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  • 301.
    Brönmark Riex, Emma
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Karlsson, Elizabeth
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Lost In Translation: Betydelsen av Kultur utifrån Nationalitet, Lingvistik samt Organisation i Multinationella Team2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As a result of globalization, multinational teams are being more frequently used in today´s businesses. This specific type of team can be described as heterogeneous when it comes to nationality and linguistics. The aim of this study was to explore the concept of multinational teams. This was made using culture as a main concept, and nationality, linguistics, and organizational culture in order to describe it. We intended to say something about how this type of team´s efficiency; when it comes to satisfaction and performance; was affected by national and linguistic heterogeneity within the team. While analyzing differences between the teams’ efficiency when it comes to satisfaction and performance, we also intended to say something about how organizational culture can affect this.

    This study was made by using a qualitative approach, with focus on a deductive way of doing it. Four different case studies were conducted in order to support this study. A total of seven different respondents where used in this study and their narratives are together with the theoretical framework the basis for this study´s analysis and conclusions.

    This study reveals that perceived efficiency when it comes to satisfaction and performance can be affected by national and linguistic heterogeneity among team members in multinational teams. It also suggests that organizational culture can be used in order to overshadow these differences among team members, and that this in turn affects the perceived efficiency. A straightforward answer regarding nationality, linguistic, and organizational culture´s influence on multinational team´s efficiency, was never given from the case studies. Instead, this seemed to vary from case to case. Two extremes were yet to be found. When nationality and linguistic heterogeneity were easy to observe, low efficiency was perceived in the multinational team. In contrast, when organizational culture was easy to observe, high efficiency was perceived within the multinational team. This suggests that organizational culture can override national and linguistic heterogeneity when it comes to creating high performance and satisfaction among members of multinational teams.

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    Lost in Translation
  • 302.
    Brönmark Riex, Emma
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Karlsson, Elizabeth
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    SMEs gaining ground: How employer branding could be used as a strategic tool for competitive advantage2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In a world that is becoming more knowledge-based and where it gets harder to find value-adding employees, employer branding could be used as a way to attract and retain employees, which later can create competitive advantage.

    Research Question: In order to experience competitive advantage, how do SMEs use the strategies and tools of employer branding as a way to attract and retain value-adding employees?

    Purpose: The purpose with this study was to explore how employer branding is used by SMEs as a way to experience competitive advantage.

    Method: A qualitative research method with six case studies of SMEs located in different industries was adopted. Primary data was based on semi-structured interviews with respondents at the different SMEs.

    Theoretical framework: With the basis of the RBV, theories about this and the human capital as a resource as well as a competitive advantage, is presented. This continues with theories about the employer brand, attractive attributes about employers, employer branding strategies, and what the outcomes of employer branding is. 

    Findings and Conclusions: SMEs do not use the strategies and tools of employer branding in the generic way. Instead, much communication is carried out first when the recruitment process starts, with the aim to find employees who could deliver competitive advantage through their fit with the organization. Once onboard, different benefits are provided in order to retain them. Involvement and engagement are the most prominent ones, due to SMEs ability to offer cross-functional management.

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    SMEs gaining ground
  • 303.
    Brönnert, Tilda
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Nilsson, Maria
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Strategiskt ledarskap: Implementering av hållbarhetsarbete i en organisation2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Since 2016-12-31, big companies in Sweden must report their sustainability work according to Amendment (2016:947) to the Annual Account Act (1995:1554). This makes the sustainability reports easier to compare, and also easier to see which companies that practice sustainability. The amendment will be reflected in the annual reports stating from the fiscal year 2017, which makes it a relevant area of research.

    Except legal requirements, there are also economical and business related incentives which drives companies to report their sustainability work (Prop. 2015/16:193). Hence, companies take action incorporating sustainability work into their strategy and control systems (Zollo et al., 2009). However, there are challenges in developing and implementing such strategies. The lack of empirical studies on how to implement sustainability in an organization lays the foundation of this study and its research question; How is sustainability work practically implemented in an organization?

    The purpose of the study is to create an understanding of the implementation of sustainability work in an organization. Hence, a guide for interviews along with an analytical framework was constructed from institutional theory. They were used in a case study of Axis Communications AB to identify keywords that can be used when implementing sustainability work in an organization.

    The keywords identified was; Business culture, Awareness, Control systems, Goals, and Sustainable economics. Also, the study shows that if norms and routines go along with the formal structure of the organization, when it comes to sustainability work, it is possible for the formal structure and institutional structure to be loosely coupled. However, the implementation process might be smoother if underlying thought and values of the coworkers goes along with those of the organization.

    The result of the study contributes with theoretical knowledge of how sustainability work is implemented to an organization even though the cognitive structure is loosely coupled. The keywords contribute with being practical applicable since they can be used by companies who wants to implement sustainability to their daily work routines. They also ads knowledge which contribute with theoretical implications. The analytical framework that was developed can be used as a foundation for future studies of phenomenon, based on institutional theory.

     

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  • 304.
    Bylander, Adam
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Rohdin, Johan
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Vilka statsfinansiella effekter erhålls vid ökad produktion av förnybar energi?2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    This paper is based on an issue raised by the organization Energigas Sverige, which together with the Ministry of Finance has posed the question about the fiscal impact of an increase in biogas production. Since the fiscal effects of an increased biogas production are both positive and negative, due to reduced use of fossil fuels, we want to investigate this further.

    Purpose

    The purpose is to describe and explain the obtained fiscal impacts of an increased biogas production and based on our problem: “What are the obtained fiscal effects caused by an increase in biogas production?” we could see the following fiscal effects: positive impact on employment, increased revenues of social security contributions and income taxes, reduced unemployment costs and reduced tax revenues on fossil fuels. These effects are summarized in a negative tax revenue of 2,6 billion SEK. Along the summarized negative effect we also accepted one of the two prepared hypotheses, which stated that an increase in biogas production leads to a negative fiscal impact. 

    Design/Methodology/Approach

    We have chosen to work from an Anglo-Saxon scientific tradition and furthermore, we have a positivistic approach when we want to explain the relationship between cause and effect of an increase in biogas production and the following fiscal impacts. We have also chosen to work with a deductive and quantitative approach, as we have earlier studies as a basis of our data collection.               

    Conclusions

    The study has helped to provide insights on how an increase in biogas production would affect the finances of the state in form of a great increase in employment and a reduction in fossil fuel tax revenues. Furthermore, we believe that the study can be used as a foundation for decisions of an increased biogas production. 

    Future research

    After a discussion based on our results we have a number of further research areas: technology exports, reduced cost for environmental effects, the ability to impose a marginal tax on biogas, the potential of charging for waste products and also how foreign actors could affect Sweden’s biogas production and availability.              

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  • 305.
    Bylund, Erik
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Kristensson, Johan
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Leverera Mera: En fallstudie på Volvo Trucks2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title:                                                                              

    Leverera mera – En fallstudie på Volvo Trucks

     

    Authors:                                                 

    Erik Bylund & Johan Kristensson

     

    Advisor:                                                  

    Ulf Aagerup

     

    Level:                                     

    Bachelor thesis, International Marketing (15 ECTS), Spring 2014

     

    Keywords:                                              

    Sponsoring, Leveraging, Ambush Marketing

     

    Problem:                               

    - How do Volvo Trucks make use of leveraging in conjunction with their sponsorships? - How do Volvo Trucks counteract Ambush Marketing in conjunction with their sponsorships?

     

    Purpose:                                

    The purpose of this paper is to explore and describe how an active multinational sponsor in the B2B market make use of leveraging in conjunction with their sponsorship to increase the benefits of their investment. We also want to investigate and describe how they combat Ambush Marketing in conjunction with their sponsorship to protect their investment.

     

    Method:                                 

    The study has a qualitative research method with an inductively approach. Interviews with senior and knowledgeable employees within Volvo Trucks have been conducted to provide answers to the problem.

     

    Frame of reference:             

    The chapter begins with basic theories about sponsorship and then proceed to the description of the terms and leveraging Ambush Marketing.

     

    Empiric:                                

    The empirical data presents the qualitative interviews conducted with respondents at Volvo Trucks.

     

    Analysis:                                

    The analysis compares the collected empirical data in relation to the theories studied in sponsorship, leveraging and ambush marketing.

     

    Conclusion:                           

    Volvo Trucks uses a comprehensive leveraging strategy which through their 360 approach tries to be present at all levels and channels. There is a clear focus on activational leveraging with the intent to build and strengthen customer relationships. Their overall long-term sponsorship strategy to own events and titles sponsorship gives them great influence and enables them to be dominant in their exposure. Although Volvo Trucks themselves claim that their primary strategy against Ambush Marketing is to write detailed contracts, we propose that their overall strategies (including leveraging and longstanding title sponsorship) also provides an important protection.

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  • 306.
    Bäck, Maj-Britt
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Rundquist, Jonas
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    External Board Members and Board Roles in Recently Started Firms2000Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Board roles in recently started firms have been of little interest in earlier research. The different context of smaller firms in relation to larger corporations makes the roles of the board different in different size of firms.

