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  • 351.
    Ahmad, Shilan
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Fotstöd till Volvos barnstolar1998Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]
    Syftet med mitt projekt var att åstakomma preliminära lösningar till ett fotstöd för barn mellan 3-10år som skall användas tillsammans med de redan befintliga barnstolarna i bilen. Resultatet skall presenteras i form av prototyper och 3D modeller. De viktigaste kraven är att fotstödet ska ge stöd för barnens fötter och att det ska sitta fast i bilen på ett säkert sätt.
  • 352.
    Ahmadi, Lina
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology.
    Green Driving Application: Eco Driving2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Eco-driving has acquired great importance in recent years because it is a way to reduce energy consumption that can be applied to any type of vehicle. However, for these rules to be applied requires a process of continuous learning and motivation. For this reason many eco-driving assistants have emerged.

    This paper presents Green Driving, a driver safety app for Android that detects inattentive driving behaviors and gives corresponding feedback to drivers, scoring their driving and alerting them in case their behaviors are unsafe.  It’s about changing a person’s driving behavior by providing some kind of advice to the driver.  I have worked on an algorithm that is meant to reduce the fuel consumption of users. The algorithm is deployed in an android application.

    This application “Green Driving” is aimed at users with cars. It is basically like an assistant, suggesting the user when he should make the right gear changes, when to increase/decrease speed and avoids hard braking and rapid acceleration and etc. It is in order to drive economically, ecologic and in turn save money and safety. This is a smart way of letting a user drive economically and ecologic since almost everyone has an Android smartphone now. 

  • 353.
    Ahmadi, Nasser S.
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Månsson, Jörgen
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lindblad, Ulf
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hildingh, Cathrine
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health promotion and disease prevention.
    Breathlessness in everyday life from a patient perspective: A qualitative study using diaries2014In: Palliative & Supportive Care, ISSN 1478-9515, E-ISSN 1478-9523, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 189-194Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Breathlessness is a subjective symptom, which makes it difficult to define and understand. The aim of the present study was to illuminate how patients suffering from breathlessness experience their everyday life. Method: The study was a qualitative study, and the focus of the analysis was the patients' descriptions of their experiences of breathlessness using a diary with two unstructured questions for a period of 7 consecutive days. Sixteen participants: 7 men, mean age 65 ± 7 (range 55-73 years old), and 9 women, mean age 65 ± 9 (range 50-72 years old) participated in the study. Results: Two themes emerged from the analysis: 1) Impaired quality of life and 2) symptom tolerance and adaptation. The theme "impaired quality of life" included the categories limited physical ability, psychological burdens, and social life barriers. The theme "symptom tolerance and adaptation" included importance of health care, social support, hobbies and leisure activities, and coping strategies. Significance of results: The findings in our study showed that patients, in spite of considerable difficulties with shortness of breath, found relief in several types of activities, in addition to drug therapy. The result indicates that the "biopsychosocial model" is an appealing approach that should be discussed further to gain a better understanding of breathlessness. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2013.

  • 354.
    Ahmed, Iftikhar
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE).
    Farooq, Muhammad
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE).
    Switched Multi-hop Priority Queued Networks-Influence of priority levels on Soft Real-time Performance2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the last few years, the number of real-time applications has increased. These applications are sensitive and require the methods to utilize existing network capacity efficiently to meet performance requirements and achieve the maximum throughput to overcome delay, jitter and packet loss. In such cases, when the network needs to support highly interactive traffic like packet-switched voice, the network congestion is an issue that can lead to various problems. If the level of congestion is high enough, the users may not be able to complete their calls and have existing calls dropped or may experience a variety of delays that make it difficult to participate smooth conversation.

    In this paper, we investigate the effect of priority levels on soft real-time performance. We use the priority queues to help us manage the congestion, handle the interactive traffic and improve the over all performance of the system. We consider switched multi-hop network with priority queues. All the switches and end-nodes control the real-time traffic with “Earlier Deadline First” scheduling. The performance of the network is characterized in terms of the average delay, the deadline missing ratio and the throughput.

    We will analyze these parameters with both the bursty traffic and evenly distributed traffic. We will analyze different priority levels and will see how the increase in priority level increases the performance of the soft real-time system.

  • 355.
    Ahmed, Mansoor
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE).
    Murtaza, Ali
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE).
    Decision algorithm and procedure for fast handover between 3G and WLAN2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Different types of wireless network systems have been developed to offer Internet access to mobile end users. Now days a burning issue is to provide the network facility to end users on anywhere and anytime bases. Typical examples of wireless networks are 3G and WLAN (wireless local area network). An important issue is to integrate these heterogeneous networks and manage the mobile nodes while moving across heterogeneous networks with session continuity, low latency for handover between networks that are based on different technologies (vertical handover) and minimum packet loss. To achieve this, it is important to find the right point in time to perform a handover between two networks and to find a new network that, in fact, improves the connectivity over a reasonable time span. In this thesis, we propose vertical handover techniques for mobile users, based on predictive and adaptive schemes for the selection of the next network. The handover decision between the technologies takes the velocity of the mobile node, battery condition of mobile node, signal to interference ratio (SIR), application requirements and received signal strength RSS) as decision parameters. In order to reduce unnecessary handover, the concept of dwell timer is used and to reduce the handover latency, the predictive mode of Fast Mobile IPv6 (FMIPv6) and for minimum packet loss, the concept of tunnelling and buffering of packets on new access router in advance are proposed.

  • 356.
    Ahmed, Rizwan
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE).
    Abbas, Shahid
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE).
    Electrical and Optical Characteristics of InP Nanowires based p-i-n Photodetectors2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Photodetectors are a kind of semiconductor devices that convert incoming light to an electrical signal. Photodetectors are classified based on their different structure, fabrication technology, applications and different sensitivity. Infrared photodetectors are widely used in many applications such as night vision, thermal cameras, remote temperature sensing, and medical diagnosis etc.

     

    All detectors have material inside that is sensitive to incoming light. It will absorb the photons and, if the incoming photons have enough energy, electrons will be excited to higher energy levels and if these electrons are free to move, under the effect of an external electric field, a photocurrent is generated.

     

    In this project Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Spectroscopy is used to investigate a new kind of photodiodes that are based on self-assembled semiconductor nanowires (NWs) which are grown directly on the substrate without any epi-layer. The spectrally resolved photocurrent (at different applied biases) and IV curves (in darkness and illumination) for different temperatures have been studied respectively. Polarization effects (at low and high Temperatures) have been investigated.  The experiments are conducted for different samples with high concentration of NWs as well as with lower concentration of NWs in the temperature range from 78 K (-195ºC) to 300 (27ºC). These photodiodes are designed to work in near infrared (NIR) spectral range.

     

    The results show that the NW photodetectors indeed are promising devices with fairly high break down voltage, change of photocurrent spectra with polarized light, low and constant reverse saturation current (Is). The impact of different polarized light on photocurrent spectra has been investigated and an attempt has been made to clarify the observed double peak of InP photocurrent spectrum. Our investigations also include a comparison to a conventional planar InP p-i-n photodetector.

