ± 3 years) warmed up with two different implementations (unilateral or bilateral), and after each individual warm-up they performed three submaximal lifts (40 and 80% of 1RM) in unilateral and bilateral bench press. Muscle activity, power, and force development were measured in muscles pectoralis major, anterior deltoid, and triceps brachii, after each individual warm-up during three submaximal lifts (40 and 80% of 1RM) in unilateral and bilateral bench press.

    Results: Significant results were found in unilateral performance in power and force development after unilateral warm-up (184 ± 36 W and 164 ± 31 W; 416 ± 76 N and 412 ± 74 N) compared with bilateral warm-up (p = 0.05). There were no significant differences between the different implementations in bilateral performance. Significant differences were neither found in the muscle activation of any of the implementations. The study also found evidence of a difference between the test participants regarding bilateral deficit and bilateral facilitation in terms of power and force development, where the majority of the test participants had bilateral facilitation.

    Conclusion: Regardless of warm-up, no difference was seen in the strength-trained men regarding muscle activation in the bilateral or unilateral bench press, however, the warm-up  was of importance to performance. Therefore, unilateral warm-up should be applied before unilateral performance, as this showed significant improvement. Although no significant improvement was observed, a bilateral warm-up should also preceed a bilateral performance.

  • 432.
    Birgersson, Victoria
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Lundgren-Goodman, Maximillian
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Dark Ages Lunar Interferometer - Deployment Rover: Propulsion and Steering Systems2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    2030 NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory will place an interferometer, which will workas a radio telescope, on the far side of the Moon. The interferometer uses thinpolyamide films as antennas, which are rolled out by a rover (an autonomousvehicle). The thesis covers concept generation of the propulsion and steering systemof the rover.The interferometer is to be placed on the far side of the Moon in order to ensure, asfar as possible, that it is not effected by radiation from Earth. The interferometerconsists of several polyamide films, approximately 100 meters long and one meterwide. The films are to be connected in the middle in order to form a star pattern offilm. Since the rover is to roll out these films on the surface of the Moon, it will driveback and forth to the lander to pick up the rolls. The focus in the project has been todevelop a reliable and stable system as possible so that the rover can accomplish itsmission without malfunctions. The purpose with the interferometer is to map thehydrogen gas clouds which were formed during universe’s youth (Platt, 2008).The outcome of this project is a concept indicating what the most optimal design ofwheel mount, of motor mount, of wheel and steering design may be in order to steerthe rover. The method to generate concepts used is known Fredy Olsson’s method.This is a method that has been developed at Lunds University and it has been widelyused in engineering education at Halmstad University.The four concepts developed and contributes to the whole concept for propulsion andsteering system of the rover. The four concepts developed are an all six steering, allof the six wheels can be controlled individually. Each wheel is split, or divided intwo. The motor is angle mounted and the wheel is semi-open with a slope that makesthe Moon dust fall out if it comes inside.Inspiration from previous rovers which are or have been on the Moon and Mars hasbeen useful in generating concepts. Previously used concepts are stable and reliable,which are important factors in this project. Previous theses have come to theconclusion that the chassis of the rover should be the one similar to the one used onMars Science Laboratory Curiosity and Mars Exploration Rover’s Spirit andOpportunity.The Halmstad University projects in collaboration with NASA began at HalmstadUniversity in 2013, and previous projects have developed the chassis, energy systemand the deployment mechanism of the rover. This year’s project takes intoconsideration the results from previous years since a concept of a complete roverultimately is going to be presented to NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory.The thesis is done in collaboration with NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory inCalifornia, USA. NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory is the leading U.S. center forrobotic exploration of the solar system.

  • 433.
    Bjartmarz, Freyr
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Design och konstruktion av balanscykel i bambu2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This project was carried out in the USA in cooperation with Kansas University and the organization HERObike. HERObike is a nonprofit organization that wants to develop the society in the impoverished countryside areas of Alabama. The aim of the project was to construct a balance-bike in bamboo since bamboo is a local material in Alabama that HERObike can easily use in the production. The purpose was to increase the employment of the people living in Greensboro Alabama and give them experience within the manufacturing industry. The construction of the bike is a complementary to the current bikes that are manufactured since the balance-bike does not require earlier knowledge in craftsmanship. With this project HERObike wish to give more working possibilities for the poor people in Greensboro, Alabama.