    This study has two purposes. The first purpose is to explore if variables in the context of the firm can explain the existence of external board members in recently started firms and differences between manufacturing firms and IT-firms. The second purpose is to describe how the external board members effect the resource configuration in those firms.

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  • 307.
    Bäck, Maj-Britt
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Rundquist, Jonas
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    External Board Members and Board Roles in Recently Started Firms: a comparative study of manufacturing firms and IT-firms2001In: Corporate governance in SMEs, Halmstad: Scandinavian Institute for Research in Entrepreneurship , 2001, p. 22-Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Board roles in recently started firms are a rarely studied topic. A few studies of board roles in small and medium sized firms have been made (Huse and Halvorsen, 1995), and the results of these studies can be used as a framework for this study. One reason for the absence of research in the field is that these firms are often family firms where the board frequently has only a formal role, though they are organised as limited companies. Even though there has been little interest in research on boards of directors in recently started firms, society has shown an increasing interest in the phenomenon. For example, the Swedish National Board for Industrial and Technical Development (NUTEK) did not have one single note on the subject of boards of directors in their information regarding new firms in 1986 while, in 1997, the importance of a functioning board was mentioned various times in the corresponding brochure. In the guidebook which participants receive when taking part in the McKinsey business-plan competition Venture Cup, one of the six chapters discusses the importance of a well-functioning leading group and board of directors. The motivation is that new companies have a better chance to survive and reach the market with its products if it has a well-functioning board.

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  • 308.
    Böhlin, Theodor
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Johansson, David
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Strategi vid börsintroduktioner: - Hur resonerar företagsledningen kring underprissättning?2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 240 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    This study aims to show how the company management reasons when it comes to underpricing IPO´s. In the market climate of today more and more companies are listed on the stock exchange and the business press is constantly reporting about highly increasing stock values. This validates the current interest of the subject and the importance of finding the underlying reasons of the decisions made. Interviews have been conducted with three newly listed companies, who all had a high initial price increase, and with their underwriters. Thanks to the underwriters we have been able to triangulate the empirical data provided by the companies. Therefore we could also put the motives and reasoning’s of the company management into words.

    What the study has shown is that founders have the ambition to develop the company further, rather than to conduct the IPO in order to cash out from the business as suggested in the theories. The choices they make in the form of lock up agreements, pre-IPO call options and rights offerings will signal long-term commitment and market interest regarding the company. This can build an amount of trust towards the investors and the demand for risk compensation in the shape of underpricing will be lowered.

    Committed investors will establish consensus in the market and others will follow in their footsteps, creating an information cascade. As a consequence, IPOs rarely are moderately subscribed but rather very over- or undersubscribed. Small price changes can therefore make the difference between a successful and an unsuccessful IPO. Because of this, the company is forced to underprice in order to create more attractive circumstances even though the market climate is good.

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  • 309.
    Börjesson, Elin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Karlsson, Emma
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Komponentansatsen: Från harmoniseringsprocessen som bakgrund till uppfattningen om  nyttan och kostnaderna som effekter2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title: The component approach - From the harmonization process as a background to the perception of benefits and costs as effects.

    Authors: Elin Börjesson & Emma Karlsson

    Tutor: Titti Eliasson

    Key concept: Harmonization, Component approach and Benefit/Cost

    Background: With IFRS for SME's as a basis, the Accounting Board developed K3 which shall apply from financial year 2014. Upon introduction of the K3 companies will be forced to apply the component approach. When K3 with the associated component approach went out for consultation it resulted in a debate where some actors opposed the imposition of a requirement and not an option. It was questioned whether the costs with the component approach would be greater than the benefit of the implementation.

    Formulation of the problem: How is the introduction and use of the component approach seen by different operators from a benefit-, cost perspective?

    Aim: The aim of this essay is find out how the introduction and use of the component approach is seen by different operators from a benefit-, cost perspective. We also want to get an understanding of the role that the harmonization process has had in the development and introduction of the K3 and the associated component approach.

    Methodology: We conducted a qualitative study in which we interviewed six respondents. We believe that the respondents represent different groups of operators in accounting and all have different knowledge which helps with a broad view of the component approach.

    Results: We have concluded that the harmonization process in part have been a basis for the development and implementation of the component approach. The aim of the component approach has not clearly been communicated out and there are different opinions among actors. The component approach from a benefit-, cost perspective is perceived differently by different actors. Depending on whether the actor has a theoretical or practical approach the benefit and cost aspects is seen variously. A difference in the perception of benefit and cost aspects can be explained by the fact that actors see aspects from different time perspective

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  • 310. Börjesson, Robin
    et al.
    Nilsson, Felix
    Ekonomisk planering i svenska elitidrottsföreningar2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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    fulltext
  • 311.
    Cagner, Per
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Liljegard, Patrik
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Tid för förändring av krigföringens principer: Vilka principer kan, ur en svensk kontext, behöva förändras för att möta en modern konflikt?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT Time to change the principles of war. The world is under constant change, alliances and agreements are made. This has pushed the development and globalization to where we stand today, and the military force is used to achieve political and religious objectives. The armed military forces and weapon systems have been refined, just like the world has. The strive to win the next armed conflict has been an innovation force, pushing the augmentation of armed forces around the world. The wars and conflicts have served as test facilities, were weapon systems and personnel have been proven on the battlefield. Experiences from the battlefield have been implemented, with the purpose to achieve more military superiority.        The principles of war are principles that are meant to give guidance in the planning and implementation of military operations. These principles were created during the mid-19th century by the two military theorists Carl Von Clausewitz and Antoine-Henri Jomini. Both these military theorists had successful careers on the battlefield, contributing to the impact of their theories. These theories have been implemented in the education of officers worldwide, thereby forming a foundation in military theory.        Modern military theorists, especially from the US, states that the principles of war are outdated on the modern battlefield. The principles were written to win a battle in a constrained area, not for winning an entire war, affecting a whole society during a long period of time. With accelerating development of technology and globalization, some of the principles of war are outdated and should be rewritten or replaced to be relevant in a modern conflict.     The aim of this thesis is to examine if the principles of war, in a Swedish context, needs to be altered in order to confront a modern conflict more aptly. This is conducted through an examination of selected American military theorists’ theories in terms of which of the principles that are obsolete and in need of replacement or rephrasing. Swedish doctrines are then to be examined through qualitative content analysis in order to find wordings that can support the ability of these new principles of war to be implemented in a Swedish context. The analysis and result of this thesis demonstrates that there are principles of war that needs reformulation to be applicable on the battlefield of the future. Furthermore, the result demonstrates that these principles clearly are found in the Swedish doctrines writings. Also, the advancing technology has been a significant contributor in the development of the new principles of war, as a complement and support. The principles of war must be rewritten or changed in Swedish doctrines in order to enable Sweden to become the winner in the next modern conflict.          

    Keywords: Swedish armed forces, Principles of war, Technology development, Military Strategic Doctrine, Precision, Dislocate, Surprise, Modern Warfare, Hybrid Warfare.

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  • 312.
    Callaghan, Michael
    et al.
    Deakin University, Warrnambool, Australia.
    Lee, Tzong-Ru
    National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan.
    Donmez, Dilek
    Gokceada Vocational School, Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Canakkale, Turkey.
    Ulgen Aydinlik, Arzu
    Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Svensson, Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER). Oslo School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Wood, Greg
    Deakin University, Warrnambool, Australia.
    Implementation, communication and the benefits of corporate codes of ethics in Taiwan and Turkey: A comparison across contexts2009In: European Business Review, ISSN 0955-534X, E-ISSN 1758-7107, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 278-298Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the corporate codes of ethics (CCE) that are put in place by companies in Taiwan and Turkey.

    Design/methodology/approach – This study examines the use of CCE among the top companies in Taiwan and Turkey. It is a replication of a study performed in Australia, Canada and Sweden and a follow-up study.

    Findings – The empirical findings show many similarities with top companies in Australia, Canada and Sweden, but more importantly identify key differences distinctly unique to each of the two countries under investigation. Statistical analysis suggests that the implementation, communication and benefits of CCE are paramount to Turkish companies operating in a domestic environment where the aspiration to participate globally and join the European Union is high, whereas in Taiwan it is low in favor of more traditional business practices (similar to the Chinese concept of guanxi) that focus on individual relationships in favor of formalized regulatory frameworks (such as CCE).

    Originality/value – This study makes a complementary contribution to the accumulated knowledge in the area of CCE, particularly given the cultural and historical differences these countries possess in comparison to each other and those previously studied and documented in the literature.

