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  • 301.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    International growth strategies in different marketing contexts2011In: International Growth of Small and Medium Enterprises / [ed] Niina Nummela, New York: Routledge, 2011, p. 97-114Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 302.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    International Strategies in firms dominated by marketing and technical entrepreneurs2003In: Proceedings of the 1st Conference on International Entrepreneurship in a European Context, Madrid: Instituto de Empresa , 2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 303.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Internationalisering av snabbväxande företag2001In: Tillväxtföretagen i Sverige / [ed] Per Davidsson, Frédéric Delmar, Johan Wiklund, Stockholm: SNS förlag, 2001, p. 294-330Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 304.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Internationalization as a Consequence of Entrepreneurial Acting1998Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 305.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Internationalization in consumer and business to business markets in manufacturing and service sectors2005In: CIMAR 2005, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 306.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Internationalization in different industrial contexts2004In: Journal of Business Venturing, ISSN 0883-9026, E-ISSN 1873-2003, Vol. 19, no 6, p. 851-875Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The important questions in a firm's internationalization strategy deal with which national markets they should enter and the order in which the chosen markets should be entered. Different theoretical scenarios provide a range of answers to these questions. In this article, it is argued that the appropriateness of the theories depends on the industrial context to which it is applied. The international development of some Swedish firms in mature and high-growth industries is discussed. Whether a theory is appropriate depends on the firms' degree of internationalization and whether the industry is mature or growing. International entrepreneurship literature has been shown to enhance understanding of the early stages of a firms' internationalization in growing industries.

  • 307.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Internationalization in different marketing contexts2005In: Book of Abstracts and Program: ANZMAC 2005 Conference / [ed] Sharon Purchase, ANZMAC , 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 308.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Internationalization in Mature and High Growing Industries2000Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Principal Topic

    Why firms choose to establish themselves in certain markets is a question that has been discussed by different researchers. One of the most used concepts when discussing this question is psychic distance. In this article the concept is compared with other researchers’ views of market choice. Moreover, various theories are used to analyze the market choice of different Swedish firms. The international developments of some Swedish firms are shown in case studies, where market choice in mature and high growing industries is discussed. Is psychic distance still relevant to understand firms’ market choice? If not, which other theories can be useful to understand firms’ market choice?

    Method

    Cases from the rubber product industry is chosen to illustrate internationalization in a mature industry and cases from the ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) industry are chosen to illustrate internationalization in a high growing industry. The cases was chosen because their international development illustrated various situation where theories could be compared with the firms’ actual behavior.The case studies are built on secondary data, such as business magazines, annual reports and internal documents, but mainly on personal interviews. I interviewed the individuals that personally took part in the decisions and implementation of the companies’ different establishments abroad, such as chairmen of the boards, presidents, export directors, area managers, export salesmen, presidents of subsidiaries, etc. More than 50 individuals were interviewed. The individuals who had the greatest influence on the internationalization processes were interviewed several times. Former interviews led to the identification of individuals who were central in the internationalization process. The interviewees have had the opportunity to read and comment on the drafts of the different cases.

    Implications

    The conclusion is drawn that different theories are relevant in various situations. Psychic distance is identified as a partial model and different theories are appropriate dependent of the firms’ degree of internationalization and if the industry is mature or growing. Decision-makers are recommended to careful analyze their own situation and use different models in various situations.

  • 309.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Internationalization of the Firm from an entrepreneurial perspective2009In: Entrepreneurship and Globalization / [ed] Rob B. McNaughton and Jim D. Bell, London: Sage Publications, 2009, p. 105-131Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 310.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    "Internationell satsning skapar jobb i Sverige"2019In: Ny Teknik, E-ISSN 1402-4845, no 4 feb., p. 1Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    DEBATT. Generellt stöd till företag att nå ut internationellt är oftast meningslöst. Identifiera och satsa istället på ”born globals” som tidigt har siktet inställt på den globala marknaden - de skapar både tillväxt och arbetstillfällen i Sverige, skriver ekonomiprofessorn Svante Andersson.

  • 311.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Job creation in Swedish born globals2018In: European born globals: Job creation in young international businesses / [ed] Irene Mandl & Valentina Patrini, London: Routledge, 2018, p. 41-62Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden has large firms, which are very international (e.g. Electrolux, Volvo, Saab, Scania), however 97 % of Swedish firms are SMEs. Most of these SMEs are focusing on the home market. Although most Swedish SMEs are not focusing on international growth strategies, there are some Swedish new ventures that already from inception regard the world as their market - so called born globals. The number of born globals in Sweden is limited, and these companies only employ 0.75% of the overall number of employees working in Swedish SMEs. Still, born globals are important for the Swedish economy. They show higher willingness to grow and a greater employment growth than other companies Born globals are found in all sectors but are over-represented in high-tech sectors. In this chapter it is shown how born globals can continue to growth and create jobs. It is also illustrated how the growing creative industries sector are creating born globals and jobs. The chapter ends with policy and managerial implications.

  • 312.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Suppliers' international strategies2002In: European Journal of Marketing, ISSN 0309-0566, E-ISSN 1758-7123, Vol. 36, no 1-2, p. 86-110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A longitudinal study of the international behaviour of Swedish suppliers is presented. Three different types of supplier are identified: simple suppliers, advanced suppliers, and own product suppliers. Factors influencing the internationalisation of these suppliers are discussed. It is concluded that the firms' offer and the customers' buying strategies influence the firms' international behaviour. However, these factors do not determine the international strategies completely. Various entrepreneurs will choose various strategies. Three different types of entrepreneurs are identified: the marketing, technical, and structural entrepreneurs. The type of entrepreneur influences the firms' international strategies in different directions.

  • 313.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    The Entrepreneur and Firm’s International Strategies1999In: Images of Entrepreneurship and Small Business: Emergent Swedish Contributions to Academic Research / [ed] Bengt Johannisson, Hans Landström, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 1999, p. 241-265Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 314.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    The Entrepreneur and Firm's International Strategies1998Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 315.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    The entrepreneur and the internationalization of the firm2003In: 7th Vaasa conference on International Business, 2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 316.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    The Entrepreneur's influence on firm's international Strategy2003In: ANZMAC2003, 2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 317.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    The Establishment Sequence of Foreign Subsidiaries1995Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 318.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    The international entrepreneur – From experience to action2015In: The Routledge Companion to International Entrepreneurship / [ed] Stephanie A. Fernhaber & Shameen Prashantham, Abingdon, Oxon & New York, NY: Routledge, 2015, p. 70-83Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 319.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    The Internationalization of the Born Global Firm from an Entrepreneurial Perspective2004In: EIBA Conference, 2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 320.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    The internationalization of the firm from an entrepreneurial perspective2000In: International Studies of Management and Organization, ISSN 0020-8825, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 63-92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are 2 dominant views in international business research: the economic and the process view. In this study it is shown that these views give some insight into the complex phenomenon of the internationalization of the firm. However, the understanding of various international behaviors in the firm's first international ventures as well as of radical strategic changes is enhanced by an analysis focusing on entrepreneurs.