  • 434.
    Bjermqvist, Martin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Harder, Anette
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Hur revisionspliktens avskaffande uppfyllt småföretags, revisorers och myndigheters förväntningar: En kvalitativ studie om reformens utfall2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Föreliggande studie grundar sig på Riksdagens beslut år 2010, att genom en reform avskaffa revisionsplikten för småföretag. Målet med revisionspliktens avskaffande var att minska småföretagens kostnader och administration, men även att förbättra konkurrenssituationen och tillväxtmöjligheterna.

    Det har gått drygt sju år sedan reformen trädde i kraft i Sverige och Riksrevisionen rekommenderade nyligen att återinföra revisionsplikten. En rekommendation som startade en debatt hos olika branschorganisationer och indikerade att det tycks råda stor oenighet om vilka förväntningar som avskaffandet förde med sig för småföretag, revisorer och berörda myndigheter samt hur dessa förväntningar har uppfyllts. Därmed bedömde vi att detta gap är av nationellt intresse för att närmare undersöka hur reformen för revisionspliktens avskaffande i mindre aktiebolag har uppfyllt förväntningarna från småföretag, revisorer och berörda myndigheter.

    Detta har vi gjort genom att beskriva, analysera och skapa förståelse för hur reformen har påverkat småföretag, revisionsbyråer och myndigheterna Skatteverket, Bolagsverket och Ekobrottsmyndigheten. Studien har anammat en kvalitativ metod där det empiriska underlaget består av intervjuer med tio personer som på olika sätt påverkats av reformen. Dessa personer har valts utifrån tre urvalskategorier: myndigheter (Skatteverket, Bolagsverket och Ekobrottsmyndigheten), revisionsbyråer samt branschorganisationer (FAR och Svenskt Näringsliv).

    Vår studie visar att framförallt arbetsbördan, men även kostnaderna, inte minskat så mycket som det förväntats. Småföretagen har främst påverkats genom en ökad valfrihet att välja de tjänster som de har bäst nytta av. Samtidigt har många småföretag som etablerats innan reformen valt att behålla revisionen. Reformen har därför haft mindre påverkan på dessa befintliga småföretag än vad som uppfattats tidigare. Småföretagens valfrihet har gjort att revisionsbyråerna anpassat sitt tjänsteutbud efter den förändrade efterfrågan. De har även behövt utveckla sin relation till småföretag, leverera mervärde och arbeta mer aktivt för att bibehålla sina revisionsuppdrag. Nya typer av uppdrag, minskat antal revisorer och ökat antal aktiebolag har resulterat i att revisionsbranschen fortfarande har hög arbetsbelastning. Revisionsbyråerna anser att förväntningarna ändå uppfyllts till det bättre.

    Bolagsverkets och Ekobrottsmyndighetens farhågor har uppfyllts, med försämrad kvalitet på årsredovisningar och redovisning, samt minskat förtroende för aktiebolag. Skatteverkets möjlighet att själva styra sitt behov av kontroll, samt förebyggande och framåtsyftande arbete har gjort att de upplever att reformen uppfyllts till det bättre. Däremot tycks det funnits förväntningar på att andra aktörer skulle möta upp reformen tydligare. Det råder en osäkerhet om vem som bör ansvara för vad, men samtliga respondenter i studien anser att revision i sig gör nytta och har en god funktion. Studien visar att det behöver införas någon form av kontroll i småföretag. Det finns flera tänkbara möjligheter till detta, men det är tydligt att dagens ISA-revision inte passar småföretag.

  • 435.
    Bjersér, Marcus
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Eriksson, Linus
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Watch 4: En utvärdering av, och ett förslag på, ett uppkopplat och bevis-orienterat personskydd2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The reason for engaging in this project is a much-discussed problem in society, one the rule of law has faced difficulties to meet, is the occurrence of violent and sexual crimes. It is a problem that results in people feeling a fear of afflicting oneself, relatives or friends and it result in people feeling anxiety and insecurity.

    The consequence of the occurrence of violence and sexual offenses is that people, and especially women, consciously or subconsciously limit their mobility. That in environments where, or at times when, the risk of suffering is perceived as high. By extension, this means that not all groups have the same freedom to feel secure and act in society.

    The purpose of our thesis is to take a closer look at the possibilities of utilizing the technological development of the last decade, to create a tool that can contribute to increased security. Which in turn contributes to increased mobility and a sense of freedom. The emergence of connectivity and a connected society where people are increasingly in constant contact with each other has been identified as an opportunity to achieve this. By developing a proposal for a method to stop ongoing, prevent future and generally prosecute violence and sexual crimes.

