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  • 301.
    Evers, N.
    et al.
    Trinity Business School, Trinity College Dublin, The University of Dublin, Ireland.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Predictive and effectual decision-making in high-tech international new ventures – A matter of sequential ambidexterity2019In: International Business Review, ISSN 0969-5931, E-ISSN 1873-6149, article id 101655Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the international opportunity exploration and exploitation processes of high technology international new ventures (INVs) operating in the global medical devices sector. Drawing upon the effectuation and causation perspectives, we contribute to the micro-foundations of international entrepreneurship research in the early innovation development space by focusing on decision-making logics of techno-entrepreneurs of INVs. Specific focus is afforded to the phases of their exploration and exploitation of international opportunities leading to international new venture creation. In the pre-start-up and start-up stages of international new ventures, we find that sequential ambidexterity applies to how the subject firms manage the exploration and exploitation of opportunities in the delivery of their innovations to global markets. This research advances prior international entrepreneurship studies by focusing on the opportunity and innovation processes on the individual level. We identify different decision-making logics in the different phases and contrary to earlier findings in the international entrepreneurship (IE) area, we found causation logic to dominate the initial stages of exploration and effectuation logic, in the latter stages. Prior commercial experience presented itself as a key determining factor in the decision-making path chosen by international techno-entrepreneurs. Our study further extends the view of organizational ambidexterity by offering empirical insights into the relevance of sequential ambidexterity for understanding the processes of innovation exploration and exploitation in high-tech INVs and the decision-making logics driving these processes. © 2019 Elsevier Ltd

  • 302.
    Evers, Natasha
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER). JE Cairnes School of Business and Economics, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Decision-making logics in international opportunity exploration and exploitation in high tech ventures2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the decision-making logics of entrepreneurs during the exploration and exploitation phases of international opportunities. Data was collected from four med-tech international new ventures in Ireland and Sweden. Adopting a longitudinal approach, we captured the processual dynamics of exploration and exploitation and identified decision-making behaviours adopted by INV entrepreneurs in different phases of the international opportunity process. This study finds that he entrepreneur’s decision-making logic falls contingent on their personal knowledge base and nature of industry dynamics surrounding the exploration and exploitation processes. The study finds that those entrepreneurs with a scientific and engineering background drew on causation decision-making logic in the exploration processes concerning technology development, whereas during the exploitation process they enacted more effectuated behaviours in decisions particulary relating to marketing experimentation and development, mainly due to their lack of prior commercial experience and business know-how. This study contributes to the domain of international entrepreneurship (IE) research with a particular focus on decision-making logic in the exploration and exploitation processes of international opportunities. It offers empirical insights into the degree of applicability of effectuation and causation logic in entrepreneurial decision-making. As IE is a young discipline, this study makes a number of inroads in advancing knowledge in the causation and effectuation theoretical perspectives on IE with specific focus on the complex entrepreneurial processes of exploration and exploitation of international opportunities in high tech contexts.

  • 303.
    Evers, Natasha
    et al.
    National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Dynamic Managerial Capabilities And International Opportunity Creation – Empirical Insights From Irish And Swedish Case Firms2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper builds upon and empirically tests our recently JIEN published conceptual model developed by Andersson and Evers (2015). This conceptual framework which advances the three core components of the dynamic managerial capabilities: cognitive, social and human capital (Adner and Helfat, 2003) is an attempt to conceptualise and provide theoretical understanding as to how dynamic managerial capabilities are developed within small internationalising firms for creating and capturing international opportunities.  Building upon this conceptual model and extant theoretical studies, this paper sets out to do three things. Firstly, drawing upon the recent conceptual model developed by Andersson and Evers, (JIEN 2015), this research inquiry explores the role of dynamic managerial capabilities in how international opportunities are created and exploited in Irish and Sweden small internationalising companies. Second, it examines the dichotomy between opportunity discovery and the emergent yet controversial concept of opportunity creation. Thirdly, it explores empirically the theoretical relevance of opportunity creation across the findings. Fourthly, this research pays particular attention to top managers and their top management teams (TMTs) as the primary source of dynamic managerial capabilities.  In the empirical evidence, we seek to understand how dynamic managerial capabilities are developed and utilized by INV managers to create and capture international opportunities. 

  • 304.
    Evers, Natasha
    et al.
    NUI Galway, Galway, Ireland.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    The role of stakeholders in developing marketing capabilities in internationalising SMEs2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to extend the concept of dynamic capabilities in relation to the marketing function of the organisation, with particular focus on the role of stakeholders in marketing capability-building processes to deliver unique marketing assets for competitive advantage in international new ventures. Using a cross-country case approach of firms in Ireland, Sweden and Denmark, we identify and empirically examine the role of stakeholder groups in developing market-relating capabilities that enable firms to acquire and effectively respond to the dynamic international market environments. This study suggests that small internationalising firms must move beyond market orientation strategies for developing marketing capabilities to consider other stakeholder groups for driving firm performance.  This study finds that various stakeholders play a critical role in influencing the nature of the firm’s marketing capabilities. The nature of stakeholder groups can influence the learning processes of the firm and thus can determine the type of marketing capabilities and marketing assets the firm develops for competitive advantage.