  • 321.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    The Network Perspective: Its origin and differences to the Marketing Management approach1998In: Australia and New Zealand Marketing Academy conference; Marketing connections / [ed] Brendan J. Gray; Kenneth R. Deans, Otago: Department of Marketing, University of Otago , 1998, p. 62-72Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Relationship marketing during the nineties has become an accepted approach in marketing research. This type of marketing, however, consists of many different perspectives. Here, the network approach is covered. This perspective’s origin and its differences to the marketing management approach are discussed. It is concluded that the development of the network perspective was influenced by its Swedish context, however the network view is not pertinent on all marketing situations in Sweden. Finally it is argued that research in marketing should prosper with many different perspectives that could be applicable for different marketing situations.

  • 322.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Aagerup, Ulf
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Awuah, Gabriel Baffour
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Wictor, Ingemar
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Building Brand Personality in a Business-to-Business Context – the Case of Born Globals2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Branding has for a long time been in focus in strategic decision making for firms in a business-to-consumer context. Brands has been used as a tool to differentiate products and position firms’ offers towards competitors. In a business-to business context branding has not been in focus in the same way. Strategic decisions have more dealt with technology innovation and market expansions. In recent times, a greater interest for brand building in a business to business (B2B) context has emerged, both in practice and academia, especially for globally active B2B firms that strive to create a unified look of their products and firms. The hard global competition has made it difficult to compete on product quality alone, services around the product and intangible features has been important parts of B2B firms’ offers. The B2B firms’ more complex offers can be incorporated under a common brand that differentiates the firms’ offer from competitors. Although that the practical importance of B2B branding has been acknowledge lately, research dealing with B2B branding is still relatively limited. Most studies on B2B branding attempt to describe what brands are, how they affect companies, or vice versa. Research on the process of B2B brand building is however scarce. Also, when B2B brands are in focus of a study, it is usually their tangible characteristics that are examined. In B2C brand literature, intangible aspects and, the metaphor to see the brand as a person is widely discussed (Aaker, 1997). However, there is very little research on brand as a person element in the B2B context. Brand personality is normally defined as the human characteristics associated with a brand, More research into the brand personality building processes in a B2B context are therefore needed. Following the above discussion this study’s aim is to investigate how brand personality is built in B2B companies.

    A qualitative approach has been adopted to enable us to investigate, in-depth, an under-researched area (Ghauri and Gronhaug, 2010; and Yin, 1989) The key factor underpinning the selection of the two cases was conceptual relevance rather than representative grounds, so we used theoretical sampling (Miles and Huberman 1994). We combined secondary data research and field interviews and workshops with the CEOs in the case firms. The researchers constructed an interview-guide based on earlier literature and discussion in a workshop. Our aim and research question served as the basic structure for data analysis.  The study contributes to the literature by integrating theory on brand building from the marketing fields with the research dealing with the born global phenomenon discussed in the international entrepreneurship field.

  • 323.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Awuah, Gabriel
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Born Globals' international growth through networking on institutional distant markets2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to shed light on how a born global can obtain continued growth internationally, in institutionally distant markets. We are seeking a deeper understanding of international growth for born global enterprises by combining theories of networks and institutional perspective. We discuss how institutional distance affects the internationalization processes in born globals. We seek to highlight why and how a born global firm does enter different markets. In this respect, born globals from developed countries and those from emerging markets are compared, leading us to derive some propositions from our discussions. Finally some suggestions for future research are presented.

  • 324.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Awuah, Gabriel Baffour
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Aagerup, Ulf
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Wictor, Ingemar
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Customer Value Creation in Mature Born Globals2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION

    Research on firms that already from their inception see the whole world as a market and/or the whole world as a source to access resources, so called born globals (Andersson & Wictor, 2003, Knight & Cavusgil, 2004; Cavusgil & Knight, 2015), has been growing during the last decades  (Servantie, 2016). Born globals are an especially interesting group of firms to study, in regard of value creation, as they have been able to create competitive offers fulfilling the needs of customers on global markets.

     The distinguishing feature of born globals is their international behaviour at birth and soon thereafter. The firms’ behaviour is initiated by the entrepreneurs’ and management’s global mindset and the commitment of resources leading to international growth (Andersson, 2000; Knight & Causgil, 2004). Born globals is, by definition, a born global firm “forever”, as has been characterized by their early years.  We argue that the early years make these firms a special type of firms that will influence their further international development. Firms with a long-term focus on the domestic market must unlearn routines rooted in the domestic context before new, internationally oriented routines can be learned. An early entrance to international markets forces born globals to adopt to new contexts and create new knowledge that leads to new routines and creates a culture in the firms to adapt to new international opportunities (Andersson & Evers, 2015; Autio et al ., 2000, Cavusgil & Knight, 2004).

    There has been extensive research on born globals’ internationalization dealing with which markets, and market channels firms should choose to grow internationally. There has also been extensive research dealing with antecedents and factors influencing these choices. The focus on born global research has also been on the very early stages in the internationalization process. Few studies have captured the long-term behaviour and growth of born globals (2008; Gabrielsson and Gabrielsson, 2013, Melen Hånell, Nordman and Sharma, 2014). A question that has been very little addressed is: what happens to born global firms when they grow up (Cavusgil & Knight, 2015)? In this study we define this grown up born global firms as mature born globals (c. f. Hagen & Zuchella, 2014, maturing born global firms). To succeed with a continued international expansion, the born global firms need to increase sales on international markets. The underlying reason for success on international markets and continuous growth is that the mature born global firms have an offer that gives higher value to the customer than their competitors. However customer value is not explicitly treated in internationalization theories (Axinn & Matthyssen, 2002). To our knowledge there has not been any research that has, in- depth, explored how mature born globals create value for customers to create international growth. In line with the above discussion, the aim of this study is to investigate how mature born global firms create value for customers to create international growth.

    METHOD

    A qualitative approach has been adopted to enable us to investigate, in-depth, an under-researched area (Ghauri and Gronhaug, 2010; and Yin, 1989) “how born global firms create value for customers to create international growth”. In all, the study was conducted with five companies. The key factor underpinning the selection of the five cases was conceptual relevance rather than representative grounds, so we used theoretical sampling (Miles and Huberman 1994). We conducted a review of annual reports, other secondary documentation, and the websites of the case firms. We combined secondary data research and field interviews and workshops with the CEOs in the case firms. The researchers constructed an interview-guide based on earlier literature and discussion on a works-shop. Interviews were carried out with the five CEOs and transcribed. Data analysis included several steps. The information from the interviews, and other sources served as descriptive narratives, which helped us process the large volume of data (Mintzberg and McHugh 1985). This process enabled the unique patterns of each case to emerge before cross-case comparison (Eisenhardt 1989; Yin 1994) was undertaken. Our aim and research question served as the basic structure for data analysis.

