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  • 301.
    Nolhag, Richard
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Effektivare elanvändning på avfallskraftvärmeverk: Förslag till handlingsplan för minskad elanvändning på Renovas anläggning i Göteborg2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis has identified and studied measures to allow for reduced use of electricity in a waste incineration plant in western Sweden. The energy extracted from the waste at the powerplant is utilized and sold in form of electricity and heat. Technical and environmentally the combined heat and power plant is by today's standards among the leading waste incineration plants in the world. The owners are constantly striving to improve the efficiency of the waste incineration plant. They have seen the opportunities for savings in reducing internal usage of electricity. The delivery from the plant in 2012 was ~1.3 TWh heat and ~0.2 TWh of electricity. Of the total generated amount of electricity, about 29% was used for internal needs, a quota referred to decline by means of this thesis. In the search for ways to achieve a reduction in electricity usage, the plants energy systems was separated into subsystems such as: electric power, heating, ventilation, compressed air, fluid systems, lighting, and two additional categories, administrative and other measures. Efficiency measures were identified through literature reviews, visits at the facility, study of process data and routines as well as interviews and discussions. After analyzes using data and estimated values these measures was quantified in both estimated reduction in electricity usage and in economic measures which resulted in a compilation of several substantial efficiency improvements. With the implementation of these, the electricity usage can be reduced by 4.7 GWh per year, which represents 5.9% of the internal electricity usage. Repayment periods range between zero and 5.3 years. Based on the substantial efficiency potentials, administrative potentials emerged that may contribute to a future energy-wise management of the waste incineration plant.

  • 302.
    Norlin, Nicole
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Environmental Science.
    Asplén, Stephanie
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Environmental Science.
    Ekotoxicitetstester på rötat avloppsslam: - finns en toxisk respons hos musselkräftan Heterocypris incongruens?2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In today´s society, it becomes more and more important to reuse, recycle and return as much as possible of what we use, in order to reduce the use of the earth´s resources. Sludge is a waste product that is formed when we purify waste water and can be used as construction soil, as final cover of landfills or as fertilizer by spreading it on fields. Then it becomes a cycle of nutrients, just as you want it. Sewage sludge contains nutritional substances that you want to bring to agriculture but also it contains environmental and health-disrupting substances that exist in the society including heavy metals, pharmaceutical residues, pesticides and persistent organic substances. In addition, little is known about the cocktail effect. We received sludge from two sewage treatment plants and performed ecotoxicity tests which are a method that shows the total toxicity of a test. We saw the acute and chronic response of the organism Hetrocypris incongruens Ostracoda. The results showed a clear increase in the chronic response with more sludge added to the test.

  • 303.
    Nyman, Kim
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Effekten av styrketräning och energiunderskott på viktminskning hos nybörjarmotionärer2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Effekten av styrketräning och energiunderskott på viktminskning hos nybörjarmotionärer.

    Till dagens datum råder ingen strategi för hur fettförlusten kan maximeras och muskelförlusten minimeras (Katzeff et al, 1995). Lockwood (2008) visar att 50 % av individer som endast använder kostrestriktioner återfår sin ursprungliga vikt igen. Kraemer & Ratamess (2008) visar att regelbunden träning som involverar stora som små muskelgrupper i samma pass frigör mest anabola hormoner. Muskler offras av kroppen eftersom de tar energi och de kan ge energi via glukoneogenes för att ex. jaga byten. I dagens samhälle signalerar stressen ett konstant frigörande av kortisol vilket har en negativ påverkan på bl.a. muskler. Detta hormonpåslag har förstärkts i samband med energiunderskott.

    Är det möjligt att öka styrka med energiunderskott hos nybörjarmotionärer om protein tillförs för optimal kompenseringseffekt efter träningspass?

     4 av 6 överviktiga nybörjarmotionärer genomgick 8 veckor lång träningsperiod med betoning på hypertrofi, energiunderskott och mattiming i denna pilotstudie. 1RM tester har utförts på benpress i maskin, bröstmaskin samt sittande rodd med smalt grepp. Vilopuls har även tagits manuellt på morgonen av varje deltagare vid två tillfällen, före och efter träningsperioden. Testledare har tagit kroppsmått över byst, midja, rumpa samt vardera låren som utvärdering från energiunderskottet. Energiunderskottet har uppskattats till 500 kcal mindre än bibehållandet av ursprunglig vikt.

    Alla deltagare har ökat sina styrkeresultat och minskat alla kroppsmått. En person har någon extra centimeter kring låren, men kan tyda på hypertrofi. Inga signifikans test har utförts.

    BMI har minskat på alla deltagare medan kcalvärde har ökat för varje deltagare enligt BIA våg.

    Ett mål har varit att öka den basala metabolismen i vila via större muskler. Det är främst en ökad fettförbränning som är fördelaktigt för målgruppen, vilket kan uppnås genom en ökad muskelmassa och kolhydratrestriktioner. Trots att pilotstudien har behandlat fysiskt inaktiva nybörjarmotionärer har hypertrofi uppnåtts även efter 4 veckors teknikträning för ökat antal aktiva motorenheter. Inga konkreta slutsatser kan ringas in på en pilotstudie, men positiva resultat har framkommit.

  • 304.
    Ohlson, Frida
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Al-Mosawi, Nadim
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Occupant Detection System2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the ODS (Occupant Detection System) project is to develop a car

    safety camera system that is able to discriminate human occupants in order to

    activate safety features depending on the human size. In order to discriminate the

    size of an occupant anthropometric measurements need to be performed.

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of anthropometric

    measurements of human height and weight with a Kinect for Windows v2 sensor

    for discrimination of different occupants inside a vehicle.

    The goal was to find valid anthropometric methods for determination of human

    height and weight from landmarks on the upper body, then test if it is possible to

    perform these methods with the Kinect for Windows v2 sensor.

    The execution of this study was performed as a literature study with

    anthropometric tests on ATD-dummies (anthropomorphic test device) and on

    human test subjects. Measurements were performed first physically and then with

    the Kinect v2 sensor to obtain data in form of distance of 8 regions of the body.

    Three tests were performed, first on dummies, second was a pilot study and last

    the measurement study.

    The result revealed that it is hard to estimate human weight from body landmarks

    due to lack of information, therefor no tests were performed in this area. For

    height the result showed that the most valid methods were the measurements on

    arm span and ulna, both on physical measurements and with the camera.

    The conclusion is that it is possible estimating height from body landmarks but

    the positioning of the camera needs to be change in order for the measurements to

    be more accurate.

    This study has contributed to a greater understanding of measurement technology,

    automotive safety and anthropometric measurements.

  • 305.
    Olandersson, Sofia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Lundqvist, Helene
    Bengtsson, Martin
    Lundahl, Magnus
    Baerveldt, Albert-Jan
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Hilliges, Marita
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Finger-force measurement-device for hand rehabilitation2005In: 2005 IEEE 9th International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: Chicago, IL, 28 June - 1 July 2005, Piscataway, N.J.: IEEE Press, 2005, p. 135-138Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose was to develop an extension finger-force measurement device, and investigate the intra-individual repeatability. The design of the measuring device allows single finger force and whole hand measurements, and the repeatability error on extension finger forces was measured, both on the whole hand, as well as on individual fingers. The tests showed that a repeatability error of less then 15 % can be achieved for single finger measurements and less then 21 % for whole hand measurements.

  • 306.
    Olsson Ingvarson, Lena
    et al.
    Göteborg Energi AB, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Building mass used as short term heat storage2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Daily variations of the heat demand in a district heating system increase the heat generation cost due to the marginal use of more expensive fuels. The use of building masses as short term heat storage has been investigated by Göteborg Energi. The possible heat storage and the prevailing conditions have been estimated. Field measurements have been performed for verification. The preliminary results show that the daily load variations at system level can be eliminated with building masses as active short term heat storage.

  • 307.
    Olsson, M Charlotte
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Frandsen, Björn
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Electromyography Muscle Activity in Unilateral and Bilateral Squats with Relative Loads2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    Unilateral strength training is becoming popular as a complement to bilateral training particularly in athletes active in sports performed primarily on one leg. Some studies have shown improved performance after unilateral compared to bilateral strength training, however the underlying cause for this improvement is unclear. The aim of this study was to compare electromyography (EMG) muscle activity in unilateral and bilateral squats performed with 80% of 1repetition maximum (RM) performed in a smith machine.