  • 313.
    Campbell, Derek
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Winds of Change: Business model innovation in the African wind energy market2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 314.
    Campbell, Derek
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Danilovic, Mike
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Halila, Fawzi
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Hoveskog, Maya
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    The Clash of Business Models in Emerging Economies: The Case of Wind Energy Industry in Africa2013In: The International Journal of Management Science and Information Technology, ISSN 1923-0265, no 10, p. 10-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the rise of emerging economy EE as main engine of global growth, the intensified competition in the wind energy industry and internationalization to EE, enterprises need to rethink and innovate their business models in order to succeed. The overall purpose of this article is to increase our understanding of the drivers of business model innovation (BMI) in EE, particularly in the wind energy industry. Qualitative, multi-case design is applied, where three cases within the wind energy industry in Africa are studied - Siemens (Germany), Suzlon (India) and Goldwind (China). The results show that there is a difference between “Developed-country Multinational Enterprises” (DMNEs), such as Siemens, and “Emerging-country Multinational Enterprises”, such as Suzlon and Goldwind, in the way they approach BMI in EE. To gain a competitive advantage in EE requires capabilities to deal with the specific EE-related drivers of change: 1) fast growth and high demand combined with high uncertainty; 2) lower level of market-oriented socioeconomic development; 3) stronger governmental influence on the market; and 4) the need for simple, cheap and easy to maintain technologies. Therefore, it is important that managers position their enterprises in the EE first as local players and only then as multinationals. Our study indicates that future research should focus on the main elements and the drivers of change that would shape BMI by adding new variables, specifically related to EE.

  • 315.
    Carlborg, Madeleine
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Korpi, Johanna
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Nyckeltal inom verksamhetsstyrning: En studie om kommunal verksamhetsstyrning och nyckeltals funktion som ett styrande verktyg2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Företag har genom tiderna alltid haft någon form av styrning. Det är dock under 1900-

    talet som den verksamhetsstyrning vi känner till idag växte fram. Under 1900-talet

    expanderade många företag och i samband med expansionen började företagsledningar

    begrunda hur företagen skulle kunna utvecklas ytterligare och öka vinsterna.

    Verksamhetsstyrning är en viktigt del inom företag för att kunna lyckas med att uppnå

    mål. Alla företag är viktiga i dagens samhälle och denna uppsats fokuserar på speciell

    form av organisation, nämligen svenska kommuner. Kommuner är inte renodlade

    företag utan är en politisk organisation med självstyre, dock är det viktigt att kommuner,

    likväl som företag, har en tydlig verksamhetsstyrning. De senaste två årtionden har det

    blivit allt mer vanligt att kommuner tillämpar nyckeltal som ett verktyg inom sin

    styrning. Nyckeltal ger en ögonblicksbild av en verksamhet i förhållande till de

    målsättningar det har. Med hjälp av nyckeltal kan ledningen se hur verksamheten ligger

    till i förhållande till fördefinierade kriterier. Det är viktigt att verksamheter plockar ut

    rätt nyckeltal för att det ska uppstå någon effekt. Men då det finns oändligt många

    nyckeltal är det inte alltid är en lätt uppgift. Sveriges kommuner arbetar för invånarnas

    välmående. Deras arbete finansieras främst av statliga pengar och skattepengar från

    kommuninvånare. Då deras arbete påverkar Sveriges invånare ansåg vi att det vore

    intressant att undersöka verksamhetsstyrningen hos ett kommunalt bolag.

    Syftet med uppsatsen var att beskriva hur verksamhetssytrningen inom ett kommunalt

    bolag kan se ut och huruvida styrningen fungerar bra eller dåligt. Syftet var även att

    förklara hur nyckeltal kan användas som ett styrinstrument och vilka faktorer som

    påverkar valet av de nyckeltal som används. Uppsatsen har utgått från förljande

    problemformulering:

    Hur fungerar verksamhetsstyrningen i en kommun och vad

    påverkar vilka nyckeltal som används?

    Arbetet har genomförts med en deduktiv ansats där en fallstudie har gjorts. Undersökningen är en

    kombination av kvalitativ och kvantitativ ansats, en triangulering. Den kvalitativa data har

    samlats in genom en gruppintervju samt en personlig intervju med anställda på fastighetskontoret

    på Halmstad kommun och har berört styrning av verksamheten med hjälp av nyckeltal. Den

    kvantitativa data samlades in genom studier av årsredovisningar samt dokument från Halmstad

    kommuns verksamhet.

    Undersökningen resulterade i att vi kom fram till att Halmstad kommun har en väl fungerande

    verksamhetsstyrning där de utgår från den så kallade visionsstyrningsmodellen. De har även

    utvecklat ett väl fungerande kontrollsystem so kontrollerar kommunens arbete. De använder

    nyckeltal som styrinstrument främst för att mäta måluppfyllnad och för att följa det dagliga

    arbetet. Den största påverkande faktorn för vilka nyckeltal som Halmstad kommun och

    fastighetskontoret använder är trender i samhället då dessa påverkar kommunpolitikerna, som

    beslutar vilka mål kommunen ska uppfylla.

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    Nyckeltal inom verksamhetsstyrning
  • 316.
    Carlson, Jenny
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Lindén, Sofia
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Digitala banktjänsters påverkan på lojalitet: - Utifrån ett företagsperspektiv2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Our society is facing major changes regarding today's technological development and the digitization of different services. Not least, this has affected the way banks work towards their corporate customers. With this in mind it is highly relevant to create an understanding of how different factors can affect corporate customers' loyalty to their main bank. This is in line with many services previously offered with a personal interaction, is now becoming more and more digitized. Previous research has shown that bank loyalty is affected by various factors, in our study, we chose to examine how corporate customers' behavior, attitudes and satisfaction affects how corporate customers remain loyal to their main bank. The study was conducted by sending an email with a web-based survey to the CEO or to the finance manager. The results of the study showed that corporate customers' loyalty to their primary bank is affected by how much and how often they use the digital banking services, how satisfied they are with this interaction and that corporate customers are more satisfied with their experience of digital banking services if they have a positive basic attitude to this. The result of this  study also showed that corporate customers who often use digital banking services also have a more positive basic attitude to such use. The study has contributed to a greater understanding of how loyalty to the main bank may be affected by the increased use of digital banking services. For the banks, it is important to understand the corporate customer behavior, attitudes, and its satisfaction to the digital banking services offered, to either create or retain loyal customers. And that banks have to keep up with developments and understand corporate customers' changing needs.

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  • 317.
    Carlsson, Johanna
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Krüger, Lina
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Hur finansiella belöningar används för att styra och motivera anställda: En studie utförd på mindre Sparbanker i Sverige2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    En viktig fråga inom många organisationer är hur ledningen ska agera för att styra och motivera sina anställda till att prestera. Ett sätt att försöka påverka sin personal är att använda sig av finansiella belöningar. Dessa kan se olika ut beroende på hur företaget väljer att använda sig av dem, till exempel kan de vara individuella, kollektiva eller en kombination. De kan även baseras på olika faktorer som till exempel försäljning, antal kundmöten eller antal arbetstimmar. Denna uppsats undersöker hur ledningen på mindre Sparbanker i Sverige använder sig av finansiella belöningar för att styra och motivera sina anställda. Resultaten visar att den viktigaste funktionen relaterat till finansiella belöningar är att informera de anställda om vilka mål som behöver uppfyllas och motivera dem till att försöka uppnå dessa. Vidare visar den att finansiella belöningar påverkar motivationen hos de anställda även om det råder skilda meningar om till vilken grad. Kollektiva och individuella belöningar verkar fungera bäst som kombination då fördelarna med båda system framhävs samtidigt som nackdelarna reduceras. Till sist framgår att synen på finansiella belöningar skiljer sig åt mellan olika individer, delvis beroende på vilken livssituation de befinner sig i.

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  • 318.
    Carlsson, John
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Johansson, Richard
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Digital förändring i byggbranschen: En studie av vilka ledarskapsbeteenden chefer i byggbranschen besitter och hur dessa påverkar digitalt förändringsarbete2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Since there is a lot of construction going on in Sweden right now, the construction sector accounts for a significant part of Sweden's GDP and SMEs constitute 99.9% of Swedish companies, it is interesting to know how well these smaller companies are equipped to meet digitization. The construction sector has been lagging behind other sectors, and digital changes are expected to intensify over the next few years. Through a qualitative method, this study aims at understanding whether managers in the construction industry have the leadership behaviours required for the change that is under way and comes with digitization.

    In this study's discussion we show that the managers in question are ready for the change process that comes with digitization. They are knowledgeable about how to implement the potential digitization and possess the behaviors that make this possible. What they lack is instead behavior to begin this digital change and because of that, internally driven digitization is completely absent.

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  • 319.
    Carlsson, Sara
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Grönesjö, Oscar
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Styrkortstillämpning i två kommunala förvaltningar: hur en lokal kommunal kontext påverkar och påverkas av en styrmodell2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A variety of studies have been conducted on the use of the balanced scorecard in the public sector. Fewer studies, however, is made at a lower, more local level within municipal departments. The aim is to describe the scorecard application by two different departments, while scorecard adjustment over time and actors and their rules are addressed in this context. This has led us to the following problem: How can scorecard application be described in two different departments in a municipal context? In the theoretical framework we presented fundamental theories of balanced scorecard in different contexts, a scorecards translation process and the rules that guide and limit the actors in the organization. The chapter concludes with a self-constructed model, which is the basis for the remaining chapter structure. The study was conducted as a case study in stadsbyggnadsförvaltningen and utvecklingsnämndens förvaltning in Helsingborg. We have chosen to do a qualitative study with an abductive approach, where empirical data is collected through interviews and an observation. The results we obtained suggest that the scorecard application is highly dependent on how scorecard adjustment has been done in the department and what set of rules the organization's actors are guided and constrained by.