    In particular, we find that managerial capabilities of entrepreneur/manager stakeholder are central in managing and leveraging the relationships between the firm and stakeholder relationships for capturing and regenerating marketing resources and capabilities for generating rents.

  • 305.
    Evers, Natasha
    et al.
    J.E. Cairnes School of Business and Economics, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Hannibal, Martin
    Department of Marketing and Management, University of Southern Denmark, Denmark.
    Stakeholders and Marketing Capabilities in International New Ventures: Evidence from Ireland, Sweden and Denmark2012In: Journal of International Marketing, ISSN 1069-031X, E-ISSN 1547-7215, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 46-71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Few studies have examined the dynamic capabilities perspective in the context of international new ventures (INVs) and, in particular, toward their marketing activities. Using a cross-country case approach, this article explores the role of stakeholders in the marketing capability–building processes of INVs in Ireland, Sweden, and Denmark. The study reveals that different stakeholders play a critical role in influencing how INVs build their marketing capabilities to respond effectively to the dynamic nature of international markets in which they operate. The results show that different stakeholder groups (allied, cooperative, neutral, and entrepreneur) can influence the learning processes (single-, double-, and triple-loop) of the firm and can determine the nature of dynamic marketing capabilities (incremental,renewing, and regenerative) needed to create and sustain international competitive advantage. Furthermore, “effectuation logic” can explain how entrepreneurs manage and leverage stakeholder relationships in marketing capability processes to cocreate value for the firm. By incorporating dynamic capabilities, stakeholder, and learning theories, this study offers a dynamic, process-oriented model for INV research and provides much-needed qualitative insights into the dynamic capabilities theory of the firm. © 2012, American Marketing Association.

  • 306.
    Evers, Natasha
    et al.
    National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Hannibal, Martin
    South Denmark University, Odense, Denmark.
    Stakeholders and Marketing Capabilities in International New Ventures: Evidence from Ireland, Sweden and Denmark2012In: Proceedings of the 54th Annual Meeting of the Academy of International Business, East Lansing MI: Academy of International Business: Rethinking the Roles of Business, Government and NGOs in the Global Economy / [ed] S. Feinberg & T. Kiyak, Michigan: Academy of International Business , 2012, p. 233-233Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Few studies have examined dynamic capabilities perspective in the context of INVs and particularly toward their marketing activities. This paper aims to extend the concept of dynamic capabilities in relation to the marketing function of the organization, with particular focus on the role of stakeholders in marketing capability-building processes to deliver competitive advantage in international new ventures (INVs). Using a cross-country case approach of firms in Ireland, Sweden and Denmark, we explore the role of stakeholder groups in developing market-relating capabilities that enable INVs to effectively respond to the dynamic nature of international market they operate in. This study finds that various stakeholders play a critical role in influencing how INVs build their marketing capabilities for their international development. The nature of stakeholder groups can influence the learning processes of the firm and thus can determine the type of marketing capabilities the firm develops for international competitive advantage. In particular, we find that capabilities of entrepreneur/manager stakeholder are central in managing and leveraging the relationships between the firm and stakeholder relationships for dynamically modifying, renewing and regenerating marketing capabilities.

  • 307.
    Evers, Natasha
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER). Marketing Discipline, J.E. Cairnes School of Business & Economics, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland.
    Cunningham, James A
    Newcastle Business School, Northumbria University, Newcastle Upon Tyne, United Kingdom.
    Hoholm, Thomas
    Department of Innovation and Economic Organisation, BI Norwegian Business School, Oslo, Norway.
    International entrepreneurship in universities: Context, emergence and actors2016In: Journal of International Entrepreneurship, ISSN 1570-7385, E-ISSN 1573-7349, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 285-295Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This special issue presents an opportunity to explore the international aspects of academic and university based international entrepreneurship. Over the last decades much research attention has been focused on university spin-off firms (USOs) on issues such as, creation, risk, strategies and performance (see Druilhe and Garnsey, 2004; Link and Scott, 2005; Lockett and Wright, 2005; Walter et al, 2006; Wright et al., 2006). There has been a dearth of studies that have examined the international dimensions and aspects of university-based spin-off firms. The six articles presented in this special issue point towards interesting future research agendas at the interface between academic and international entrepreneurship. Three core themes emerge from this special issue: Context, Emergence and Actors. In sum, this special issue pinpoints: firstly, specific features of universities and research organizations as contexts for international technology entrepreneurship; secondly, the process of organizational emergence and entrepreneurial cognition; and thirdly, insight into learning processes of USOs and the role of non-academic actors. Our article concludes by identifying future avenues of research. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New York