    Methods

    Participants in the study were 12 healthy women and men (mean age 25±2 years) with previous weight-lifting experience. EMG activity was measured during the concentric phase in the muscles vastus lateralis, biceps femoris, gluteus medius and erector spinae during A) a maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC), B) 1RM squat (90 degree knee flexion) bilaterally and unilaterally, and C) 3 repetitions 80% of 1RM for both the unilateral and bilateral stance, where each squat was performed at a set speed with the aid of a metronome.

    Results

    EMG activities, calculated as percent of MVIC, in thigh and hip muscles (vastus lateralis, biceps femoris, gluteus medius) were significantly higher (p<0.01 for all) in the unilateral compared to the bilateral stance. The highest increase in EMG activity was in the gluteus medius where the unilateral squat elicited a 2.9 increase compared to bilateral stance. Unilateral stance muscle activation was in vastus lateralis 1.2 times higher and in biceps femoris 1.5 times higher compared to the bilateral stance. For the trunk muscle erector spinae, the opposite was apparent. EMG activity was 0.6 times lower (p<0.01) when the squat was performed unilaterally compared to bilaterally.

    Discussion

    Even when the load is made relative to the 1RM for each stance the muscles in especially the gluteus medius but also vastus lateralis and biceps femoris is activated to a higher degree when performed unilaterally which could be a partial explanation as to why the unilateral stance can be beneficial to include in a strength training regime despite the absolute load being lower.

  • 308.
    Olsson, M Charlotte
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Frandsen, Björn
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Lower body electromyography muscle activity differences between unilateral and bilateral squats with relative loads2014In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 46, no 5S, p. 962-963Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 309.
    Olsson, Therese
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Miljöbedömning: Miljökonsekvensbeskrivning för prövning av muddring i Natura 2000-området Nordre älvsestuarium2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Nordre älv estuary is the largest of its kind in Sweden with the typical fresh and salt water mix. It contains eelgrass which is an important habitat for many organisms as feeding ground and nursery area. The estuary is protected by several different directives, laws and conventions, such as: nature reserve and Natura 2000 according to the Habitats Directive and Birds Directive issued by the EU. Because of changed conditions for marine traffic through Gothenburg it may be necessary to relocate it to the river Nordre älv in the future. That would require a dredging since the river mouth contains a shallow threshold. An environmental impact assessment (EIA) is required as part of the permit application for dredging. This essay is a literature review inspired by EIA based on publications from agencies and organizations, research, scientific articles and personal communication with experts. The major effect of dredging is directly removal of vegetation and fauna. Other effects that may have significant impact is clouding (short term) and altered hydrodynamics. Eelgrass extent will decrease but might be offset by compensational measures. Through proper planning and precautions it’s possible to reduce negative environmental impacts.

  • 310.
    Ottermo, Fredric
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik. Division for Electricity, Department of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Bernhoff, Hans
    Division for Electricity, Department of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden & Swedish Centre for Renewable Electric Energy Conversion, Uppsala, Sweden.
    An upper size of vertical axis wind turbines2014In: Wind Energy, ISSN 1095-4244, E-ISSN 1099-1824, Vol. 17, no 10, p. 1623-1629Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The scaling behaviour of a straight-bladed vertical axis wind turbine is considered. A scaling scheme is described that, in the presence of a wind shear profile, aims at leaving the material stresses of the scaled construction unchanged. On the basis of a recent 200 kW three-bladed H-rotor design, a structural upper size of the turbine is proposed, this size being the scale at which the gravitational force starts to become important. As gravity has a much worse scaling behaviour than the aerodynamic and centrifugal forces, the construction work will become increasingly more difficult above this scale. The upper size is estimated to be around 30 MW. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • 311.
    Parker, James
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS). 2Scandinavian School of Golf, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hellström, John
    Swedish Golf Federation, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Olsson, M. Charlotte
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    The Relationship of the Lead Arm, Upper Torso, and Pelvis with Driver Club Head Speed Among Elite Golf Players2015In: International Journal of Golf Science, ISSN 2168-7595, Vol. 4, no Suppl., p. S73-S75Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 312.
    Parker, James
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS). Scandinavian School of Golf, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lagerhem, Charlie
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Olsson, M Charlotte
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Effects of 8 Weeks of Isokinetic Training on Power, Golf Kinematics, and Club Head Speed In Elite Golfers2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Elite competitive golfers commonly use physical conditioning as a way of improving playing results. Multiple studies have investigated the use of different training methods for improving performance but few studies have investigated the use of isokinetic power training as a way of improving swing kinematics and/or club head speed (CHS). The specific objective of the study was to investigate if eight weeks of isokinetic power training was more effective than traditional power training in improving swing kinematics and CHS.

    Methods: 20 competitive elite golfers (handicap better than -3.1), 13 men and 7 women, (age 22±2 years) were tested for lower body power (countermovement jump and loaded vertical squat jump 20,40 & 60kg), rotational power (seated upper body rotational power at 10% of body weight; bw) and golf swing kinematics (pelvis, thorax and lead arm peak rotational velocities using electromagnetic motion capture system; Polhemus Inc. USA ) and club head speed (doppler-radar launch monitor system; Flightscope, South Africa), Participants were split into a control (CTL) group (n=10) who continued with the regular strength and power training and an intervention (IK) group (n=10) performing isokinetic power training in the isokinetic 1080Quantum system (1080Motion, Sweden) during 8 weeks. The intervention focused on barbell squat (22kg at 0.5 ms-1) and standing rotation (10% body weight at 1 ms-1).

    Statistical analysis: a 2 (between; groups) x 2 (within; time) ANOVA assessed any differences in power, club and swing kinematics.

    Results: Statistically significant improvements were observed in both the IK and CTL group for rotational power (p<0.001), CHS (p=0.025), and peak arm speed (p=0.001). There were no significant differences in countermovement jump height, peak power during squats, peak pelvis speed, or peak thorax speed following the intervention period.

    Discussion: After 8 weeks of power training, both rotational power and peak arm speed improved as did the performance measure of CHS in both the IK and CTL group. However no significant changes were found between the two groups. In conclusion, there was no evidence suggesting that isokinetic training, as performed in this study, is neither detrimental, nor more effective, than traditional strength training when it comes to increasing CHS in golf performance.

  • 313.
    Parker, James
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Olsson, Charlotte
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Brorsson, Sofia
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    A One Year Study on Changes in Flexibility and Stability Characteristics in Elite Golfers2011Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The results from this study show that training strategies can lead to improved flexibility and stability in golfers during the off season, however maintaining these improvements, particularly flexibility, during the in-season is not as easy. Decreased flexibility on the left side leads to reduced ROM to manage deceleration of  forces produced in the golf swing that probably lead to an increased risk of injury. Significant improvements can be made after no more than 3 months of  training, including flexibility and stability training. Technique training may be more successful if it follows a period of concentrated physical training.  During the in-season, emphasis ought to be on maintaining ROM by effective implementation of stretching programs.

  • 314.
    Parker, James
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Olsson, Charlotte
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Brorsson, Sofia
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Grip force and muscle activity are associated with kinematics in the golf swing2012In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 44, no Suppl. 2, p. 474-474Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 315.
    Parker, James
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Olsson, M Charlotte
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Are There Stretch Shortening Cycle like Actions in the Shoulder and Torso in Upper Body Striking Actions2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 316.
    Pasturel, Solenn
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Assessing the efficacy of Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation on Maximal Strength in Physical Education Students, Trained and Elite Athletes: A Review with a Systematic approach2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) is increasingly being usedoutside the realms of physical therapy. Acknowledged as an efficient method to enhancestrength parameters, athletes are increasingly using NMES to facilitate training andstrength gains. A review was designed with a systematic approach with the mainobjective: to assess the effectiveness of transcutaneous NMES on maximal strength inphysical education students, trained and elite athletes in studies involving isometricNMES and Dynamic NMES. Method: A search for all types of trials was performed onPubmed, Sportdiscus, Web of Science Core Collection and The Cochrane ControlledTrials Register, and results were recorded according to the PRISMA recommendations.Twenty-one studies were included and judged for risk of bias and quality according tothe Cochrane guidelines and GRADE. Results: Studies were judged as having either anunclear or high risk of bias. All studies were judged as ‘very low level’ according toGRADE and were lacking bias-limiting methods, detailed information of interventionsand general standardised procedures. Conclusion: Strength gains in physical educationstudents, trained or elite athletes from a training intervention involving either isometricNMES combined with or without voluntary exercise or dynamic NMES are inconclusivedue to the very low level of the quality of the studies. Meta-analysis performed in thisarea should be interpreted with caution as the studies have been judged as eitherunclear or high risk of bias.Key words: isometric NMES (electrical stimulation applied to relaxed muscle), dynamicNMES (electrical stimulation superimposed onto voluntary contractions), strength.