     

  • 357.
    Ahmeti, Teuta
    Halmstad University, School of Education, Humanities and Social Science.
    Läsning inom Svenska som andra språk: Lärarnas syn på litteratuläsning och förförståelse2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim with this study was to study how preunderstanding of a text or literature makes the reading easier for second language learners. I wanted to find out how we can work with preunderstanding in school and help our students.  The study is based on interviews I did with three teachers.

    Science shows us that reading consists of two main activities, a visual analysis of the text and an interpretation of what the textual means. These activities run together where the information in the textual and the preunderstanding the reader has cooperates together.

    The study shows that preunderstanding is very important for second language students. An important reason is to understand a book even if you don`t get every word in it. The study also shows that the teachers use preunderstanding every day in different ways.  They use pictures, discussions and the experiences that the students have. The teachers in the study explained that they let the students choose literature sometimes, but they also decide what the students are going to read. The reason for that is to develop more knowledge among students about new appearances.

  • 358.
    Ahmeti, Zejnullah
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Hamad, Fahmy
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Prefabricerade broar: En studie av prefabricerade broar i USA, Storbritannien och Nederländerna2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 359.
    Ahmetovic, Amina
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Faur, Mariia
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Det är ansvar och frihet: En kvalitativ studie om socialsekreterares upplevelser av sitt handlingsutrymme2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Social Workers work in the Social Services Addiction Unit is challenged to meet the client's needs while responding to the organization's resources. This is due to insufficient resources placed on abuse because the target group is not a priority. Therefore, it is important that social workers have a margin of action to make thoughtful actions in relation to both parties. The purpose of the essay is to investigate and analyze the factors that social workers perceive may affect the social investigative work and how social workers experience power in the investigative work with adult clients who have ongoing abuse problems. The purpose is expressed in issues that take into account what opportunities and limitations social workers experience in the law investigation work and how they experience the exercise of power in relation to the client in investigation according to the law.

    The study is based on 7 qualitative semi structured interviews with social workers who work with investigations with substance abusers in Halland and Skåne County. The material was analyzed using Lipsky's concept discretion and Foucault's power theory. The results show that missions, laws and guidelines, resources, customer attitude and social workers' subjectivity are regarded by social security as both the possibilities and limitations in the SoL investigation. In addition, the social workers find that they have power in relation to the client with the help of knowledge about the subject, but they also have the ambition to lift the client that leads to a relational power. Social workers also act in an uncertainty where the social workers' scope for action, including factors that enable and limit the investigative work is important for the work in the social field.

  • 360.
    Ahnfelt, Camilla
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Wolmestam, Malena
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Distriktsköterskans strategier för att stärka egenvård hos personer med hjärtsvikt i hemmet: En integrativ litteraturstudie2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The older population in Sweden increases dramatically while resources are decreasing. Heart failure is one of the most common diseases in Sweden which causes hospitalization for elderly people. Symptoms of heart failure can be stressful and affect the quality of life negatively for both patients and close relatives. A lot of old people with heart failure lives at home and need support to cope with their illness and reduce hospitalization. The aim of the literature study is to describe district nurses' strategies to strengthen self-care in patients with heart failure in home care. The method is an integrative literature study where 19 articles of both qualitative and quantitative methods are included. The results show four categories that address strategies district nurses can apply to strengthen self-care in patients with heart failure. These are essential conditions for district nurse, the importance of starting from the patient's situation and needs, to work with goals and follow-up as well as offer education and knowledge. The essential conditions are mainly that higher education and experience are of great importance in the work of self-care. Other strategies emerging is to see each individual person as unique, work with participation, involve relatives and individualized education as well as follow up. There is no general strategy to strengthen self-care that works for all. District Nurse skills are necessary in the work of providing individual support that strengthens selfcare.

  • 361.
    Ahnlund, Jenny
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Danielsson, Stefan
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    DogProof -Den dolda skyddsärmen2004Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]
    Produktutvecklingsprojekt på c-nivå. Rikspolisstyrelsen har upplevt ett behov av en ny skyddsärm att använda för att kontrollera att färdigutbildade polishundar biter i en skarp situation. För detta ändamål krävs att skyddsärmen inte utgör något visuellt stimuli för hunden, vilket innebär att skyddsärmen måste vara tillräckligt tunn för att kunna bäras dold under en jacka. Figuranten måste tillåtas ha ett naturligt rörelsemönster för att efterlikna en verklig situation. Hunden får heller inte riskera att skada tänder och tandkött då den biter i skyddet samtidigt som ärmen självklart måste ge användaren ett fullgott skydd. Projektet har genomförts med hjälp av studier av hundar, hundförare och olika materialegenskaper. Undersökningarna har till största delen gjorts genom studiebesök hos olika företag och institutioner. Projektet har resulterat i tre olika prototyper, två baserade på ett filtkompositmaterial och en med plast som grund, vilka samtliga genomgått tester med polishundar.
  • 362.
    Ahrenberg, Lena
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Persson, Camilla
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Hälsobokslut: en studie om varför och hur hälsobokslut upprättas2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]
    Allt fler inser att hälsa och ekonomi faktiskt hör ihop och att hälsan påverkar organisationens förmåga att skapa resultat i sin verksamhet. Den 1 juli 2003 började enny lag gälla som kräver att arbetsgivare som har mer än tio anställda ska redovisa sjukfrånvaron i årsredovisningen, ett så kallat hälsobokslut. Syftet med denna uppsats är att beskriva hur hälsobokslut upprättas och förklara varför organisationer väljer att arbeta med hälsobokslut. För att uppnå syftet har fallstudier utförts på Kristianstads kommun samt Landstinget Halland som båda arbetat länge med hälsobokslut. Vi har kunnat konstatera att de intervjuade företagen mäter unefär samma områden i sina hälsobokslut, men också att man kan arbeta med hälsobokslut på många olika sätt. En modell passar inte alla organisationer så företag bör känna sig fram för att finnna ett arbetssätt som passar just dem. Det viktigaste är att arbetet är anpassat efter varje organisations behov och förutsättningar.
  • 363.
    Ahrenkiel, Hanna
    Halmstad University, School of Humanities (HUM).
    Gotik och nygotik, sett ur ett idéhistoriskt perspektiv2002Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]
    Avsikten med uppsatsen är att belysa de två epokerna, gotiken och nygotiken, sedda ur ett idéhistoriskt perspektiv samt genom den tankestil som Ludwig Fleck var upphovsman till. För att underlätta förståelsen för dåtidens agerande inleds studien med viktiga bakgrundsfakta, för att sedan behandla epokerna och dess stilar från ursprungsland och vidare till andra länder i Europa. Frågor som gotikens födelseland, dess anda, det arkitektoniska idéspråket och byggnadsteknik för läsaren fram till hur stilen under resans gång modifierades, mottogs och till slut utvecklade sig i Sverige. Då den gotiska stilen åter blommade upp, nu kallad nygotik, förändrades både dess förutsättningar och idémässiga innehåll. Under arbetets gång besvaras frågor om nygotikens idémässiga innehåll, hur arkitekturen påverkade samhället och vilka föreställningar människorna hade om vad som var värt att bevara från gotiken. Nygotiken fick till uppgift att fylla den känsla av brist som allt mer gjorde sig hörd framförallt i England, men även i det övriga Europa. Vem var förespråkarna för epoken i Sverige och hur uppfattades den av etablissemanget?
  • 364.
    Ahrling, Malin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Education, Humanities and Social Science.
    Zlatunic, Marina
    Halmstad University, School of Education, Humanities and Social Science.
    Hur ska vi kunna förstå varandra?: Förskollärares samtal kring barns andraspråkslärande2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka hur förskollärare uttrycker sig om barns andraspråkslärande i förskolan samt vilka tolkningsrepertoarer som framkommer i dessa samtal. I denna studie undersöks vad och hur förskollärarna uttrycker sig gällande barns andraspråkslärande samt hur förskollärarna uttrycker sig om barns modersmål och föräldrars delaktighet i relation till barns andraspråkslärande. Studien tar utgångspunkt i problematiken gällande att det än idag finns brister kring barns andraspråkslärande och att barns språkutveckling skiljer sig beroende på vilken stöttning de får i sitt andraspråkslärande. Tidigare forskning inom området lyfter bland annat olika arbetssätt som pedagoger arbetar med i förskolan, men även modersmålets och hemmets betydelse för andraspråkslärande. Det vetenskapsteoretiska utgångspunkt som denna studie utgår ifrån är socialkonstruktionism, detta paradigm inriktar sig på att det finns flera versioner av verkligheten. Som forskningsmetod har vi använt oss av diskursanalys då vi har fokuserat på förskollärarnas användning av språket. Inom diskursanalys har vi utgått från analysmetoden diskurspsykologi. Vi har använt oss av semistrukturerade intervjuer med tio förskollärare för att producera empiri till studien. I resultatet framgår det att samtliga förskollärare uttrycker sig positivt kring barns modersmål i relation till andraspråkslärande, dock uttrycker de sig negativt om resurser och förutsättningar för andraspråkslärande. Argument som framförs är bland annat att det finns ont om tid, få resurser och för många språk. Det framkommer även att en del förskollärare samtalar om föräldrarnas delaktighet som en utmaning på grund av språkliga skillnader. Medan övriga förskollärare samtalar om föräldrarnas delaktighet som en positiv inverkan på barns andraspråkslärande, då deras deltagande bidrar med stöd och trygghet för barnen. 