    The purpose of facilitating for the judiciary to identify and prosecute the perpetrators of crimes and sexual offenses might be achieved. A successful project can help counteract that all groups in society today do not have equal access to a safe public environment, by enabling the judicial means that can contribute to changes in societal attitudes and a more secure community.

    This thesis aims to achieve the purpose by achieving the following objectives:

    • A proposal for a product that constitutes a protection, capable of marking a suspected offender with forensic traces that allows the judicial system to track and identify him.

    • A proposal for a product that allows the users to defend themselves in the event of an

      attack, call for attention from the surroundings and promptly initiate a police search

      and investigation.

    • A functional prototype whose purpose is to illustrate the intended product's function in

      a representative way.

      Our work has resulted in an overall summary and overview of the problems that exist between the idea and a realized commercial product. It also provides an insight into the judiciary's working methods and conditions in relation to a future product, together with an exploration of users' attitudes and experiences of the problem that exists. The work has resulted in three concepts that demonstrates what the product might look like, an evaluation of them and a functional prototype of the concept that has been judged to have the best opportunities. Our hope is that our work in the long run will have the desired effect.

  • 436.
    Björk, Eva-Stina
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Insider Action Research (IAR) of product development processes2004In: TOOLS AND METHODS OF COMPETITIVE ENGINEERING Vols 1 and 2 / [ed] Horvath, I Xirouchakis, P, Rotterdam: Millpress Science Publishers , 2004, p. 1043-1052Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Performing product development means to simultaneously develop product systems, production processes and marketing efforts. Product Development processes are often complex as they are time dependent and contain many inter-dependencies e.g. between parts and individuals involved Due to the complexity in these processes the methods for research on integrated product development processes need to be designed differently than traditional research methods used. The study of details of totalities can work for mechanical systems but less well for complex systems. For a deeper knowledge of complex systems substantial researcher involvement and participation in real time is essential, which Insider Action Research (IAR) is designed for. IAR can be performed from the three main positions as observer, team member or project leader. The-following conclusions have been drawn (Bjork 2003): The IAR approach is beneficial in most types of development processes and projects when the aim of the research is to achieve increased knowledge and understanding. A mix of detailed and narrative descriptions of a research project provides also practitioners with an opportunity to adopt the findings. The implementation of research results would thereby become facilitated, which is an effect that most researchers as well as practitioners would benefit from.

  • 437.
    Björk, Eva-Stina
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Ottosson, Stig
    Otto-von-Guericke University, Magdeburg, Germany.
    Aspects of consideration in product development research2007In: Journal of engineering design (Print), ISSN 0954-4828, E-ISSN 1466-1837, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 195-207Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One reason for conducting research on product development processes is to improve the usability in methods and tools for companies to be more competitive and efficient. However, the transfer of research findings over to industry has been shown to be slow and incremental, which could be seen as a result of bad usability and/or low acceptability in research findings from studies on industrial product development processes.

    According to our research and practice experience, we have found that, to grasp what really happens on a daily basis in a development project, to get the opportunity to reflect upon it, and to understand the complex nature of a development process, it is necessary to conduct insider action research (IAR), which is a qualitative approach. So far, the traditional outsider perspective using a quantitative research approach has been dominant. Conducting IAR means that the researcher is present and intervenes most of the time in a development project either as project leader, team member or observer.

    To improve the opportunities for implementation of research findings (which is an important issue for society as a whole) and to guarantee trust in presented research findings, IAR has proved to be efficient in the studied projects. As the research situation becomes unique for each product development process, trust in the research findings is strongly related to the presence of the researcher in the development process. Reliability and credibility in terms of provable data can be filed in diaries, email communications, and so on, and saved to be available if required.