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    Carlsson & Grönesjö
  • 320.
    Carlund, Axel
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Tavakoli, Adrian
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Utveckling av verksamhetsstyrning och kommunikation i gasellföretag2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Dagens industri utger årligen en lista över de företag som etablerat sig på marknaden och utmärkt sig med en intensiv tillväxt på kort tid, dessa benämner de som gasellföretag. I media har gasellföretag målats upp som hjältar av den anledningen att de utgör en stor samhällsnytta i form av nya arbetstillfällen. Tidigare undersökningar har visat att företag med stark och intensiv tillväxt i större utsträckning riskerar att likvideras än företag med långsammare och stabilare tillväxt. Detta grundar sig ofta på svårigheter med att hinna anpassa organisationsstrukturen efter den snabba tillväxten. I takt med att gasellföretag växer ökar avståndet mellan ledning och medarbetarna. Detta ökar behovet av kontroll och uppföljning för att säkerhetsställa att medarbetarna arbetar i enlighet med företagets mål och inriktning. Tidigare undersökningar har visat att det är främst den interna kontrollen som brister hos de gasellföretag som likviderats. Ska ledningen styra gasellföretaget mot ett bestämt mål krävs det att verksamhetsstyrning och kommunikation är anpassat efter rådande omständigheter. I den här studien har därför en undersökning genomförts baserat på fyra olika gasellföretag samt ett tillväxtrådgivarföretag. Studien syftar till att ge en beskrivande och förklarande bild av hur gasellföretagen arbetar för att utveckla och bearbeta den interna kommunikationen anpassat till tillväxttakten. Uppsatsen behandlar även vilka kommunikationsproblem som kan uppkomma på grund av organisationsstrukturer som ej anpassats efter företagets tillväxttakt och förändrade mål. Resultatet av undersökningen visade att gasellföretag måste formalisera företagets struktur och anpassa kommunikationskanalerna härefter. I samband med detta krävs det att ledningen har förtroende för sina anställda och överlämnar eller delegerar nödvändiga ansvarsområden till andra medarbetare inom företaget. Fokus hos ledningen hamnar istället mer på strategiskt arbete. Ju bättre ledningen lyckas att samordna och integrera medarbetarna i enlighet med företags mål, desto mindre risk föreligger det att missförstånd och kommunikationsproblem ska uppstå. 

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  • 321.
    Casparson, Caroline
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Nylander, Malin
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Produktkalkylering inom området fjärrvärme på ett kommunalägt energibolag2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    En verksamhet strävar efter att uppnå en viss effektivitet. För att det ska vara möjligt måste verksamheten styras, det vill säga planeras, samordnas och kontrolleras. Företag kan idag välja att jobba med olika styrmedel. Ett av det mest användbara styrmedlet är produktkalkylering. Produktkalkylering används bland annat för att bestämma pris på produkter, lönsamhetsberäkning, kostnadskontroll och produktval. Vanliga förekommande kalkyleringsmodeller är, självkostnadskalkylering, ABC-kalkylering och täckningsbidragskalkylering. Självkostnadskalkylering och ABC-kalkylering utmärks av en fullständig kostnadsfördelning, medans täckningsbidragskalkylering kännetecknas av en ofullständig kostnadsfördelning.       

    I denna studie försöker vi beskriva och analysera vad det blir för skillnad internt vid användandet av olika kalkyleringsmetoder på produkterna serviceavtal och växlarbyten på ett utvalt kommunalägt energibolag. Syftet har lett fram till vår forskningsfråga som lyder: Vilken produktkalkyleringsmetod genererar förståelse och relevans för produkterna serviceavtal och växlarbyten på ett utvalt kommunalägt energibolag? För att genomföra vårt arbete har vi gjort en kvalitativ studie där vi intervjuar och för samtal med utvalda respondenter. Uppsatsen bygger på begreppen fjärrvärme, lönsamhet och kalkylering.

    Studiens resultat framhäver att användandet av självkostnadskalkylering är mer användbar på enskilda produkter om man jämför med täckningsbidragskalkylering. Att använda sig av täckningsbidrag kan ge en missvisande bild vad gäller produktens lönsamhet om man väljer att enbart analysera ett fåtal enskilda produkter i företaget totala produktsortiment. Vad gällande ABC-kalkylen stötte vi på en del hinder på vägen som gjorde att tiden blev knapp och räckte inte till för att genomföra en grundlig analys av modellen.  

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  • 322.
    Cattelin, Jonas
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Kinander, Mats
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Framtidens officer, härförare eller bokmal?: En studie av den svenske officeren och en analys av examensmålen för Officersprogrammet på Försvarshögskolan2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The training of military officers is well debated and has always been. But the recent years' changes in officer training and the academisation of the profession and also changed command structures in the Swedish Armed Forces (SAF) have once again set the stage for discussion. Among other things, it is about SAF getting the officer they need to build strong units and whether the officer has the qualifications that this requires? But what is the profession as an officer and what does the SAF really wants? The study examines just that, what is a military officer and what qualities an officer is expected to bring into the profession.  The education at the Swedish National Defense University (SDU) and the military officers’ program (OP) is the education, which should lead to a profession as an officer with the right qualifications and characteristics. This leads to the second part of the study, where the image of an officer is compared to the exam objectives for the program. These exam objectives are stated in the ordinance for SDU, and with the 17 exam objectives examined; the cadet should be ready to begin his profession as an officer. The question is whether this condition really exists?  In order to make this comparison, the study, through interviews, has developed a model of an officer from the unique with the profession, the monopoly of violence, via admission requirements for the education, to characteristics that the officer must have and roles that the officer exercises. The model has two portal paragraphs that are a compilation of the model, which the study considers necessary to deal with the most serious issues that may ultimately involve decisions on life or death.   The portal paragraphs are versatility and a well-developed inner moral guidance.  In the comparison between the model and the exam objectives, the study found that the objectives are demilitarized and have a theoretical approach. The armed battle is overshadowed and the officers' responsibility for the state monopoly of violence is not included. Nor do they clarify some of the characteristics and qualifications that the study has shown are necessary for the officer to be able to manage the profession as a leader and shoulder the responsibility this requires. This means that the cadet does not fully get the opportunity to become the officer that SAF needs.  The study shows, among other things, that the exam objectives should be reviewed and perhaps even partly rewritten.

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  • 323.
    Cederholm Björklund, Jennie
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science. Halmstad University.
    Barriers to Sustainable Business Model Innovation in Swedish Agriculture2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 240 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Swedish agri-food businesses need to meet needs for a sustainable society withviable rural areas, increased demand for food and using the favourable situation due to futureclimate changes (Horizon 2020, Tell et al., 2016b). However the trend in Swedish agricultureis decreasing production and fewer farms as well as employees (Jordbruksverket 2017).Although methods for sustainable business model innovation (SBMI) exists, few Swedishagricultural businesses develop their business models. This study examine and understand whatis hindering SBMI in Swedish agricultural businesses.

    Research question: What are the barriers to sustainable business model innovation in Swedishagricultural businesses?

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to explore, illustrate and create understanding of barriersto development of sustainable business models in Swedish agriculture, and through conceptdevelopment contribute to research about sustainable business models in agri-food andagricultural sector.

    Method: The study is conducted with a qualitative research method, containing multiple casestudies, and analyzed with Gioia methodology. Primary data are based on semi-structuredinterviews with owners/managers of six Swedish agricultural businesses, whose businessmodels have developed during the past five years, and still do.

    Theoretical framework: Theories and methods about sustainable business model innovationand different types of barriers to this development are used. Since the subject in this studyconnects to both innovation, strategic business and change management, entrepreneurship andfamily business, as well as through the context also the ongoing building of the research areaagroecology, also this is discussed.

    Findings: Barriers are found and categorized in external, internal and contextual barriers toSBMI, where the main parts are internal barriers connected to mindset, cognitions, strategicmanagement and leadership. Swedish support system is an external barrier, and contextualbarriers, a new dimension of inherited barriers, involve ecological philosophical considerationsand socioemotional wealth.

    Value and Implications: This study is a piece of puzzle in the construction of knowledge aboutsuccessful strategic management and innovation in agri-food sector by giving increasedunderstanding of practically working with sustainable business model innovation in Swedishagriculture and illustrating barriers to this development. The academic contribution containsextended knowledge about barriers to sustainable business model innovation, and a developedmodel including this understanding. Implications for research and practice are to focus oninternal barriers, especially cognitive barriers and drivers in the process of developingsustainable business models and to study how Swedish support system can be developed tocreate sustainable business model innovation in Swedish agriculture.