  • 365.
    Aichernig, Bernhard K.
    et al.
    Graz University of Technology, Graz, Austria.
    Mostowski, Wojciech
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Mousavi, Mohammad Reza
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES). Department of Informatics, University of Leicester, Leicester, UK.
    Tappler, Martin
    Graz University of Technology, Graz, Austria.
    Taromirad, Masoumeh
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Model Learning and Model-Based Testing2018In: Machine Learning for Dynamic Software Analysis: Potentials and Limits / [ed] Amel Bennaceur, Reiner Hähnle, Karl Meinke, Heidelberg: Springer, 2018, p. 74-100Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a survey of the recent research efforts in integrating model learning with model-based testing. We distinguished two strands of work in this domain, namely test-based learning (also called test-based modeling) and learning-based testing. We classify the results in terms of their underlying models, their test purpose and techniques, and their target domains. © Springer International Publishing AG

  • 366.
    Aidenmark, Joakim
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE).
    Broms, Mikael
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE).
    A Study of Industrial Control Systems and New Approaches to Hydraulic Press Line Control1995Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
  • 367.
    Aigbiremonlen, Abasikpongke
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Sharma, Priya
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Umgängesförmåga, ett bristande faktor: En kvalitativ studie angående gruppdynamik och sammanhållning i en arbetsgrupp bestående av undersköterskor2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Abstrakt

    Vårdyrket anses som ett av de mest ansträngande yrken där sjukskrivningar förekommer redan i tidig ålder. I dagens senmoderna samhälle är det ett vanligt problem för anställda i olika verksamheter att hitta en balans mellan sin professionella yrkesroll som består av flexibilitet och ojämna arbetstider och sitt privatliv. Det är denna balans mellan arbetstid och privatliv som vi har undersökt och hur den påverkar anställdas välmående inom omsorgen. Det vi särskilt har undersökt är kommunikation och hur kommunikationen fungerar inom arbetsgruppen. Kommunikation kan ses som en ”tvåvägs - process” där två personer utbyter tankar, funderingar och meningar. Enkelt sett så är det ett sätt att föra vidare information från den ena personen till den andra. Undersökningen utgår från följande frågor: Hur är sammanhållningen inom gruppen? Vad är bra eller mindre bra på arbetsplatsen, vad kan förbättras? Vilka förändringar har skett på arbetsplatsen och vad tycker de anställda om det? Hur fungerar ledarskapet och ledningen på arbetsplatsen? Vi har använt oss av kvalitativt fältarbete som består av 10 semi- strukturerade intervjuer samt observationer.

    Nyckelord: Gruppdynamik, Sammanhållning, Kommunikation, Ledarskap och Flexibilitet.

  • 368.
    Aili, Anna-Karin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Andreasson, Kristina
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Träff, Anna
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Sjuksköterskors erfarenheter av familjecentrerad enkelrumsvård på neonatalavdelning: - En intervjustudie2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There are 36 neonatal wards in Sweden, which demands a highly specialized healthcare. Therefore, neonatal nurses need to have adequate education and have good knowledge within their field. Not every ward in Sweden conducts family centered single-room care. This care-model means that parents take care of their child throughout the day with the support from nurses.

    The aim of this study was to highlight nurses’ experience of family-centered single-room care in a neonatal ward. Semi-structured interviews were conducted and were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. From the result three categories emerged; nurses and family-centered single-rooms care, parents and family-centered single rooms care and children and family-centered single room.

    The result showed that family-centered single-room care is preferred from both nurses and families. Experience shows that nurses’ role has changed from being the one closest to the child and performs nursing care, to leave that responsibility to the parents and instead assume a teaching role. This allows parents to grow in their roles and strengthens the connection with the child. Communication between nurses and families is important for this form of care to succeed, and therefore needs to be highlighted in future educations. Neonatal wards need to discussed communication and structured up how it should be carried out on the workplace.

  • 369.
    Aili, K.
    et al.
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden & FoU Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Andersson, M.
    FoU Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden & Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Bremander, Ann
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). FoU Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Haglund, Emma
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). FoU Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Bergman, S.
    FoU Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden & University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sleep problems and fatigue as a predictor for the onset of chronic widespread pain over a 5- and 18-year perspective: a 20-year prospective study2018In: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, ISSN 0003-4967, E-ISSN 1468-2060, Vol. 77, no Suppl. 2, p. 87-87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: If localised pain represent one end of a pain spectra, with overall better general health, chronic widespread pain (CWP) and fibromyalgia represent the other end of the spectra with worse general health and more comorbidities with other somatic diseases and mental illness. Sleep problems and fatigue are common among individuals reporting CWP and previous research indicate that sleep problems may be an important predictor for pain prognosis.

    Objectives: The aim of this population-based study was to investigate if sleep problems and fatigue predict the onset of CWP 5 and 18 years later.

    Methods: In order to get more stable baseline classifications of CWP, a wash-out period was used, including only individuals who had not reported CWP (according to ACR 1990 criteria for fibromyalgia) at baseline (−98) and three years prior baseline (−95). In all, data from 1249 individuals entered the analyses for the 5 year follow-up (−03) and 791 entered for the 18 year follow-up (−16). Four parameters related to sleep (difficulties initiating sleep, maintaining sleep, early morning awakening and non-restorative sleep), and one parameter related to fatigue (SF-36 vitality scale) were investigated as predictors for CWP. Binary logistic regression analysis were used for analyses.

