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  • 401.
    Billström, Anders
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Svensson, Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Mysen, Tore
    Oslo School of Management, Norway.
    Rindell, Anne
    Hanken School of Economics, Finland.
    Satisfaction as a mediator of Swedish Business Relationships2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 402.
    Billström, Anders
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Knowledge Entrepreneurship and Enterprise Research (KEEN).
    Ulvenblad, Pia
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Winborg, Joakim
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Knowledge Entrepreneurship and Enterprise Research (KEEN).
    Lindholm Dahlstrand, Åsa
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Knowledge Entrepreneurship and Enterprise Research (KEEN).
    To get them on board: The role of communication for attracting stakeholders to incubator businesses2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 403.
    Binnås, Caroline
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Lindgren, Fredrik
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Utvärdering av ett modelleringsverktygs förmåga att prediktera koncentrationen av TCE i inomhusluft2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Polluted areas are places where the level of contamination can be harmful for human health and the environment. There are about 80 000 possibly polluted areas in Sweden, 25 000 of which have been classified according to the risk of specific site. To evaluate the risk and distribution of a contamination on polluted areas, the most common way is to do a risk assessment. In addition to environmental engineering studies and surveys of the site, modelling tools can be used as a complement to try and predict the risk of polluted areas. The purpose of this study is to evaluate such a modelling tool called JAGG 2.1 (Jord, Afdampning, Gas and Grundvand) and its applicability to predict concentrations of the chlorinated solvent trichloroethylene (TCE) in indoor air of buildings located on contaminated sites. The questions that are to be answered in this study is whether the modelling tool can be used to predict concentration of TCE in indoor air and what parameters that affect the calculated value the most? The work with risk assessment could be facilitated by validating this modelling tool.

    The modelling tool was tested on three different contaminated sites in Sweden. When testing the modelling tool, relevant data was used to calculate the concentration of TCE in indoor air and thereafter the results were analyzed.

    This study showed that the modelling tool underestimated the concentrations of TCE for three out of four tested rooms in the buildings on the contaminated areas for all the tested parameters taken into account. The one room where JAGG 2.1 predicted correct TCE concentrations, compared to the measured result, is considered to have all the right parameters. The parameters are ceiling height, ventilation, the slab-on-grade thickness and the depth where the sample was taken and other geological conditions suitable for a successful calculation. This led to the conclusion that this modelling tool only can be used as an assisting tool and cannot replace environmental engineering studies. The obtained results must also be critically reviewed, before using it for risk assessments.

    Keywords: JAGG 2.1, modelling tools, vapor intrusion, chlorinated solvents, trichloroethylene. 

  • 404.
    Birgersson, Johan
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Larsson, Linus
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Ledarskap och Personligt Varumärke: En kvalitativ studie om hur det personliga varumärket påverkar ledarskapet inom banksektorn2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Ever since the concept of the personal brand had been coined, observations and surveys of it have become more interesting since it has been proven to have positive effects for leadership and the organization. Since bank employees are responsible for doing business directly to thebank's customers, they are considered to be the organization's most important resource. It is this freedom and independence that puts high demands on clarity on the leadership within the banking sector. Since previous studies have shown that a leader's personal brand can contribute to this clarity of the leadership, we decided to do a study with an abductive approach, with the problem formulation: How does the personal brand affect the leadership within the banking sector?

    The study aims at investigating how the personal brand affects the leadership within the banking sector, viewed from the perspective of leaders and employees. It was done through a qualitative study where we focused on identify the basics about the personal brand and how it shows in the leadership. We chose to use Kapferer's model - Brand Identity Prism (2008) as an analysis model throughout the study. Our theoretical reference frame has been derived from scientific articles and literature. The empirical data consisted eight personal interviews in total, where six of them were with employees and two of them were with leaders. The interviews were conducted with a semi-structured interview guide. The conclusion of our study showed that the personal brand affects leadership through trust, clarity and communication. Therefore, it should be of outmost importance for a leader to become aware of it. Our hope is that individuals will use the studys’ result on how the personal brand affects leadership.

  • 405.
    Birgersson, Rikard
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Eliasson, Eric
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Unilateralt och bilateralt genomförande av bänkpress och dess påverkan på varandra sett till muskelaktivering, effekt, och kraftutveckling2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: It has been studied whether strength-exercises performed with two arms (bilateral) leads to better performance when compared to exercises performed with only one arm (unilateral), and it has been shown that both implementations result in similar results after a short training period. At the same time, research shows that mixed results between different implementations in terms of muscle activation and force development exists.

    Objective: The main purpose of this study was to see the effect of unilateral or bilateral warm-up in the bench press and its influence on subsequent unilateral and bilateral performance in the bench press, investigating the factors: muscle activation, power, and force development. A secondary purpose was to relate the results of the study to bilateral index, to see if bilateral deficit or bilateral facilitation dominates.

    Method: Strength-trained men (n = 13, age 25 ± 3 years) warmed up with two different implementations (unilateral or bilateral), and after each individual warm-up they performed three submaximal lifts (40 and 80% of 1RM) in unilateral and bilateral bench press. Muscle activity, power, and force development were measured in muscles pectoralis major, anterior deltoid, and triceps brachii, after each individual warm-up during three submaximal lifts (40 and 80% of 1RM) in unilateral and bilateral bench press.

    Results: Significant results were found in unilateral performance in power and force development after unilateral warm-up (184 ± 36 W and 164 ± 31 W; 416 ± 76 N and 412 ± 74 N) compared with bilateral warm-up (p = 0.05). There were no significant differences between the different implementations in bilateral performance. Significant differences were neither found in the muscle activation of any of the implementations. The study also found evidence of a difference between the test participants regarding bilateral deficit and bilateral facilitation in terms of power and force development, where the majority of the test participants had bilateral facilitation.

    Conclusion: Regardless of warm-up, no difference was seen in the strength-trained men regarding muscle activation in the bilateral or unilateral bench press, however, the warm-up  was of importance to performance. Therefore, unilateral warm-up should be applied before unilateral performance, as this showed significant improvement. Although no significant improvement was observed, a bilateral warm-up should also preceed a bilateral performance.

  • 406.
    Birgersson, Victoria
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Lundgren-Goodman, Maximillian
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Dark Ages Lunar Interferometer - Deployment Rover: Propulsion and Steering Systems2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    2030 NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory will place an interferometer, which will workas a radio telescope, on the far side of the Moon. The interferometer uses thinpolyamide films as antennas, which are rolled out by a rover (an autonomousvehicle). The thesis covers concept generation of the propulsion and steering systemof the rover.The interferometer is to be placed on the far side of the Moon in order to ensure, asfar as possible, that it is not effected by radiation from Earth. The interferometerconsists of several polyamide films, approximately 100 meters long and one meterwide. The films are to be connected in the middle in order to form a star pattern offilm. Since the rover is to roll out these films on the surface of the Moon, it will driveback and forth to the lander to pick up the rolls. The focus in the project has been todevelop a reliable and stable system as possible so that the rover can accomplish itsmission without malfunctions. The purpose with the interferometer is to map thehydrogen gas clouds which were formed during universe’s youth (Platt, 2008).The outcome of this project is a concept indicating what the most optimal design ofwheel mount, of motor mount, of wheel and steering design may be in order to steerthe rover. The method to generate concepts used is known Fredy Olsson’s method.This is a method that has been developed at Lunds University and it has been widelyused in engineering education at Halmstad University.The four concepts developed and contributes to the whole concept for propulsion andsteering system of the rover. The four concepts developed are an all six steering, allof the six wheels can be controlled individually. Each wheel is split, or divided intwo. The motor is angle mounted and the wheel is semi-open with a slope that makesthe Moon dust fall out if it comes inside.Inspiration from previous rovers which are or have been on the Moon and Mars hasbeen useful in generating concepts. Previously used concepts are stable and reliable,which are important factors in this project. Previous theses have come to theconclusion that the chassis of the rover should be the one similar to the one used onMars Science Laboratory Curiosity and Mars Exploration Rover’s Spirit andOpportunity.The Halmstad University projects in collaboration with NASA began at HalmstadUniversity in 2013, and previous projects have developed the chassis, energy systemand the deployment mechanism of the rover. This year’s project takes intoconsideration the results from previous years since a concept of a complete roverultimately is going to be presented to NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory.The thesis is done in collaboration with NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory inCalifornia, USA. NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory is the leading U.S. center forrobotic exploration of the solar system.