    CONCLUSIONS

    We conclude that a strong focus on customer value creation was in focus. To create customer value a combination of proactive and reactive market orientation was implemented built on a competitive offer that was hard to replicate. Depending on the characteristics of the buyer-seller relationship different tools were used to build relationship value. The revenue earned is invested in further international growth, by investing in market driving activities, and entrepreneurial alertness to act on upcoming opportunities was crucial. This study contributes to the international entrepreneurship field by explicitly including marketing literature and empirically investigating how value is created to achieve international growth in born globals. This study also contributes to the industrial marketing field by developing a model that shows how born global firms create value for international customers to generate international growth in a B2B context.

  • 325.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Awuah, Gabriel
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Wictor, Ingemar
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Analyzing Capabilities which Born Global Firms Develop and Implement for their International Growth2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to investigate how born global firms co-operate with local and international network actors to provide innovations for international growth, Consequently, born globals’ use of their own innovation capabilities, stemming from firm-specific advantages, and their access to complementary resources and activities of their network partners, termed here as network capabilities, are analyzed to aid our understanding of the provision of innovative solutions that lead to firms’ international growth. The paper opted for an exploratory study, using a qualitative case study approach of five born global companies. Focus groups, work-shops and interviews with the entrepreneur-CEOs in the companies are used to gain deep insight into innovation and internationalization processes that underlie the case companies’ international growth. The study shows that the entrepreneur-CEOs’ networking and innovation capabilities, have been crucial for the born global firms international growth. A high responsiveness to changes in the environment and incremental rather than radical innovation characterize the firms’ growth. A fruitful relationship between the Born Globals and other actors is crucial for them to be able to get access to resources, which can complement their own to create innovative solutions that will lead to growth. 

  • 326.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Awuah, Gabriel
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Wictor, Ingemar
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Born global's use of innovative solutions to create sustainable competitive advantages as it expands and grows in different international markets2013In: The 16th Annual McGill International Entrepreneurship Conference: Researching New Frontiers: The Conference Program and Collection of Short Summaries, Montreal, Canada: McGill University , 2013, p. 16-16Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to investigate born global firms’ use of innovative solutions and their networks to create sustainable competitive advantages as they expand and grow in different international markets. Consequently, born globals’ use of their own firm-specific advantages and their access to complementary resources and activities of their network partners are analyzed to aid our understanding of the provision of innovative solutions that lead to growth. For this purpose we use a qualitative case study approach of five born global companies. A focus group  approach with the CEOs in the companies is used to gain deep insight into innovation and internationalization processes that underlie the case companies’ international growth. The study shows that the use of the entrepreneur-CEOs’ personal networks and business networks have been assets that have accorded the firms’ strong position in international markets. It can be concluded that the born global firm has strategies to tap on complementary assets of external network parties.  The Born global firms learn from own experiences and those of others, with whom the firms interact in foreign markets, to create innovative solutions for international growth.

  • 327.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Awuah, Gabriel
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Wictor, Ingemar
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Born Global's Use Of Innovative Solutions To Create Sustainable Competitive Advantages As It Expands And Grows In Different International Markets2013In: / [ed] Helen Lawton Smith, Klaus Nielsen & Carlo Milana, London: Centre for Innovation and Management Research , 2013, p. 1-35Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to investigate born global firms’ use of innovative solutions and their networks to create sustainable competitive advantages as they expand and grow in different international markets. Consequently, born globals’ use of their own firm-specific advantages and their access to complementary resources and activities of their network partners are analyzed to aid our understanding of the provision of innovative solutions that lead to growth. We use a qualitative case study approach of five born global companies. A focus group interview with the CEOs in the companies is used to gain deep insight into innovation and internationalization processes that underlie the case companies’ international growth. The study shows that the use of the entrepreneur-CEOs’ personal networks and business networks have been assets that have accorded the firms’ strong position in international markets. It can be concluded that the born global firm has strategies to tap on complementary assets of external network parties. 

  • 328.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Awuah, Gabriel
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Wictor, Ingemar
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Aagerup, Ulf
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    International growth in born globals – value creation on international markets2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Importance and key contribution

    Research on firm’s that already from inception see the whole world as a market and/or the whole world as a source to access resources, so called born globals (Andersson & Wictor, 2003), have been growing during the last decades (Jones, Coviello and Tang, 2012).  These firms are characterized of innovative business models that are competitive on the global market already from inception (Hennart, 2013). To succeed with a continued international expansion, the born global firms need to adapt their respective business models for a more complex environment; in more institutionally remote markets. The continued growth phase of born globals are scarcely treated in earlier research (Gabrielsson & Gabrielsson, 2013).

    Earlier studies on Born Globals have focused on Born Globals’ development in western, developed countries. Therefore there is a need to examine Born Globals’ activities on emerging markets (Kiss et al, 2012). The attractiveness and growth opportunities in emerging markets are perceived to be higher than what obtains in other conceivable markets of the world (Cavusgil, Knight, and Risenberger, 2012).

    Important in this stage is handle relationship with different stakeholders on a global base. An important tool to handle this relationship is the companies’ branding strategy. Few studies have combined research on born globals’ internationalization and branding (Gabrielsson, 2005) and there is a need to further develop the knowledge about branding and international growth. This study aims to explore how born global companies are using brand management when growing on emerging markets. This study contributes to the international entrepreneurship field by exploring growth on emerging markets, it also contributes by adding knowledge from the brand management field to explore international growth.

    Theoretical base

    In recent studies the “global” part in the BG has been criticized (Lopez, Kundu and Ciravegena, 2009, Rugman and Almodovar, 2011). Some researchers argue that there a very few really Born Global firms with activities in the three economic and political power bases in the world. NAFTA, EU and the largest eight Asia-Pacific economies (Rugman and Almodovar, 2011). Implicit in research on Born Global firms is that distance (geographic, psychic, cultural, and institutional) is no longer an important issue when the international behaviour and international performance in a Born Global is discussed. We argue that the reason for that is a bias in the research treating Born Global firms with focus on companies that both have their origin and target markets in high-developed economies. Peiris, Akoorie and Sinha (2012) showed that most studies on Born Global firm were done on firms originating in developed countries and only a few studies were done on firms from emerging countries. Studies from emerging countries mainly were done on Chinese firms and very few studies has treated firms from Middle east, Africa or South Asia. Another reason why the Born Global research has not focused on institutional differences can partly be explained by the fact that the Born Global studies have looked internally at firm-specific factors (e.g. using resource-based view and knowledge-based view of the firm as a theoretical domain) (Andersson, Evers and Kuivalainen, 2014; Knight and Cavusgil, 2004).