  • 308.
    Evers, Natasha
    et al.
    National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland.
    Kuivalainen, Olli
    Lappeenranta University of Technology, Lappeenranta, Finland.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Industry Factors Influencing International New Ventures’ Internationalisation Processes2015In: The Rise of Multinationals from Emerging Economies: Achieving a New Balance / [ed] Palitha Konara, Yoo Jung Ha, Frank McDonald & Yingqi Wei, Houndmills, Basingstoke Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan, 2015, 1, p. 226-242Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The nature of the industry, or the environment in which the firm operates, can have a significant impact on the internationalisation of the new venture. The impact of industry factors has received limited attention in the context of international entrepreneurship. This chapter builds on extant studies on International New ventures (INVs) operating in different industrial contexts. Particular attention is given to the role of industry influences in the processes of new venture internationalisation, in terms of geographical scope (number of target markets the firm enters), entry strategy (entry mode in foreign markets, e g distributers or subsidiaries) and internationalisation speed (the time span between the legal creation of a firm and its first international sale and the speed of a firm’s continued international growth). The goals of this chapter are the following: First, we present some insights into the industry idiosyncrasies and INVs and present a conceptual framework identifying key industry variables to aid further examination of the role industry factors on new venture internationalisation processes and strategies. Such key influencing factors are (1) knowledge intensity and product 2) industry life cycle, 3) degree of global industry integration [A1] (4) industry network dynamics, (5) business model and 6) local industry cluster internationalisation. Second, we build up propositions how industry affects the internationalisation process of the INVs. In this we provide a platform for further studies in the domain of international entrepreneurship.

  • 309.
    Fallahi, Sara
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Holmén, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Björkdahl, Joakim
    Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Organizing business model innovation in established firms2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research focusing on business model innovation tends to either be case-based, studying the transformation of a firm’s business model, or normative in terms of how to implement new business models. Prior research has tended to neglect the various choices and decisions of the organization for business model innovation and the mechanisms that lead to good or poor business model implementation performance. This paper identifies mechanisms that influence the performance of the business model innovation process. Empirically, the paper draws on two case studies of two multinational firms, Skanska and IKEA, and how they organized their business model innovation processes. The paper identifies four mechanisms, including search, leadership, commitment, and external collaboration, derived from within-case and cross-case analysis. The paper contributes to the growing field of business model innovation by showing important mechanisms that influence the potential and performance of the implemented business model innovations.

  • 310.
    Floriani, Dinora Eilete
    et al.
    UNIVALI - Universidade do Vale do Itajaí, Itajaí, Brazil.
    Morandi, Carini
    UNIVALI - Universidade do Vale do Itajaí, Itajaí, Brazil.
    Vasconcellos, Silvio
    FURB - Universidade Regional de Blumenau, Blumenau, Brazil.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Speed and Permanence: Elements of Internationalization of Technology-Based Firms2019In: Multinational Enterprises and their Non-market Social and Political Strategies', 46th Annual Conference of the Academy of International Business AIB-UKI (UK & Ireland Chapter), Brighton, The University of Sussex / [ed] Vikrant Shirodkar, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyzes the speed of internationalization and the permanence of the international operations of technology-based firms. We evaluated two types of technology-based companies: the creative ones, which are those whodevelopand sell software for digital entertainment, education, andgames; and the traditional ones, that is, those that develop and sell software for financial, legal, industrial sectors, among others. The speed with which these firms enter the international market after their foundation was analyzed, as well as the length of time these companies stay operating abroad, thus identifying sustainability over time. The search for results of this research used a qualitative, multiple case study with four internationalized technology-based firms, divided into two groups: creative and traditional. The contribution of this research is to explore which factors that influence the speed and permanence consider the potential of the intangible resource of creativity as a competitive advantage for rapid access to international markets, which, in turn, generates the knowledge that reflects in technological innovation to adapt and compete globally, making international operations sustainable over time.

  • 311.
    Florén, Henrik
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Collaborative approaches to management learning in small firms2003In: Journal of Workplace Learning, ISSN 1366-5626, E-ISSN 1758-7859, Vol. 15, no 5, p. 203-216Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to describe how learning in collaborative approaches – in this paper labeled “collaborative approaches to management learning” (CAML) – can support the learning situation of small firm owner-managers. Drawing on a socio-cognitive learning framework, the context of the small firm and its consequences for management learning are framed and discussed. Drawing on four episodes of management learning in CAML, it is suggested that CAML establishes a new context in which old truths can be questioned and new insights can be created. In CAML the owner-managers are offered a position on the periphery of practice of the other managers and other network visitors, where trust among the network participants provides the foundation for admitting and openly facing lack of knowledge on different issues, something that is prohibited within their enterprises, due to the lack of peers and expected omniscience of the owner-manager.