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    Magisteruppsats_JennieCederholmBjorklund_170517
  • 324.
    Cederholm Björklund, Jennie
    The Rural Economy and Agricultural Society, Eldsberga, Sweden.
    Barriers to Sustainable Business Model Innovation in Swedish Agriculture2018In: Journal of Entrepreneurship, Management, and Innovation, ISSN 2299-7075, E-ISSN 2299-7326, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 65-90Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden’s agriculture industry has faced many challenges in recent years. Among the most severe challenges are the decrease in the number of small and medium-sized farms, the decrease in the number of people employed in agricultural activities, and the increase in governmental regulations and legislation governing such activities. At the same time, the demand that agriculture contributes to sustainable social and ecological development has increased. Although research shows that sustainable business model innovation (SBMI) contributes to the creation of sustainable businesses and to the development of a sustainable society, Swedish agriculture has not been at the forefront in the use of SBMI. The purpose of this paper is to examine the barriers to SBMI in Swedish agriculture in order to understand why farmers seldom engage in SBMI. This qualitative study follows the Gioia methodology and data for the analysis were acquired in semi-structured interviews with entrepreneurs at six family farms in Sweden. The paper makes a theoretical contribution to the research on SBMI with its focus on sustainable entrepreneurship in the Swedish agricultural industry. The paper concludes that the barriers to SBMI are external, internal, and contextual.

  • 325.
    Cederholm Björklund, Jennie
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL). The Rural Economy and Agricultural Society, Halmstad, Sweden.
    The impact of crises on innovation and strategic management – Learnings from the extreme drought in the summer of 20182019In: 17th Rural Entrepreneurship Conference, Inverness, Scotland, June 17-19, 2019, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As a complement to previous studies about barriers to development of business models (BM) and innovation in agriculture and agri-food, conducted in retrospective, this study were conducted during the pressure of an ongoing barrier in form of a crisis caused by the extreme drought of the summer 2018. The situation caused major challenges for Swedish farmers, and I was wondering how such an ongoing stressful situation affect strategic management and innovation of the farms? Hence, behaviours and thinking during the drought were studied by semi-structured in-depth interviews with six farmers in the southern part of Sweden. The paper answer to calls about further exploring how rural entrepreneurs absorb and recover from shocks (Korsgaard, Müller and Tanvig, 2014), and entrepreneurial strategies in agriculture to understand under what circumstances or among which type of farms an increased entrepreneurial orientation (EO) can lead to increased performance (Dias et al., 2019; Veidal and Flaten, 2014). Some general considerations appeared in the study. First, the farmers were hesitant about the word "crisis", as there are other things that have been much worse for them, both private and concerning not transitory business problems. Second, the mental stress was emphasized. Third, the effects of strategic planning, of both management, innovation, learning, and approach of stressful situations were illustrated. Mind-set, experiences and learning, and self-leadership were facilitating factors that emerged in the study. The study indicate that crisis creates new ways of thinking and acting, both in terms of new collaborations, innovative working methods, and product and process development, hence suggest that developed EO can lead to increased performance during stressful situations. Further, the importance of strategic long term discussions about both life situation and the business is emphasized. The paper also highlights some important factors when approaching challenges and strains, and complement previous research about barriers to BMI conducted in retrospective. This increased understanding is useful both for researchers and practice working with entrepreneurs and business development to facilitate prioritization of efforts and activities.

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    Article 2 - Full paper Cederholm Bjorklund_REC 2019
  • 326.
    Cederholm Björklund, Jennie
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL). Hushållningssällskapet Halland, Halmstad, Sverige.
    Value creation for sustainable rural development – perspectives of entrepreneurship in agriculture2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Entrepreneurship and innovation are regarded as key factors in the development of society - not least in the development of sustainable rural areas, where they are emphasised by both authorities and research. This thesis is situated in this field of inquiry and studies entrepreneurship in agriculture. It explores how we can further develop both agriculture and sustainable rural areas. Farmers have traditionally played a significant role in rural areas and rural development, and still do. However in pace with societal development and the reduced number of farms and farm production, their role has changed. Today, they are considered as raw material producers, being the first link in a food chain, and active in landscape conservation in the countryside. However, agriculture plays a significant role in rural development and in Sweden, authorities strive for development of sustainable rural areas by encouraging economic growth and innovation within and between companies (business models, value chains etc.). They work with economic growth strategies, but both their management and results are criticised (OECD, 2019).This thesis states that greater contextualized knowledge is required to facilitate sustainable rural and agricultural development. Against this background, the purpose of this thesis is to explore entrepreneurship in agriculture from different perspectives, to find mechanisms affecting value creation for sustainable rural development.

    To meet the research purpose, Swedish agricultural entrepreneurship was studied from different perspectives and data was collected with different methods enabling significant triangulation of data. Studies of challenges in entrepreneurship and sustainable rural development were conducted from individual farmer and business perspectives as well as from the individual and organisational levels of actors within the support system, actors such as advisors, authorities, policy makers and officials. Thus, it was possible to explore perspectives on entrepreneurship in agriculture and identify mechanisms and structures affecting value creation for sustainable rural development. Mechanisms can be explained as underlying, invisible and sometimes unconscious and non-rational factors, feelings, norms, values or attitudes that affect behaviour in various ways.

    The key theories and literature covered included the concept of entrepreneurship with the intertwined sub-concepts of innovation and management at individual, business, organisational and societal levels.The thesis probed under the surface of rural development, exploring agricultural development at business level by using the concepts of Sustainable Entrepreneurship, Business Model Innovation and Barriers to Sustainable Business Model Innovation when exploring the challenges farmers face. The concepts of Self-leadership, Emotional Intelligence and Entrepreneurial Orientation helped to explore how challenges are approached, by for example understanding mechanisms concerned with feelings and mind-set. Further, the thesis also studied how entrepreneurship was encouraged and supported by the agricultural support system, and, with help from the Complexity Leadership Theory, established the urgent need of adaption to environmental changes and the creation of innovation within the system. The concepts of Agricultural and Rural Entrepreneurship and Embeddedness helped in understanding and shed light on the importance of considering the mutual influence and interplay between farmers, actors within the support system, embeddedness in context and rural entrepreneurship.

    This thesis makes several contributions. It extends knowledge about entrepreneurship in agriculture by highlighting the importance of understanding embeddedness and the concept of agricultural sustainability, and by this providing evidence of the importance of including agriculture in entrepreneurship research. Consequently, this thesis has another viewpoint than previous research which states that farmers are not entrepreneurial and has overlooked agriculture in entrepreneurship research.

    Firstly, it shows that farmers, to a very considerable degree, contribute to sustainable rural development and also play the role of enabler for rural entrepreneurship. Second, by exploring the support system, and thereby providing insights into the challenges within the system, in the organisations and betweenthe organisations, this thesis shows transparency and improved understanding of challenges in for example communication, trust, management and culture. Further, a model contributes suggestions for how to improve the system and create innovation to enable encouragement of entrepreneurship in agriculture. Third, this thesis contributes to business model research by illustrating the importance of including and reflecting on embeddedness in context and the understanding of agricultural sustainabilityin business model innovation. Hence, this thesis extends previous business model research which mainly considered agriculture as the first step in a food production chain, exposed to the same challenges as other non-agricultural companies further up the value chain. By providing insights about challenges to farmers’ entrepreneurship, and how these challenges can be approached as well as how entrepreneurship can be encouraged and supported in agriculture, this thesis can contribute to policies and strategies shifting focus from primarily trying to transform farmers into traditional entrepreneurs to taking advantage of the enabling role played by farmers. This thesis contributes to show the diversity in entrepreneurship, by providing understanding of entrepreneurship in agriculture, where value creation extends far beyond individual companies and competitive advantages, and hence impacts sustainable rural development.

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    Errata list
  • 327.
    Cederholm Björklund, Jennie
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science. The Rural Economy and Agricultural Society, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Johansson, Jeaneth
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Under the surface of the agricultural entrepreneurial support ecosystems: Through the lens of complexity leadership theory2020In: The RENT Anthology Book 2018 / [ed] Eddy Laveren, Robert Blackburn, Cyrine Ben-Hafaïedh, Cristina Diaz, Angela Gonzalez-Moreno, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2020Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Agricultural advisors have recently received much critique both in practice and in the literature for not answering agricultural entrepreneurs’ need for support in the ongoing industry transformation. Advisors expect to guide highly pressured agricultural entrepreneurs operating in complex settings towards sustainable businesses in highly competitive markets. The current study using complexity leadership theory goes beyond the surface of the agricultural advisors’ everyday work by exploring challenges faced by the advisors and considering how to overcome them. The advisors’ genuine intentions and common mission guiding the development of sustainable agricultural businesses and a vibrant countryside is not enough to achieve the goals. We identify an emergent need for innovation in the leadership of advisory work and conceptualize enabling mechanisms to accomplish such change. We suggest that the creation of adaptive space as a lubricant gives innovation the opportunity to flourish through enabling leadership.