  • 317.
    Paulsen, Martin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Eriksson, Herbert
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Active Lumbar Assistive Device: Development of new kind of assistive device to reduce the risk of low back pain associated with manual lifting conditions2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The project has aimed to develop a new kind of back assistive device to reduce the risk of low back problems, mainly focused to industries and workplaces where manual handling are frequently occurring. The idea for the project was introduced in spring 2010, when Martin Paulsen performed internship at Bioservo Technologies AB located in Stockholm. Bioservo Technologies had developed a force-enhancing glove, which responds to the user's movements and produces an assisting grip force, similar to the user´s own muscles. During the training period Martin Paulsen began to consider other features of the technology, which led to this thesis.

    This project is owned by Bioservo Technologies, conducted by Herbert Eriksson and Martin Paulsen from the Biomechanical program at Halmstad University. The aim has been to develop an idea for a future product for Bioservo Technologies. The goal of the product that has been to reduce the risk of low back problems, mainly the cases of low back pain associated with manual handling at workplaces. In order to find a solution to such complex problems as low back pain, the project has started with three pilot studies.

    • Literature Study: As this project´s aim has not been to produce a prototype for testing and validation, the project has instead rested heavily on a literature study. The focus of this study was to educate Herbert Eriksson and Martin Paulsen of the problem and the solutions available on the market today. The pilot study can be found as Attachent A: "A literature study about the problems of low back pain and the solutions of today."

    • Interviews: As the project has been conducted confidentially, no steering group could participate in the project. However, it was important to let the professions that currently work with back problems affect the project, and let their experience and knowledge influence the project. Interviews was instead introduced, and allowed experts to give valuable insight with their unique knowledge on the subject. The pilot study can be found as Appendix B: "Interviews of experts of interest concerning low back pain."

    • Motion Capture: A measurement of kinematic data was conducted to capture the spine motion for further analysis in Matlab, and to explore the feet´s load patterns while manually lifting. The pilot study can be found as Appendix C: "A Study of Healthy adult's foot pressure pattern in a symmetrical lifting task."

    These three pilot studies together form a platform for the development of the product´s function and theoretical content.

    While design and material has been left open, the product description focuses on the product's functional design, mechanics and electronics. In order to validate the product's mechanics, has an Appendix named Appendix D: "Calculations of how the angle alpha depends on the variable theta and the dimensions of the external spine" been added as an Appendix.

  • 318.
    Pedersen, Eja
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Effects of wind turbine noise on humans2009In: Proceedings of the Third International Meeting on Wind Turbine Noise, 2009, p. 11-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Possible adverse health effects due to exposure of wind turbine noise have been discussed since the first modern electrical generating wind turbines were erected in the 1970’s. Despite this, only a few large epidemiological studies have been carried out. This paper is based on data from two Swedish studies and one Dutch study in which self-reported health and well-being were related to calculated A-weighted sound pressure levels outside the dwelling of each respondent. The consistencies in results from these studies make it possible to summarize the impact of wind turbine noise on people living in the vicinity of the turbines. The main adverse effect was annoyance due to the sound; the prevalence of noise annoyance increased with increasing sound pressure levels. Disturbance of sleep was furthermore related to wind turbine noise; the proportion of residents reporting sleep disturbance due to noise increased significantly at sound levels close to those recommended as highest acceptable levels at new installations. No other clear associations between sound levels and self reported health symptoms have hitherto been found. However, noise annoyance was correlated with several measurements of stress and lowered well-being. The study design does not allow causal conclusions, but the association indicates a possible hindrance of psycho-physiological restitution. Such a hindrance could in the long term lead to adverse health effects not detected hear.

  • 319.
    Pedersen, Eja
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Health aspects associated with wind turbine noise: Results from three field studies2011In: Noise Control Engineering Journal, ISSN 0736-2501, E-ISSN 2168-8710, Vol. 59, no 1, p. 47-53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wind farms are a new source of environmental noise. The impact of wind turbine noise on health and well-being has not yet been well-established and remains under debate. Long-term effects, especially, are not known, because of the short time wind turbines have been operating and the relatively few people who have so far been exposed to wind turbine noise. As the rate of new installations increases, so does the number of people being exposed to wind turbine noise and the importance of identifying possible adverse health effects. Data from three cross-sectional studies comprising A-weighted sound pressure levels of wind turbine noise, and subjectively measured responses from 1,755 people, were used to systematically explore the relationships between sound levels and aspects of health and well-being. Consistent findings, that is, where all three studies showed the same result, are presented, and possible associations between wind turbine noise and human health are discussed.

  • 320.
    Pedersen, Eja
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Human response to wind turbine noise: perception, annoyance and moderating factors2007Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: The aims of this thesis were to describe and gain an understanding of how people who live in the vicinity of wind turbines are affected by wind turbine noise, and how individual, situational and visual factors, as well as sound properties, moderate the response.

    Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in a flat, mainly rural area in Sweden, with the objective to estimate the prevalence of noise annoyance and to examine the dose-response relationship between A-weighted sound pressure levels (SPLs) and perception of and annoyance with wind turbine noise. Subjective responses were obtained through a questionnaire (n = 513; response rate: 68%) and outdoor, A-weighted SPLs were calculated for each respondent. To gain a deeper understanding of the observed noise annoyance, 15 people living in an area were interviewed using open-ended questions. The interviews were analysed using the comparative method of Grounded Theory (GT). An additional cross-sectional study, mainly exploring the influence of individual and situational factors, was carried out in seven areas in Sweden that differed with regard to terrain (flat or complex) and degree of urbanization (n = 765; response rate: 58%). To further explore the impact of visual factors, data from the two cross-sectional studies were tested with structural equation modelling. A proposed model of the influence of visual attitude on noise annoyance, also comprising the influence of noise level and general attitude, was tested among respondents who could see wind turbines versus respondents who could not see wind turbines from their dwelling, and respondents living in flat versus complex terrain.

    Results: Dose-response relationships were found both for perception of noise and for noise annoyance in relation to A-weighted SPLs. The risk of annoyance was enhanced among respondents who could see at least one turbine from their dwelling and among those living in a rural in comparison with a suburban area. Noise from wind turbines was appraised as an intrusion of privacy among people who expected quiet and peace in their living environment. Negative experiences that led to feelings of inferiority added to the distress. Sound characteristics describing the amplitude modulated aerodynamic sound were appraised as the most annoying (swishing, whistling and pulsating/throbbing). Wind turbines were judged as environmentally friendly, efficient and necessary, but also as ugly and unnatural. Being negative towards the visual impact of the wind turbines on the landscape scenery, rather than towards wind turbines as such, was strongly associated with annoyance. Self-reported health impairment was not correlated to SPL, while decreased well-being was associated with noise annoyance. Indications of possible hindrance to psycho-physiological restoration were observed.

    Conclusions: Wind turbine noise is easily perceived and is annoying even at low A-weighted SPLs. This could be due to perceived incongruence between the characteristics of wind turbine noise and the background sound. Wind turbines are furthermore prominent objects whose rotational movement attracts the eye. Multimodal sensory effects or negative aesthetic response could enhance the risk of noise annoyance. Adverse reactions could possibly lead to stress-related symptoms due to prolonged physiological arousal and hindrance to psychophysiological restoration. The observed differences in prevalence of noise annoyance between living environments make it necessary to assess separate dose-response relationships for different types of landscapes.