  • 312.
    Florén, Henrik
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Managerial work and learning in small firms2005Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis deals with how managerial work sets the agenda for managerial learning in small firms. Although studies of learning in organizations are numerous, research on managerial learning in the small-firm context is limited. In particular, our knowledge of managerial learning suffers from an insufficient understanding of what top managers in small firms do. The primary purpose of this thesis is to describe how the work of small-firm managers sets the agenda for managerial learning, and how their learning can be supported. Additionally, the thesis explores the use of so-called “Action Technologies” in supporting managerial learning in small firms.Drawing on an observational study of six owner-managers in small (17-43 employees) manufacturing firms, and a synthesis of earlier studies, this thesis shows that three features of managerial work shape managerial learning in small firms: The small firm’s top manager (i) operates in context with specific structural conditions that affect his/her behavior, (ii) have certain cognitive predispositions guiding his/her behavior, and (iii) have certain behavioral preferences directing his/her behavior.The main argument in this thesis is that managerial learning in small firms is made difficult due to features that make it hard to come to a point where learning (in terms of reflection and conceptualization) is given time and resources, as the manager has trouble in finding time for learning, and as learning risks to become low-priority. Learning is also difficult due to barriers related to the learning process: the work of the manager fosters a superficial learning orientation, makes it difficult to probe deeply into and to develop complicated understandings of issues at hand, and makes peer-learning rarely possible.Drawing on an action research project of managerial learning in four networks of small-firm owner-managers, the thesis also explores, in a concrete manner, how managerial learning might be supported in a way that circumvents the deficient situation for managerial learning in this kind of firm. More specifically, it seems that Action Technologies by their design constitute a learning context that supports the learning of the small-firm top manager by dissolving the barriers to learning identified above.

  • 313.
    Florén, Henrik
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Managerial work in small firms: summarising what we know and sketching a research agenda2006In: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research, ISSN 1355-2554, E-ISSN 1758-6534, Vol. 12, no 5, p. 272-288Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to describe the basic characteristics and qualities of managerial work in small firms.

    Design/methodology/approach: The article draws on a summary and synthesis of five studies from the “managerial-work research tradition” that investigates the behaviour of top managers in small firms by means of direct observation. Studies are evaluated by using research on managers' jobs in general, and some needs as well as guidelines for future research on entrepreneurial and managerial work in small firms are suggested.

    Findings: Managerial work in small firms is described by discussing: how managers divide their time between different activities; managerial interaction and communication, and the elements of managerial work in small firms. Three limitations of existing studies are identified: they are difficult to compare; they adopt a simplistic conception of the constituents of managers' jobs, and more specifically of the relation between the managing actor and the context in which he/she works; and they fail to recognise to the value of inductive analysis.

    Research limitations/implications: Future studies of managerial work in small firms have much to gain by considering the development that has been taking place within general management theory and in the study of managers' jobs. This article contributes a first step towards bringing research on managers' jobs into the small-business research community.

    Originality/value: The paper initiates a better understanding of the basics of managerial work in small firms, which has not previously been elaborated upon and is an important step in exploring the dynamics of small business management.

  • 314.
    Florén, Henrik
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Organising small-firm growth2011In: Research on Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management 2009‐2011: Introducing the Research Area of Innovation Science / [ed] Sven-Åke Hörte, Halmstad: Högskolan i Halmstad , 2011, p. 117-133Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper summarises the results some major undertakings to explain small‐firm growth. This is achieved through an in‐depth reading of three Swedish doctoral theses written by Tomas Brytting (1991), Frederic Delmar (1996) and Johan Wiklund (1998), and a number ofrecently published articles that have addressed this issue. The purpose of this paper is todescribe what we know about “organising for small‐firm growth” on a firm level. The main result of the paper is a description of what is known about organising for small‐firm growth in accordance with four dimensions: i) the strategy of the growing firm, ii) the entrepreneur/manager in the growing firm, iii) the resources and the capabilities of the growing firm and iv) the consequences of small‐firm growth, i.e. what organisational growth brings to a small firm. The paper also includes a discussion of the limitations of the reviewed research and suggestions for future research.

  • 315.
    Florén, Henrik
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Agostini, Alessandro
    Einsights Pte. Ltd., Singapore, Singapore.
    The Business Model Innovation Map: A Framework for Analyzing Business Model Innovation2015In: IAMOT 2015: 24th International Association For Management Of Technology Conference Proceedings: Technology, Innovation and Management for Sustainable Growth / [ed] Leon Pretorius & George Alex Thopil, Hatfield: University of Pretoria & Media Chef CC , 2015, p. 2192-2207Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Business model innovation has received substantial attention by both practitioners and researchers during the last fifteen years. While many companies have good processes and a shared sense of how to innovate technology, they are less capable when it comes to how they should innovate business models. This lack of practical skills is mirrored by the shortage of scholarly understanding, in which business model innovation as a phenomenon is poorly explained in comparison to e.g. product or process innovations.

    Although previous research has contributed greatly to the advancements of business model innovation, our conceptual understanding of business model innovation is still rather confused. Behind this study, lies two related assumptions; (i) not all business model innovations are the same, and, (ii) different types of business model innovation will challenge firms in different ways. To this background, the purpose of this study is to develop a framework that will allow for a conceptual differentiation between different types of business model innovation.

    The paper draws on previous studies in the field of technology and innovation management and develops a framework – “The Business Model Innovation Map” – that distinguishes between different types of business model innovation according to their degree of novelty. The framework is illustrated by several real-life examples of business model innovation.

    The paper adds to our understanding of innovation management as it allows for a better understanding of business model innovation as a distinct type of innovation. More specifically, it helps differentiating transformative business model innovations from mere incremental ones, and, as such, it presents a novel approach to categorize different types of business model innovation. The framework can serve as a basis for future in-depth empirical investigations of different types of business model innovation that can help firms to better understand how to manage such innovations. Copyright © 2015 by Halmstad University and Einsights Pte. Ltd.