    We argue that institutional differences affect Born Globals’ international behaviour (scope, speed, and entry mode); and to investigate how institutional distances affect Born Global firms, it is important to include nations with a variety of institutional and cultural characteristics. Born Global firms from developed countries entering institutionally distant markets will meet a context that is different from their home markets. Regulations, culture etc. differ and relationships are often fewer and weaker than, the companies’ relationships with western companies.  Born Global companies from developed countries still first focus on other developed countries, followed by emerging markets (e. g China and Brazil). We argue that institutional distance still matters and that firms from developed countries still have more and stronger networks in other developed countries. More research is needed two explore how this influence Born Global firms’ internationalization processes.

    Most studies on born globals have focused on firms in a business-to business context. Also this study is focusing on this sector. Even if most brand management studies have focus on business-to consumer sectors, there is an increasing stream of literature that has shown the importance of brand management also in business-to business settings (Gabrielsson & Gabrielsson, 2005). Brands are used to build relationships with customers. In emerging markets, western companies have fewer and weaker relationships, as the distance is longer (see the discussion above. Research is needed to explore how brand management can be used to create and sustain relationships on emerging markets. The above discussion lead us to the following research questions.

    Research questions

    How do born globals manage the organization’s international growth in in emerging markets?

    Which role has brand management to create and sustain relationships with internal and external stakeholders on emerging markets?

    Method and Findings

    Emprical data will be gathered during the Spring 2015. A case approach is considered as the most appropriate to catch the complexity of value creating process in international network context (Yin, 1994). The case study approach is under-represented in studies about internationalization and has been recommended as a fruitful way to expand the knowledge in this area (e.g Andersson, 2000, Cavusgil, 1980). Eisenhardt (1989) recommends case studies as a fruitful way to give a deeper insight in conflicting literature, as well as sharpening the generalizability of different theoretical standpoints which is an important goal in this study. There is a need to learn more about special types of firms and not only to look for the average firm (Andriani and McKelvey, 2007). The close relationship already established with the firms will make it possible to receive information that is hard to get access to with other methods (Welch et al, 2002).

    The cases will be built built on action research in co-operation with the partner firms, work-shops, personal interviews and observations but complemented with secondary data, such as, annual reports and internal documents. The individuals who have the greatest influence on the internationalization processes will be interviewed. Interviews and observations will lead to the identification of individuals/actors who are central in the international value creating processes. This includes actors outside the focal company, such as customers, suppliers, and co-operation partners. Our long co-operation with the companies has created trustful relationship between the researchers and the company representatives.

    The analysis of the data will include several steps. The information from interviews and other sources will be written down in descriptive narratives. This process allows the researcher to become intimately familiar with each case and allows the unique patterns of each case to emerge before cross-case comparison (Eisenhardt, 1989). The analysis will be carried out together with companies and results will be a base for decisions in each companies as well as part in academic research.

    Patterns will be identified among the cases (Yin, 1994). Earlier theoretical findings will be compared with the international development in the cases. Thereafter, the theory will be revised and the findings examined again. The reasoning is, in other words, not entirely inductive or deductive (Yin 1989). Following Eisenhardt’s (1989) recommendations, the analysis will include several iterations between theory and data.

    Implications

    The study will also give knowledge about pros and cons with different localisation alternatives on emerging markets. It is easy to just follow management trends (everyone should out-source production and buy supplies from China) and “go with the flock” instead of get knowledge of different alternatives. The comparison between the different firms will increase the knowledge about when different alternatives are suitable.

  • 329.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Awuah, Gabriel
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Wictor, Ingemar
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Danilovic, Mike
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Innovation in Internationalization of Born Global firms2012In: 15th McGill International Entrepreneurship Conference, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Globalization and increased liberalization of markets have made it possible for many firms, large or Small and Medium –Sized Firms (SMEs), to be in many foreign markets, especially those in the global industries (Czinkota and Ronkainen, 2007; Doole and Lowe, 2008, 2004). Since trade barriers among markets have fallen dramatically, due to the effects of globalization, intense competition in many markets, and the spread of technological improvements in almost all sectors of any economy, many firms (small or large) seek to establish their presence in many foreign markets (Awuah, et. al., 2011; Doole and Lowe, 2008; Driffield and Love, 2007). Studies abound to shed light on why and how firms internationalize their business activities (Andersson, 2011; Moen, et al., 2004; Knight and Cavusgil, 1996; Johanson and Vahlne, 1990, 1977; Johanson and Wiedersheim-Paul, 1975). Although increased globalization, trade liberalization, and technological improvements do enable many firms (e.g. “Mininationals” or “Born Globals”) to serve several markets (Doole and Lowe, 2008; Czinkota and Ronkainen, 2007), there has emerged an intense competition among firms in all countries (Peng et al., 2008; Czinkota and Ronkainen, 2007; Beamish and Lu, 2004). For many SMEs, a number of factors (e.g. lower trade barriers, increased competition, rapid technological developments, shrinking market opportunities in domestic market, and firm-specific advantages combine to drive their rapid entry into foreign markets (Andersson, 2011; Peng et al., 2008; Moen, et al., 2004). SMEs that have, from the very inception of their establishment, had the drive to internationalize their business activities are termed “Born Global Firms”, in the subsequent sections to be addressed just as born globals (Andersson, 2011; Rialp et al., 2005; Knight and Cavusgil, 1996; Madsen and Servias, 1997). 

    Previous studies about a firm’s internationalization has predominantly concentrated on big multinational firms, where their motives for internationalization, the pace and pattern of their internationalization have been widely studied (Qian and Delios, 2008; Johanson and Vahlne, 1990, 1977; Johanson and Wiedersheim-Paul, 1975; Cavusgil, 1984; Coviello, 2006). In recent times studies have emerged, which have found out that the pace and pattern of the internationalization of big multinational firms are not in line with the pace and pattern, through which born globals, for example, internationalize their business activities (Andersson, 2011; Andersson and Wictor, 2003; Moen, et al., 2004; Rialp, et. al., 2005; Knight and Cavusgil, 1996; Madsen and Servais, 1997).  