  • 321.
    Pedersen, Eja
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Forssén, Jens
    Applied Acoustics, Chalmers University of Technology.
    Persson Waye, Kerstin
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine, University of Gothenburg.
    Human perception of sound from wind turbines2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The erection of wind turbines is preceded by an environmental assessment of the impact of wind turbines on people living nearby. One impact to be assessed is sound. It is thus important to have scientifically based knowledge of how wind turbine sound will be perceived in order to ensure that this sound does not adversely affect the health of residents in the area. This report presents an analysis of the results from two previous field studies investigating the relation between sound levels from wind turbines at dwellings and the perception of the sound. It also describes the factors influencing this relationship. In a diary study the participants reported how often they were home and, if so, whether they were outdoors, and whether they could hear the turbines. The objective of this study was to describe how often the sound from wind turbines was heard and in which meteorological conditions. A complementary field study investigated the accuracy of the sound propagation model used today by com­ paring long­term sound measurements with the values calculated using differ­ ent models. This study also investigated whether variations in meteorological factors influenced sound propagation to such a degree that they should be included in the calculation of sound levels.

    The joint analyses of the two field studies confirm and strengthen previously reported data. The percentage of respondents who noticed wind turbine sound as well as the percentage annoyed by the noise, increased with increasing sound levels. The probability of being annoyed was greater in rural areas and if the turbines were visible from the dwelling. However, differences in terrain had no statistical effect. The only association between sound levels and health­related variables other than annoyance was disturbed sleep.

    Participants in the diary study more often reported hearing sound from the wind turbines when the electrical power increased (i.e. when electricity produc­ tion increased). A statistically significant relationship between how often the sound was heard and the calculated sound level at the dwelling was found, even though the amount of time the participants spent outdoor varied substantially; the higher the calculated sound level, the more often the sound was heard. The diary study also gave some insight into the relationship between audibility and wind speed. The results indicate that wind turbine sound could still be heard at relatively high wind speeds, when it would have been expected to be masked.

    Long­term measurements of wind turbine sound at about 550 meters from a modern turbine showed that the calculated and measured levels agreed well. Sound levels calculated using a parabolic equation model, which takes into account variations in meteorological factors, did not give a better prediction than the model commonly used at environmental permit proceed­ ings [Naturvårdsverket 2001]. Meteorological variations are probably only of importance for sound propagation at longer distances. Meteorological circumstances could, however, be important for estimation of the source sound levels, the largest element of uncertainty in the calculations.

    The studies show that the sound levels vary at the same wind speed, and that wind turbine sound could still be heard at wind speeds when it should be masked by other wind­induced sounds. This implies that the description in the environmental impact assessment of the sound that neighbours will pos­ sibly hear should be extended, even though the sound propagation model used today is adequate. Further studies regarding the possibility of hearing the sound at high wind speeds are needed, as the number of participants in the diary study was small. The data also suggest that the risk of sleep disturbance should be further explored.

  • 322.
    Pedersen, Eja
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Forssén, Jens
    Teknisk akustik, Chalmers tekniska högskola.
    Persson Waye, Kerstin
    Arbets- och miljömedicin, Göteborgs universitet.
    Människors upplevelse av ljud från vindkraftverk2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I samband med uppförandet av vindkraftverk görs en miljökonsekvensbeskrivning som också innefattar en bedömning av hur människor som bor i området kommer att påverkas av vindkraftverken. En påverkansfaktor är ljud. För att korrekt beskriva hur ljudet kan komma att uppfattas och för att säkerställa att inte verken placeras så att ljudet påverkar de kringboende negativt, är det viktigt att ta fram vetenskapligt baserad kunskap. I den här rapporten presenteras resultaten från flera studier. Samanalyser av resultaten från två fältstudier hade som syfte att visa sambanden mellan ljudnivån från vindkraftverk vid bostaden och upplevelsen av ljudet, och att beskriva faktorer som påverkade detta samband. En dagboksstudie, där deltagarna bl.a. fick fylla i hur ofta de var hemma och i så fall om de var ute, syftade till att beskriva hur ofta vindkraftsljudet hördes och vid vilka meteorologiska situationer. För att undersöka hur väl den ljudutbredningsmodell som används idag stämmer med fältmätningar och om den meteorologiska variationen har så stor betydelse för ljudutbredningen att de bör tas med vid beräkningen av ljudnivåerna, gjordes långtidsmätningar av ljudet där resultatet jämfördes med olika modeller för beräkningar.

    Den sammanvägda analysen av de två störningsstudierna bekräftar och förstärker tidigare rapporterade data. Såväl andelen som märkte vindkraftljud och andelen som stördes av ljudet ökade med ökande ljudnivåer. Sannolikheten att störas av ljud var större om verken var synliga från bostaden och om man bodde i jordbrukslandskap, medan terrängen inte hade någon inverkan. Bland andra studerade hälsorelaterade variabler fanns endast ett samband mellan att störas i sömnen och ljudnivå.

    I dagboksstudien noterade deltagare oftare att de hörde ljud från vindkraftverk när den momentana effekten, d.v.s. elproduktionen, ökade. Även om det var stora individuella variationer i hur mycket tid människor tillbringade utomhus vid sin bostad kunde ett statistiskt säkerställt samband mellan hörbarhet och beräknad ljudnivå påvisas; ju högre beräknad ljudnivå, ju oftare hördes verket vid utomhusvistelse. Dagboksstudien gav även viss kunskap om samband mellan hörbarhet och vindhastighet. Resultaten indikerar att vindkraftsljud hörs även vid relativt höga vindhastigheter då ljudet från vindkraftverket förväntas vara maskerat.

    Långtidsmätningar av vindkraftverksljud 550 meter från ett modernt verk visade att de beräknade ljudnivåerna stämde väl med de uppmätta. Ljudnivåer beräknade med parabolisk ekvationsmodell, som tar hänsyn till variationer hos meterologiska variabler, gav inte bättre överensstämmelse jämfört med den modell som oftast används vid tillståndsprövning [Naturvårdsverket 2001]. Meterologiska variationer har sannolikt bara betydelse för ljudutbredelsen på längre avstånd. Meteorologiska förhållanden kan dock ha betydelse vid skattningen av källjudnivån, som är den största osäkerheten vid beräkningen. 

    Studierna visar att ljudnivån varierar vid en och samma vindhastighet, och indikerar att vindkraftljud hörs även när det blåser så mycket så att vindkraftsljudet borde maskeras av andra ljud åstadkomna av vinden. Det innebär att även om den ljudutbredningsmodell som ändvänds idag fungerar väl, så bör presentationen i miljökonsekvensbeskrivningen av det ljud som de närboende kan komma att höra utvidgas. Fler studier kring hörbarheten vid höga vindhastigheter behövs också eftersom dagboksstudien hade relativt få deltagare. Studierna pekar på att risken för sömnstörningar kan vara angeläget att undersökas vidare.

  • 323.
    Pedersen, Eja
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Hallberg, Lillemor R.-M.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Persson Waye, Kerstin
    Arbets- och miljömedicin, Göteborgs universitet, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Living in the Vicinity of Wind Turbines - A Grounded Theory Study2007In: Qualitative Research in Psychology, ISSN 1478-0895, Vol. 4, no 1-2, p. 49-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Little is known of wind turbines' impact on people living in their vicinity. The aim of this study was to gain a deeper understanding of how people perceive and are affected by wind turbines in their living environment. In-depth interviews with 15 informants, strategically chosen to form a heterogeneous group, were analyzed using the constant comparative method of grounded theory. The informants were to different extents affected by the swishing noise, flickering light, and constant movement of the turbines' rotor blades. Some informants perceived the exposures as outside their territory while others perceived them as intrusion into privacy; a divergence partly determined by the informants' personal values about the living environment. The feeling of intrusion was associated with feeling a lack of control, subjected to injustice, a lack of influence, and not being believed. Informants used various coping strategies, such as rebuilding their houses or complaining, but mainly tried to ignore exposures from the wind turbines. The findings can help us to better understand the severe reactions wind turbines sometimes evoke and contribute to the knowledge base used when planning for new wind farms.