  • 438.
    Björk, Julia
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    The effect of a weight lifting belt and the use of valsalva maneuver on power output and velocity in a squat2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: A squat is a common exercise that is used in many areas of strength training and for different purposes and the literature is inconclusive when it comes to whether the weight lifting belt (WB) affects performance and/or is injury-preventing. The use of breathing techniques is common during heavy lifting and therefore the practice of the breathing teqnice; valsalva maneuver (VM) may be of interest to study and if this along with the WB can provide some advantages in power output and velocity. Aim: The specific aim of the study was to evaluate whether the velocity in the eccentric and the concentric phase of the squat, and the peak velocity in the concentric phases are affected in power output through the use of the VM when the subjects use or did not use a WB. Method: Fifteen subjects (10 men and 5 women) volunteered freely to participate and did a total of 12 squats divided in four different sets with three repetitions each on 75% of their self-reported one repetition maximum (1RM). The first two sets were either with or without WB and the third and fourth sets were either with or without the practice of the VM. The three conditions (with WB, with WB + VM and VA only) were compared to each other and to the control group (without any instructions and no WB) in terms of power output and velocity in the eccentric, concentric and peak velocity in the concentric phase of the squat. Result: There was no significant difference in power output when comparing the four different test conditions. The velocity in the eccentric, concentric and peak velocity in the concentric phase did not have a significant difference between the different test conditions. Conclusions: This study shows a different output compared to previous literature. The WB and the practice of VM did not affect the power output and velocity in a squat, alone or together. 

  • 439.
    Björk, Julia
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Upper- & lower body strength and its correlation to performance in swimming2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: To learn how to swim with proper technique takes fairly large amount of time and practice to learn and anelite swimmer spends 6-7 days training for improving aerobic capacity, anaerobic capacity and strength training for energy saving technique. Freestyle is the fastest swimming style and is performed in many different distances, 50m is classified as a sprint and the 400m as a middle-distance. The research is inconclusive if there is a correlation in the lower body and the time in 50m and 400m and mostly in the middle distance which gives this study the importance reducing these uncertainties. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the strength of the correlation between the upper- and lower body muscle strengthwith time in 50m and 400m freestyle and to analyze which of the variables of height, sex, upper- and lower body strength contribute to velocity in sprint and middle distance in competitive swimmers. Method:A total of 14 participants (3 men and 11 women) participated in the study. The participants were tested at three occasions. The first was to determine their three-repetition maximum (3RM) in the squat and lat-pulldown. The second occasion was the collection the time in 50m freestyle and the third was to collect the time in 400m freestyle. Relative strength (kg/kg BW; %) and absolute strength (kg) in 1RM was calculated and correlated with the time in 50m and 400m freestyle. Analysis was done to see which variables of height, sex, relative strength in the squat and lat-pulldown contribute the most to the time in freestyle. Result: The result show that there was a high correlation between the absolute strength in the squat and the time in 50m (r=-0.769) a moderate correlation in the absolute strength in lat-pulldown and the 50m freestyle sprint (r=-0.513). There was also a moderate correlation for the relative strength in the lat-pulldown and 50m freestyle (r=-0.599). The 400m correlate with the relative strength in both lat-pulldown(r=-0.563) and the squat (r=-0.555). The lat-pulldown contributed most to the time in 50m freestyle as well as the male sex. Conclusions: The absolute strength in the squat had a high correlation to the time in 50m freestyle swim. The 400m there was a moderate correlation to the relative strength in the squat and lat-pulldown showing that for the overall performance in middle-distance the relative strength has the advantage over absolute strength. The relative and absolute strength in upper body correlated to both 50m and 400m freestyle and could therefore strengthen the importance of upper body strength in sprint and middle distance as previous researchers has stated. The upper body strength is the best predictor of time in 50m.

  • 440.
    Björk Linder, Elin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Sanborn Knöös, Jessica
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Jämställdhet i bygg-och fastighetsföretag: En uppsats som undersöker och beskriver hur företag arbetar med rekryteringsprocessen för att främja jämställdhet.2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 441.
    Björk, Oscar
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Post-activation Potentiation in Moderately Heavy Squats following a Heavy Pre-load Squat2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Post-activation potentiation (PAP) is a phenomenon where force output is acutely enhanced

    following muscular contraction. Previous research has documented enhanced performance in

    power-type light exercise following a heavy pre-load, such as vertical jumps following heavy

    squats. To date, the effect of PAP on moderately heavy exercise following a heavy pre-load

    has not been investigated. Purpose: The purpose was to examine whether PAP could be

    elicited in moderately heavy squats following a heavy squat pre-load, and if so, what intensity

    (as percentage of one repetition-maximum [1RM]) of pre-load elicited the highest PAP effect

    (measured as mean power, mean force and number of repetitions performed). Subjects:

    Seventeen resistance-trained males (age 24±2 years, length 182±8 cm, body mass 84.7±13.1

    kg, squat 1RM 147.6±29.6 kg) with at least 2 years of experience of the squat exercise.