    However, extant literature is virtually silent on what it takes for a born global (a small international player with limited resources, for example) to compete with big and resourceful multinational enterprises in many international markets. Our contention is that born globals’ ability to use innovative solutions to create sustainable competitive advantages as they aspire to expand and grow in international markets will be very crucial. The pace and pattern at which born globals internationalize their businesses, in the face of intense competition in almost all markets, in order to provide innovative solutions that enable them to achieve competitive advantages in the marketplace is under-researched. This has been an important reason for the study of the present phenomenon.   As stressed by Doole and Lowe (2008), products and services offered by firms, these days, are becoming ‘commodities’ (i.e. ‘me too’ products/services), if firms are not able to differentiate the core product benefit or service by offering a bundle of benefits for target customers or users in a target market. For Porter (1985), the competitive advantage of a firm grows fundamentally out of the value the firm can create for its customers, irrespective of the markets in which a firm operates.  Operating across borders, though offers opportunities, dealing with new set of macro-environmental factors (e.g. politics, laws, economics, cultures, and societies) and intense competition, will demand that a born global, for example, differentiates its products and services that will help it to meet similar needs and wants of its transnational customers, while it adapts to meet different market-specific requirements and/or needs of customers (e.g. Doole and Lowe, 2008). And for Doyle and Stern (2006), a firm that is good at satisfying customer needs, better than its competitors can do, has the best opportunities to grow and expand. Hence, Born Globals and their growth and expansion narratives are worth studying.

    In view of the above, the purpose of the present study is to investigate a born global’s use of innovative solutions to create sustainable competitive advantages as it expands and grows in different international markets. To be able to achieve the above purpose, we seek to address the following research questions:

    1. Why and how does a born global firm enter any chosen foreign market?
    2. Which strategies does the firm develop and implement in order to provide innovative solutions that will help achieve sustainable competitive advantages as the firm strives to grow and expand in the marketplace?
    3. Does the firm use ‘go-alone’ strategies or does it use strategies that influence and are influenced by other actors and the effect thereof? 
  • 330.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Baffour Awuah, Gabriel
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    International Growth in Born Globals – Continued Growth through Networking on Institutionally Distant Markets2015In: Handbook On International Alliance and Network Research / [ed] Jorma Larimo, Niina Mummela and Tuija Mainela, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2015, p. 139-154Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this chapter is to shed light on how a born global can obtain continued growth internationally, in institutionally distant markets. We are seeking a deeper understanding of international growth for born global enterprises by combining theories of networks and institutional perspective. We discuss how institutional distance affects the internationalization processes in born globals. We seek to highlight why and how a born global firm does enter different markets. In this respect, born globals from developed countries and those from emerging markets are compared, leading us to derive some propositions from our discussions.

    Finally some suggestions for future research are presented. 

  • 331.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Berggren, Eva
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Born Global or Local? Factors influencing the Internationalization of University Spin-Offs - The Case of Halmstad University2016In: Journal of International Entrepreneurship, ISSN 1570-7385, E-ISSN 1573-7349, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 296-322Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A wealth of research in the past decades has examined born globals or international new ventures, which are firms that from inception view the whole world as a market and as a source to access resources. Many of these firms build their competitive advantage on high-tech knowledge. However, although many studies have shown how born globals can achieve success if they access resources through their relationships from actors in their networks, few studies have explored the relationship between born globals and universities. Universities are important actors in creating new technology knowledge, and many studies have shown how new firms, or so-called university spin-offs (USOs), are formed around universities. The current study explores why some USOs are successful in their international growth strategy and discusses the factors that influence and facilitate the internationalization process. The study investigates 10 USOs around the newly established Halmstad University in Sweden and finds that universities have a positive effect on firm creation and initial international growth. The regional competence base increases from the establishment of a local university, primarily by strengthening the regional human capital and by increasing university research. This study shows that researcher entrepreneurs’ ventures start as born globals, but that these firms do not continue to grow. Born global business models, per se, do not lead to competitive advantage and successful internationalization. Instead, a strategy built on customer focus and an ability to adapt to different customer demands lead to growth, and the location of growth is dependent on the size of the home market. This study also shows that student entrepreneurship can be a successful growth strategy for USOs focusing on both international and local markets. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New York

  • 332.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Berggren, Eva
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Knowledge Entrepreneurship and Enterprise Research (KEEN).
    Born Globals and Born Locals originating from University Spin-Offs2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on firm’s that already from inception see the whole world as a market and/or the whole world as a source to access resources, so called born globals. Many of these firms, build their competitive advantage on high-tech knowledge. Universities have shown to be an important actor, to create technology knowledge, and numerous studies have shown how new firms are created around universities, so called University Spin-offs (USOs). Earlier research has shown that some USOs are successful with their international growth strategies. This study aims to explore why some USOs are successful in their international growth strategy and some are not. 10 USO around the newly established Halmstad University in Sweden is investigated. Both USOs founded be students and researchers are included in the sample. This study shows the positive influence of a university for firm creation and international growth. The regional competence base has increased by the establishment of a local university, primarily by strengthening the regional human capital, but lately also by an increased amount of university research. This study has showed student entrepreneurs more successful in growth and international development than researcher entrepreneurs, which imply that further development of support for student entrepreneurship is fruitful to create international growing firms.

  • 333.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Danilovic, Mike
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Business Model Innovation (BMI). Shanghai Dianji University, Shanghai, China.
    Hanjun, Huang
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Success Factors in Western and Chinese Born Global Companies2015In: iBusiness, ISSN 2150-4075, E-ISSN 2150-4083, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 25-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Born Global firms are becoming increasingly more important in terms of internationalization, innovation, ability to grow and providing employment. Most of the previous research about BornGlobals is done in North America, Europe or Australia, all these being developed industrialized countries but not developing countries or emerging markets. However, the emerging markets in general, and the Chinese in particular, have become very important for the world economy. Our aim is to investigate the differences between Western literature and literature from emerging markets, regarding internationalization process of Born Global firms. We also aim to discuss the various success factors, which underlie Born Globals’ internationalization process, particularly focusing on Born Globals firms in the China. Our methodology in this research has been literature review and interviews with Chinese CEOs of Born Global firms. However, this paper is only based on the litterateur part of our research. Our analysis shows that most of the Chinese Born Globals publications about the internationalization success factors are based on the Western literature and use them as the theoretical platform in the design of their own research strategy and research questions design. The consequence of this observation is important as it indicates that Chinese researchers are reproducing research under different contextual and situational conditions that might lead to unclear conclusions or maybe even wrong conclusions. Furthermore, compared to most Western Born Global companies, which treat innovation as core competence, the innovation culture becomes one of the biggest weaknesses of Chinese manufacturing Born Globals’ internationalization. China has special economic environment. Chinese manufacturing Born Globals not only need to follow the market but also the government policies, since the government greatly influences the industries and the whole economy. To foreign investors who want to exploit Chinese market, they also should take Chinese economic background and government policies into consideration. One important aspect of Chinese born Globals, neglected in previous research on Born Globals, that has been identified in our research, is the critical success factor of Chinese manufacturing Born Globals—the political and economic background and the role of the Chinese Government in the transformation process of Chinese business life, and the Guanxi network.