  • 324.
    Pedersen, Eja
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Johansson, Maria
    Environmental Psychology, Department of Architecture and Built Environment, Lund University, Sweden.
    Wind power or uranium mine: Appraisal of two energy-related environmental changes in a local context2012In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 44, p. 312-319Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores factors associated with the individual’s appraisal of anticipated environmental changes caused by energy production facilities. The study took place in a Swedish village where exploratory drilling, that could eventually lead to a uranium mine, was being conducted at the same time as a wind farm was approved. Results from the survey, which included the total population, were interpreted in the light of cognitive stress theory. Most residents thought that the wind farm would have a positive impact on the village but that the uranium drilling would have a negative impact; these opinions were closely related to attitudes towards wind and nuclear power. Perceiving the wind farm as positive was further predicted by young age, high education, being an ordinary rather than a committed recycler and having attended a meeting about the wind farm. A negative view of uranium drilling was predicted by the individual valuing closeness to nature, being a recycler, and having attended the uranium meeting. Psychological factors such as concerns for the environment (manifested as pro-environmental behaviour), valuing closeness to nature, and involvement impinge on the appraisal process and should be considered when new developments are presented. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 325.
    Pedersen, Eja
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Persson Waye, Kerstin
    Arbets- och miljömedicin, Göteborgs universitet.
    Wind turbine sound – how often is it heard by residents living nearby?2009In: Proceedings of EURONOISE, 8th European conference on noise control, Edinburgh, 26 – 28 October 2009, St Albans: Institute of Acoustics , 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sound power levels of wind turbines and consequently also the immission sound pressure levels at nearby residents vary with the wind speed. A standard meteorological situation is therefore commonly used when the immission levels are discussed; wind speed 8 m/s at 10 m height downwind. There is a need for a more comprehensive description of the sound that could be included in the Environmental Impact Assessment. The objectives of this study were to explore if it is possible to measure how often the sound is heard, and if the occurrence could be related to the standardized immission levels or the performance of the wind turbine. Twenty four people living in three wind turbine areas (A-weighted sound pressure levels 29.6 – 45.9 dB) filled in diaries for three weeks, noting when they were at home, when they were outdoors, and when they could hear sound from wind turbines. The incidents when the wind turbines were heard varied largely from 0% to 100% of the times spent outdoors. The percentage increased with increasing standardized immission levels (r = 0.56, p < 0.01). In two of the areas it was possible to get data from the nearest turbines for the study period. The sound was more easily heard at wind speeds above 5 m/s than at lower wind speeds. No indication of a decreased possibility to hear the sound when the wind increased further was found. Possibility to hear the sound was most closely related to the electrical power generation

  • 326.
    Pedersen, Eja
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Persson Waye, Kerstin
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, Göteborg University.
    Bengtsson Ryberg, Johanna
    The National Board of Health and Welfare, Socialstyrelsen.
    Response to occupational noise of medium levels at four types of work places2010In: Proceedings of INTERNOISE, 39th International congress of noise control engineering, Lisbon, 13 – 16 June 2010, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Occupational noise exposure at levels below those recognized as causing hearing impairment can cause annoyance and tiredness, and impair work performance. Few studies have addressed these and other responses to occupational noise of medium levels. Furthermore, studies typically explore one type of work place due to the hypothesized influence of situational factors. Our interest was to explore if a dose-response relationship between annoyance and measurements of sound levels in different work places could be derived.  Four categories of occupational environments were studied; education, health care, offices and control rooms, including in total 26 work places. An average sound pressure level for each work place was derived from measurements at different positions in the rooms (range: 28.7 – 59.5 LpAeq dB). A global dose-response relationship between average A-weighted sound pressure levels and proportion of employees annoyed was found, despite disparity in conditions for the different categories of work places. Alternative descriptors of the sound pressure levels did not significantly improve the relationship. The result will be discussed in the view of impact of sound versus that of moderating factors.

  • 327.
    Pedersen, Eja
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    van den Berg, Frits
    GGD Amsterdam.
    Why is wind turbine noise poorly masked by road traffic noise?2010In: Proceedings of INTERNOISE, 39th International congress of noise control engineering, Lisbon, 13 – 16 June 2010, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The possibility of road traffic noise masking noise from wind turbines was explored among residents living close to wind turbines in the Netherlands (n = 725) with different levels of  road traffic noise present. No general masking effect was found, except when levels of wind turbine sound were moderate (35 – 40 dB(A) Lden) and road traffic sound level exceeded that level with at least 20 dB(A). This low masking capacity may be due to the different time patterns of these noise sources, both on a small time scale (car passages/regular blade passing) and a larger time scale (diurnal and weekly patterns). Also, wind turbine sound is relatively easy audible and may be heard upwind more often than road traffic.

  • 328.
    Pedersen, Eja
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    van den Berg, Frits
    GGD Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Bakker, Roel
    University Medical Centre Groningen, University of Groningen, Netherlands.
    Bouma, Jelte
    University Medical Centre Groningen, University of Groningen, Netherlands.
    Can road traffic mask sound from wind turbines?: Response to wind turbine sound at different levels of road traffic sound2010In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 38, no 5, p. 2520-2527Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wind turbines are favoured in the switch-over to renewable energy. Suitable sites for further developments could be difficult to find as the sound emitted from the rotor blades calls for a sufficient distance to residents to avoid negative effects. The aim of this study was to explore if road traffic sound could mask wind turbine sound or, in contrast, increases annoyance due to wind turbine noise. Annoyance of road traffic and wind turbine noise was measured in the WINDFARMperception survey in the Netherlands in 2007 (n = 725) and related to calculated levels of sound. The presence of road traffic sound did not in general decrease annoyance with wind turbine noise, except when levels of wind turbine sound were moderate (35-40 dB(A) Lden) and road traffic sound level exceeded that level with at least 20 dB(A). Annoyance with both noises was intercorrelated but this correlation was probably due to the influence of individual factors. Furthermore, visibility and attitude towards wind turbines were significantly related to noise annoyance of modern wind turbines. The results can be used for the selection of suitable sites, possibly favouring already noise exposed areas if wind turbine sound levels are sufficiently low. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 329.
    Pedersen, Eja
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    van den Berg, Frits
    University of Groningen and GGD Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Bakker, Roel
    University Medical Centre Groningen, University of Groningen.
    Bouma, Jelte
    University Medical Centre Groningen, University of Groningen.
    Response to noise from modern wind farms in The Netherlands2009In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 126, no 2, p. 634-643Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing number and size of wind farms call for more data on human response to wind turbine noise, so that a generalized dose-response relationship can be modeled and possible adverse health effects avoided. This paper reports the results of a 2007 field study in The Netherlands with 725 respondents. A dose-response relationship between calculated A-weighted sound pressure levels and reported perception and annoyance was found. Wind turbine noise was more annoying than transportation noise or industrial noise at comparable levels, possibly due to specific sound properties such as a "swishing" quality, temporal variability, and lack of nighttime abatement. High turbine visibility enhances negative response, and having wind turbines visible from the dwelling significantly increased the risk of annoyance. Annoyance was strongly correlated with a negative attitude toward the visual impact of wind turbines on the landscape. The study further demonstrates that people who benefit economically from wind turbines have a significantly decreased risk of annoyance, despite exposure to similar sound levels. Response to wind turbine noise was similar to that found in Sweden so the dose-response relationship should be generalizable.

  • 330.
    Pentakota, Uday Kumar
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energy Science.
    Cost estimation and procedure to setup 1MW waste-to-energy gasification plant in India2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With an increasing demand for electrical energy, it is certain that the production will also increase,especially in rapid developing countries like India. Rapid industrialization is carving for more electrical energy, investment and suitable space for its infrastructure. But this development has to be sustainable keeping in mind the increasing global temperature due to pollution.

    India is the second largest population in the world and hence produces a lot of waste daily. As of now, most of the waste goes to the landfills and gets burnt there or decomposed, either way releasing greenhouse gases in the process and degrading the environment. The municipal waste management is a challenging process in developing countries because of non-availability of proper infrastructure. There are some methods to manage this waste, such as scientific landfills,Incineration, Biomethanation, Gasification, Pyrolysis and Plasma Arc Gasification.By Gasification the solid waste is converted into synthesis gas which can be used for chemical industries, power generation, transportation and industrial heating etc. This process shrinks the solid waste to slag or ash which can either be used to manufacture eco bricks or can be disposed of on landfill. Thus saving a lot of place from land filling and if used for power generation it does not release any considerable harmful gases into the environment making it a sustainable process and partially renewable source of energy.

    This project will estimate the capital requirement and procedure to setup a 1 MW gasification plant in Indian state of Telangana. In the study, the generation, composition, treatment and energy potential of solid waste have been studied. The technologies for waste-to-energy conversion have also been studied and the feasibility comparison of two leading technologies has been done.