  • 407.
    Bjartmarz, Freyr
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Design och konstruktion av balanscykel i bambu2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This project was carried out in the USA in cooperation with Kansas University and the organization HERObike. HERObike is a nonprofit organization that wants to develop the society in the impoverished countryside areas of Alabama. The aim of the project was to construct a balance-bike in bamboo since bamboo is a local material in Alabama that HERObike can easily use in the production. The purpose was to increase the employment of the people living in Greensboro Alabama and give them experience within the manufacturing industry. The construction of the bike is a complementary to the current bikes that are manufactured since the balance-bike does not require earlier knowledge in craftsmanship. With this project HERObike wish to give more working possibilities for the poor people in Greensboro, Alabama.

  • 408.
    Bjermqvist, Martin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Harder, Anette
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Hur revisionspliktens avskaffande uppfyllt småföretags, revisorers och myndigheters förväntningar: En kvalitativ studie om reformens utfall2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Föreliggande studie grundar sig på Riksdagens beslut år 2010, att genom en reform avskaffa revisionsplikten för småföretag. Målet med revisionspliktens avskaffande var att minska småföretagens kostnader och administration, men även att förbättra konkurrenssituationen och tillväxtmöjligheterna.

    Det har gått drygt sju år sedan reformen trädde i kraft i Sverige och Riksrevisionen rekommenderade nyligen att återinföra revisionsplikten. En rekommendation som startade en debatt hos olika branschorganisationer och indikerade att det tycks råda stor oenighet om vilka förväntningar som avskaffandet förde med sig för småföretag, revisorer och berörda myndigheter samt hur dessa förväntningar har uppfyllts. Därmed bedömde vi att detta gap är av nationellt intresse för att närmare undersöka hur reformen för revisionspliktens avskaffande i mindre aktiebolag har uppfyllt förväntningarna från småföretag, revisorer och berörda myndigheter.

    Detta har vi gjort genom att beskriva, analysera och skapa förståelse för hur reformen har påverkat småföretag, revisionsbyråer och myndigheterna Skatteverket, Bolagsverket och Ekobrottsmyndigheten. Studien har anammat en kvalitativ metod där det empiriska underlaget består av intervjuer med tio personer som på olika sätt påverkats av reformen. Dessa personer har valts utifrån tre urvalskategorier: myndigheter (Skatteverket, Bolagsverket och Ekobrottsmyndigheten), revisionsbyråer samt branschorganisationer (FAR och Svenskt Näringsliv).

    Vår studie visar att framförallt arbetsbördan, men även kostnaderna, inte minskat så mycket som det förväntats. Småföretagen har främst påverkats genom en ökad valfrihet att välja de tjänster som de har bäst nytta av. Samtidigt har många småföretag som etablerats innan reformen valt att behålla revisionen. Reformen har därför haft mindre påverkan på dessa befintliga småföretag än vad som uppfattats tidigare. Småföretagens valfrihet har gjort att revisionsbyråerna anpassat sitt tjänsteutbud efter den förändrade efterfrågan. De har även behövt utveckla sin relation till småföretag, leverera mervärde och arbeta mer aktivt för att bibehålla sina revisionsuppdrag. Nya typer av uppdrag, minskat antal revisorer och ökat antal aktiebolag har resulterat i att revisionsbranschen fortfarande har hög arbetsbelastning. Revisionsbyråerna anser att förväntningarna ändå uppfyllts till det bättre.

    Bolagsverkets och Ekobrottsmyndighetens farhågor har uppfyllts, med försämrad kvalitet på årsredovisningar och redovisning, samt minskat förtroende för aktiebolag. Skatteverkets möjlighet att själva styra sitt behov av kontroll, samt förebyggande och framåtsyftande arbete har gjort att de upplever att reformen uppfyllts till det bättre. Däremot tycks det funnits förväntningar på att andra aktörer skulle möta upp reformen tydligare. Det råder en osäkerhet om vem som bör ansvara för vad, men samtliga respondenter i studien anser att revision i sig gör nytta och har en god funktion. Studien visar att det behöver införas någon form av kontroll i småföretag. Det finns flera tänkbara möjligheter till detta, men det är tydligt att dagens ISA-revision inte passar småföretag.

  • 409.
    Björk, Eva-Stina
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Insider Action Research (IAR) of product development processes2004In: TOOLS AND METHODS OF COMPETITIVE ENGINEERING Vols 1 and 2 / [ed] Horvath, I Xirouchakis, P, Rotterdam: Millpress Science Publishers , 2004, p. 1043-1052Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Performing product development means to simultaneously develop product systems, production processes and marketing efforts. Product Development processes are often complex as they are time dependent and contain many inter-dependencies e.g. between parts and individuals involved Due to the complexity in these processes the methods for research on integrated product development processes need to be designed differently than traditional research methods used. The study of details of totalities can work for mechanical systems but less well for complex systems. For a deeper knowledge of complex systems substantial researcher involvement and participation in real time is essential, which Insider Action Research (IAR) is designed for. IAR can be performed from the three main positions as observer, team member or project leader. The-following conclusions have been drawn (Bjork 2003): The IAR approach is beneficial in most types of development processes and projects when the aim of the research is to achieve increased knowledge and understanding. A mix of detailed and narrative descriptions of a research project provides also practitioners with an opportunity to adopt the findings. The implementation of research results would thereby become facilitated, which is an effect that most researchers as well as practitioners would benefit from.

  • 410.
    Björk, Eva-Stina
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Ottosson, Stig
    Otto-von-Guericke University, Magdeburg, Germany.
    Aspects of consideration in product development research2007In: Journal of engineering design (Print), ISSN 0954-4828, E-ISSN 1466-1837, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 195-207Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One reason for conducting research on product development processes is to improve the usability in methods and tools for companies to be more competitive and efficient. However, the transfer of research findings over to industry has been shown to be slow and incremental, which could be seen as a result of bad usability and/or low acceptability in research findings from studies on industrial product development processes.

    According to our research and practice experience, we have found that, to grasp what really happens on a daily basis in a development project, to get the opportunity to reflect upon it, and to understand the complex nature of a development process, it is necessary to conduct insider action research (IAR), which is a qualitative approach. So far, the traditional outsider perspective using a quantitative research approach has been dominant. Conducting IAR means that the researcher is present and intervenes most of the time in a development project either as project leader, team member or observer.

    To improve the opportunities for implementation of research findings (which is an important issue for society as a whole) and to guarantee trust in presented research findings, IAR has proved to be efficient in the studied projects. As the research situation becomes unique for each product development process, trust in the research findings is strongly related to the presence of the researcher in the development process. Reliability and credibility in terms of provable data can be filed in diaries, email communications, and so on, and saved to be available if required.

  • 411.
    Björk, Julia
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    The effect of a weight lifting belt and the use of valsalva maneuver on power output and velocity in a squat2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: A squat is a common exercise that is used in many areas of strength training and for different purposes and the literature is inconclusive when it comes to whether the weight lifting belt (WB) affects performance and/or is injury-preventing. The use of breathing techniques is common during heavy lifting and therefore the practice of the breathing teqnice; valsalva maneuver (VM) may be of interest to study and if this along with the WB can provide some advantages in power output and velocity. Aim: The specific aim of the study was to evaluate whether the velocity in the eccentric and the concentric phase of the squat, and the peak velocity in the concentric phases are affected in power output through the use of the VM when the subjects use or did not use a WB. Method: Fifteen subjects (10 men and 5 women) volunteered freely to participate and did a total of 12 squats divided in four different sets with three repetitions each on 75% of their self-reported one repetition maximum (1RM). The first two sets were either with or without WB and the third and fourth sets were either with or without the practice of the VM. The three conditions (with WB, with WB + VM and VA only) were compared to each other and to the control group (without any instructions and no WB) in terms of power output and velocity in the eccentric, concentric and peak velocity in the concentric phase of the squat. Result: There was no significant difference in power output when comparing the four different test conditions. The velocity in the eccentric, concentric and peak velocity in the concentric phase did not have a significant difference between the different test conditions. Conclusions: This study shows a different output compared to previous literature. The WB and the practice of VM did not affect the power output and velocity in a squat, alone or together. 