  • 334.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Eriksson, Martin
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Lundmark, Linda
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Internationalisation in Malaysian furniture firms: gradual or rapid internationalisation?2006In: International Journal of Globalisation and Small Business, ISSN 1479-3059, E-ISSN 1479-3067, Vol. 1, no 3, p. 220-243Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study of the initial steps in a firm's international development has traditionally been dominated by various forms of the 'stage theory', but these theories have been challenged more recently by evidence that rapid internationalisation can take place in certain firms contradicting the notion of gradual development that was an essential aspect of the stage-model perspective. Moreover, earlier studies and models have been developed in industrialised countries. The present study examines the internationalisation of Malaysian furniture firms and concludes that the traditional stage models are not suited to understanding the development of these firms. The firms did not expand in a gradual manner, and did not choose markets that were 'psychically close' to Malaysia. The emerging literature on 'born globals' was a better tool for understanding the development of these firms. However, this literature must be complemented with country-specific and industry-specific factors, if full understanding of the international expansion of firms in developing countries, such as Malaysia, is to be achieved.

  • 335.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Evangelista, Felicitas
    School of Marketing and International Business University of Western Sydney, Sydney, Australia.
    The entrepreneur in the Born global Firm in Australia and Sweden2004Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The most common denominator in Born Global research is probably the importance of the entrepreneur. Following these results this article will go deeper into how the entrepreneur influences the development of a born global firm. Studies have been carried out in many countries. To be able to draw conclusions on how the national context influences the Born Global phenomenon, this study compares findings from both Australia and Sweden.

    Although there are many studies that have identified the impact of entrepreneurs and management on firms’ internationalisation, there is still a need for more research to enhance the understanding of born global firms’ international behaviour. This study aims to go one step further and try to do a more fine-grained analysis. How do entrepreneurs influence the development of Born Global firms in Australia and Sweden? Through a literature review the following points were identified:

    • Number of people in the top management team
    • International experience and industry experience
    • Marketing/Technical entrepreneur and active/reactive internationalization strategy
    • Global mindset
    • Personal network

    Method

    A case approach was considered as the most appropriate to catch the complexity of the Born Global phenomenon. The case studies are mainly built on personal interviews but complemented with secondary data, such as business magazines, annual reports and internal documents. We interviewed the entrepreneurs that were involved in the founding of the Born Global companies.

    The analysis of the data included several steps. The information from interviews and other sources were written down in descriptive narratives. This process allows the researcher to become intimately familiar with each case and allows the unique patterns of each case to emerge before cross-case comparison. To find common patterns, the cases were compared in terms of the issues identified in the literature review. Earlier theoretical findings were compared with the international development in the Australian and Swedish born global firms. Differences and similarities were discussed.

    Conclusions

    In this study we have shown the importance of entrepreneurs and entrepreneurial teams for the rapid internationalization of firms in Australia and Sweden. We can conclude that there were no big differences between the developments of the Born Global firms in the two countries. However one interesting difference turned up. In Australia the country image was negative for selling high-tech products within Australia. The country image has an impact on the company for go abroad. In this case it seemed like the country image was more negative within Australia than overseas. In Sweden, the country image was not a problem for the types of product studied. However, in the Swedish medical II case the company had problem to sell their product within Sweden. It has been very hard to get the product financed by the national health care system in Sweden, as the product cannot be classified as medicine or as a mean for disabled. In Germany this was not a problem. This shows that national differences still exists and it is important to deal with them to succeed. The entrepreneurs in the Born Global firms do not see these problems on the home market as discouraging but go on to fin markets overseas.

    In this study we have focused on the entrepreneurs and found two different types. One common type of Born Global entrepreneur is the experienced employee, who works in a large organization and has ambitions and ideas that he found that he cannot fulfill in the large organisation. He is keen on starting a new business on his own or together with others who share his ideas and ambitions. The other is the younger, not so experienced, but ambitious with new ideas. He/she doesn’t want to be a part of a large organization, but want to fulfill his ideas in an own organisation. Both these types of entrepreneurs have a global mindset that they have acquired in different ways.

    There is also a difference between marketing and technical entrepreneurs. Even if Born Global entrepreneurs have interests and skills in both these areas they are often most interested in one of these areas. In High-tech industries a fast internationalization can be possible without an active internationalization, as the high-tech product often is very specialized and the home market is too small in countries as Sweden and Australia. Internationalization does not have to be an issue in the founding process in a Born Global firm. In a more mature industry, however, an active internationalization is necessary to expand abroad.

    The personal networks were very important for the entrepreneurs in the Born Global firms. The entrepreneurs with industry experience could use their contacts to expand their own business. Personal networks were also important to secure finance and to find partners in other areas. When the Born Global firms are created they are small with few financial resources. To be able to expand abroad they must cooperate with many others and these partners are found in personal networks

  • 336.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Evangelista, Felicitas
    School of Marketing and International Business, University of Western Sydney, Sydney, Australia.
    The entrepreneur in the Born Global firm in Australia and Sweden2006In: Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, ISSN 1462-6004, E-ISSN 1758-7840, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 642-659Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this research is to identify and analyse the common characteristics and behaviour of entrepreneurs that affect the establishment of Born Global firms. The differences between the Australian and Swedish contexts will be scrutinized.

    Design/methodology/approach – This study was designed to be qualitative in nature so that rich insights can be obtained directly from the entrepreneurs themselves. The sample consists of three Born Global firms each from Australia and Sweden.

    Findings – This study shows the importance of entrepreneurs for the rapid internationalization of firms in Australia and Sweden. Different types of entrepreneurs were identified and small but important differences were identified between the two countries and different industries.

    Research limitations/implications – This study shows that analysis on an individual level enhances the understanding of internationalisation in new firms. By using the concept marketing and technical entrepreneur in different industrial contexts a more detailed understanding of different internationalization patterns can be obtained. This study is limited to two countries and six case studies. The findings may be limited to the chosen firms and studies across more countries and industries are needed.

    Practical implications – This study shows that the entrepreneur should be in focus when analysing new firms' possibilities to expand abroad. Entrepreneurs can use their international experience, visions, ambitions and networks as crucial competencies in an international expansion. Different types of entrepreneurs can use different international strategies.

    Originality/value – The focus and detailed analysis on the individual level across different countries make this study original.