  • 316.
    Florén, Henrik
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Frishammar, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    From Preliminary Ideas to Corroborated Product Definitions: Managing the Front End of New Product Development2012In: California Management Review, ISSN 0008-1256, E-ISSN 2162-8564, Vol. 54, no 4, p. 20-43Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Front-end activities largely influence the outcomes of new product development processes, because it is here that firms create new ideas, give them direction, and set them in motion. We show that the front end can be understood as comprising three core activities: idea/concept development, idea/concept alignment, and idea/concept legitimization, which allow firms to create corroborated product definitions. The paper provides important implications for managers interested in front-end management, and devote specific attention to the differences between incremental and radical front end development and to the front end in the light of increasingly open innovation processes. 

  • 317.
    Florén, Henrik
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Frishammar, Johan
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Lee, Carmen
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Ericsson, Magnus
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Luleå, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Stefan
    Höganäs AB, Höganäs, Sweden.
    A framework for raw materials management in process industries2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Firms in the process industries manipulate materials properties to produce upgraded raw materials for applications and products upstream in a supply chain. About 25% of the most research intensive firms in the world belong to the process industries, so proper management of raw materials is a key concern for many firms. This article explores the concept of “raw materials management”. By studying the current world leader in powder metallurgy, the Höganäs Corporation, the article describes the external and internal factors impacting how raw materials are managed, and how raw material issues affect different aspects of firm performance. Managerial implications are presented elaborating three key-areas that firms should deal with when developing a strategic approach to raw materials management.

  • 318.
    Florén, Henrik
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Frishammar, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Löf, Anton
    RMG Consulting, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ericsson, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Raw Materials Management in Iron and Steelmaking Firms2019In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 39-47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper adds new knowledge on how raw materials should be managed in iron and steelmaking firms. While previous research has contributed significantly to how firms should deal with functional challenges related to raw materials, the understanding of Raw Materials Management from a holistic perspective is largely lacking, and extant research does not provide qualified advice to firms on this matter. This study provides such knowledge by drawing on insights from Höganäs AB, a world leader in ferrous powder metallurgy, and their efforts to identify key aspects and principles of raw materials management. Our elaboration of a more holistic view on raw materials management builds on two elements. First, we depict five external uncertainties and three internal conditions that impact firm-level raw materials management. Second, we present six critical capabilities that underpin proficient firm-level raw materials management. The paper concludes with a discussion of implications for both firms aiming to increase their raw materials proficiency and to future investigations into this important area. © The Author(s) 2018

  • 319.
    Florén, Henrik
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Frishammar, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Parida, Vinit
    Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden & Hanken School of Economics, Helsinki, Finland.
    Critical success factors in early new product development: a review and a conceptual model2018In: The International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, ISSN 1554-7191, E-ISSN 1555-1938, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 411-427Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The literature on the front end in the New Product Development (NPD) literature is fragmented with respect to the identification and analysis of the factors that are critical to successful product development. The article has a two-fold purpose. First, it describes, analyses, and synthesizes those factors through a literature review of the research on the front end in NPD. Second, it conceptualizes a framework that features two types of success factors: foundational success factors (common to all the firm’s projects) and project-specific success factors (appropriate for the firm’s individual projects). The article makes recommendations for the management of this important phase of product development, discusses limitations of relevant previous research, and offers suggestions for future research. The article makes a theoretical contribution with its analysis and synthesis of the reasons for success in front-end activities and a practical contribution with its conceptual framework that can be used as an analytical tool by firms and their product managers. © 2017 The Author(s)

  • 320.
    Florén, Henrik
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Gabrielsson, Jonas
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Lee, Carmen
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Survival through Business Model Innovation: A Longitudinal Case Study from the Process Industries2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Itis widely acknowledged that the design and quality of the business model is amain building block in what constitute a successful company. In this paper, weapproach the critical question of how firms can successfully renew theirbusiness models over time. The aim is to identify the main sequences of eventsthat precede business model innovation and which trigger evolutionary changesin how a firm develops and capture value. Theoretically, we approach businessmodel innovation as an evolutionary phenomenon by emphasizing the dynamic andpath dependent aspects of strategic change processes. Empirically, we employ ahistorical case study where we make an in-depth analysis of a firm in theprocess industry that has managed to innovate its business model several timessince its inception. In all, the study identifies five main sequences of eventsrelated to customer value proposition, strategic investments, corporateidentity, corporate structure, and value networks.

  • 321.
    Florén, Henrik
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Gabrielsson, Jonas
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Lee, Carmen
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Survival Through Business Model Innovation: A Longitudinal Case Study from the Process Industries2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is widely acknowledged that the design and quality of the business model is a main building block in what constitute a successful company. In this paper, we approach the critical question of how firms can successfully renew their business models over time. The aim is to identify the main sequences of events that precede business model innovation and which trigger evolutionary changes in how a firm develops and capture value. Theoretically, we approach business model innovation as an evolutionary phenomenon by emphasizing the dynamic and path dependent aspects of strategic change processes. Empirically, we employ a historical case study where we make an in-depth analysis of a firm in the process industry that has managed to innovate its business model several times since its inception. In all, the study identifies five main sequences of events related to customer value proposition, strategic investments, corporate identity, corporate structure, and value networks.