  • 412.
    Björk, Julia
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Upper- & lower body strength and its correlation to performance in swimming2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: To learn how to swim with proper technique takes fairly large amount of time and practice to learn and anelite swimmer spends 6-7 days training for improving aerobic capacity, anaerobic capacity and strength training for energy saving technique. Freestyle is the fastest swimming style and is performed in many different distances, 50m is classified as a sprint and the 400m as a middle-distance. The research is inconclusive if there is a correlation in the lower body and the time in 50m and 400m and mostly in the middle distance which gives this study the importance reducing these uncertainties. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the strength of the correlation between the upper- and lower body muscle strengthwith time in 50m and 400m freestyle and to analyze which of the variables of height, sex, upper- and lower body strength contribute to velocity in sprint and middle distance in competitive swimmers. Method:A total of 14 participants (3 men and 11 women) participated in the study. The participants were tested at three occasions. The first was to determine their three-repetition maximum (3RM) in the squat and lat-pulldown. The second occasion was the collection the time in 50m freestyle and the third was to collect the time in 400m freestyle. Relative strength (kg/kg BW; %) and absolute strength (kg) in 1RM was calculated and correlated with the time in 50m and 400m freestyle. Analysis was done to see which variables of height, sex, relative strength in the squat and lat-pulldown contribute the most to the time in freestyle. Result: The result show that there was a high correlation between the absolute strength in the squat and the time in 50m (r=-0.769) a moderate correlation in the absolute strength in lat-pulldown and the 50m freestyle sprint (r=-0.513). There was also a moderate correlation for the relative strength in the lat-pulldown and 50m freestyle (r=-0.599). The 400m correlate with the relative strength in both lat-pulldown(r=-0.563) and the squat (r=-0.555). The lat-pulldown contributed most to the time in 50m freestyle as well as the male sex. Conclusions: The absolute strength in the squat had a high correlation to the time in 50m freestyle swim. The 400m there was a moderate correlation to the relative strength in the squat and lat-pulldown showing that for the overall performance in middle-distance the relative strength has the advantage over absolute strength. The relative and absolute strength in upper body correlated to both 50m and 400m freestyle and could therefore strengthen the importance of upper body strength in sprint and middle distance as previous researchers has stated. The upper body strength is the best predictor of time in 50m.

  • 413.
    Björk, Oscar
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Post-activation Potentiation in Moderately Heavy Squats following a Heavy Pre-load Squat2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Post-activation potentiation (PAP) is a phenomenon where force output is acutely enhanced

    following muscular contraction. Previous research has documented enhanced performance in

    power-type light exercise following a heavy pre-load, such as vertical jumps following heavy

    squats. To date, the effect of PAP on moderately heavy exercise following a heavy pre-load

    has not been investigated. Purpose: The purpose was to examine whether PAP could be

    elicited in moderately heavy squats following a heavy squat pre-load, and if so, what intensity

    (as percentage of one repetition-maximum [1RM]) of pre-load elicited the highest PAP effect

    (measured as mean power, mean force and number of repetitions performed). Subjects:

    Seventeen resistance-trained males (age 24±2 years, length 182±8 cm, body mass 84.7±13.1

    kg, squat 1RM 147.6±29.6 kg) with at least 2 years of experience of the squat exercise.

    Methods: After testing parallel squat 1RM at a separate session, subjects performed three

    testing sessions in a randomized order in a cross-over design; performance test at 80% of

    parallel squat 1RM (control), one repetition at 85% of 1RM followed 8 minutes later by the

    same performance test (PAP85), and one repetition at 93% of 1RM followed 8 minutes later

    by the same performance test (PAP93). Sessions were separated by six days. Force and power

    output was recorded using a linear encoder. Friedman’s test was used to reveal differences

    between conditions, and a Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to identify these differences.

    Results: There was an increase in number of repetitions performed for PAP85 (p=0.009) and

    PAP93 (p=0.001) compared to control, but not for mean power or mean force. There was no

    significant difference between PAP85 and PAP93 for number of repetitions (p=0.091).

    Conclusion: PAP can be elicited to improve performance in moderately heavy squats

    following a heavy squat pre-load in trained subjects, but only measured as number of

    repetitions performed, not force or power. PAP could therefore be useful not only for

    designing power training, but also for strength and hypertrophy training.

    KEYWORDS: squat, post-activation potentiation, PAP, strength, power, hypertrophy.

  • 414.
    Björkdahl, Joakim
    et al.
    Department of Technology Management and Economics, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Holmén, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Exploiting the control revolution by means of digitalization: Value creation, value capture, and downstream movements2019In: Industrial and Corporate Change, ISSN 0960-6491, E-ISSN 1464-3650, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 423-436, article id dty022Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explains why firms move downstream to profit from the value they create for customers through improved control. Under certain circumstances, product innovations and services are dynamically interdependent in the sense of improved control creating value for the customer. Since value capture is distinct from value creation, firms may need to change their means of appropriation to profit. Empirically, the article analyses how firms can renew their product offerings by incorporating control technologies into their traditional mechanical engineering products. In contrast to a strand in the recent strategy literature that argues that manufacturing firms should move downstream to deliver complementary services, this article explains these shifts as related to increased control, economies of throughput, value creation, and value capture. The article contributes to the throughput and control technology literature by showing the importance of differentiating value creation from value capture. The increased control by means of digitalization and the discrepancy between value creation and value capture explains why many manufacturing firms will become service firms.

  • 415.
    Björkdahl, Joakim
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Holmén, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Innovation audits by means of formulating problems2016In: R &D Management, ISSN 0033-6807, E-ISSN 1467-9310, Vol. 46, no 5, p. 842-856Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prior innovation audits consist of scorecards that firms use to assess their innovation processes and capabilities. The multifaceted nature of innovation means that this approach does not contextualize the audit for the audited firms. This paper proposes an innovation audit method that identifies and formulates valuable innovation-related problems. It comprises four sequentially dependent modules which follow a structured process that allows the firm’s innovation processes and capabilities to be audited. The audit was developed based on performing innovation audits with five multinational companies in the manufacturing and hygiene sectors, and nine pulp and paper companies. The paper discusses the pros and cons of different innovation audits. We suggest that the innovation audit process may be a means for changing a firm’s strategic innovation orientation, and contribute to the development of innovation capabilities. © 2015 RADMA and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  • 416.
    Björkdahl, Joakim
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Holmén, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Fallahi, Sara
    Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Business model innovation processes: Looking forward and looking backward2016In: Academy of Management Conference, AOM, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 417.
    Björkman, Jasmine
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Are there any difference between the levels of serum leptin, visceral fat area and body mass index in patients with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis, with and without radiographic changes?2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 418.
    Björnell, Rebecha
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Kristensson, Michaela
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Kan ett 5-veckors hembaserat träningsprogram förbättra smärtan hos personer med fibromyalgi?2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka om ett 5-veckors enkelt styrketräningsprogram i hemmet minskar den upplevda smärtan hos personer med fibromyalgi.

    Metod: Antal deltagare med fibromyalgi var 10 stycken som rekryterades för att genomföra ett 5 veckors träningsprogram med fokus på styrka i buk-, rygg- och magmuskulatur. Före och efter träningsprogrammet mättes styrka (rygg, mage och ben – 3 tester) och smärta (Visual Analog Skala - VAS). Fyra frågor kring smärta besvarades med VAS-skala. Skillnad mellan undersökning före påbörjad träning (pretest) till undersökning efter avslutad träning (posttest) analyserades. Wilcoxons rangtest användes för att undersöka om där fanns en signifikant skillnad mellan pretest och posttest.

    Resultat: Efter avslutat träningsprogram hade inte smärtan förbättrats. I styrketesterna framkom signifikant förbättrad benstyrka medan rygg- och magstyrka var oförändrad. För sju av tio av deltagarna förbättrades styrkan i magtestet utan signifikant skillnad och för fem av tio deltagare förbättrades styrkan i ryggtestet utan signifikant skillnad. Smärtan var efter avslutad träning förbättrad, dock ej signifikant skillnad.  