    Methods: After testing parallel squat 1RM at a separate session, subjects performed three

    testing sessions in a randomized order in a cross-over design; performance test at 80% of

    parallel squat 1RM (control), one repetition at 85% of 1RM followed 8 minutes later by the

    same performance test (PAP85), and one repetition at 93% of 1RM followed 8 minutes later

    by the same performance test (PAP93). Sessions were separated by six days. Force and power

    output was recorded using a linear encoder. Friedman’s test was used to reveal differences

    between conditions, and a Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to identify these differences.

    Results: There was an increase in number of repetitions performed for PAP85 (p=0.009) and

    PAP93 (p=0.001) compared to control, but not for mean power or mean force. There was no

    significant difference between PAP85 and PAP93 for number of repetitions (p=0.091).

    Conclusion: PAP can be elicited to improve performance in moderately heavy squats

    following a heavy squat pre-load in trained subjects, but only measured as number of

    repetitions performed, not force or power. PAP could therefore be useful not only for

    designing power training, but also for strength and hypertrophy training.

    KEYWORDS: squat, post-activation potentiation, PAP, strength, power, hypertrophy.

  • 442.
    Björkdahl, Joakim
    et al.
    Department of Technology Management and Economics, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Holmén, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Exploiting the control revolution by means of digitalization: Value creation, value capture, and downstream movements2019In: Industrial and Corporate Change, ISSN 0960-6491, E-ISSN 1464-3650, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 423-436, article id dty022Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explains why firms move downstream to profit from the value they create for customers through improved control. Under certain circumstances, product innovations and services are dynamically interdependent in the sense of improved control creating value for the customer. Since value capture is distinct from value creation, firms may need to change their means of appropriation to profit. Empirically, the article analyses how firms can renew their product offerings by incorporating control technologies into their traditional mechanical engineering products. In contrast to a strand in the recent strategy literature that argues that manufacturing firms should move downstream to deliver complementary services, this article explains these shifts as related to increased control, economies of throughput, value creation, and value capture. The article contributes to the throughput and control technology literature by showing the importance of differentiating value creation from value capture. The increased control by means of digitalization and the discrepancy between value creation and value capture explains why many manufacturing firms will become service firms.

  • 443.
    Björkdahl, Joakim
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Holmén, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Innovation audits by means of formulating problems2016In: R &D Management, ISSN 0033-6807, E-ISSN 1467-9310, Vol. 46, no 5, p. 842-856Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prior innovation audits consist of scorecards that firms use to assess their innovation processes and capabilities. The multifaceted nature of innovation means that this approach does not contextualize the audit for the audited firms. This paper proposes an innovation audit method that identifies and formulates valuable innovation-related problems. It comprises four sequentially dependent modules which follow a structured process that allows the firm’s innovation processes and capabilities to be audited. The audit was developed based on performing innovation audits with five multinational companies in the manufacturing and hygiene sectors, and nine pulp and paper companies. The paper discusses the pros and cons of different innovation audits. We suggest that the innovation audit process may be a means for changing a firm’s strategic innovation orientation, and contribute to the development of innovation capabilities. © 2015 RADMA and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  • 444.
    Björkdahl, Joakim
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Holmén, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Fallahi, Sara
    Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Business model innovation processes: Looking forward and looking backward2016In: Academy of Management Conference, AOM, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 445.
    Björkman, Jasmine
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Are there any difference between the levels of serum leptin, visceral fat area and body mass index in patients with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis, with and without radiographic changes?2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 446.
    Björnell, Rebecha
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Kristensson, Michaela
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Kan ett 5-veckors hembaserat träningsprogram förbättra smärtan hos personer med fibromyalgi?2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka om ett 5-veckors enkelt styrketräningsprogram i hemmet minskar den upplevda smärtan hos personer med fibromyalgi.

    Metod: Antal deltagare med fibromyalgi var 10 stycken som rekryterades för att genomföra ett 5 veckors träningsprogram med fokus på styrka i buk-, rygg- och magmuskulatur. Före och efter träningsprogrammet mättes styrka (rygg, mage och ben – 3 tester) och smärta (Visual Analog Skala - VAS). Fyra frågor kring smärta besvarades med VAS-skala. Skillnad mellan undersökning före påbörjad träning (pretest) till undersökning efter avslutad träning (posttest) analyserades. Wilcoxons rangtest användes för att undersöka om där fanns en signifikant skillnad mellan pretest och posttest.