  • 322.
    Florén, Henrik
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Halila, Fawzi
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Hörte, Sven-Åke
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Management av eco-innovationer2011Report (Other academic)
  • 323.
    Florén, Henrik
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Lee, Carmen
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    The Business Model and Supply Strategy: What is the Connection between them?2013In: Proceeding of 20th International Annual EurOMA Conference, Dublin, Ireland, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An assumption of this paper is that investments in business model development are only beneficial when firms understand how to deal with both customer and supplier interdependencies. We argue that an inadequate understanding of how to align supply strategy and business model design has hampered knowledge development within business model research.

    We review the literatures on business models and supply strategy to identify the conceptual intersection between these interrelated areas. We synthesize the fields of supply strategy and business model research to provide to an improved understanding of firms should incorporate a supply perspective in business model design.

  • 324.
    Florén, Henrik
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL). Halmstad Univ, Sch Business Engn & Sci, Halmstad, Sweden..
    Rundquist, Jonas
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL). Halmstad Univ, Sch Business Engn & Sci, Halmstad, Sweden..
    Fischer, Sebastian
    Sanofi Aventis Deutschland GmbH, Frankfurt, Germany.
    Entrepreneurial orientation and human resource management: effects from HRM practices2016In: Journal of Organizational Effectiveness, ISSN 2051-6614, E-ISSN 2051-6622, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 164-180Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between HRM practices and entrepreneurial orientation (EO) in large established firms. More specifically, the purpose is to add to the understanding of the influence of HRM practices on EO.

    Design/methodology/approach

    An e-mail survey was distributed to a sample of Swedish and German manufacturing firms in high-tech and medium high-tech manufacturing industries, and firms in knowledge-intensive services sectors, with more than 250 employees. In total, 810 surveys were distributed, with a response rate of 12.7 per cent. Findings - The results show that an emphasis on entrepreneurial aspects leads to an increased EO only in the case of training and development. A conclusion therefore is that it seems difficult to recruit personnel or to use appraisal and rewards as to create EO on a firm level.

    Practical implications

    The study indicates that firms aiming to increase their EO should make sure to emphasize entrepreneurial aspects during staff training and development activities. Originality/value - This empirical study paves the way towards a better understanding of the link between HRM practices and EO. The results should be of interest for both HR professionals and researchers interested in understanding this important relationship.

  • 325.
    Florén, Henrik
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Rundquist, Jonas
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Schuler, Randall S.
    Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ, USA.
    Bondarouk, Tanya
    University of Twente, Enschede, Netherlands.
    Ruël, Huub
    Windesheim University of Applied Sciences, Zwolle, Netherlands.
    HRM and innovation: themes, contingencies and directions for future research2014In: European Journal of International Management, ISSN 1751-6757, E-ISSN 1751-6765, Vol. 8, no 5, p. 570-577Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purposes of this special issue were to connect Human Resource Management (HRM) research and innovation research and to contribute towards a better understanding of how HRM can be deployed to support organisations in their innovation efforts. In this commentary, we review the results from the five articles in this special issue in general and offer suggestions for future research from these five contributions. We do this by pinpointing a number of themes, contingencies, measurement challenges and ideas on working with other research areas that might be useful in future research on the relationship between HRM and innovation.

  • 326.
    Florén, Henrik
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Tell, Joakim
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    A Review of the Literature on Learning and SMEs2002In: The SEAANZ Conference, 22nd-24th September 2002, Adelaide, Australia, 2002Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 327.
    Florén, Henrik
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Tell, Joakim
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Key learning themes in the small-business literature2003In: Small Enterprise Research: The Journal of SEAANZ, ISSN 1321-5906, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 56-70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents a review of the literature on learning in small businesses. The sources for the review are two major databases on management research: Social Science Citation Index (SSCI) and ABI/INFORM (ABI). In all, about 500 abstracts published between 1973 and 2002 have been classified. The review shows that research still is built on primary empirical research and that there are no obvious core groups of researchers publishing in the field. Our review does, however, identify a general trend pointing towards an increasing interest in research on learning in small businesses. Further, it is shown that key learning themes discussed during the last 30 years related to small businesses are: education and training (of both management and employees), strategic planning and IT/Software support. During the last decade, the interest in inter-organizational learning (networks and clusters) has increased dramatically. The review indicates that research on small businesses and learning is multidisciplinary and in an early stage of its growth. An in extenso analysis, of all articles in the five most prominent journals found in the review, shows few signs of coherent bodies of knowledge on which the literature draws. Many of the articles (37%) give no accounts of explicit theory. This is the case particularly in the early publications. The review does not reveal any 'original' theory generated by the small-business research community. Instead theories are extracted from other academic disciplines, mainly from the field of economics but also from other social sciences such as sociology and psychology and from engineering. The review shows that empirical studies of learning in small businesses are rare. This means that our understanding of learning processes in this kind of organisations is limited. Research is necessary to increase our knowledge of learning in different levels but also from different perspectives in small firms. The 'small-firm effect' on learning needs to be further explored.