    Slutsats: Det studerade styrketräningsprogrammet under 5 veckor ledde inte till en minskning av smärta.

  • 419.
    Blaesild, Milton
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Snack2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    We live in an increasingly polarized society. For that reason it is important that we can have thriving and valuable discussions. This project has taken that idea to it´s extreme by giving every web address its own comment section. Every news article, every video, every blog and so on has through the finalizing of this project a comment section. Because you don't agree with someone else's opinion doesn’t mean you can’t understand it. The goal with Snack is to increase people's understanding of each other’s point of views.

    The project was done as a Lean startup project with a structure of the waterfall method and an Agile work style. The Lean startup approach gave the result that you can now comment everywhere on the web to the combined project cost of 707kr. Value were created without big costs since focus where always on value creating processes.

  • 420.
    Blanjean, Boris
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Thöne, Claudius
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    The internationalization of SMEs in declining industries - cases from the watch industry2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    It is possible for firms to survive within declining industries. However, growth through internationalization within this stage of an industry’s life-cycle has not been sufficiently explored in the past. As SMEs supposedly face many barriers during this process, the purpose of this thesis is to research the internationalization of SMEs within declining industries, with a focus on finding what is the biggest challenge to their internationalization. A multiple-case study and semi-structured interviews were used to explore internationalization in a declining industry, the watch industry. A theoretical framework was built and compared to both the primary and the secondary data collected throughout this study. The analysis shows that finding the right distributor is the biggest challenge throughout SMEs’ internationalization. It also finds trade shows related to declining industries not to be effective promotion tools for firms from this industry. Finally, this thesis finds smartwatches not to be perceived as a threat by traditional watch brands, due to the different values associated to these products.

  • 421.
    Blank, Veronica
    et al.
    Ernst & Young AB.
    Collin, Sven-Olof Yrjö
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Governance, Accounting and Development (GAD).
    Tagesson, Torbjörn
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Governance, Accounting and Development (GAD).
    Broberg, Pernilla
    Lund University.
    Explaining Municipal Audit Costs: Considering the Principal2009Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Studies of audit fees have focused on the audit market and on the organisational costs related to the production of audit. Audit is, however, an activity that is oriented towards the principal of the organisation, and could therefore be expected to vary according to the relationship between the agent and the principal, and vary according to the organisation of the principal. This is the governance issue of auditing. We hypothesize that audit fees are used mainly as a signalling device by agents and as a means of reducing conflict among agents when communicating to principals, be they citizen, the mass media or interest group. The model is tested on data from Swedish municipalities, thus extending the study of audit fees to political organisations. The test results supported the ordinary propositions of organisation and markets, as well as the proposition of the principal, thus suggesting that audit could be managed without managing auditors.

  • 422.
    Blidnert, Jonas
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Ellertsson, Philip
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Konstruktion och utformning av skydd till spolverk2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis has been carried out in cooperation with Burseryds Bruk AB.

    Burseryds Bruk is a company that manufactures steel strapping. The thesis is

    about developing a concept of protection that should be used to protect the

    operators from the rotating parts of the machinery lines. The aim of the project

    was to improve work safety for operators working at the machines by producing a

    concept for a protective device.

     

    The project's first part was based on ergonomic data collection methods to

    understand the operations performed on the machine and the hazard occurring

    during the process. The methods used to collect data were, interviews,

    observations and questionnaires with the operators of the company. This was then

    used to make the ergonomic analyzes hierarchical task analysis and link analysis.

     

    The data collected from the company's operators was used create 10 concepts

    which were then evaluated. The standard "General requirements for the design

    and construction of fixed and movable guards" were examined at the concept

    development process.

     

    The selected protection tested and simulated in a modeled machine line where

    Computer manikins used together with protection. The project ended with risk

    analyzes on the developed protection with the help of simulations in the CAD

    program Catia workbenches and a standard for risk analysis.

  • 423.
    Blomby, Mattias
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Forsberg, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Miljöcertifierade kommersiella byggnader: Undersökning av ekonomisk ansvarsfördelning mellan hyresgäst och fastighetsägare2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish commercial real estate market is in the current situation globally affected and is actively interacting with the rental and capital markets through international tenants and investors who are setting new demands on the property owners. The European Union has set new requirements as well in purpose of reducing humanity’s negative effect on the climate and therefore the international real estate market has introduced Green Building-certificates in order to decrease the real estate industry’s environmental impact.

    Certificated buildings with low energy consumption are a more common sight in Sweden these days. The development, however, could go even faster if there was not certain difficulties between property owners and tenants. Previous research has revealed that tenants do not always have knowledge about, or may have access to the economic benefits that a green building can provide. This results in the tenants lesser approval of higher rents which often is the outcome of the property owners environmental investments in the building. The following effect means that energy improvements in the real estate sector is slowed and the environment suffers. To get a deeper understanding of this phenomenon we have with this study chosen to examine how Swedish property owners and tenants reason about advantages and disadvantages with certified commercial buildings as well as around economic responsibility for investments in these.

    In order to create favorable conditions to provide clarity in our problem we choose a qualitative method with open individual interviews so that we in depth could examine how our respondents were thinking about the subject. The study is based on theory of how the Swedish commercial rental model looks like today followed by the difficulties it might cause, the principal/agent-problem. Furthermore, theory of how green buildings affect property owners and tenants on different levels is presented. By analyzing the theory with the empirical data obtained through interviews, we have come to the following conclusion:

    Transparency of incentives reduces the principal/agent-problem. By having a clear dialogue between property owners and tenants regarding the incentives to own and rent a green building the suspicion that is closely associated with the principal/agent-problem is reduced which results in more favorable development with environmental investments in the building. Individually custom made green leases is a first step toward sharing financial responsibilities. When the incentives are clear, a distribution of environmental investment costs can be made between the two parties so that each one gets involved which is the purpose of Green Leases. Now that the tenant have a deeper understanding and knowledge about the benefits of green buildings, certification becomes easier. Funding may influence investment decisions. New possibilities have become available to property owners who want to certificate their property portfolio. Green bonds, which first was issued in Sweden in 2013 by Vasakronan, has increased intensely lately and opens up new ways for corporations in the real estate business to finance environmental investings.

  • 424.
    Blomgren, Bo
    et al.
    Safety Assessment, Bgn. 681 Gärtuna, AstraZeneca R and D Södertälje, Sodertalje SE 151 85, Sweden; Institution of Women's and Children's Health, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Johannesson, Ulrika
    Division of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Karolinska Institutet Danderyds Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bohm-Starke, Nina
    Division of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Karolinska Institutet Danderyds Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Falconer, Christian
    Division of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Karolinska Institutet Danderyds Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hilliges, Marita
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    A computerised, unbiased method for epithelial measurement2004In: Micron, ISSN 0968-4328, E-ISSN 1878-4291, Vol. 35, no 5, p. 319-329Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective

    To develop and evaluate a standardised method for unbiased measurements of epithelial thickness taking the variability of the dermal papillae in consideration.

    Methods

    A computer-assisted measurement program suitable for haematoxylin and eosin routine stained specimens has been developed.

    Results

    The developed program was designed to measure four different distance parameters, taking the number, height and width of dermal papillae into account. The measurement program gave very accurate results compared with manual measurements. The measurement results can be presented as tables or star graphs, and the results can be further processed by multivariate analysis.

    Conclusion

    The computer-assisted measurement program is considered to be a valuable and reliable tool for measurements of epithelial thickness, irrespectively of the variability of the epithelial morphology. Since length, size and number of the papillae may change with certain pathological conditions, age and also under hormonal influence, this method can be a helpful diagnostic tool.