    Results: All investigated parameters predicted the onset of CWP five years later (problems with initiating sleep (OR 1.91; 1.16–3.14), maintaining sleep (OR 1.85; 1.14–3.01), early awakening (OR 2.0; 1.37–3.75), non-restorative sleep (OR 2.27; 1.37–3.75) and fatigue (OR 3.70; 1.76–7.84)) in a model adjusted for age, gender, socio-economy and mental health. All parameters except problems with early awakening predicted the onset of CWP also 18 years later. In all, 785 individuals did not report any of the sleeping problems at baseline (fatigue not included), 268 reported one of the problems, 167 two, 128 three and 117 subjects reported to have all four sleep problems. Reporting all four sleep problems was significantly associated with CWP at follow-up at both time points when adjusting for age, gender, socio economy and mental health (OR 4.00; 2.03–7.91 and OR 3.95; 1.90–8.20); adjusting for age, gender, socio economy and number of pain regions (OR 2.94; 1.48–5.82 and OR 2.65; 1.24–5.64) and in a model adjusting for age, gender, socio economy and pain severity (OR 2.97;1.53–5.76; and OR 3.02;1.47–6.21) for the 5 year and 18 year follow-up respectively, compared to not reporting any of the sleep problems at baseline.

    Conclusions: Both sleeping problems and fatigue predicts the onset of CWP 5- and 18 years later. The results highlight the importance of the assessment of sleep quality in the clinic.

  • 370.
    Aili, Katarina
    et al.
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden & FoU Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Andersson, Maria
    FoU Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden & Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Bremander, Ann
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). FoU Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Haglund, Emma
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). FoU Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Larsson, Ingrid
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI). FoU Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Bergman, Stefan
    FoU Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden & Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sleep problems and fatigue as a predictor for the onset of chronic widespread painover a 5- and 18-year perspective: a 20-year prospective study2018In: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, ISSN 0003-4967, E-ISSN 1468-2060, Vol. 77, p. 87-87, article id OP0072Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: If localised pain represent one end of a pain spectra, with overall better general health, chronic widespread pain (CWP) and fibromyalgia represent the other end of the spectra with worse general health and more comorbidities with other somatic diseases and mental illness. Sleep problems and fatigue are common among individuals reporting CWP and previous research indicate that sleep problems may be an important predictor for pain prognosis.

    Objectives: The aim of this population-based study was to investigate if sleep problems and fatigue predict the onset of CWP 5 and 18 years later.

    Methods: In order to get more stable baseline classifications of CWP, a wash-out period was used, including only individuals who had not reported CWP (according to ACR 1990 criteria for fibromyalgia) at baseline (−98) and three years prior baseline (−95). In all, data from 1249 individuals entered the analyses for the 5 year follow-up (−03) and 791 entered for the 18 year follow-up (−16). Four parameters related to sleep (difficulties initiating sleep, maintaining sleep, early morning awakening and non-restorative sleep), and one parameter related to fatigue (SF-36 vitality scale) were investigated as predictors for CWP. Binary logistic regression analysis were used for analyses.

    Results: All investigated parameters predicted the onset of CWP five years later (problems with initiating sleep (OR 1.91; 1.16–3.14), maintaining sleep (OR 1.85; 1.14–3.01), early awakening (OR 2.0; 1.37–3.75), non-restorative sleep (OR 2.27; 1.37–3.75) and fatigue (OR 3.70; 1.76–7.84)) in a model adjusted for age, gender, socio-economy and mental health. All parameters except problems with early awakening predicted the onset of CWP also 18 years later. In all, 785 individuals did not report any of the sleeping problems at baseline (fatigue not included), 268 reported one of the problems, 167 two, 128 three and 117 subjects reported to have all four sleep problems. Reporting all four sleep problems was significantly associated with CWP at follow-up at both time points when adjusting for age, gender, socio economy and mental health (OR 4.00; 2.03–7.91 and OR 3.95; 1.90–8.20); adjusting for age, gender, socio economy and number of pain regions (OR 2.94; 1.48–5.82 and OR 2.65; 1.24–5.64) and in a model adjusting for age, gender, socio economy and pain severity (OR 2.97;1.53–5.76; and OR 3.02;1.47–6.21) for the 5 year and 18 year follow-up respectively, compared to not reporting any of the sleep problems at baseline.

    Conclusions: Both sleeping problems and fatigue predicts the onset of CWP 5- and 18 years later. The results highlight the importance of the assessment of sleep quality in the clinic.

  • 371.
    Aili, Katarina
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport. Spenshult Research and Development Center, FoU Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden & Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Andersson, Maria
    Spenshult Research and Development Center, FoU Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden & Lunds Universitet, Lund, Sweden.
    Bremander, Ann
    Spenshult Research and Development Center, FoU Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden & Lunds Universitet, Lund, Sweden & University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark & Syddansk Universitet, Graasten, Danmark.
    Haglund, Emma
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Spenshult Research and Development Center, FoU Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Larsson, Ingrid
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Nursing. Spenshult Research and Development Center, FoU Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Bergman, Stefan
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Sleep problems and fatigue as predictorsfor the onset of chronic widespread painover a 5- and 18-year perspective2018In: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, ISSN 1471-2474, E-ISSN 1471-2474, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 1-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Previous research suggests that sleep problems may be an important predictor for chronic widespread pain (CWP). With this study we investigated both sleep problems and fatigue as predictors for the onset of CWP over a 5-year and an 18-year perspective in a population free from CWP at baseline.

    Methods: To get a more stable classification of CWP, we used a wash-out period, including only individuals who had not reported CWP at baseline (1998) and three years prior baseline (1995). In all, data from 1249 individuals entered the analyses for the 5-year follow-up and 791 entered for the 18-year follow-up. Difficulties initiating sleep, maintaining sleep, early morning awakening, non-restorative sleep and fatigue were investigated as predictors separately and simultaneously in binary logistic regression analyses.

    Results: The results showed that problems with initiating sleep, maintaining sleep, early awakening and non-restorative sleep predicted the onset of CWP over a 5-year (OR 1.85 to OR 2.27) and 18-year (OR 1.54 to OR 2.25) perspective irrespective of mental health (assessed by SF-36) at baseline. Also fatigue predicted the onset of CWP over the two-time perspectives (OR 3.70 and OR 2.36 respectively) when adjusting for mental health. Overall the effect of the sleep problems and fatigue on new onset CWP (over a 5-year perspective) was somewhat attenuated when adjusting for pain at baseline but remained significant for problems with early awakening, non-restorative sleep and fatigue. Problems with maintaining sleep predicted CWP 18 years later irrespective of mental health and number of pain regions (OR 1.72). Reporting simultaneous problems with all four aspects of sleep was associated with the onset of CWP over a five-year and 18-yearperspective, irrespective of age, gender, socio economy, mental health and pain at baseline. Sleep problems and fatigue predicted the onset of CWP five years later irrespective of each other.