  • 337.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Evers, Natasha
    J.E. Cairnes School of Business and Economics, NUI Galway, Galway, Ireland.
    International opportunity recognition in international new ventures—a dynamic managerial capabilities perspective2015In: Journal of International Entrepreneurship, ISSN 1570-7385, E-ISSN 1573-7349, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 260-276Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article aims to advance theoretical knowledge of the international opportunity recognition in international new ventures (INVs) from a dynamic capabilities perspective with particular focus on the emergent perspective of dynamic managerial capabilities. Building the extant literature on international opportunity recognition, dynamic capabilities theory, this paper presents a conceptual framework explaining how dynamic capabilities of the firm can be created and enacted through the entrepreneur’s dynamic managerial capabilities and actions for international opportunity identification for international firm growth. Drawing on the dynamic capabilities theory and more recent dynamic managerial capabilities perspective, this article enriches understanding of how opportunities are identified for the venture’s international development and growth. The article concludes with theoretical and research implications. © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media New York

  • 338.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Evers, Natasha
    J.E. Cairnes School of Business and Economics, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland.
    The development of dynamic managerial capabilities and their influence of rapid international growth2013In: The 16th Annual McGill International Entrepreneurship Conference: Researching New Frontiers, 2013, p. 17-17Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article aims to advance theoretical knowledge of the development of dynamic managerial capabilities in international growing firms by reviewing and synthesizing available research into a conceptual framework. The framework explains how dynamic managerial capabilities, through international entrepreneurial actions, affect international growth. By including concepts from managerial dynamic capabilities theory, this article enriches understanding of a firm’s international development and growth.

    This article’s findings contribute to the emerging field of capability development (Ambrosini et al., 2009; Gavetti, 2005) and to the international entrepreneurship area (Jones et al., 2011). This study advances the resource-based and dynamic capability research agenda by paying greater attention to the role of managers in strategic and organizational change. In particular, this study focuses on managerial capability development at the individual level. The focus on development over time provides a richer understanding of the interplay among managerial social capital, managerial human capital, and managerial cognition. This study also develops a model that shows how dynamic managerial capabilities through international entrepreneurial actions affect international growth. That is, contributions are given to provide understanding of why firms are able to grow rapidly internationally. 

  • 339.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Evers, Natasha
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER). National University of Ireland (NUI), Galway, Ireland.
    Chen, Xuelin
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Zhang, Yini
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Business and Social Networking for Rapid SME Market Entry and Development in China2017In: / [ed] Natasha Evers, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores how the firm’s business and social relationships influence how adolescent Swedish born globals and Born Again Globals develop their customer base following post market entry into China. Using the network perspective and extant research on Chinese Guanxi, this study shows how Swedish manufacturing exporters leverage their network relationships in different phases the internationalisation process, in term of the extension, penetration and integration upon entry and post-market entry into China. A qualitative case study approach of three Swedish manufacturing adolescent born global and born again firms, on the Chinese market is employed. A framework developed from a network perspective is used to analyze the data. The study demonstrates the importance, and the degrees of impact, of business and social networks in market and post market entry into China. Business networks emerge as most important in the first part of the market entry process and when networks were integrated between China and other markets. However, social relationships had greater impact in facilitating the firm’s commitment of resources and its market penetration into China. The study also shows that business and social networks were interpreted as synonymous in the Chinese business context, in that social relationships (Guanxi) were considered just as important as business relationships from the Chinese perspective. Hence managing social dimensions of the relationship (Guanxi) were just as important as the business dimensions when conducting relationships with their Chinese customer and business partners.

  • 340.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Evers, Natasha
    The Marketing Discipline, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland.
    Gliga, Gabriela
    The Marketing Discipline, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland.
    Entrepreneurial marketing and born global internationalisation in China2018In: Qualitative Market Research, ISSN 1352-2752, E-ISSN 1758-7646, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 202-231Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This study aims to explore the entrepreneurial marketing (EM) behaviour of Swedish born globals entering the Chinese market through their international networks. Drawing from the network theory of small firm internationalisation, this study is positioned in the domain of EM, and thus captures the relevance of EM behaviour to explain how born globals internationalise through their networks.

    Design/methodology/approach: A qualitative case study approach of two Swedish born global companies active in the Chinese market is used. The network theory helps analyse the data in the three phases of firm internationalisation processes.

    Findings: The study shows the importance of networks for the enactment of EM for born globals. The study traces the evolution of network development in the market entry process of born globals and highlights the importance of aligning network leverage with contextual factors for market performance.

    Research limitations/implications: The generalisation of the findings is limited due to the exploratory nature of the study and the size of the research sample.

    Practical implications: Management of different types of networks is essential in the entry process and further growth of born globals in the Chinese market. In addition, born globals operating in psychically distant and complex institutionally contexts can especially gain support from intermediary networks.

    Originality/value: This study extends knowledge of international entrepreneurship by demonstrating that born global managers can enact EM behaviour by leveraging networks to gain rapid entry into the Chinese market. It further highlights the role of firms’ networks in the EM activities in their internationalisation. The conceptual underpinnings of EM and network theory provide greater understanding of how born globals enter and grow their psychically distant markets.

     © 2018, Emerald Publishing Limited.

  • 341.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Evers, Natasha
    National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland.
    Griot, Clemence
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Local and Global Networks in Small Firm Internationalisation – Cases from the Rhone-Alp Medical Technology Cluster2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although networks have been shown in many studies to be critical for the international development of firms, surprisingly few studies have focused on the influence of local networks and global networks in the internationalisation of firms operating in industrial clusters. This study explores the internationalisation processes of small and medium sized firms operating in the medical technology cluster in the Rhone-Alp region in France. Firstly, we find that local and global networks influence the internationalisation processes of the case firms but in different ways. The influence of such networks were determined by the regional location, industry dynamics and the life-cycle of firms in the cluster. Second, internationalising firms found were Born Globals, led by entrepreneurs globally market-orientated from inception and Born Again Globals, late but rapid internationalisers. The internationalisation of Born Again Globals was triggered by a critical event that redirected the firm rapidly on to global markets late in their life-cycle. Thirdly, local networks were important for initiating internationalisation for the Born Global firm yet held limited importance for the Born Again Globals in the cluster. Local networks in the cluster were however, important for both Born Global and Born Again Globals for developing and internationalising their innovations.