  • 425.
    Blomkvist, Marita
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Entrepreneurs and their involvement in producing accounting2005In: Proceedings of the 28th European Accounting Association (EAA) Annual Congress, Brussels: European Accounting Association , 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Entrepreneurs seem to be highly valuable for the firms in which they are involved. However, the knowledge of the role of accounting in a context of entrepreneurship is almost non-existent. Infact, literature in entrepreneurship says that the role of accounting is only about the past and therefore not of interest for entrepreneurs in exploiting opportunities. This paper reports the result of a qualitative study of five entrepreneurs and their involvement in the process of producing the annual report. The study aimed to describe and analyse if and how entrepreneurs are involved in producing accounting information when the annual report was prepared. If the entrepreneur was involved, the purpose was also to explain and the entrepreneurs involvement in the process. In purpose to find entrepreneurs the owner-managers of five small growing companies were asked to participate in semi-structured interviews during which their involvement to produce accounting where discussed. The respondents were also presented the adjustments, the final step in the recording process, and the annual report, in order to assess their involvement and to focus on how the entrepreneurs as producers of annual reports reflect and act in relation to other actors and to the process on the reporting. The study found that the entrepreneurs were certainly involved in producing certain accounting in the annual report. The analysis reveals that the reports were carefully fabricated and consciously managed by the entrepreneurs in the study.

  • 426.
    Blomkvist, Marita
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Entrepreneurs as accountants - the year -end procedures in Gazelle firms2009In: Proceedings of the 32nd European Accounting Association (EAA) Annual Congress, Brussels: European Accounting Association , 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Entrepreneurs seem to be highly valuable for the firms in which they are involved. However, the knowledge of the role of accounting in a context of entrepreneurship is limited. In fact, some literature on entrepreneurship indicates that the role of accounting is only about the past and therefore not of interest for entrepreneurs in the entrepreneurial process.

    This paper reports the results of one empirical study. The study aimed to explore how and why entrepreneurs in successful fast growing firms, i.e. Gazelle firms, participate in the year end procedures. In order to find entrepreneurs a survey was sent to a sample of 257 managers of Gazelle firms and to a control group of 227 managers in not growing firms. The responding rate was more than 50% from both groups. Entrepreneurs in Gazelle firms produce formal financial accounting information and the spent more time compared with managers in not growing firms in this process. Further, the results indicate that that there is a negative relationship between the size and the firm and participation in the year-end procedures.

  • 427.
    Blomkvist, Marita
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Knowledge Entrepreneurship and Enterprise Research (KEEN).
    Entreprenörer som redovisare: Bokslutsprocessen i Gasellföretag2011Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 428.
    Blomkvist, Marita
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Knowledge Entrepreneurship and Enterprise Research (KEEN).
    Entreprenörer som redovisare: bokslutsprocessen i Gasellföretag2008Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Entrepreneurs seem to be highly valuable for the firms in which they are involved. However, the knowledge of the role of accounting in a context of entrepreneurship is limited. In fact, some literature on entrepreneurship indicates that the role of accounting is only about the past and therefore not of interest for entrepreneurs in the entrepreneurial process.

    This dissertation reports the results of two empirical studies. The first study is a qualitative pilot study of five entrepreneurs in fast growing firms and their participation in the year-end procedure. The respondents were presented the adjustments in the final step of the recording process and the annual report in order to assess their participation and to focus on how the entrepreneurs as producers of accounting reflect and act in relation to other actors and to the process of reporting. The pilot study found that the entrepreneurs were certainly involved in use and produce of certain accounting in the year-end procedures. The second study is based on the result from the pilot study and on agency theory the study aimed to describe and explain how and why entrepreneurs in successful fast growing firms, i.e. Gazelle firms, compared with a control group of managers in not growing firms, are participating in the year-end procedures. Also, the study aimed to analyse differences between entrepreneurs´ participation and other managers´ participation in this process. The study focused on the activities in the year-end procedures concerned with the values of R&D, stock and work-in-progress and accounts receivables. In order to find entrepreneurs the survey was sent to a sample of 257 managers of Gazelle firms and to a sample of 227 managers in not growing firms. Also, the annual report from the firms where the respondents where involved were collected. This data was also included in the study. The responding rate was 50% from both groups. The most notable finding is, in contradiction to literature on entrepreneurship, that entrepreneurs in Gazelle firms use and produce formal financial accounting information. Entrepreneurs in Gazelle firms spend more time and they are also involved in discussions with more actors compared with managers in not growing firms. Further, the results indicate that entrepreneurs in Gazelle firms will participate to a larger extent when the profitability in the firm decreases compared to managers in not growing firms. Finally, the dissertation gives insight in the role of formal financial accounting in the context of entrepreneurship, a research area we know little about.

  • 429.
    Blomkvist, Marita
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Knowledge Entrepreneurship and Enterprise Research (KEEN).
    Entreprenörers delaktighet i att producera redovisning2004Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Entrepreneurs seem to be highly valuable for the firms in which they are involved. However, the knowledge of the role of accounting in a context of entrepreneurship is almost non-existent.  Infact, literature in entrepreneurship says that the role of accounting is only about the past and therefore not of interest for the entrepreneur in exploiting opportunities. This paper reports the result of a qualitative study of five entrepreneurs and their involvement in the process of financial reporting. The study aimed to describe and analyse if and how entrepreneurs are involved in producing accounting information when the annual report were prepared. If the entrepreneurs were involved, the purpose was also to explain why the entrepreneurs were involved in the process. In purpose to find entrepreneurs the owner-managers of five small growing companies were asked to participate in semi-structured interviews during which their involvement to produce accounting where discussed. The respondents were also presented the adjustments, the final step in the recording process, and the annual report, in order to assess their involvement and to focus on how the entrepreneurs as producers of annual reports reflect and act in relation to other actors and to the process on the reporting.

    The study found that the entrepreneurs were certainly involved in producing the annual report. The analysis reveals that the reports were carefully fabricated and consciously managed by the entrepreneurs in the study. The entrepreneurs where involved in the process when certain values of the assets were established and they wrote the directors annual report.

    The study concludes that it appears to be important for entrepreneurs in small growing firms to discuss and produce accounting together with other actors, primarily the accountant, to improve their understanding and to identify how the audience of the annual reports may read and interpret the annual reports.

  • 430.
    Blomkvist, Marita
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Gasellentreprenörer och delaktighet i bokslutsprocessen - vad skiljer dem från andra företagsledare?2007Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Entrepreneurs seem to be highly valuable for the firms in which they are involved. However, the knowledge of the role of accounting in a context of entrepreneurship is limited. In fact, some literature on entrepreneurship indicates that the role of accounting is only about the past and therefore not of interest for entrepreneurs in exploiting opportunities. In contrast, recent studies in accounting and the context of entrepreneurship reveal that entrepreneurs use and construct accounting information with diverse characteristics.

     

    This paper reports the preliminary results of a survey and archival study. The study aimed to describe and explain how successful entrepreneurs and other managers are participating in the year-end procedures. Also, the study aimed to analyse differences between successful entrepreneurs´ participation and other manager’s participation in this process. The study focused on the activities in the year-end procedures concerned with the values of R&D, stock and work-in-progress and accounts receivables. In order to find successful entrepreneurs the survey was send to a sample of 257 managers of profitable, continuously growing companies. In order to find other managers, who not where successfully entrepreneurial, the survey was send to a sample of 227 managers in not growing companies. Also, the annual report from the companies where the respondents where involved in was collected. This data was also included in the study. The responding rate was about 50% from both groups. The most notable finding is, in contradiction to literature on entrepreneurship, that successful entrepreneurs use financial accounting information. Further, a preliminary result shows that successful entrepreneurs participate more than other managers in producing financial accounting. Ownership structure, degree of growth and individual motives related to stakeholders seems to be some factors that influence the degree of participation.

  • 431.
    Blomkvist, Marita
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    The demand for external accounting services by small and medium siced firms (SMEs) in Sweden - the role of fast growth2010In: Proceedings of the 33rd European Accounting Association (EAA) Annual Congress, Brussels: European Accounting Association , 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to stimulate growth economy, discussions about how to simplicity accounting regulation for SMEs have been highlighted during the past decades.

    From previous research we know that the demand for accounting and advisory service vary with size. Also, the quality of advice from accountants plays an important role besides accounting service. However, some firms find accounting as a burden and in an entrepreneurial context external accounting seems not to be useful.

    The question in this study is whether fast growing SMEs demand more external accounting service compared to stable firms. Fast growing firms in this study is defined as firms who just have doubled turnover during the last three years and at the end of this period have more than 10 employees and less than 250 employees. The empirical data is based of information from a survey answered by 131 managers of fast growing firms and 98 managers of stable firms Sweden. Also archival data from the annual report is included.