    Conclusion: Sleep problems and fatigue were both important predictors for the onset of CWP over a five-year perspective. Sleep problems was a stronger predictor in a longer time-perspective. The results highlight the importance of the assessment of sleep quality and fatigue in the clinic. © The Author(s). 2018

  • 372.
    Aili, Katarina
    et al.
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bergman, Stefan
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI). FoU Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden & The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bremander, Ann
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). FoU Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden & Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Haglund, Emma
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). FoU Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Larsson, Ingrid
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI). FoU Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Women’s experiences of coping with chronic widespread pain: – a qualitative study2018In: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, ISSN 0003-4967, E-ISSN 1468-2060, Vol. 77, p. 1815-1815, article id FRI10737-HPRArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Approximately ten percent of the population report chronic widespread pain (CWP), the condition is more common among women than men. For most people, the pain interferes with many aspects of every-day life and implies large consequences. However, the group reporting CWP is heterogeneous and there is a need for better understanding of the different strategies used for coping with pain in every-day life.

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to describe women’s experiences of how to cope with CWP.

    Methods: The study had a descriptive design with a qualitative content analysis approach. Individual interviews were conducted with 19 women, 31–66 of age, who had reported CWP in a survey 2016. CWP was defined according to the 1990 ACR criteria for fibromyalgia. To be considered chronic, the pain should have persisted for more than three months during the last 12 months. A manifest qualitative content analysis was used to analyze the main question “How do you cope with your chronic widespread pain?” The analysis resulted in four categories.

    Results: Women described their coping with CWP in four different ways; to take control, to continue as usual, to follow instructions and to rest. To take control meant to make deliberate decisions to handle everyday day life. It also meant to take care of oneself, to think positive and to exercise at an adequate level. To continue as usual meant not to listen to body signals and either to ignore or accept the pain. To follow instructions meant listening to the health professionals and following advices, but without taking any part of the responsibility for the treatment outcome. To rest meant to perceive an unreasonable need for recovery, to resign and let the pain set the terms for the daily living.

    Conclusions: Women expressed different ways of coping with CWP including both active and passive strategies. The coping strategies included two dimensions, where one ranged from actively taking control over the pain, to passively following instructions and the other from actively continue as usual by either accepting or ignoring the pain to passively rest and being mastered by pain.

  • 373.
    Ainiala, Terhi
    et al.
    University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Aldrin, EmiliaGyőrffy, ErzsébetUniversity of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary.
    Onomastica Uralica 102018Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 374.
    Aires, Nibia
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    A guide to the Fortran programs to calculate inclusion probabilities for conditional Poisson sampling and Pareto pi ps sampling designs2004In: Computational statistics (Zeitschrift), ISSN 0943-4062, E-ISSN 1613-9658, Vol. 19, no 3, p. 337-345Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conditional Poisson Sampling and Pareto pips Sampling designs are sampling methods with fixed sample size and with inclusion probabilities proportional to given size measures.. Algorithms were introduced to calculate first and second exact inclusion probabilities for both schemes. Methods were also provided to adjust the parameters to get predetermined inclusion probabilities. In this paper, the Fortran procedures are introduced and documented. Moreover, guidelines are provided for their use as well as examples and the programs codes commented.

  • 375.
    Aislan Antonelo, Eric
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE).
    A Neural Reinforcement Learning Approach for Behaviors Acquisition in Intelligent Autonomous Systems2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this work new artificial learning and innate control mechanisms are proposed for application

    in autonomous behavioral systems for mobile robots. An autonomous system (for mobile robots)

    existent in the literature is enhanced with respect to its capacity of exploring the environment and

    avoiding risky configurations (that lead to collisions with obstacles even after learning). The

    particular autonomous system is based on modular hierarchical neural networks. Initially,the

    autonomous system does not have any knowledge suitable for exploring the environment (and

    capture targets œ foraging). After a period of learning,the system generates efficientobstacle

    avoid ance and target seeking behaviors. Two particular deficiencies of the forme rautonomous

    system (tendency to generate unsuitable cyclic trajectories and ineffectiveness in risky

    configurations) are discussed and the new learning and controltechniques (applied to the

    autonomous system) are verified through simulations. It is shown the effectiveness of the

    proposals: theautonomous system is able to detect unsuitable behaviors (cyclic trajectories) and

    decrease their probability of appearance in the future and the number of collisions in risky

    situations is significantly decreased. Experiments also consider maze environments (with targets

    distant from each other) and dynamic environments (with moving objects).

  • 376.
    Aitha, Venkat Ramana
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE).
    Imam, Mohammad Kawsar
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE).
    Low Noise Amplifier for radio telescope at 1: 42 GHz2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This is a part of the project “Radio telescope system” working at 1.42 GHz, which includes designing of patch antenna and LNA. The main objective of this thesis is to design a two stage low noise amplifier for a radio telescope system, working at the frequency 1.42 GHz. Finally our aim is to design a two stage LNA, match, connect and test together with patch antenna to reduce

    the system complexity and signal loss.

    The requirements to design a two stage low noise amplifier (LNA) were well studied, topics including RF basic theory, layout and fabrication of RF circuits. A number of tools are available to design and simulate low noise amplifiers but our simulation work was done using advanced design system (ADS 2004 A). The design process includes selection of a proper device, stability check of the device, biasing, designing of matching networks and layout of total design and fabrication. A lot of time has been

    spent on designing of impedance matching network, fabrication and testing of the design circuits and finally a two stage low noise amplifier (LNA) was designed. After the fabrication work, the circuits were tested by the spectrum analyzer in between 9 KHz to 25 GHz frequency range. Finally the resulting noise figure 0.299 dB and gain 24.25 dB are obtained from the simulation.

    While measuring the values from the fabricated circuit board, we found that bias point is not stable due to self oscillations in the amplifier stages at lower frequencies like 149 MHz for first stage and 355 MHz for second stage.

  • 377.
    Ajan, Linda
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Teacher Education (LUT).
    Nilsson, Tony
    Halmstad University, School of Teacher Education (LUT).
    Individualisering i skolan2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]
    Syftet med detta examensarbete är att undersöka hur elever på grundskolans senare del uppfattar individualisering i undervisningen. Det teoretiska utgångspunterna är styrdokumenten och litteratur som beskriver individualisering ur ett historiskt perspektiv utifrån en skolutveckling och sociologisk vinkel. Underlaget för studiens empiriska del utgörs av en enkät med 34 frågor om hurvida eleverna upplever informellt inflytande i undervisningen, samt hur de skulle önska att det såg ut. Enkäten delades ut till 77 elever i årskurs nio fördelade på två skolor i västra och en i södra Sverige. Undersökningens resultat visar på att elverna inte uppfattar sig individualiserade i undervisningen.
  • 378.
    Ajkunic, Said
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Skagervik, Oskar
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Varumärkesvärdering och tillämpningen av ISO 106682018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: It has become increasingly common to divide the intangible assets into different categories. One of these categories is the value of the brand itself, which can become useful when a brand is being bought, sold and exposed to other legal situations. In order to distinguish the brand, it is necessary to make a valuation of the brand. However, there has been no consensus on how this will happen, which led to the emergence of a new standard, ISO 10668.

    Problem: The reliability of brand valuation has been low, as there have been several different ways of valuing a brand and thus resulted in the fact that the valuations are severely divided. In 2010, the standard ISO 10668 was developed to increase the reliability and transparency of brand valuations. But what valuation methods are used to achieve ISO 10668 and a reliable brand valuation?