  • 331.
    Persson, Anders
    et al.
    Department of Ecology, Limnology, Ecology Building, Lund, Sweden.
    Svensson, Jonas M.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Environmental Science, Wetland Research Centre.
    Effects of benthivorous fish on biogeochemical processes in lake sediments2006In: Freshwater Biology, ISSN 0046-5070, E-ISSN 1365-2427, Vol. 51, no 7, p. 1298-1309Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. Studies of aquatic environments have shown that community organisation may strongly affect ecosystem functioning. One common phenomenon is a change in nutrient level following a shift in the fish community composition. Although several hypotheses have been suggested, there is no consensus on which mechanisms are involved. Our study evaluated indirect effects of benthivorous fish on the biogeochemical processes at the sediment-water interface separately from direct effects caused by nutrient excretion or sediment resuspension.

    2. We assigned field enclosures to three treatments representing typical pond communities; without fish, addition of approximately 10 small tench or addition of one large bream. After one summer, we monitored the water chemistry, benthic invertebrates and periphyton in the enclosures and sampled sediment cores for laboratory analysis of biochemical process rates (oxygen, phosphorus and nitrogen exchange between sediment and water, and denitrification rate).

    3. Fish had strong negative effects on benthic invertebrates, but weaker effects on periphyton, organic content and porosity of the sediment. Moreover, there were significant positive fish effects on both phosphorus and nitrogen concentrations in the water. However, there were no general treatment effects on sediment processes that could explain the treatment effects on water chemistry in the enclosures.

    4. Hence, overall treatment effects attenuated along the chain of interactions. We conclude that the observed effect of benthic fish on water chemistry was probably because of direct effects on nutrient excretion or resuspension of sediment. The similarity between bream and tench treatments suggests large niche complementarity despite their different habitat preferences.

  • 332.
    Persson, Anders
    et al.
    Department of Ecology, Limnology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Svensson, Jonas M.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Environmental Science, Wetland Research Centre.
    Vertical distribution of benthic community responses to fish predators, and effects on algae and suspended material2006In: Aquatic Ecology, ISSN 1386-2588, E-ISSN 1573-5125, Vol. 40, no 1, p. 85-95Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The vertical positioning of benthic invertebrates should be a trade-off between the risky, but productive, sediment surface and the safer, but physiologically harsher, conditions deeper down in the sediment. This is because the foraging efficiency of benthic fish decreases with sediment depth, whereas the sediment surface is generally better oxygenated and has a higher resource quality than lower layers. We studied how two benthic fish predators, bream (Abramis brama) and ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernuus), affected the community composition and vertical distribution of benthos, and their indirect effects on algae and suspended material, in field enclosures. Whereas bream had significant effects on the density, composition and distribution of the benthos, ruffe had no such effects. The total benthos biomass in bream treatments was an-order of magnitude lower in the upper sediment layer (0-1 cm) and three times lower in the middle layer (1-3 cm) than in the controls, whereas there were no significant effects in the deepest layer (3-10 cm). Bivalves persisted in the deepest layer although their density was reduced in shallow sediment, whereas gastropods faced the risk of local extinction in the presence of bream. As indirect effects, small-bodied cladocerans, phytoplankton, periphyton and both organic and inorganic suspended material were higher in the bream treatments. We conclude that the impact of bream diminished substantially with increasing sediment depth, enabling invertebrates to survive in the sediment and to persist in the presence of bream. However, there were no indications of any group adjusting their vertical position behaviourally as a response to predation threat.

  • 333.
    Persson, Jakob
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine. Halmstad University.
    HUR PRESTERAR FOTBOLLSDOMARE PÅ ETT EGENFRAMTAGET SPECIFIKT UTHÅLLIGHETSTEST?2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att undersöka hur fotbollsdomare med varierad bakgrund presterade på ett mer specifikt uthållighetstest framtaget för fotbollsdomare baserat på deras rörelsemönster på planen. Undersökningen genomfördes på 17 stycken fotbollsdomare från 5 olika divisio-ner. I undersökningen användes två stycken undersökningsmetoder. För att mäta testresultatet användes ett nytt uthållighetstest specifikt för fotbollsdomare och för att få in data över do-marhistorik användes ett mindre frågeformulär. Resultaten visade på signifikanta skillnader i löpsträcka för division 2-domarna mot domarna i division 5 och division 7, det visade också på signifikanta skillnader i löpsträcka för domarna i division 3 mot domarna i division 5, divi-sion 6 och division 7. Resultaten visade också på att domarna med åldern 30-34, 35-39 och 40-44 sprang en signifikant längre löpsträcka mot domarna med åldern 45 och uppåt. Slutli-gen visade även resultaten på att domarna med 16-18 års rutin av seniordömande sprang en signifikant längre sträcka än domarna med 1-3, 7-9 respektive 19 och uppåt års erfarenhet av dömande på seniornivå.

    Nyckelord: Fotbollsdomare, Uthållighetstest, Nivåskillnad, Åldersskillnad, Rutin, Rörelse-mönster på planen

  • 334.
    Persson, Jesper
    et al.
    Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Weisner, Stefan
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Wetland Research Centre.
    Integrera teknik och biologi vid utformning och anläggning2002In: Våtmarksboken: Skapande och nyttjande av värdefulla våtmarker / [ed] Karin Tonderski, Stefan Weisner, Jan Landin, Hans Oscarsson, Göteborg: Vattenstrategiska forskningsprogrammet (VASTRA) , 2002, p. 252-270Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 335.
    Persson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Realise the Potential!: Cost Effective and Energy Efficient District Heating in European Urban Areas2011Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Member States of EU27 need to accelerate the integration of energy efficient technology solutions to reach the 20% energy efficiency target set for 2020. At current pace, projections indicate that only half of expected primary energy reductions will be reached. To meet the energy demands of growing populations and a vibrant economy, while simultaneously reducing primary energy supplies, the European continent faces a new kind of challenge never previously encountered. The identification and application of feasible, competitive, and comprehensive solutions to this problem are of highest priority if the remaining gap is to be closed in time. How is this multi-dimensional and complex dilemma to be dissolved? In this work, expanded use of district heating technology is conceived as a possible solution to substantially reduce future primary energy demands in Europe. By extended recovery and utilisation of vast volumes of currently disregarded excess heat from energy and industry sector fuel transformation processes, district heating systems and combined generation of heat and power can improve the general efficiency of the European energy balance. To investigate the possible range of this solution, this thesis introduces a set of methodologies, theoretical concepts, and model tools, by which a plausible future excess heat utilisation potential, by means of district heat deliveries to residential and service sectors, is estimated. At current conditions and compared to current levels, this potential correspond to a threefold expansion possibility for directly feasible district heating systems in European urban areas and a fourfold increase of European excess heat utilisation.