    The findings give support to the hypothesis that fast growing SMEs demand more external accounting service when it comes to preparation of annual account and annual report. The result shows no differences between the two groups when demand of external book keeping service is analysed.

  • 432.
    Blomkvist, Marita
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Knowledge Entrepreneurship and Enterprise Research (KEEN).
    Hansson, Agneta
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Knowledge Entrepreneurship and Enterprise Research (KEEN).
    Ulvenblad, Pia
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Knowledge Entrepreneurship and Enterprise Research (KEEN).
    Lindholm Dahlstrand, Åsa
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Knowledge Entrepreneurship and Enterprise Research (KEEN).
    Gendered structures in academic entrepreneurship and innovation – A development towards world-class standard in educational programmes in Sweden2010In: VIII Triple Helix International Conference on University, Industry and Government Linkages: Book of abstracts / [ed] Marcelo Amaral, Ilana Sender, Manuel Cendoya, Rafael Zaballa, 2010, p. 35-35Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An integration of activities such as incubators, technology transfer, student and alumni organisations etc related to entrepreneurship education is seen as promoting economic development and innovativeness in many parts of the world. This way of creating systems for entrepreneurship development has also recently been focused in Sweden. As a result of Swedish Government's ambition to stimulate growth economy, university entrepreneurship education program spring up all over the country in order to promote students' entrepreneurship.From previous research we know that the infrastructure has an impact for entrepreneurship (Delatte & Baytos, 1993; Hannon, 2003; Rosa & Dawson, 2006, Xu, 2010). The structure relates to the number of individuals in the management structure and the role the individual has in the management structure such as member of the board or manager. It also refers to characteristics of the individuals involved in the management such as diversity, gender, age, education competence and previous experience (Rosa & Dawson, 2006). Further, it has been shown that managers are important since a lack of role models have been shown to have an impact for both female entrepreneurs and female managers in decisions of starting and/or managing a business (Crampton & Mishra, 1999; Mattis, 2004). However, public and private initiatives aimed to support business development usually are following a gender blind norm both in the way it is presented, for example regarding language and psychological accessibility, and considering the fields pointed out. Research shows that women don't feel themselves addressed by these initiatives or that it concerns them (NUTEK, 2001; NUTEK, R 2007:34).Swedish Government recently challenged to higher education institutions to apply for finance to a development towards world- class standard in educational programmes in entrepreneurship and innovation (Prop. 2008/2009:1/16). The invitation was directed to higher education institutions that already run advanced studies in entrepreneurship and innovation and that also have a strong connection to research in the same area. Swedish National Agency for Higher Education was commissioned by the Government to examine the applications and invited a panel of international academic experts to asses the applications. Eleven applications were submitted from higher education institutions in the field of entrepreneurship and innovation. Four of the eleven institutions which applied where recommended by the panel of experts and these institutions were further ranked and recommended by Swedish National Agency for Higher Education to the University Chancellor. Two of these institutions were finally selected to be financed by the Swedish Government.This paper focuses on these eleven applications and the review process. The aim of the paper is to analyze and illustrate in what way the applications as well as the review process is gendered for example in terms of discourse and symbols in relation to educational setting, organizational structure, infrastructure, education management, education team assigned and branches of industry (Acker, 1992; Bruni, Gherardi & Poggio, 2005; Gunnarsson, Westberg, Andersson & Balkmar, 2007). We expect to find how gender is mirrored in these highly ranked applications and what impact the presence or absence of a gender focus will have for entrepreneurship and innovation education.

  • 433.
    Blomkvist, Marita
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Knowledge Entrepreneurship and Enterprise Research (KEEN).
    Johansson, Jeaneth
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Knowledge Entrepreneurship and Enterprise Research (KEEN). Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Malmström, Malin
    Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Accounting Knowledge in Innovative Firms – Direct Contacts with Auditors for Strategic Actions2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Managers’ use of auditors in decision processes are well known in the accounting literature but little is known on managers in innovative firms and their acquisition of accounting knowledge through direct contacts with auditors. We conducted a multiple embedded study of exploratory character based on 19 interviews with managers and auditors connected to six innovative firms. We show that managers in innovative firms apply informal management control in early phases and thus also rely to a high extent on external auditors for such purposes. Management acquisition of accounting knowledge may however stepwise contribute to a more formalized control system as management competence increase. This study suggests that competence based view may be useful for understanding the role of accounting and auditors.

  • 434.
    Blomkvist, Marita
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Johansson, Jeaneth
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL). Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Malmström, Malin
    Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Accounting knowledge in innovative firms - Direct contacts with external auditors for strategic actions2016In: International Journal of Managerial and Financial Accounting, ISSN 1753-6715, E-ISSN 1753-6723, Vol. 8, no 3-4, p. 209-229Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Managers’ use of auditors in decision processes is well known in the accounting literature, but little is known about owner-managers in innovative firms and their acquisition of accounting knowledge through direct contacts with external auditors. We conducted a multiple embedded study of exploratory character based on 21 interviews with owner-managers and external auditors connected to six innovative firms. We show that owner-managers in innovative firms apply informal management control in early phases of the innovation process and thus also rely heavily on external auditors for such purposes. However, management’s acquisition of accounting knowledge may contribute over time to the development of a more formalised control system as their competence increases. This study suggests that a competence-based view may be useful for understanding the role of accounting and external auditors in innovative firms’ management control systems. Copyright © 2016 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

  • 435.
    Blomkvist, Marita
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Johansson, Jeaneth
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Rodgers, Waymond
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL). University of Texas el Paso, El Paso, Texas, United States.
    Examining Entrepreneurs' Knowledge Based View of the Firm: lnfluencing financial information in innovative activities2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study focuses on knowledge management and entrepreneurs’ perceptions in terms of knowledge sharing, the use of financial statement information and how these impact on their strategic business judgments and decision choices in innovative SME firms. Using a strategic decision making process model we test our assumptions regarding entrepreneurs´ knowledge routines implemented by non-Gazelle companies in strategic business decision. Combining survey data and financial data from a unique archival database we test our propositions on Swedish SMEs. The results of the structural equation analysis implied that non-Gazelle companies are propelled primarily by non-financial information captured by the expertise of managers and investors. Traditional financial information does not include entrepreneurs´ decision making however, the results indicate that entrepreneurs risk awareness is reported as a part of the frame why entrepreneurs´ make decisions.

  • 436.
    Blomkvist, Marita
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Knowledge Entrepreneurship and Enterprise Research (KEEN).
    Paananen, Mari
    Brunel University, London, United Kingdom.
    The cost of debt implications of financial reporting quality among privately owned Swedish SMEs2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a unique database and manually collected data we analyse and document accounting choices made by Swedish SMEs between 2005 and 2008. We find that given an option to report under Swedish GAAP or a translation of IFRS (SFASC/IFRS), only 5 firms out of 1,500 opted to do so. Further analysis of choices of picking individual standards of SFASC/IFRS shows no significant difference across Gazelles and Non-Gazelles. Among firms that select individual SFASC/IFRS standards most opt to use the percentage-of-completion method for long-term contracts. We also investigate differences in quality of financial reporting across Gazelles and Non-Gazelles and find that the financial reporting quality is consistently higher among Gazelles compared to Non-Gazelles. Test of cost of debt implications show that creditors find Gazelles’ financial reporting more useful to assess the credit risk resulting in lower cost of debt for this group of firms. Thus, SMEs seem to have little incentive to switch to SFASC/IFRS, which may be an indication of their attitude to future adoption of IFRS for SMEs as well. Furthermore, the results suggest that SMEs with an incentive to produce high quality financial reporting to raise capital, Gazelles, are able to do so using Swedish GAAP. These findings raise the question whether the IFRS for SMEs project is worthwhile.