    Purpose: The purpose of the study is to investigate whether the new ISO standard has been accepted and applied in practice. We also want to investigate whether there has been a reduction in the problems that have arisen around brand weather and the methods used to achieve the ISO 10668 standard and a reliable brand valuation.

    Method: We have conducted a qualitative study where we interviewed people with good experience in brand valuation. The theoretical frame of reference has been designed for literature, scientific articles and other internet sources.

    Conclusion: To valuing a brand can be a costly process and therefore only when there is a specific purpose, for example, for legal, economic or market reasons. In order to make the valuation as credible as possible, experts recommend to comply with the ISO 10668 standard. This is often done at higher valuations or for example acquisitions or litigation. In order to achieve the standard, it is not merely a method used, but is determined by the purpose of valuation. 

  • 379.
    Akbarzadeh, Farzin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE).
    Lund, Stefan
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE).
    VLSI Implementation of the REMAP-y- Massively Parallel, SIMD Array for Embedded Computing1997Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
  • 380.
    Akbarzadeh, Farzin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Lund, Stefan
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    VLSI Implementation of the REMAP-y: Massively Parllel, SIMD Array for Embedded Computing1997Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
  • 381.
    Akel, Rachelle
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Reklam i Populärpress: en semiotisk bildanalys av livsstilsreklam och könsskildring i svensk populärpress, 20032003Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]
    I denna uppsats görs det en semiotisk bildanalys av livsstilsreklam och könsskildring i fyra olika tidsskrifter, Plaza Café, Cosmopolitan och Femina. Uppsatsen syfte är att besvara två olika frågor den första är: På vilket sätt spelar reklambilderna på begreppet livsstil? och hur framställs kvinnan respektive mannen i livsstilsreklambilderna? Med hjälp av den semiotiska bildanalysen och en kvalitativ arbetssätt nådde uppsatsen sitt syfte. Efter att ha analyserat 26 olika reklamannonser kunde studie dra slutsatsen att de livsstils dimensioner som analysen utgick från kunde tydligt genomspåras i vardera reklamannons. Textens och bildens betydelse som förmedlas i livsstilsreklamerna utgick från eller använder sig av olika livsstilar med dimensioner som personlighet, stil, smak eller prestige och status för att fånga publikens uppmärksamhet. Livsstilsreklamen vill meddela att det är möjligt att köpa eller konsumera en livsstil med hjälp av marknadens varuutbud. Genom att köpa en Omega klocka eller Ray-Ban solglasögon så låter man produkten vara ett uttryck för den egna personligheten eller den egna stilen/smaken eller referera till en viss status och prestige. När det gäller hur kvinnan respektive mannen framställs i de utvalda reklamannonserna är att kvinnan framställs för det mesta snygg, smal, ung, sexig, lättklädd och passiv medan mannen som snygg, smal men muskulös, påklädd eller med bar överkropp, aktiv och behöver inte alltid vara ung. Vi utsätts ständigt för reklam var vi än befinner oss och kanske därför är det sällan vi stannar till och tittar noggrant på dess utformning. Reklamen har ett eget språksystem där varje bild eller text som finns med en annons är väl genomtänkt och har stor betydelse på hur den ska tolkas och fångas av publiken.
  • 382.
    Akerö, Emma
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Nursing.
    Zetterström, Linda
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Inblick i en annan livsvärld: Att belysa omvårdnadsåtgärder vid positiva symtom hos patienter med schizofreni.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Schizophrenia is a complex disease including positive symptoms, such as for example delusions and auditory hallucinations. This group of patients can be difficult for nurses to reach. The condition entails patient exclusion and stigmatization, also an increased risk of suicide. People with schizophrenia have shown insufficient compliance in drug treatment, which in turn can negatively affect care. Previous research shows a need for increased knowledge to achieve better efficacy in the treatment of these patients. Therefore, the specific aim of this study is to illustrate the care activities in case of positive symptoms in schizophrenia. Four databases were searched and the searches resulted in 18 articles. The results showed that individualized care, based on the patient's life-world, is essential to reach the patient and thus to identify the most beneficial care activities. Patients with positive symptoms need support from nurses to find strategies to cope with these. With the support of this study, nurses can support patients to find these coping strategies. Behavior that is commonly considered destructive is not necessarily negative, it can also be a coping strategy for patients with positive symptoms in schizophrenia.

  • 383.
    AKGUN, ISMAIL
    Halmstad University, School of Teacher Education (LUT).
    elevinflytande i skolan: en studie om elevinflytande i årskurs nio2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 384.
    Akhash, Natalia
    Halmstad University, School of Teacher Education (LUT).
    Vad gör en matematiklektion intressant?: En studie om gymnasieelevers intresse för ämnet matematik och en motivationsskapande lektion.2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studiens syfte var att undersöka gymnasieelevernas intresse för ämnet matematik samt att urskilja det som är karakteristiskt för motivationsskapande lärande inom matematik och vad som gör en matematiklektion på gymnasiet givande och intressant. I grunden för arbetet ligger den sociokulturella lärandeteorin, teorier om motivation och intresse, samt vissa trender inom matematikundervisningen som behandlas i litteraturavsnittet.  I undersökningen användes en metodkombination: en kvantitativ studie i form av gruppenkät, som delades ut till elever som läser matematikkurser första och tredje året på två olika program på en gymnasieskola – det naturvetenskapliga och det samhällsinriktade samt en kvalitativ intervjustudie med fyra gymnasieelever.

      Resultatet av undersökningen visar att gymnasieelevernas intresse för ämnet matematik är kopplat till deras framtidsplaner samt graden av framgång och bra betyg i ämnet. Det finns även ett starkt positivt samband mellan intresset för ämnet och lusten inför matematiklektionen, undervisningstempot respektive lärarens inverkan. Faktorer som stimulerar elevernas intresse och som påverkar attityden till en matematiklektion är bundna till matematikundervisningens innehåll, dess aktualitet och variation, frågor om matematikundervisningens metoder och arbetssätt samt elevens individuella drag och påverkan. Dessa faktorer arbetar samtidigt och de flesta samverkar i en matematisk uppgiftslösning. En sådan uppgift är matematikundervisningens redskap och mål och den har flera didaktiska syften.  Bland annat formar den elevens syn på matematiken, det abstrakta och logiska tänkandet utvecklas, olika färdigheter utarbetas och den skapar motivation för att lära sig matematik. Huvudslutsatsen är att läraren har en viktig roll för utvecklingen av elevens intresse för ämnet matematik och kan göra en matematiklektion intressant för eleverna genom att framförallt noggrant välja de uppgifter eleverna arbetar med under en matematiklektion samt hur de arbetar med dessa uppgifter.

  • 385.
    Akhtar, Naeem
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Analysis of Simris Hybrid Energy System Design and Working and Checking the Effects of Using High Capacity Factor Wind Turbine2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The world is entering the future where integration of renewable energy sources within the power grid will play an important role when facing the challenge of reducing global warming. The intermittent generation characteristics associate with renewable energy sources can be handled by the implementation of microgrids. A Microgrid is a group of energy source (e.g. wind, solar etc) that are located in the same local area that can operate independently in the event of electricity outage and can also be connected to the national grid in case of energy demand exceeds than the energy produced in the same local area. The implementation of microgrid in an electrical distribution system must be well planned to avoid problems. The EU has set high goals to reduce the non-renewable energy sources by 2030. EU has started some local energy systems (microgrids) and Simris is a part of it.