  • 336.
    Persson, Urban
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Möller, Bernd
    Europa-Universität Flensburg, Flensburg, Germany.
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Heat Roadmap Europe: Identifying strategic heat synergy regions2014In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 74, p. 663-681Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study presents a methodology to assess annual excess heat volumes from fuel combustion activities in energy and industry sector facilities based on carbon dioxide emission data. The aim is to determine regional balances of excess heat relative heat demands for all third level administrative regions in the European Union (EU) and to identify strategic regions suitable for large-scale implementation of district heating. The approach is motivated since the efficiency of current supply structures to meet building heat demands, mainly characterised by direct use of primary energy sources, is low and improvable. District heating is conceived as an urban supply side energy efficiency measure employable to enhance energy system efficiency by increased excess heat recoveries; hereby reducing primary energy demands by fuel substitution. However, the importance of heat has long been underestimated in EU decarbonisation strategies and local heat synergies have often been overlooked in energy models used for such scenarios. Study results indicate that 46% of all excess heat in EU27, corresponding to 31% of total building heat demands, is located within identified strategic regions. Still, a realisation of these rich opportunities will require higher recognition of the heat sector in future EU energy policy. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 337.
    Persson, Urban
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energy Science.
    Münster, Marie
    DTU Management Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark.
    Current and future prospects for heat recovery from waste in European district heating systems: a literature and data review2016In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 110, p. 116-128Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Municipal solid waste has seen increasing annual volumes for many decades in contemporary Europe and constitutes, if not properly managed, an environmental problem due to local pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. From an energy perspective, waste is also an alternative fuel for power and heat generation; energy recovery from waste represents an effective measure to reduce landfilling and avoid disposal emissions while simultaneously reducing the equivalent demand for primary energy supply. A key factor for obtaining the full synergetic benefits of this energy recovery is the presence of local heat distribution infrastructures, without which no large-scale recovery and utilisation of excess heat is possible. In this paper, which aims to estimate municipal solid waste volumes available for heat recovery in European district heating systems in 2030, a literature and data review is performed to establish and assess current and future EU (European Union) waste generation and management. Main conclusions are that more heat can be recovered from current Waste-to-Energy facilities operating at low average heat recovery efficiencies, that efficient incineration capacity is geographically concentrated, and that waste available for heat recovery in 2030 is equally determined by total generation volumes by this year as by future EU deployment levels of district heating. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 338.
    Persson, Urban
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Nilsson, Daniel
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Möller, Bernd
    Department of Development and Planning, Aalborg University.
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Mapping local European heat resources: a spatial approach to identify favourable synergy regions for district heating2012In: / [ed] Morten Hofmeister, 2012, p. 261-270Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A major setback in standard generic energy modelling is that national conditions constitute the basis for analysis. By such an approach, heat and energy assets, demands, and distribution structures are viewed from an aggregated perspective not permitting insight into unique local circumstances and conditions. As a consequence, genuinely local synergy opportunities, e.g. recovery and utilisation of excess heat from various activities and sources by distribution in district heating systems, are often ignored or overlooked in generic forecasts.

    The ambitious European targets to increase energy efficiency in future power and heat distribution and use acts as a force to address local conditions in a more systematic and thorough sense than previously elaborated. Increased utilisation of local heat assets and recovered excess heat from local activities, to provide space and tap water heating in residential and service sectors, can replace and thus substitute large shares of natural gas and electricity currently being used to satisfy low temperature heat demands. Spatial screening and identification of local conditions throughout Europe, by use of NUTS3 regions as analytical level of reference, can disclose favourable synergy regions by combining information on local heat assets and demands, and hence provide additional and pivotal information to energy modellers.

    In this study, local conditions such as excess heat from thermal power generation plants, Waste-to-Energy incineration facilities, energy intensive industrial processes, and renewable heat assets (geothermal and solar), are depicted together with heat demand concentrations, using GIS based spatial information, to visualise the possibilities of mapping local European heat resources.

  • 339.
    Persson, Urban
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Competitiveness of European district heating systems2011In: European Energy Pathways: Pathways to Sustainable European Energy Systems / [ed] Filip Johnsson, Göteborg: Alliance for Global Sustainability (AGS) , 2011, p. 283-290Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 340.
    Persson, Urban
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    District heating in sequential energy supply2012In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 95, p. 123-131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increased recovery of excess heat from thermal power generation and industrial processes has great potential to reduce primary energy demands in EU27. In this study, current excess heat utilisation levels by means of district heat distribution are assessed and expressed by concepts such as recovery efficiency, heat recovery rate, and heat utilisation rate. For two chosen excess heat activities, current average EU27 heat recovery levels are compared to currently best Member State practices, whereby future potentials of European excess heat recovery and utilisation are estimated. The principle of sequential energy supply is elaborated to capture the conceptual idea of excess heat recovery in district heating systems as a structural and organisational energy efficiency measure. The general conditions discussed concerning expansion of heat recovery into district heating systems include infrastructure investments in district heating networks, collaboration agreements, maintained value chains, policy support, world market energy prices, allocation of synergy benefits, and local initiatives. The main conclusion from this study is that a future fourfold increase of current EU27 excess heat utilisation by means of district heat distribution to residential and service sectors is conceived as plausible if applying best Member State practice. This estimation is higher than the threefold increase with respect to direct feasible distribution costs estimated by the same authors in a previous study. Hence, no direct barriers appear with respect to available heat sources or feasible distribution costs for expansion of district heating within EU27. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 341.
    Persson, Urban
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Effective Width: The Relative Demand for District Heating Pipe Lengths in City Areas2010In: 12th International Symposium on District Heating and Cooling, Tallinn: Tallinn University of Technology , 2010, p. 128-131Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One key concept when assessing network investment cost levels for district heating systems is the linear heat density. In contrast to a traditional way of expressing this quantity entirely on the basis of empirical data, a recently developed analytical approach has made it possible to estimate linear heat densities on the basis of demographic data categories. A vital complementing quantity in this analytical approach is the concept of effective width.

    Effective width describes the relationship between a given land area and the length of the district heating pipe network within this area. When modelling distribution capital cost levels by use of land area values for plot ratio calculations, there is a potential bias of overestimating distribution capital cost levels in low dense park city areas (e < 0.3). Since these areas often include land area sections without any housing, avoiding overestimations of network investment costs demand some kind of corrective mechanism.

    By use of calculated effective width values, a compensating effect at low plot ratio levels is achieved, and, hence, renders lower anticipated distribution capital cost levels in low dense park city areas.

  • 342.
    Persson, Urban
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Evaluating competitiveness of district heating using a distribution capital cost model2011In: Methods and models: used in the project Pathways to Sustainable European Energy Systems, January 2011 / [ed] Filip Johnsson, Göteborg: Alliance for Global Sustainability (AGS) , 2011, p. 157-160Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 343.
    Persson, Urban
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Heat distribution and the future competitiveness of district heating2011In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 88, no 3, p. 568-576Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The competitiveness of present and future district heating systems can be at risk when residential and service sector heat demands are expected to decrease in the future. In this study, the future competitiveness of district heating has been examined by an in depth analysis of the distribution capital cost at various city characteristics, city sizes, and heat demands. Hereby, this study explores an important market condition often neglected or badly recognised in traditional comparisons between centralised and decentralised heat supply.

    By a new theoretical approach, the traditional and empirical expression for linear heat density is transformed into an analytical expression that allows modelling of future distribution capital cost levels also in areas where no district heating exists today. The independent variables in this new analytical expression are population density, specific building space, specific heat demand and effective width.

    Model input data has primarily been collected from national and European statistical sources on heat use, city populations, city districts and residential living areas. Study objects were 83 cities in Belgium, Germany, France, and the Netherlands. The average heat market share for district heat within these cities was 21 % during 2006.

    The main conclusion is that the future estimated capital costs for district heat distribution in the study cities are rather low, since the cities are very dense. At the current situation, a market share of 60 % can be reached with a marginal distribution capital cost of only 2.1 €/GJ, corresponding to an average distribution capital cost of 1.6 €/GJ. The most favourable conditions appear in large cities and in inner city areas. In the future, there is a lower risk for reduced competitiveness due to reduced heat demands in these areas, since the increased distribution capital cost is low compared to the typical prices of district heat and competing heat supply. However, district heating will lose competitiveness in low heat density areas. Hence, reduced heat demands in high heat density areas are not a general barrier for district heating in the future. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 344.
    Petersson, Frida
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Beräkningsverktyg för koldioxidutsläpp från avfallshantering2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In a time with an increasing demand for declaration of the environmental impacts of companies, which also can result in an enhanced market-value, companies have begun to look for information about how their waste is affecting the environment. Renova AB, a waste management company, has in recent years received an increasing number of inquiries from their customers about how their waste management affects the climate. Therefore Renova AB wanted to develop a computational model for such an analysis, which laid the foundation of this thesis.

    The aim of this thesis is to enable Renova AB to provide their clients with information on the amount of fossil carbon dioxide emissions, the degree of recycling and landfill, as well as energy extraction for the client’s delivered waste. Thus the objective of the thesis was to provide Renova AB with a computational tool for this.

    By following the method of a life cycle analysis, an Excel-based computational tool was developed. The computational tool is the result of this thesis. The tool consists of nine sheets. Only one of the sheets is to be filled out by the user to specify the waste, after which all the calculations are performed automatically. Three sheets represent the types of waste for which the calculations can be performed on, in its current version. It is in these sheets that the user can find the results of the calculations. In this version calculations can be performed on wood, combustible and unsorted waste. Two sheets contain all the reference values for the calculations, like a database. This is where the tool can be contemporized with changes in the company. One sheet demonstrates the process trees that describe how the waste is treated throughout Renova AB, and two sheets introduce and explain the tool to the user.