  • 437.
    Blomkvist, Marita
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Knowledge Entrepreneurship and Enterprise Research (KEEN).
    Paananen, Mari
    Business School University of Exeter, Exeter, United Kingdom.
    The Cost of Debt Implications of Information Environment Choices Among Privately Owned Swedish Small and Mid-Sized Companies2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate improvements of the information environment and cost of debt implications. Capturing choices of accounting standards, auditor quality, and board size reflecting improvements of the information environment we find that the need of financing triggers an improvement, the most common actions are to switch to more qualified accountants and add board members. Improvements of the environment result in a reduction of cost of debt. Tests show that increasing audit quality decrease cost of debt. This is relevant to the discussion on accounting regulation for private firms among U.S. and European policy-makers showing that stakeholders do not demand valuation-oriented accounting.

  • 438.
    Blomkvist, Marita
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Knowledge Entrepreneurship and Enterprise Research (KEEN).
    Paananen, Mari
    University of Exeter, Exeter, United Kingdom.
    The impact of managers´participating in the year-end accounting process on accounting quality and cost of debt among Swedish privately owned Gazelles2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a combination of survey data and unique archival databases we investigate the impact of managers´ participation in the year-end accounting process on the quality of financial reporting and cost of debt among Swedish privately owned Gazelles (rapidly growing firms) compared to Non-Gazelles. We find that managers of Gazelles are more prone to participate in the year-end accounting process compared to Non-Gazelles. Further, we find weak evidence that Gazelles produce higher quality financial reports (in terms of conservatism). Further, our results indicate that Gazelles experience lower cost of debt, though this is not statistically significant. We also find that private firms manage earnings to a greater extent the smaller they are and that the cost of debt systematically decreases with size for groups of firms.

  • 439.
    Blomkvist, Marita
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Knowledge Entrepreneurship and Enterprise Research (KEEN).
    Ulvenblad, Pia
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Knowledge Entrepreneurship and Enterprise Research (KEEN).
    Hansson, Agneta
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Knowledge Entrepreneurship and Enterprise Research (KEEN).
    Is there a structural “glass ceiling” hindering women on the business incubator arena? – A study of Swedish business incubators web sites2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper seeks to explore if there is an indication of a structural “glass ceiling” hindering women within business support environments. By analyzing 44 Swedish incubators’ web sites from four different perspectives, the study wants to describe and discuss the particular way gender seem to be structured in incubators’ organisations. The results reveal that there is a male dominance in the incubators’ organisations. The criteria for becoming an entrepreneur in the incubator such as characteristics are subtle. It can be assumed that hidden gender structures can prevent female entrepreneurs from entering the incubator.

  • 440.
    Blomqvist, Per
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Athir, Patrus
    Investigation of Wear in Spline Coupling for Saw Unit JPS R55002019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    JPS Teknik AB in Färila, located in the middle of Sweden, is a company in manufacturingsaw units to harvester heads. This thesis is about the company's best selling saw unit, JPSR5500. The saw unit is powered by a hydraulic motor, the torque is transmitted from themotor into the saw unit thought a spline coupling. In this spline coupling, some of the unitshave been weared out after about 2000 harvester machine hours. When the splines wear outthe failure induce a total stop, the bolt connecting the hub and the motor shaft breaks, and thesaw unit assembly get loose. The purpose with this study is to find the root cause of thefailure and the goal is to give suggestions to improve the design to avoid failure.

    The method used to achieve the purpose is based on Ullman's mechanical design processwhere a root cause analysis is a central part. This analysis is built on two main pillars, aliterature study concerning previous research about wear in spline couplings and a knowledgebased study about the product with a customer focus. A sample of previous research in thistopic is about the load distribution in a spline coupling due to different load cases and angularmisalignment, wear mechanisms and the effect of washers in a pretension bolt joint with adynamic working condition.

    The main conclusions of this study is that the hydraulic motor axis should be extended. Theoperator's manual and assembly instructions should be updated and revised annually, thecompany should also invest in education and training for the users of the product.

  • 441.
    Blunt, Liam
    et al.
    University of Huddersfield, UK.
    Rosén, Bengt-GöranHalmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.Thomas, TomJiang, XiangqianWhitehouse, David
    Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Metrology and Properties of Engineering Surfaces: July 17th - 20th 2007, Huddersfield, UK2007Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
  • 442.
    Bodin, Hristina
    et al.
    Division of Natural Sciences, Kristianstad University, Kristianstad, Sweden.
    Ehde, Per Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Weisner, Stefan
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Attenuation of Pharmaceutical Substances: Phytoremediation using Constructed Wetlands2018In: 13th Society of Wetland Scientists (SWS) Europe Chapter Meeting: Management of Wetland Ecosystem Services: Issues, Challenges and Solutions, 2018, p. 19-22Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Currently, wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) do not efficiently remove pharmaceutical substances (PS). Thus, such substances are now frequently found in aquatic ecosystems worldwide. Also, concentrations of some PS in treated effluents exceed Environmental Quality Standards proposed by EU legislation. One resource-efficient option for increasing PS removal in WWTP effluents is to use constructed wetlands (CWs) as an attenuation step (Breitholtz et al. 2012; Li et al. 2014). However, very little research has been done on how to maximize the PS attenuation capacity of CWs. Therefore, a project with the aim to investigate reduction of different pharmaceutical substances in CWs with different vegetation compositions and water depths, was performed at the Experimental Wetland Area (EVA) located 20 km north of Halmstad, Sweden. 

  • 443.
    Bodin, Hristina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Mietto, Anna
    University of Padova, Legnaro, Italy.
    Ehde, Per Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Environmental Science, Wetland Research Centre.
    Persson, Jesper
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp, Sweden.
    Weisner, Stefan
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Environmental Science, Wetland Research Centre.
    Tracer behaviour and analysis of hydraulics in experimental free water surface wetlands2012In: Ecological Engineering: The Journal of Ecotechnology, ISSN 0925-8574, E-ISSN 1872-6992, Vol. 49, p. 201-211Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Effects of inlet design and vegetation type on tracer dynamics and hydraulic performance were investigated using lithium chloride in 18 experimental free water surface wetlands. The wetlands received similar water flow but had different vegetation types: 6 emergent vegetation wetlands (EVWs), 6 submerged vegetation wetlands (SVWs) and 6 free development wetlands (FDWs). Two types of inlet designs were applied: half of each wetland vegetation type had a barrier near the inlet to help distribute incoming tracer solution, while the rest had no barrier. Residence time distribution (RTD) functions were calculated from tracer data using two techniques: method of moments and a novel Gauss modelling approach. RTD functions were used to quantify hydraulic parameters: active wetland volume (e-value), water dispersion (N-value) and hydraulic efficiency (lambda-value). For wetlands without barrier, significantly lower tracer mass recoveries were found from EVWs compared to FDWs and SVWs, signifying a risk of tracer methodological problems in small densely vegetated wetlands. These problems were minimized in wetlands with an inflow construction promoting distribution of incoming tracer solution. Compared to the method of moments, Gauss modelling seemed to produce more reliable lambda-values but less reliable N-values. Data for precise hydraulic quantification were lost by Gauss modelling, as indicated by overall lower variance in these data sets and lower mass recoveries. However, Gauss modelling may minimize uncertainties associated with lithium immobilization/mobilization. Parameters were significantly affected by the RTD data analysis method, showing that the choice of method could affect evaluation of wetland hydraulics. The experimental wetlands in this study exhibited relatively high e-values and low N-values. This was probably caused by the small size of the wetlands and low water flow velocities, emphasizing that hydraulic parameter values obtained in small experimental wetlands may not be applicable to hydraulics in larger wetlands. The method of moments revealed lower e-values from EVWs compared to SVWs and FDWs. It was indicated that lower e-values were mainly caused by vegetation volumes. This highlighted a need for regular maintenance to secure efficient treatment volume in wetlands with dense vegetation. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  • 444.
    BODUROGLOU, IVAN
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    CARON, CLEMENTINE
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Culture and Marketing of French drugs consumption2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 445.
    Bohlin, Sofia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Inha, Eini
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Book review: Tools and concepts for strategic decision making on Market Intelligence2017Student paper other, 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 446.
    Bohlin, Sofia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Inha, Eini
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Market Intelligence: A literature review2017Student paper other, 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to provide insights of market intelligence and answer to the question “What is market intelligence?” by reviewing existing literature of market intelligence. This study also aims to investigate the connection between market intelligence and Game theory, which is believed by the authors to create the foundation for market intelligence studies. The search of relevant material for this literature review was conducted by using the databases of Halmstad University and Google Scholar. Due to the lack of literature on market intelligence as an overall theory, also other literature, such as books, were utilized besides the articles. This study recognizes six theoretical connections based on the reviewed literature and Game theory. Also, a general definition of market intelligence was recognized as a result of the literature review.