    This study is about a microgrid project at Simris in the south-east of Sweden. The village of Simris has 140 households supplied by a wind turbine of rated power 500kW and a solar power plant of 440 kW rated power. This project is run by E. ON within the framework and collaboration of Interflux, in which several network operators within the EU participate to investigate flexibility options in local energy systems. 

    The aim of this study is to find different scenarios in which the Simris microgrid can be run in islanded-mode. Four different scenarios were investigated, and simulation was done in MATLab. After simulation the results were discussed in the “Analysis and Results” section and the size of the wind turbine, the solar park (PV)and the battery were suggested for each of the scenarios. A short calculation was also included between the installation cost of the suggested wind turbine and the needed battery size. The cost of battery is much higher than the cost of wind turbine, so its beneficial for the economy of the microgrid to have a wind turbine of 1000 kW rated power and battery size 35 MWh rather than using the same old wind turbine of 469 kW rated power and upgrade the battery to 462 MWh. 

  • 386.
    Akinola, Azeez Paul
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE).
    chong, zhang
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE).
    Tunnel comparison between Generic Routing Encapsulation (GRE) and IP Security (IPSec)2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Since the introduction of networks, they have been used amongst home users, companies and organizations and most damage on the network is due to inappropriate security configurations. To secure networks, a protocol suite can be used to encrypt and authenticate all IP packets of a session. Therefore, this report will include the advantages and possible solution of some techniques used to offer increased network security such as scalability and data confidentiality. Captures of traffic sent using the two security techniques, IPSec/VPN and GRE-Tunnel will be monitored. The objective behind this project is to configure a network with these two different tunneling techniques and compare the security and network performance. The report also describes the security problems encountered by networks such as the ignorance of network users, vulnerabilities and the security of the devices.IPSecis a standard security protocol solution for TCP/IP, and it provides security through authentication, encryption and data integrity. GRE encapsulates packets and create a logical hub-and spoke topology of virtual point-to-point connections. The Jperf-tool is used to measure network performance and show specific details while another tool, Wireshark is used to analyze the information captured during transmission of data sent using IPSEC and GRE. The comparison further finds that IPSec-tunnel technique makes data transfers very secure but causes network performance disadvantages in comparison to a GRE solution.

  • 387.
    Akinola, Azeez Paul
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE).
    Zhang, Chong
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE).
    Evaluate Security on the Internet Cafe2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Internet security (Network security) is a big topic that is very important in our society communication system, but it is extremely dynamic and wide in scope. This is the reason that many companies and organizations invest heavily in a dedicated infrastructure security and highly trained specialists.The aim of security monitoring and preventing the network from cyber threats requires vigilance over the network equipment. The case study of this thesis is to provide the possible solution to the problems encountered by the namely network users such as: Internet Game Center (Centrum Halmstad, Sweden) and, the Blueville Internet Cafe (Ede, Nigeria).Our research and information collected over the telephone and a visit at the nearest office. We concluded that both companies mentioned above experienced similar cyber threats. The two companies have internal and external threats such as accessing the network via ssh by using it brute force attack, network war-driver, the installation of spyware, password sniffer, viruses, SQL injection and PHP attacks (web attacks) on the networks. The cyber threats virus and spyware are among the big internet threat to users, organization and companies.We carry out experiments in the lab to tests for threats such as brute force (ssh) attack, password sniffer and war-driver in the Wireless environment. From the results, we are able to the select WPA2 using 802.1x as the best possible way to limit and reduce the strength of cyber-attacks, and as a suggested solution to the namely café problems in our report. We also list different suggestion and solution to the cyber café attacks from our research papers and information gathers from different sources such as library, internet, seminar and textbooks.

  • 388.
    Akpan, Uduak Richard
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Internationalization process and strategy of firms: A case study of Getinge AB in China2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
  • 389.
    Akram, Asif
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Man and Information technology laboratory (MI-lab).
    The Influence Of Generativity On Value Creation – A Study Of Digitized Products2015In: 8th IADIS International Conference on Information Systems / [ed] Miguel Baptista Nunes, Pedro Isaias, Philip Powell, IADIS Press, 2015, p. 51-60Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The advancement of digital technologies is driving traditional product oriented businesses to move from selling product to selling solutions. In order to exploit business potentials from technology, it is important to understand the potential of the technology and how it influences the value creation in a digital environment where it is developed and to be deployed. To understand this changing environment, I have studied remote diagnostics as an example of digital technology within the vehicle industry as a source of new value for business. The findings show that digitized products not only helps to solve existing problems in providing services but also provides potential to generate value for new products and services in the networked environment. An implication from the findings for product oriented firms is that value creation with digitized products requires new business processes. Based on the findings, a discussion is presented about how generativity influences value creation via value in design, governance and networking in a digital ecosystem.

  • 390.
    Akram, Asif
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Man and Information technology laboratory (MI-lab).
    Towards Servitization in the Age of Digital Innovation: A Case from Vehicle Industry2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The advancement in digital technologies drives industries to change their core businesses which present number of challenges. One of them is transformation of manufacturing industries towards servitization. This paper reports empirical findings from an on-going project related to servitization in the age of digital innovation. The research study is in the context of the vehicle industry and concerns e-maintenance services based on remote diagnostics technologies. It explores the servitization of vehicle industry in the age of digital innovation. Such innovations embark challenges to innovation environment. A study in this regard has been conducted and it revealed the challenges related to the design, organizational strategy and organizational transformation.

  • 391.
    Akram, Asif
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Value Creation in Digital Ecosystem – A Study of Remote Diagnostics2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The advancement of digital technologies is driving traditional product oriented businesses to move from selling product to selling solutions. In order to exploit business potentials from technology, it is necessary to understand the technological capacity and how it influences the value creation in the environment where it is deployed. I study remote diagnostics as an example of digital technology within the vehicle industry. I found that this technology provides potential to generate new value. To create this value, traditional product oriented organizations are required to create value in different way than traditional mode of creating value. In this paper, I show that how generative capacity of remote diagnostics technology creates value in digital ecosystem.

  • 392.
    Akram, Asif
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Man and Information technology laboratory (MI-lab). University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Value Network Transformation: Digital Service Innovation in the Vehicle Industry2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Advancement in digital technology is rapidly changing the contemporary landscape of business and associated networks for manufacturing firms. Many traditional physical products are now being embedded with digital components, providing them digital capability to become digitized products. The digitization of physical products has become an important driver for digital service innovation within manufacturing industries. Such digital service innovation transforms value networks of manufacturing firms in various industries. While digitization of products and digital service innovation can be observed in many manufacturing industries, this thesis focuses on the transformation of value networks within the vehicle industry.

    This thesis is a collection of papers and a cover paper. The thesis reports from a collaborative project in the vehicle industry. The project explored new digital services for vehicles based on remote diagnostics technology. The exploration and conceptualization of digital services is investigated in a collaborative manner with participants from the vehicle industry. The results reflect that there is a paradigm shift for manufacturing firms digitizing their products, and stretching the business scope from product to solution oriented business.