  • 328.
    Florén, Henrik
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Tell, Joakim
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Managerial behavior in slow and fast growing small firms2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of the paper is to fill a gap in our understanding of what makes certain small firms grow while others do not by exploring the relation between managerial behavior and small firm growth. This has been done by direct observation of the owner‐managers in twelve small manufacturing firms (six slow‐growing and six fast‐growing). Methodologically the project draws on the extensive research that has been conducted within the area of mana‐ gerial work. We have used the method of structured observation as developed by Henry Mintzberg as the primary tool for data collection. Data consists of approximately 330 hours of observation and about 2460 activities have been observed and classified according to their primary purpose.The framework used to analyze the data comes from established conceptualizations of “ma‐ nagerial behavior”. More specifically, the two groups of managers have been compared in terms of; how the managers’ allocate their time; with whom they interact; with whom do they communicate; and the roles they shoulder in their firms.What is both striking and surprising in the empirical material is that there are only minor dif‐ ferences between the groups of growing and slow‐growing firms. These differences, however, all point in the same direction and confirm one suspicion following our observations of the two groups which is that the hectic and turbulent work situation characterizing the situation of the slow‐growing managers were not present in the growing firms. There might not seem to be such a big difference between the two groups, but trivial questions consumes much of the time for managers in slow‐growing firms which isn’t the case for managers in fast‐ growing firms. This gives the managers in fast‐growing firms more time to focus on other work than the daily operations and problems of the firm, which consumes much of the man‐ agers time in slow‐growing firms

  • 329.
    Florén, Henrik
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Tell, Joakim
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Managerial behaviour in small firms: Does it matter what managers do?2012In: The work of managers: Towards a practice theory of management / [ed] Stefan Tengblad, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012, p. 245-263Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter examines why some small firms grow and others do not. The focus is on the relationship between managerial behaviour and small firm growth in fast- and slow-growing firms. Using Sune Carlson’s and Henry Mintzberg’s methodology, twelve top managers are observed - six from fast-growing firms and six from slow-growing firms. The results indicate there are no significant differences in the two manager groups as far as their roles, ’proactiveness’, networking behaviour, or managerial formality is concerned. It is suggested that there is a generic aspect that is common to the management at both fast- and slow-growing firms. Much of a small firm manager’s work, regardless of the pace of company growth, involves this generic, non-managerial behaviour (acting as a specialist or a substitute operator). Small firm managers should not overstate the importance of acting only ’managerially’. © Oxford University Press, 2013.

  • 330.
    Florén, Henrik
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Tell, Joakim
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Managerial Work and Growth in Small Firms2007In: The 20th SEAANZ Conference,  23rd- 26th September, 2007, Auckland, New Zealand, 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 331.
    Florén, Henrik
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Tell, Joakim
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Managerial Work in Small Firms: Testing the Robustness in Mintzberg’s propositions2006In: CPDR on Innovation and Product Development / [ed] Sven-Åke Hörte, Halmstad: Halmstad University , 2006, p. 123-140Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 332.
    Florén, Henrik
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Tell, Joakim
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    On learning in University Driven Networks: Prerequisites for the learning process in networks of SME-managers and researchers2000Report (Other academic)
  • 333.
    Florén, Henrik
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL). Department for Project Management and FENIX Research Program, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden & Stockholm School of Economics, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Tell, Joakim
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    The emergent prerequisites of managerial learning in small firm networks2004In: Leadership & Organization Development Journal, ISSN 0143-7739, E-ISSN 1472-5347, Vol. 25, no 3/4, p. 292-307Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Descriptive studies have shown that co-operation in networks produces better possibilities for higher-level learning than small firms can organise on their own. Previous studies of learning in networks, however, have not considered how the prerequisites for higher-level learning develop over time in networks. This paper reports on a seven-year participant observational study of two different network constellations. A conclusion from the study is that the learning in networks of small-firm owner/managers is based on trust and has emergent prerequisites. These prerequisites are reciprocity between learning actors, the learning actors’ receptive and confronting capacity, and the transparency of the dialogue in the networks. Over time these prerequisites develop and create better opportunities for higher-level learning.

  • 334.
    Florén, Henrik
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Tell, Joakim
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    What do owner-managers in small firms really do?: Differences in managerial behavior in small and large organizations2004In: Small Enterprise Research: The Journal of SEAANZ, ISSN 1321-5906, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 57-70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The research presented is a replication of Mintzberg's on managerial work. The article focuses on owner-managers in small manufacturing firms in an initial attempt to reveal the nature of the work undertaken by this type of managers. The purpose is to describe what they do and to compare their behaviour with that of managers in large and intermediate organizations as described by Mintzberg and Kurke & Aldrich. Our study compliments an earlier small-scale study on managerial behavior in small firms and includes sufficient data to test Mintzberg's propositions on managerial work. Empirically this paper draws on an observational study that deployed the method of structured observation. The daily activities of the small-firm owner-managers in our study are characterized by, among other things, informality and constant interruption as the process by which their work is organized. This differs partly from the results found in the studies of managers' work in larger organizations, where formal and planned activities serve more often as the procedure through which the managers design their work. Of Mintzberg's seven propositions, we found support for four, although with some hesitation. This calls into question the asserted generality of several such propositions. Our study indicates that there seem to be certain myths about what small-firm owner-managers really do, myths that need to be considered in future research.