  • 447.
    Bohlin, Sofia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Inha, Eini
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Motivation as success factor for Entrepreneurs in rural areas of Sweden.: Case: Fotfavoriten AB, Nipsoft AB & Mickes Måleri i Ådalen AB2017Student paper other, 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to answer to a research question: “How does the entrepreneur’s motivation affect the success of the company in rural areas?” The theoretical framework conducted for this study discusses rural entrepreneurship and motivation as a success factor. Relevant material for this study is gathered by utilizing the databases of Halmstad university and Google Scholar. A case study approach is used and academic literature on the topic is reviewed. Different motivational factors of entrepreneurs in rural areas were identified based on this study. Further studies in this field is encouraged to strengthen this topic and/or provide with other aspects missing in this research due to limitations.

  • 448.
    Bohlin, Sofia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Inha, Eini
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Review Article: Development of innovation products by using Kano model2017Student paper other, 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this review is to provide insights to the usage of Kano-model and innovation product development, and at the same time, answer to the research question “How customer needs can be identified by using Kano-model for innovation product development?” The research is conducted by reviewing existing literature on Kano- model and innovation product development (IPD). The relevant literature used for this research is conducted by utilizing the databases of Halmstad University and Google Scholar. A model for customer needs identification by using Kano model for Innovation Product Development (IPD) was constructed based on the reviewed theories. In addition, a general recognition for the term of IPD was acknowledged.

  • 449.
    Bohman, Mattias
    et al.
    Grontmij AB.
    Berglund Odhner, Peter
    Grontmij AB.
    Schabbauer, Anna
    Grontmij AB.
    Karlsson, Niklas
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Mattsson, Marie
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Rundstedt, Johan
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Biogas i Halland: Förbehandling av substrat och simulering av biogasflöden2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bioenergicentrum i Halland (BEH) är ett projekt som ligger inom ramen för EU:s strukturfondsprogram. Projektet genomförs i Region Hallands regi som är regionens välfärds- och utvecklingsorganisation. Arbetet som bedrivs inom BEH syftar speciellt till att driva utvecklingen mot en ökad produktion och användning av bioenergi till biogas och i förlängningen fordonsgas. Genom att satsa på att skapa förutsättningar för innovation, kunskapsutveckling och samverkan främjas tillväxt och hållbar utveckling.

    Vid naturbruksgymnasiet i Plönninge utanför Halmstad finns idag en biogasanläggning som beskickas med bl.a. nötgödsel och matavfall. Dessutom finns en mindre pilotanläggning som är tänkt att fungera som en del av test- och verifieringsanläggning som BEH vill bygga upp i Plönninge. Som ett led i att utveckla dessa anläggningar och kunna erbjuda möjligheten till kunskapsinsamling genomfördes projektet som beskrivs i denna rapport. Uppdraget var att genomföra försöksrötningar på labb, använda resultaten för att skapa en modell som sedan kan nyttjas som ett verktyg i det inledande arbetet med att investera i en biogasanläggning som beskickas med lantbruksbaserade substrat. Högskolan i Halmstad (HH) genomförde försöksrötningarna och Grontmij (GM) använde sedan resultaten för att skapa en modell där bl.a. substrat, förbehandlingsteknik och driftkostnader finns med.

    Sammanfattningsvis kan sägas att majs som substrat fungerar bäst med de valda förbehandlingsmetoderna; kemisk behandling, termisk behandling och ultraljudsbehandling. Alla förbehandlingsmetoder med majs som substrat visade på ett positivt resultat, d.v.s. det ökade gasutbytet och dess värde (kr/kWh) översteg kostnaderna för de olika förbehandlingarna. Vad som måste beaktas är att produktionskostnaderna överlag är höga, med och utan förbehandling.

    Modellen har konstruerats på ett sådant sätt att den ska vara användarvänlig och med möjlighet att enkelt lägga till ytterligare substrat och förbehandlingsmetoder. Upprepningar av de försöksrötningar som genomförts kommer att öka tillförlitligheten hos modellen. Den fungerar som ett verktyg i att beräkna investeringsmarginalen för förbehandlingsutrustningen baserat på det valda substratet. På detta vis kan intressenter få en första indikation på om det är ekonomiskt rimligt att gå vidare med det tänkta substratet, den valda förbehandlingsmetoden, de planerade mängderna substrat etc.

    En investeringskalkyl har tagits fram för en gårdsanläggning som hanterar 5 000 ton substrat eller gödsel årligen. Det motsvarar 2-3 stycken medelstora mjölkgårdar. Kalkylen är översiktlig och syftar till att ge en första indikation på kostnader för de stora komponenterna såsom substratlager, rötkammare och rötrestlager. Kringarbeten såsom utredningar, markarbeten och geoundersökningar är inte med i kalkylen då dessa omkostnader till stor del avgörs av lokalisering och de förutsättningar som finns på platsen redan från start. Generellt kan dock sägas att den absolut billigaste och enklaste gårdsbaserade biogasanläggningen innebär en investering på 2,7-4 MSEK för flytgödsel från 100-300 mjölkkor.

    För BEH är det viktigt att skapa en plattform där intressenter kan komma för att genomföra försöksrötningar, byta erfarenheter och samla kunskap. För att uppnå detta är det nödvändigt att kunna erbjuda kunden kompletta och kompetenta lösningar på en och samma plats. Detta innebär ett erbjudande som innefattar försöksrötningar på labb-, pilot och fullskala. Ett förslag på konstruktion av pilotanläggning med övergripande principskiss ingår i denna rapport och fungerar som ett inledande arbete i projekteringen av en större pilotanläggning. Nödvändiga driftanalyser av rötrest ska kunna göras på plats i Plönninge på laboratoriet; analyser såsom enskilda organiska syror ska kunna skickas till lämpligt laboratorium. Personal ska kunna tillhandahållas för att driva och optimera rötningen enligt kundens syften och önskemål. På detta vis fungerar Region Halland som en länk mellan teori ochpraktik, mellan liten och stor skala och mellan aktörer från olika discipliner och geografiska områden.

  • 450.
    Bohm-Starke, Nina
    et al.
    Division of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Karolinska Institutet Danderyd Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Johannesson, Ulrika
    Division of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Department of Clinical Sciences, Danderyd Hospital, Stockholm.
    Hilliges, Marita
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Rylander, Eva
    Division of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Department of Clinical Sciences, Danderyd Hospital, Stockholm.
    Torebjörk, Erik
    Dept. of Clinical Neurophysiology, University Hospital, Uppsala.
    Decreased mechanical pain threshold in the vestibular mucosa of women using oral contraceptives: a contributing factor in vulvar vestibulitis?2004In: Journal of reproductive medicine, ISSN 0024-7758, E-ISSN 1943-3565, Vol. 49, no 11, p. 888-892Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective:

    To analyze possible differences in somatosensory perception in the vestibular mucosa in healthy women associated with the use of oral contraceptives.

    Study design:

    Quantitative sensory tests were performed on the vestibular mucosa in 39 healthy women. Twenty women were using oral contraceptives containing 30-40 µg ethinyl estradiol combined with various progestins; 19 women with regular menstrual periods not using oral contraceptives served as controls. The testing included mechanical and heat pain thresholds and detection thresholds of warmth and cold in the anterior and posterior part of the vestibule.

    Results:

    Significant lower mechanical pain thresholds were observed in both areas tested in women using oral contraceptives. The most sensitive area was the posterior vestibule in the group using oral contraceptives with a mechanical pain threshold of 72±10 (±SEM) mN as compared to 161±3 mN (p<0.01), in the controls. The result of the thermotest showed no significant differences between the groups.

    Conclusion:

    Oral contraceptives may induce increased sensitivity in the vestibular mucosa in healthy women and might be one contributing factor in the development of vulvar vestibulitis.

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