  • 328.
    Chan, Helen
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Aspeflo, Amanda
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Hållbarhetsarbete och försä̈ljningstillväxt i stora internationella byggföretag2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title of the thesis: Sustainability and sales growth in major international construction companies. Date of final seminar: 2016-05-31 Subject/Course: Bachelor Thesis, 15 points

    Authors: Aspeflo, Amanda; Chan, Helen Examiner: Gabrielsson, Jonas Supervisor: Sahlgren, Kent Keywords: CSR, sales growth, sustainability, construction companies, Code of Conduct Problem description: Studies in major international Swedish construction company's investments in CSR (Corporate Social Responsibility) and its impact on companies' sales growth has been made to a minor extent. However, many companies nowadays are describing their investments in CSR, but previous research has not processed how these reports can lead to, for example, increased sales growth. This leads to the research question that this paper wants to give an answer to.

    Research question: How does major international Swedish construction companies work in sustainability look like and does it leads to increased sales growth? Objective/Description: The objectives of this study is to describe and explain how sustainability looks like in major international Swedish construction companies operating outside the Nordic Countries, to further see if it leads to increased sales growth. The study will answer if CSR and sustainability in itself can be a factor in companies’ sales growth. Method: In order to achieve the purpose this thesis has adopted a deductive onset with a qualitative approach. The empirical data has been collected mainly from telephone interviews with companies, but also through document studies of companies’ financial statements and reports.

    Conclusion: This thesis has concluded that large international Swedish construction companies operating outside the Nordic Countries clearly follows the theoretical design with three focus areas; economic, social and environmental sustainability. These efforts have, according to our analysis meant that companies have been able to grow at the rate they did. Suggestions for future research: An interesting approach might be to focus on the criticisms against CSR and from this determine if CSR really is good for business or if it’s only a marketing strategy. 

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  • 329.
    Chauvel, Benjamin
    et al.
    Halmstad University.
    Madjour, Raphaël
    Halmstad University.
    How to Make Profit in Trade Show2017Student paper other, 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the participation of companies in a Trade Show. The purpose of this research is to highlight what are the best ways for successfully participating in Trade Show and make profit. In order to find the right information, one previous research was identified from the library data base, which allowed us to find some other existing articles. One of the major results was that companies do not seriously prepare for their Trade Show. Moreover, it is also important to follow-up their attendees after the Trade Show.

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  • 330. Chen, Qian
    et al.
    Jiaohui, Shen
    The challenges of building industrial brand equity: A case study of two companies in B2B setting2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There is a need for marketers to find out the challenges when building brand equity in industrial market because earlier research has not gone far enough to inspect the challenges for building the brand equity in industrial markets. The purpose of this study is to present conspicuous representation of the challenges confronted by B2B companies when building industrial brand equity.To gather the necessary information, case study has been used to shed lights on the purpose of this study. Using existing theories, an interview guide was created and used during gathering and analyzing empirical data. Our sampling involves two of Chinese companies with different sizes. Interviews took place during April 2013, and all the interviewees have previous experience with building brand equity.The main results reveal that the challenges these case companies had to deal with are adapting different situations during designing strategies, and developing the distributers’ and agents’ cognitive degree on the meaning of companies’ brands. Furthermore, the case companies who are on their start-up stage facing are to legitimately deal with the different sale styles of different sales directors. The last one is that staffs hard to maintain a positive attitude that is good for the long-term development of these case companies.

  • 331.
    Chen, Xuelin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Zhang, Yini
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Environmental Factors and Networks for Internationalization Process in the Chinese Market: A Case Study of Swedish B2B Companies2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Problem discussion – we identified the gap concerning the lack of researches in exploring the impacts of both business and social networks in B2B companies’ internationalization process based on the network model proposed by Johanson and Mattsson (1988), especially taking the Chinese environmental factors into consideration.

    Purpose – The purpose of this study is to explore the importance of environmental factors and networks for B2B companies to internationalize into the Chinese market.

    Methodology – The thesis adopts the abductive approach and employs a qualitative research strategy. In order to obtain relevant information, multiple case study is chosen. The primary data are collected through semi-structured interviews with three Swedish B2B companies. Secondary data such as scientific articles, reports and books are also used in this thesis.

    Findings – Firstly, this thesis concludes that B2B companies’ business activities in internationalization process in China are influenced by four environmental factors: cultural, legal, economic and political factor. Secondly, business networks have impacts on the process of international extension, penetration and international integration, whereas the impacts of social networks are clearer in the phase of penetration. Thirdly, in China, there is no clear distinction between business- and social networks, but the building of trust is important in developing networks. Besides, B2B companies have to rely on their local employees when utilizing Guanxi in business activities.

    Managerial Implications – The managers should not only focus on the advantages, but also constantly perceive the risks in the Chinese market. Besides, managers could also take specific advantages of their Chinese employees’ social networks. Furthermore, managers should connect and coordinate the networks in different countries. Finally, managers could rely on their local employees to utilize Guanxi in business interactions.

    Theoretical Contribution – Firstly, this thesis identifies four key market environmental factors and their impacts for companies’ business activities in the Chinese market. Secondly, this thesis contributes to Johanson and Mattsson’s (1988) network approach by elaborating on the impacts of both business- and social networks in the three phases respectively. Thirdly, this thesis proposes a new conceptualized model that provides a deeper understanding and a clearer demonstration of the importance of environmental factors and networks when firms internationalize into global markets.

    Limitations – The results of this thesis might be limited to generalize to all kinds of market segments or industries. Moreover, in this thesis, the impacts of social networks are only identified in the phase of penetration.

    Keywords - Internationalization process, B2B companies, Environmental factor, Business network, Social network, Network approach, Impacts of network, the Chinese market

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  • 332. Chengshang, Chen
    et al.
    Yanqing, Zhang
    Business model innovation on big data: a case study on viewing big data as resource2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 333.
    Chernetska, Diana
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Strategic marketing planning in the period of market uncertainty: MTS Ukraine case study2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays, the trend towards globalization and internationalization of business has strong impact on companies’ strategy. When a company is thinking about strategy development, it needs to pay attention to variable aspects on micro- and macro-level. This study includes the overview of the factors which need to be considered while developing a strategy. Moreover, a significant emphasize is made on the contemporary deriving challenges at the market. The purpose of the study is to investigate a new approach to the strategic planning, named “Early warning system”. For that purpose, it was conducted qualitative research at the example of the Ukrainian telecommunication company – MTS Ukraine. I identified factors which influence the company and analyzed how company copes with deriving challenges. Moreover, it was found out the company’s strategic planning process is significantly influenced by specific market characteristics such as high level of bureaucracy, specific behavior of some competitors, growing market.   

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  • 334.
    Chhotray, Soma
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Sivertsson, Olof
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    The Role Of Vision for Empowerment in Born Global Companies.2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The overall purpose of this paper is to explore the role of leadership, vision and motivation of the employees (empowerment) in order to get a better understanding of how the top manager of a Born Global company can develop the company. The study is based on two explorative case studies, where interviews have been conducted with both the top manager as well as the employees. This study is considered crucial in case of born global where the top manager spends maximum time in travelling. Top manager needs to integrate such a culture where employees are set in a framework wherein the operations are handled smoothly during the absence of top manager. In this era of global competition the key for a successful firm lies in the empowerment of employees with well defined boundaries.

    A qualitative strategy and a research design with two case studies on Swedish Born Global companies were used in reaching the purpose of this study. The primary empirical data were mainly collected from six interviews. Two interviews were conducted with top manager and rest with employees. Secondary data like general company information were gathered from the website of the companies prior to primary data collection to have a better understanding and preparation.

    The results of the study indicate that the vision is more important for the top manager compared to the employees working in a born global company. However, the vision manages to establish a supportive culture where their daily activities and decisions of the employees are in line with the vision of the company. We see that this has been possible due to the leadership style and motivational factors like delegation of responsibility and autonomy of work. Our findings indicate that empowering employees has a significant advantage supporting the growth and internationalization of the born global company.

    Based on these findings, practical and theoretical implications are presented and discussed in the paper.

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  • 335.
    Christiansen, Anton
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Johansson, Malin
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Persson, Sabina
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    En studie om hur motivationen hos medarbetarna i organisationen påverkas av företagsledningens belöningar2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I media har det debatterats om huruvida belöningar i form av bonusar till företagsledningen är befogade då företaget går dåligt om man istället för att belöna ledningen kunnat behålla fler anställda. Debatterna har fokuserat på personerna som har valt att ta emot belöningar, inte vad belöningarna är till för att medföra i organisationen. Detta är bakgrunden till att vi vill undersöka hur företagsledningens belöningar kan påverka övriga medarbetare i organisationen. Vår problemformulering är följande; hur påverkar företagsledningens belöningar motivationen hos medarbetarna i organisationen? Syftet med denna uppsats är att vi vill se vilket sambandet är mellan ledningens belöningar och motivationen hos medarbetarna i organisationen. Vi har valt en kvantitativ ansats och genomfört en enkätundersökning för att ta reda på hur företagsledningens belöningar påverkar motivationen hos medarbetarna i organisationen. Enkäten skickade vi till individer med någon form av chefsposition i medelstora och stora noterade publika aktiebolag inom olika branscher. Beroende av vad medarbetaren har för förutsättningar, såsom ålder, tid på samma tjänst, befattning och om man har befordrats, så kan vi acceptera eller förkasta vår hypotes att motivationen hos medarbetarna ökar av att ledningen får belöningar. Vi kan av vår undersökning dra slutsatsen att ålder och befattning påverkar huruvida ledningens belöningar uppfattas som rättvisa eller orättvisa.