    Resultat: Efter avslutat träningsprogram hade inte smärtan förbättrats. I styrketesterna framkom signifikant förbättrad benstyrka medan rygg- och magstyrka var oförändrad. För sju av tio av deltagarna förbättrades styrkan i magtestet utan signifikant skillnad och för fem av tio deltagare förbättrades styrkan i ryggtestet utan signifikant skillnad. Smärtan var efter avslutad träning förbättrad, dock ej signifikant skillnad.  

    Slutsats: Det studerade styrketräningsprogrammet under 5 veckor ledde inte till en minskning av smärta.

  • 447.
    Blaesild, Milton
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Snack2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    We live in an increasingly polarized society. For that reason it is important that we can have thriving and valuable discussions. This project has taken that idea to it´s extreme by giving every web address its own comment section. Every news article, every video, every blog and so on has through the finalizing of this project a comment section. Because you don't agree with someone else's opinion doesn’t mean you can’t understand it. The goal with Snack is to increase people's understanding of each other’s point of views.

    The project was done as a Lean startup project with a structure of the waterfall method and an Agile work style. The Lean startup approach gave the result that you can now comment everywhere on the web to the combined project cost of 707kr. Value were created without big costs since focus where always on value creating processes.

  • 448.
    Blanjean, Boris
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Thöne, Claudius
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    The internationalization of SMEs in declining industries - cases from the watch industry2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    It is possible for firms to survive within declining industries. However, growth through internationalization within this stage of an industry’s life-cycle has not been sufficiently explored in the past. As SMEs supposedly face many barriers during this process, the purpose of this thesis is to research the internationalization of SMEs within declining industries, with a focus on finding what is the biggest challenge to their internationalization. A multiple-case study and semi-structured interviews were used to explore internationalization in a declining industry, the watch industry. A theoretical framework was built and compared to both the primary and the secondary data collected throughout this study. The analysis shows that finding the right distributor is the biggest challenge throughout SMEs’ internationalization. It also finds trade shows related to declining industries not to be effective promotion tools for firms from this industry. Finally, this thesis finds smartwatches not to be perceived as a threat by traditional watch brands, due to the different values associated to these products.

  • 449.
    Blank, Veronica
    et al.
    Ernst & Young AB.
    Collin, Sven-Olof Yrjö
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Governance, Accounting and Development (GAD).
    Tagesson, Torbjörn
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Governance, Accounting and Development (GAD).
    Broberg, Pernilla
    Lund University.
    Explaining Municipal Audit Costs: Considering the Principal2009Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Studies of audit fees have focused on the audit market and on the organisational costs related to the production of audit. Audit is, however, an activity that is oriented towards the principal of the organisation, and could therefore be expected to vary according to the relationship between the agent and the principal, and vary according to the organisation of the principal. This is the governance issue of auditing. We hypothesize that audit fees are used mainly as a signalling device by agents and as a means of reducing conflict among agents when communicating to principals, be they citizen, the mass media or interest group. The model is tested on data from Swedish municipalities, thus extending the study of audit fees to political organisations. The test results supported the ordinary propositions of organisation and markets, as well as the proposition of the principal, thus suggesting that audit could be managed without managing auditors.

  • 450.
    Blidnert, Jonas
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Ellertsson, Philip
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Konstruktion och utformning av skydd till spolverk2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis has been carried out in cooperation with Burseryds Bruk AB.

    Burseryds Bruk is a company that manufactures steel strapping. The thesis is

    about developing a concept of protection that should be used to protect the

    operators from the rotating parts of the machinery lines. The aim of the project

    was to improve work safety for operators working at the machines by producing a

    concept for a protective device.

     

    The project's first part was based on ergonomic data collection methods to

    understand the operations performed on the machine and the hazard occurring

    during the process. The methods used to collect data were, interviews,

    observations and questionnaires with the operators of the company. This was then

    used to make the ergonomic analyzes hierarchical task analysis and link analysis.

     

    The data collected from the company's operators was used create 10 concepts

    which were then evaluated. The standard "General requirements for the design

    and construction of fixed and movable guards" were examined at the concept

    development process.

     

    The selected protection tested and simulated in a modeled machine line where

    Computer manikins used together with protection. The project ended with risk

    analyzes on the developed protection with the help of simulations in the CAD

    program Catia workbenches and a standard for risk analysis.

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