    The computational tool can be used in more ways than for retrospective calculations of carbon dioxide emissions. It can be used prospectively by calculating the emission of, for example changes in the company or changes in the content of the waste, and then comparing the changes with the current situation. Alternatively it could be used as an incitement for Renova AB’s customers to reduce the amount of delivered waste, in order to reduce their carbon dioxide emissions which emphasize their environmental profile.

    When the computational tool was completed it was demonstrated for and trial ran by the Renova AB staff. Opinions where collected for final revisions.

    Given the time limitation and amount of available information, the ambition was to create a computational tool which reflected the reality as much as possible. The tool has great potential to further development to give even more representative results. Recommendations for further development have been elaborated.

  • 345.
    Petersson, Johan
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    UNILATERAL STRENGTH TRAINING WITH MAXIMAL INTENDED MOVEMENT VELOCITY DURING SIX WEEKS IMPROVES LOWER BODY POWER OUTCOME AND MOVEMENT VELOCITY2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In many sports development of power is considered to be one of the most important physiological qualities for success. Despite many studies in the area, research investigating unilateral power training methods for elite athletes is lacking. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of unilateral explosive strength training on lower body power output and movement velocity after six weeks of training. METHODS: 17 elite male handball players (means±SD, 22±4 years), experienced in resistance training, participated in a six week intervention study. The athletes were divided in to one training group (TR) n=11, which performed 15 supervised unilateral explosive strength training sessions during six weeks, and one control group (CTL) n=6, that trained their normal bilateral resistance training for developing power. The training program was performed with heavy loads (>80%1RM) and maximal intended movement velocity. Loaded bilateral vertical squat jump tests were made in a spectrum of loads (20, 40, 60, 80 and 100kg) pre- and post training period. A linear encoder was fixed to the barbell which measured  average power in the concentric phase (APc), average power in the eccentric phase (APe), peak velocity (pV) and time to peak velocity (tpV). Non parametric statistics were used to analyze differences within (Wilcoxon test) and between (Mann-Whitney test) the two groups. RESULTS: After six weeks training group (TR) showed significant improvements (p<0,05) in post-tests compared to pre-tests on all five different loads on; average concentric power (APc) 20kg (p=0,003), 40kg (p=0,004), 60kg (p=0,003) 80kg (p=0,003) and 100kg (p=0,003). Average eccentric power (APe) 20kg (p=0,026), 40kg (p=0,021), 60kg (p=0,004), 80kg (p=0,006) and 100kg (p=0, 041). Time to peak velocity (tpV) 20kg (p=0,005), 40kg (p=0,005), 60kg (p=0,007), 80 kg (p=0,005) and 100kg (p=0,005). Significant improvements occurred also for TR in peak velocity (pV) on the higher loads of 60kg (p=0,007), 80kg (p=0,015) and 100kg (p=0,006). No significant improvements were found within the control group (CTL) in any of the measured parameters. Significant differences (p<0,05) were seen between TR group and CTL group on every load (20-100kg) between TR and CTL  group on APc (p= 0,044, 0,003, 0,004, 0,001 and 0,001) and tpV (p= 0,002, 0,015, 0,004, 0,006 and 0,003). Significant differences were also seen between TR and CTL group in APe on 40kg (p= 0,021) 60kg (p= 0,012) and 80kg (p= 0,009) and in pV on 80kg (p= 0,018) and 100kg (p=0,035). CONCLUSION: The TR group showed improvements after only a short period of structured unilateral maximal velocity training which indicates that unilateral training principles could be effective for improving lower body power output in elite athletes involved in sports where unilateral movements predominate. More and longer studies are needed to evaluate further potential benefits of unilateral strength training.

  • 346.
    Pettersson, Herman
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Ambros, Rickard
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Avlastningsarmstöd till Grip-it: Optimal positionering av övre extremitet vid gripstyrkemätningar2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In today’s technological society, there are increasingly less physical demands on the locomotor system. However, despite that notion strength and function in the hand’s complex biomechanical system are in fact both needed to cope with daily life. The grip function is a main function in the hand and is used in many examples of scientific research, for instance when assessing physical health and predicting the probabilities of premature mortality. A newly developed tool for assessing grip strength is Grip-it which today lacks support for the arm which would offer a standardized measured position for the upper extremity.

    The objective of this project was to design and evaluate a support for the arm that positions the upper extremity for maximum power capacity when assessing the amount of grip strength. A dynamic product development based on anthropometrical data has been applied to design a support for the arm with focus on the user. Literature surveys, preliminary studies and an evaluation of clinical personnel have provided the basis for a functional prototype, developed in close contact with the industry, and is now ready for user tests. The group of the project is of the opinion that there are good possibilities of developing a finished product, which would enable a standardized positioning when assessing the amount of grip strength with Grip-it.

    With new technology, Grip-it expands possibilities of analyzing grip strength assessments and can lead to an expanded research and understanding of these assessments, subsequently applicable to rehabilitation, various sports and evaluations of certain actions taken, such as surgical ones.

  • 347.
    Portinsson, Anna
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    A correlation study between ankle pronation and knee valgus, and the effect of verbal instructions on knee valgus in young female gymnasts2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 348.
    Pålsson, Joakim
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Geografisk spridning och morfologisk variation hos Brachygaster minutus (Hymenoptera: Evaniidae) i Sverige2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 349.
    Raask, Carl
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Björk, Oscar
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Power output at different loads using accommodating resistance in the bench press exercise2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: To date, there are no definitive guidelines as for how to optimally train for power production. Previously conducted studies are lacking consensus and have reported conflicting suggestions regarding what loads to use and how to execute the movements. Finding an optimal method of training for power would be beneficial for power and strength athletes. Accommodating resistance has been suggested as an effective method for developing power in athletes. Aim: This study examined how using different amounts of accommodating resistance influence peak power output in the bench press exercise. Method: Fourteen subjects tested their 1 repetition maximum (1RM) in the bench press and after seven days performed a power test consisting of three repetitions with 30,40,50,60 and 70% of 1RM and peak power was recorded using the MuscleLab linear encoder. A second power test was done seven days later, where the load at which the highest power was demonstrated was used again and different amounts of that bar weight was replaced with band resistance. The proportions used were 20:80, 30:70, 40:60 and 50:50 band tension to bar weight. Three repetitions were performed at each of the band conditions and peak power was recorded. The highest value for each trial was used for analysis. Results: The average load at which the highest power (553,49±111,62W) was produced was 46,46kg (43,85±7,68% of 1RM). All of the band conditions except for the 20:80 demonstrated a significant difference in power output compared to bar weight only. The 50:50 proportions of band tension to bar weight resulted in the highest power (813,31±252,87W) of the band conditions. Conclusion: These findings indicate that the use of accommodating resistance results in higher power output than using bar weight only when the total load is constant. Higher proportions of band tension seem to result in higher power output compared to lower proportions. These results could offer guidelines for how to design optimal power training for athletes.

  • 350.
    Razanskas, Petras
    et al.
    Kaunas University of Technology, Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Verikas, Antanas
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Olsson, Charlotte
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Wiberg, Per-Arne
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Time Domain Features of Multi-channel EMG Applied to Prediction of Physiological Parameters in Fatiguing Bicycling Exercises2015In: Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence and Applications, ISSN 0922-6389, E-ISSN 1879-8314, Vol. 278, p. 118-127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A set of novel time-domain features characterizing multi-channel surface EMG (sEMG) signals of six muscles (rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, and semitendinosus of each leg) is proposed for prediction of physiological parameters considered important in cycling: blood lactate concentration and oxygen uptake. Fifty one different features, including phase shifts between muscles, active time percentages, sEMG amplitudes, as well as symmetry measures between both legs, were defined from sEMG data and used to train linear and random forest models. The random forests models achieved the coefficient of determination R2 = 0:962 (lactate) and R2 = 0:980 (oxygen). The linear models were less accurate. Feature pruning applied enabled creating accurate random forest models (R2 >0:9) using as few as 7 (lactate) or 4 (oxygen) time-domain features. sEMG amplitude was important for both types of models. Models to predict lactate also relied on measurements describing interaction between front and back muscles, while models to predict oxygen uptake relied on front muscles only, but also included interactions between the two legs. © 2015 The authors and IOS Press. All rights reserved.

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