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  • 336.
    Christiansson, Johanna
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Andersson, Linus
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Ledarskapsbeteendets betydelse för intern effektivitet2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study is aiming to create increased understanding for how middle management can affect businesses’ internal effectiveness with their leadership behavior during an organizational change. Previous research has contributed with knowledge about middle managers part and meaning during an organizational change. They were hence chosen as the research target in the study. The research question is as following; What significance does the middle managers’ leadership behavior have for the business’ internal effectiveness during an organizational change? The study consists of a qualitative study that includes two businesses. One of the businesses is Scandinavian Airlines, which is active in the flight business and went through an organizational change that finished two years ago. The other business is Volvo Cars, which is an actor in the car business and is in the early phase of the change process. The respondents consist of three middle managers from each business. The first two respondents were chosen with deliberate selection, which in turn recommended the other four respondents. The last four were thus chosen with snowball selection. The interviews are based on semi-structured questions, with it’s starting point from four main concepts from the theoretical framework. The study is hence based on a deductive method. Furthermore, the reality view in the essay assumes a critical realistic viewpoint and an interpretive approach to knowledge creation. The study’s results show that several factors in all middle managers leadership behaviors matched with transformational leadership. The middle managers’ adjust their leadership depending on their employees and facilitates trust in the employees that gives them space for freedom and creativity in their work. Furthermore, the middle managers put significant importance on increasing the motivation of their employees. A transformative leader behavior has shown to have significance for business’ internal effectiveness in a positive regard. The middle managers definition of internal effectiveness involves functioning communication and decreased sub optimizations. It allegedly contributes to a more effective cooperation between departments and increased conditions for a successful result. 

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  • 337. Claesson, Hannah
    et al.
    Johansson, Erica
    Fastighetsmäklaren - ett varumärke: En studie om hur fastighetsmäklare skapar förtroende hos kunder genom sitt personliga varumräke och sin sociala kompetens2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 338.
    Claesson, Johan
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Mandel, Daniel
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Tilläggsisolering - lönsamt enligt en livscykelkostnadsmodell?2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    It is found that the properties of the record years of 1965-1975 is leaking a lot of energy and

    these properties are facing a major energy efficiency. From the energy aspect, the facade is

    afflicted with poor thermal insulation which is a big problem. To address this problem adding

    insulation is a good alternative to reduce overall energy consumption of a building. The

    windows on these buildings are also a problem from the energy point of view. Therefore,

    there are many reasons considered for energy upgrading. These types of investments are often

    associated with a very high initial investment, however, investment decision is also based in

    the savings that could be the result of the operation.

    With this as background the authors of this paper is questioning whether it is viable to energy

    upgrade by additional insulation compared to not make any energy upgrade at all of the

    properties built during the record years.

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the energy problems that exist with two types of

    wallconstructions that were common during the record years and the financial impact these

    problems resulting. By examining the costs, adding insulation the essay will through a life

    cycle cost show which action that is most profitable. The authors of this paper have conducted

    a case study of two wallconstructions of the types curtain walls and concrete. The thesis

    began by contacting Sto Scandinavia AB, which is a company that produces facade

    constructions and insulationsystems. Through interview with Claes Göran Claesson (Product

    Object Manager) on Sto Scandinavia, all pricing information by adding insulation could be

    identified. Contact was also made with energy expert Per Karnehed who assisted with the

    energy analysis of two properties which form the basis for the calculations in this paper.

    Using this information a life-cycle cost was calculated with the result that the insulation of the

    wallconstructions were viable over a 50 year period. The crucial factor in this calculation was

    the price of energy and futue cost of this. The calculations presented in this paper clearly

    shows in the long run that the energy cost is the largest post, not the initial investment.

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  • 339.
    Collin, Sven-Olof
    et al.
    Dept. of Business Administration, Lund University, P.O. Box 7080, S-220 07 Lund, Sweden.
    Johansson, Ulf
    Dept. of Business Administration, Lund University, P.O. Box 7080, S-220 07 Lund, Sweden.
    Svensson, Katarina
    Dept. of Business Administration, Lund University, P.O. Box 7080, S-220 07 Lund, Sweden.
    Ulvenblad, Per-Ola
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Knowledge Entrepreneurship and Enterprise Research (KEEN).
    Market Segmentation in Scientific Publications: Research Patterns in American vs European Management Journals1996In: British Journal of Management, ISSN 1045-3172, E-ISSN 1467-8551, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 141-154Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ideal science should conform to certain criteria or goals, among them the goals of universalism and commonality. Realization of these goals may be limited, however, through the dividing up of researchers in terms of geographical borders. In this study the general hypothesis is tested that there is a segmentation of the society of management researchers into a North American (US) and a European (E) segment, a segmentation which is furthered by differences in incentive schemes and in paradigms. Four leading management journals from North America and from Europe, respectively, and the 242 articles they contained published in 1993 were selected to represent the different geographical segments. The results provide: support for the existence of two such segments; support for differences in incentive schemes influencing the articles; support for their being paradigm differences between the two segments; and support for a paradigm effect being stronger in US-journals than in E-journals, US-authors are more willing, however, to conform to the E-paradigm than vice versa. We argue for methodological pragmatism in order to reduce the presumed counter-productive effects of paradigmatic rigidity.

  • 340.
    Collin, Sven-Olof Yrjö
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    The Boards Functional Emphasis: A Contingency Approach2008In: Corporate Ownership & Control, ISSN 1727-9232, E-ISSN 1810-3057, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 73-88Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The understanding of the board of a corporation and its behavior is limited, despite the board’s societal importance. We present a contingency approach to the board’s functional emphasis, considering a fourth function in addition to monitoring, decision making, and service or resource provision. The additional function is conflict resolution (or principal identification). The approach contrasts with mainstream research by assuming that the firm is a nexus of investments, avoiding the empirical assumption that the shareholder is the sole principal. We derive propositions that are not restricted to any empirical category of a corporation, and address praxis implications for managing functional disharmony.

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  • 341.
    Collin, Sven-Olof Yrjö
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    The boards functional emphasis a contingency approach2008In: Corporate Board: Role, Duties & Composition, ISSN 1810-8601, E-ISSN 2312-2722, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 24-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The understanding of the board of a corporation and its behavior is limited, despite the board’s societal importance. We present a contingency approach to the board’s functional emphasis, considering a fourth function in addition to monitoring, decision making, and service or resource provision. The additional function is conflict resolution (or principal identification). The approach contrasts with mainstream research by assuming that the firm is a nexus of investments, avoiding the empirical assumption that the shareholder is the sole principal. We derive propositions that are not restricted to any empirical category of a corporation, and address praxis implications for managing functional disharmony. © 2008 Virtus Interpress.

  • 342.
    Collin, Sven-Olof Yrjö
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Tagesson, Torbjörn
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Governance strategies in local government: a study of the governance of municipal corporations in a Swedish municipality2010In: International Journal of Public Policy, ISSN 1740-0600, E-ISSN 1740-0619, Vol. 5, no 4, p. 373-389Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Municipal corporations can be seen as a method of disintegrating municipal operations, but retaining control through those corporations. We assume that the municipal influence of the corporation can be described through the concept of governance strategy. Through a case study of seven corporations in one Swedish municipality, we found that emphasis was put on corporate strategy as a governance mechanism and that the board only retained a latent capacity. Furthermore, financial control and executive compensation were hardly ever used as governance mechanisms, which led us to formulate the ’chamber concert’ hypothesis: the use of governance mechanisms is influenced by traditions, norms, knowledge and governance needs. Copyright © 2010 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

  • 343.
    Contu, Alessia
    et al.
    Lancaster University.
    Grey, Christopher
    University of Cambridge.
    Örtenblad, Anders
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Against learning2003In: Human Relations, ISSN 0018-7267, E-ISSN 1741-282X, Vol. 56, no 8, p. 931-952Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article is a critique of the broad ensemble which we identify as 'learning discourse' and its pervasive ideological content which determines learning as a 'good thing for all.' We consider how the signifier 'learning' works as a nodal point which consists (legitimizes and sustains), yet glosses over, antagonistic and contradictory organizational and social practices. With our critique we endeavour to go beyond a simple rebuke or rebuttal. We, rather, point out the problematic nature of the truths engendered in 'making the social' and constituting the promise of a learning society whose ambit encompasses learning in general, the learning organization and the political economy of the 'knowledge economy.' By doing so we expose the political character of the learning discourse which, we argue, works as the surface of intelligibility pro-posing the reality of work, self-hood, citizenship and society. We antagonize its 'no alternative' trope by questioning the equivalence it creates between social inclusion, competitiveness, employability, empowerment and personal development. Our critique makes explicit how it is possible and why it is important, to be 'against learning.'