  • 342.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Evers, Natasha
    Marketing Discipline, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland.
    Griot, Clémence
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2). La Redoute Sverige AB, Borås, Sweden.
    Local and international networks in small firm internationalization: Cases from the Rhône-Alpes medical technology regional cluster2013In: Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, ISSN 0898-5626, E-ISSN 1464-5114, Vol. 25, no 9-10, p. 867-888Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores the internationalization processes of small firms operating in the medical technology cluster in the Rhône-Alpes region in France. The study demonstrates that both the location and the sectoral type of industry cluster influence the internationalization and network dynamics in the cluster. In addition, both local and international networks influence firm internationalization processes in different ways. First, the firm life-cycle, industry and locational cluster dynamics determine the extent of network influence on firms' internationalization processes. Second, two types of internationalizing firms emerge in this study: born global firms, led by proactive entrepreneurs and globally market-orientated firms from inception, and born-again globals, which engage in late but rapid internationalization as a result of new management or foreign acquisition. Third, local networks in the cluster are important for influencing the internationalization of the born global firm at inception. In contrast, international networks serve as the main impetus for re-launching internationalization for the born-again globals. Fourth, the local research institutions and their connections abroad help both born globals and born-again global firms develop and internationalize their innovations rapidly in the global marketplace.

  • 343.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Evers, Natasha
    National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland.
    Kuivalainen, Olli
    Lappeenranta University of Technology, Lappeenranta, Finland.
    International new ventures – rapid internationalization across different industry contexts2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The nature of the industry, or the environment in which the firm operates, can have a significant impact on the internationalization of the new venture. The impact of industry factors has received limited attention in the context of international entrepreneurship, however. The goals of this conceptual paper are the following: First, we present some insights into the industry idiosyncrasies and INVs and present a conceptual framework identifying key industry variables to aid further examination of the role industry factors on new venture internationalization processes and strategies, and hence, this paper can be seen as an early version of the conceptual review. Second, we build up propositions how industry affects the internationalization process of the INVs. In this we provide a platform for further studies in the domain of international entrepreneurship.

  • 344.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Evers, Natasha
    National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland.
    Kuivalainen, Olli
    Lappeenranta University of Technology, Lappeenranta, Finland.
    International new ventures: rapid internationalization across different industry contexts2014In: European Business Review, ISSN 0955-534X, E-ISSN 1758-7107, Vol. 26, no 5, p. 390-405Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this article is to, first, offer insights into the relationship between industry idiosyncrasies and international new ventures (INVs), and then present a research conceptual framework that identifies the role of industry factors in new venture internationalization processes and strategies. Second, the authors introduce the content of this special issue. Design/methodology/approach – This conceptual article builds on extant studies on INVs operating in different industrial contexts. Particular attention is given to the role of industry influences in the processes of new venture internationalization, in terms of speed, geographical scope and entry strategy. Such factors are discussed to formulate a conceptual framework as a basis for further research. Findings – The conceptual framework identifies key industry factors as well as emergent factors that influence the new venture internationalization process, in terms of speed, geographical scope and entry strategy. Such key influencing factors are competition and structure, industry life cycle, industry concentration, knowledge intensity, local cluster internationalization and global industry integration. Emergent factors are identified as new business models, technology and industry network dynamics. Research limitations/implications – This article is conceptual in nature, and thus empirical research is recommended in diverse contexts. Practical implications – Further analysis of industry factors is a valid research avenue for understanding INVs. Originality/value – This special issue offers new insights into how industry factors influence INVs’ internationalization processes in terms of speed, scope and entry strategy.

  • 345.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Florén, Henrik
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Differences in managerial behavior between small international and non-international firms2011In: Journal of International Entrepreneurship, ISSN 1570-7385, E-ISSN 1573-7349, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 233-258Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main question raised in this article is whether there are any differences between the work activities of managers in small firms primarily operating on an international market and those managing firms doing business on a domestic market. If so, what are these differences, and what do they tell us about the internationalization of small firms? The comparative method used here is based on multiple approaches including interviews, diary studies, and direct observations. The conclusions indicate that managers in small international firms are more proactive in their networking behavior, delegate operative activities and devote more time to planned strategic activities connected with their international expansion than managers in other small firms. 

  • 346.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Florén, Henrik
    Exploring differences in the work of owner-managers in small international and non-international firms2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main question raised in this article is whether there are any differences between the work activities of managers in small firms primarily operating on an international market and those managing firms doing business on a domestic market. If so, what are these differences, and what do they tell us about the internationalization of small firms? The comparative method used here is based on direct observation and analysis of about 2400 activities. The conclusions indicate that managers in small international firms are more proactive, delegate operative activities and devote more time to planned strategic activities connected with their international expansion than managers in other small firms.

  • 347.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Florén, Henrik
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Exploring managerial behavior in small international firms2008In: Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, ISSN 1462-6004, E-ISSN 1758-7840, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 31-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss the research on internationalization in small firms and research on managerial behavior, and it aims to develop new research questions that can enhance the understanding of the interface between these two areas.

    Design/methodology/approach: A literature review of internationalization of small firms is carried out. It is concluded that understanding of managerial behavior in small international firms is in need of improvement. Therefore, the literature on managerial behavior is described, scrutinized and deployed in the context of small firms' internationalization.

    Findings: No previous research has combined the research on small-business internationalization and managerial behavior. Hypotheses that can be empirically tested and new research questions that can yield a better understanding of the internationalization processes in small firms are developed.

    Research limitations/implications: The hypotheses developed in this study have not yet been tested empirically. Further research is suggested to confirm and elaborate these propositions.

    Practical implications: As the propositions in this study are not tested their practical implications are limited at present. However, earlier research has shown that there is a link between managerial behavior and firm behavior. Managers may be inspired by the study to reflect upon this link and adjust their behavior in ways that can improve their firms' international development.

    Originality/value: In this paper the research on internationalization in small firms is merged with the research on managerial behavior. By adding knowledge from the latter research tradition, the understanding of small-firm internationalization should be advanced through raising novel issues and applying new methodological tools.

  • 348.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Florén, Henrik
    What do managers in small international firms really do?2006In: McGill Conference on International Entrepreneurship, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 349.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Florén, Henrik
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Tell, Joakim
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Managerial behavior and small firm's internationalization2005In: McGill Conference on international entrepreneurship, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 350.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Gabrielsson, Jonas
    CIRCLE, Lunds universitet.
    Wictor, Ingemar
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Born Globals' foreign market channel strategies2006In: International Journal of Globalisation and Small Business, ISSN 1479-3059, E-ISSN 1479-3067, Vol. 1, no 4, p. 356-373Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Foreign entry mode choices are decisions of paramount importance for the long-term survival and growth of companies that are in a process of rapid international expansion. In this paper we seek to understand the foreign market channel strategies of Born Globals. We examine whether these companies develop a similar strategy regarding foreign entry mode choices and whether their market channel strategies differ from contemporary theories treating this problem. A comparative case study conducted on four companies meeting the criteria of Born Globals suggests that they do not show a common foreign entry mode. Instead, the companies seem to have very different market channel strategies even if they all have internationalised very rapidly. These findings are discussed against the current range of theoretical models that seek to explain the companies' foreign entry mode choice. We conclude the paper with some implications and suggestions for future research.

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