    This thesis contributes to the existing literature on digital innovation with insights on the transformation of value networks in the vehicle industry. The research question addressed in this thesis is: How are value networks of manufacturing firms transformed by digital service innovation? To answer the question, this thesis conceptualizes how the value creating pattern of digitized products transforms value networks of manufacturing firms. A model is presented that reflects how the symbiotic value relationship between the digitized product and digital services transforms the roles, relationships and exchanges in the value networks of manufacturing firms. The model can serve as an analytical tool to further advance the knowledge on business aspects in digital innovation. This thesis contributes to practice by providing an understanding of how manufacturing firms can leverage value of digitized products and digital services in value networks.

  • 393.
    Akram, Asif
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Bergquist, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS). University of Gothenburg.
    Åkesson, Maria
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Digital Visions vs. Product Practices: Understanding Tensions in Incumbent Manufacturing Firms2014In: Proceedings of the Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences / [ed] Ralph H. Sprague, Jr., Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE Computer Society, 2014, p. 4516-4525Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Incumbent manufacturing firms face challenges when expanding their product focus with digital services. Such expansion creates tensions in organizations in the servitization process. While management visions and conceptualizes new service oriented businesses, the actual practice of implementing these service concepts is influenced by the product paradigmatic way of thinking in the organization. This dominant thinking creates tensions between business visions and business practice. We use the case of remote diagnostics services to provide insights into a manufacturing firm’s attempt to transform the dominant oriented business models into a new networked environment. We suggest that such acts that may or may not lead to transition are lingered by dominant logics related to the product focus. This indicates that firms are required to embed new logics into their existing practice in order to exploit the full potential of digital technology. © 2014 IEEE.

  • 394.
    Akram, Asif
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Man and Information technology laboratory (MI-lab).
    Åkesson, Maria
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Man and Information technology laboratory (MI-lab).
    A Research Framework to Study how Digital Service Innovation Transforms Value Networks2011In: Proceedings of IRIS 2011 / [ed] Leino, Timo, Turku, Finland: Turku Center for Computer Science , 2011, p. 29-40Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports from preparations in an ongoing research study concerning how digital service innovation transforms value networks in manufacturing industries. The research study is in the context of the vehicle industry and concerns digital e-maintenance services based on remote diagnostics systems. This digital service innovation in particular is of great importance since manufacturing industries have great potential to expand their business and found new and extended boundaries and relationships with other stakeholder in a network they are attached to. Core challenges and opportunities for digital service innovation will lead us to the study of its influence on the business and innovation environment i.e. the value network. This paper presents a framework to study how digital service innovation transforms value networks based on literature reviews on value network, digital innovation and transformation of value networks.

  • 395.
    Akram, Asif
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Man and Information technology laboratory (MI-lab).
    Åkesson, Maria
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Man and Information technology laboratory (MI-lab).
    Value Network Transformation By Digital Service Innovation In The Vehicle Industry2011In: Proceedings of the 15th Pacific Asia Conference on Information Systems | Pacific Asia Conference on Information Systems (PACIS), Brisbane, Australia: Association for Information Systems, 2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports from preparations in an ongoing research study concerning how digital service innovation transforms value networks in the vehicle industry. The research study concerns digital services based on remote diagnostics systems. This digital service innovation in particular is of great importance since the vehicle industry has great potential to expand its business and found new and extended boundaries and relationships with other stakeholder in the networks they are attached to. Core challenges and opportunities for digital service innovation will lead us to the study of its influence on the business and innovation environment i.e. the value network. In this paper, we propose three propositions to study transformation from product oriented value networks to digital service oriented value networks.

  • 396.
    Akram, Asif
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Man and Information technology laboratory (MI-lab).
    Åkesson, Maria
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Man and Information technology laboratory (MI-lab).
    Bergquist, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Man and Information technology laboratory (MI-lab).
    Balancing Generativity and Control of Digitized Products – A Study of Digitized Buses and Remote Diagnostic ServicesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 397.
    Aksel Jacobsen, Freja
    et al.
    Novo Nordisk A/S, Bagsværd, Denmark.
    Andersson, Åsa
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Inhibitors of intracellular enzymes for treatment of multiple sclerosis2019In: Atlas of ScienceArticle, review/survey (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 398.
    Aksel Jacobsen, Freja
    et al.
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark & Novo Nordisk A/S, Bagsværd, Denmark.
    Scherer, Alexander N.
    Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA.
    Mouritsen, Jeppe
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark & Novozymes A/S, Bagsværd, Denmark.
    Bragadóttir, Hera
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark & Xelia Pharmaceuticals A/S, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Bäckström, B. Thomas
    Novo Nordisk A/S, Måløv, Denmark & BTB Pharma, Malmö, Sweden.
    Sardar, Samra
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Holmberg, Dan
    Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Koleske, Anthony J.
    Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA.
    Andersson, Åsa
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    A Role for the Non-Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Abl2/Arg in Experimental Neuroinflammation2018In: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology, ISSN 1557-1890, E-ISSN 1557-1904, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 265-276Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multiple sclerosis is a neuroinflammatory degenerative disease, caused by activated immune cells infiltrating the CNS. The disease etiology involves both genetic and environmental factors. The mouse genetic locus, Eae27, linked to disease development in the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model for multiple sclerosis, was studied in order to identify contributing disease susceptibility factors and potential drug targets for multiple sclerosis. Studies of an Eae27 congenic mouse strain, revealed that genetic variation within Eae27 influences EAE development. The Abl2 gene, encoding the non-receptor tyrosine kinase Arg, is located in the 4,1 megabase pair long Eae27 region. The Arg protein plays an important role in cellular regulation and is, in addition, involved in signaling through the B- and T-cell receptors, important for the autoimmune response. The presence of a single nucleotide polymorphism causing an amino acid change in a near actin-interacting domain of Arg, in addition to altered lymphocyte activation in the congenic mice upon immunization with myelin antigen, makes Abl2/Arg a candidate gene for EAE. Here we demonstrate that the non-synonymous SNP does not change Arg’s binding affinity for F-actin but suggest a role for Abl kinases in CNS inflammation pathogenesis by showing that pharmacological inhibition of Abl kinases ameliorates EAE, but not experimental arthritis. © 2018 The Author(s)

  • 399.
    Aktander, Jenny
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Boij, Zhamuel
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Välfärdens barnbarn vill inte bara jobba!1997Student paper second termStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]
    En argumentationsanalys för och emot förkortad arbetstid i Sverige baserad på Statens Offentliga utredningar 1996:145 och de mest betydelsefulla instansernas argument i debatten kring frågan.
  • 400.
    Akujor, Chidi E.
    et al.
    Onsala Space Observatory, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bååth, L.B.
    Onsala Space Observatory, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Combined-Array Imaging of Extra-Galactic Radio Sources1994In: Astronomy with Millimeter and Submillimeter Wave Interferometry: IAU Colloquium 140 : Meeting held 5-9 October 1992, Hakone, Japan / [ed] M. Ishiguro & Wm. J. Welch, San Francisco: Astronomical Society of the Pacific , 1994, p. 123-124Conference paper (Refereed)
567891011 351 - 400 of 25460
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