  • 344.
    Correa da Cunha, Henrique
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Asymmetry and the moderating effects of formal institutional distance on the relationship between cultural distance and performance of foreign subsidiaries in Latin America2019Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates how Cultural and Formal Institutional distances and their interaction affect the performance of multinational foreign subsidiaries in Latin America. It is shown that using Kogut and Singh (1988) index or attributing the positive and negative signals to distances in opposite directions fail to capture asymmetric effects as it assumes either symmetry or opposing symmetry. To overcome such limitations, I propose an alternative measurement, which allows capturing the asymmetric effects of distances on the performance of foreign subsidiary firms. To test the main research question, I run a panel data model including 1466 subsidiaries, being 1216 from developed and 250 from developing countries, totaling 168 combinations of different home and host countries for a period ranging from 2013 to 2015.Cultural Distance is measured using Hofstede (1980) dimensions and Formal Institutional distances are calculated using the six World Governance Indicator’s variables. Findings show that when the direction of cultural and formal institutional distances is included, the effects on performance are in fact asymmetric. Moreover, not all formal institutional distances affect in a negative manner the performance of developed country subsidiaries operating in less developed countries as these firms seem to know how to interpret and respond to different regulatory quality conditions in the host countries. Latin American firms are in advantage when dealing with formal institutional distances while being affected in the same manner by cultural distances if compared to other emerging market firms from outside Latin America. Emerging market firms are affected in a positive manner while operating in less developed countries and in a negative way when institutions in the host country are superior to its home country. Finally, results show that formal institutional distance positively moderates the relationship between cultural distance and performance particularly when formal institutional distance is towards less developed countries. It can be concluded that despite the fact that cultural values remain fairly stable over time, the contextual changes in terms of formal institutions (and formal institutional distances among countries) will modify the way cultural distance affects the performance and the competitiveness of firms around the world.

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  • 345.
    Correa da Cunha, Henrique
    et al.
    Universidade Regional de Blumenau, Blumenau, Brazil.
    Amal, Mohammed
    Universidade Regional de Blumenau, Blumenau, Brazil.
    Floriani, Dinora Eilete
    Universidade do Vale do Itajaí, Itajaí, Brazil.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Institutional Distance Moderating Effects on Cultural Distance and Performance Relationship: Asymmetry of Distance and the Case of Foreign Multinational Subsidiaries in Latin America2019In: International Business in an Unsettling Political and Economic Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark, June 24-17, 2019, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate how Cultural and Formal Institutional distances affect the performance of foreign multinational subsidiaries in Latin America. We measure distance in opposite directions separately in a way that allows verifying its asymmetrical properties. Data is from Orbis database and includes 1466 foreign subsidiaries and 168 combinations of home and host countries for a period ranging from 2013 to 2015. Findings reveal that not all formal institutional distances affect the performance of developed country subsidiaries in a negative manner when operating in less developed countries as these firms know how to interpret and respond to different regulatory quality conditions in the host countries. We show that Latin American firms are in advantage dealing with formal institutional distances while they are affected in the same manner by cultural distances when compared to emerging market firms from outside Latin America. Subsidiaries from emerging markets are affected in a positive manner when operating in less developed countries and in a negative way when in more developed host countries. Results show that formal institutional distances may be easier to convert into firm specific advantages when compared to cultural distances. Formal institutional distances moderate in a positive manner the relationship between cultural distance and performance.

  • 346.
    Correa da Cunha, Henrique
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER). Universidade de Blumenau, Blumenau, Santa Catarina, Brazil.
    Amal, Mohammed
    Universidade de Blumenau, Blumenau, Santa Catarina, Brazil.
    Floriani, Dinorá Eliete
    Universidade do Vale do Itajaí, Itajaí, Brazil.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    The moderating effects of formal institutional distance on the relationship between cultural distance and performance: The case of foreign subsidiaries in Latin America2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates how Cultural and Formal Institutional distances and their interaction affect the performance of subsidiary firms in Latin America. We show that using Kogut and Singh (1988) index or attributing the positive and negative signals for distances in opposite directions fail to capture asymmetry as it treats distance as either symmetric or opposing symmetric. In order to overcome this limitations distance in opposite directions are measured separately and independently in a way that allows verifying its asymmetrical effects. Tests include 1466 subsidiaries and 168 combinations of home and host countries for a period ranging from 2013 to 2015. Findings confirm that formal and cultural distances are asymmetric as the effects depend on the direction. Moreover not all formal institutional distances affect in a negative manner the performance of developed country subsidiaries operating in less developed countries as these firms know how to interpret and respond to different regulatory quality conditions in the host countries. We show that Latin American firms are in advantage dealing with formal institutional distances while they are affected in the same manner by cultural distances when compared to other emerging market firms from outside Latin America. Findings indicate that emerging market firms are affected in a positive manner when operating in less developed countries and in a negative way when institutions in the host country are superior to its home country. Finally, results show that formal institutional distances moderate in a positive manner the relationship between cultural distance and performance. 

  • 347.
    Correa da Cunha, Henrique
    et al.
    Universidade Regional de Blumenau, Blumenau, Brazil.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Amal, Mohammed
    Universidade Regional de Blumenau, Blumenau, Brazil.
    Floriani, Dinora Eilete
    Universidade do Vale do Itajaí, Itajaí, Brazil.
    Gomes, Giancarlo
    Universidade Regional de Blumenau, Blumenau, Brazil.
    Are we talking about country profile or distance?2019In: Balancing Globalization & Local Priorities: Challenges Facing Business in Developed and Emerging Markets, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since its introduction in International Business research, Distance has been an important topic but recently there is an ever growing concern related to the country profile and distance conflation. Studies investigating the implications of distances should include a sufficiently diversified sample. In order to provide adequate assessments for the implications of country profiles and distances, it is essential to consider that firms may be affected in different ways depending on the direction of the distances. We argue that the asymmetric effects of distances might result not only from the ability of foreign subsidiary firms adapting to the host country’ conditions, but also on the characteristics of the host country environment that may be more or less receptive to foreign firms’ operations. We test these assumptions in Latin America due to its diversity in terms of cultural and formal institutional conditions and also because it includes a great number of emerging market and developed country foreign subsidiaries. Data comes from Orbis database, totaling 1466 subsidiary firms being 1216 from developed countries and 250 from emerging markets operating in 10 host countries in Latin America and a combination of 168 different home and host countries over a period of 3 consecutive years ranging from 2013 to 2015. By measuring distances in opposite directions independently we are able to verify the asymmetric effects of both Cultural and Formal Institutional Distances. Additionally, results show that the expertise in dealing with formal institutional conditions at the home country can be converted more easily into firm specific advantages in foreign host countries whereas cultural distances seem to affect firms in similar ways, depending more on the cultural characteristics at the host country than by the distances between home and the host countries.

  • 348.
    Couson, Célia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET). Rouen Business School.
    Vayssettes, Emilie
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET). Rouen Business School.
    How Neuromarketing has changed marketing ?2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 349.
    Cregård, Anna
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Förbättrad arbetsmiljö genom samarbete i gränsland2017In: Hälsofrämjande och förebyggande arbetsmiljöinsatser genom nya samarbetsformer: Metoder och resultat från FHV NySam-projektet / [ed] Roy Liff & Ewa Wikström, Göteborg: ISM , 2017, 1, p. 22-36Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 350.
    Cregård, Anna
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Corin, Linda
    Institute of Stress Medicine, Region Västra Götaland, Sweden & Department of Sociology and Work Science, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Public sector managers: the decision to leave or remain in a job2019In: Human Resource Development International, ISSN 1367-8868, E-ISSN 1469-8374, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 158-176Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The public sector faces a grave problem as far as managerial retention as the result of the increasing number of retirements and of voluntary resignations. Despite the vital interest in managerial turnover in the public sector, research is scarce. This study, which increases our understanding of why public sector managers leave their positions, takes a qualitative and narrative research approach in examining voluntary turnover. Interviews were conducted with operations managers (in education, social care, and technical activities) at three Swedish municipalities. We identify a multitude of environment push and pull factors with a focus on administrative support, supervisory support and illegitimate tasks. The narratives of managerial turnover reveal the complexity of the decision to leave or remain in a job, containing a mixture of push and pull factors, negative feelings, unmet expectations and extraordinary events. Three possible HRD actions to decrease undesirable managerial turnover are identified: re-work organizational structures; re-model job characteristics; and re-examine managerial turnover decisions as a long and complex process. Our hope is that the findings are used for ultimately create healthy organizations. © 2019 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

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