  • 335.
    Florén, Henrik
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Tell, Joakim
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    What do owner-managers of small firms really do?2003In: The 48th ICSB World Conference, June 15-18, 2003, Belfast, Northern Ireland, 2003Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 336.
    Franzén, Tintin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Sahlberg, Johan
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Ledarskap, svåra samtal: En studie om chefers uppfattning om svåra samtal kopplat mot utbildning och erfarenhet2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien syftar till att undersöka vad Luftstridsskolans chefer upplever som det svåra i samband med ett svårt samtal. Vi kommer även att undersöka hur deras utbildning och erfarenhet påverkar hanterandet av svåra samtal. I denna studie har vi valt att belysa det svåra samtalet mellan chef och medarbetare, detta utifrån chefens perspektiv, med hjälp av enkät och intervjuer.   Svåra samtal är en del av chefers vardag och genomförs av chefer på alla nivåer i olika former. Redan från gruppchefsnivå förväntas chefer tillämpa det utvecklande ledarskapet enligt Försvarsmaktens ledarskapsmodell. I ledarstilen eftersträvas bland annat personlig omtanke i form av att ge stöd och feedback.   Vad som upplevs vara det svåra i samband med ett svårt samtal beror på flera aspekter, såsom vilken erfarenhet man har, vilket mått av empati man besitter och vilken personlig relation man har till medarbetaren.   Det som övergripande upplevs som svårt är oron för hur medarbetaren reagerar på negativ feedback och dennes känslomässiga reaktioner i samband med detta. Även oro för att budskapet inte skall nå fram på grund av bristande självinsikt hos medarbetaren är en gemensam nämnare för de flesta cheferna i studien. Dessa oroskänslor upplevs oftast starkare inför samtalet än under själva genomförandet.  Utbildning kan underlätta själva genomförandet av ett samtal i form av samtalsmetodik och utbildning av delgivning av feedback. Utbildning minskar dock inte det obehag som kan upplevas inför ett svårt samtal. Obehaget grundar sig till stor del på oro för hur motparten kommer att reagera på negativ feedback eller kritik. Denna oro blir inte mindre oavsett utbildning, men kan lindras genom personlig reflektion och tillvaratagande av erfarenhet genom liknande genomförda samtal eller situationer.  

  • 337.
    Freeman, Joanne
    et al.
    University of the Sunshine Coast, Maroochydore, Australia.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Lawley, Meredith
    University of the Sunshine Coast, Maroochydore, Australia.
    Export Performance: Regional verses Metropolitan SMEs2006In: McGill International Entrepreneurship Conference Series 2006, Conference Proceedings, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses the largely unresearched area of export performance of SMEs located in regional areas. In many countries like Australia exporting is fundamental to sustaining regional communities. In addition the contribution of SMEs is increasingly important in many economies as they play a critical role in economic development. However, in general the literature fails to take into account the environmental context where SMEs are located and much research combines regional and metropolitan SMEs, thus not allowing a clear distinction to be made.

  • 338.
    Fri, William
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Pehrsson, Tobias
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Solberg Søilen, Klaus
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    How Phases of Cluster Development are Associated with Innovation: the Case of China2013In: International Journal of Innovation Science, ISSN 1757-2223, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 31-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Both Volvo and SAAB are now Chinese owned car companies. This means that a substantial amount of Swedish innovation takes place in China. In order to understand this phenomenon better and what it means to innovation strategy we look at how industrial clusters in the automobile industry in different phases of development differ. The Diamond Model is used to explain and measure the competitive situation in three cluster regions in China. The new automobile manufacturing clusters of Chongqing and Chengdu (2C) is compared with two well-developed clusters in Shanghai and Jiangsu, and Beijing and Hebei. Although Shanghai is the most attractive automobile cluster, automobile manufacturing firms choose to locate their production in other regions. The move is also related to the level of innovation in different regions.

  • 339.
    Frishammar, Johan
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Characteristics in information processing approaches2002In: International Journal of Information Management, ISSN 0268-4012, E-ISSN 1873-4707, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 143-156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes and compares different information processing approaches (terms). The purpose is to identify similarities and differences in the terms, relate them to and compare them with each other, but also to identify their underlying concepts and the course of events they represent. The terms or approaches addressed are Environmental scanning, Business, Competitive, Competitor, Market and Political intelligence, Marketing research and Information management. It was concluded that all approaches have a strong future orientation and strong ties to decision-making, and advocate that information is ennobled in one way or the other. The main differences lie in their focus, and in their scope. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 340.
    Frishammar, Johan
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Information use in strategic decision making2003In: Management Decision, ISSN 0025-1747, E-ISSN 1758-6070, Vol. 41, no 4, p. 318-326Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses the issue of information use in strategic decision making. The study employs a case study as a research strategy together with personal interviews and documentation as means of data collection. The starting-point is four specific strategic decisions recently made by medium-sized companies in Sweden. The study provides the reader with an insight into management information behaviour when taking strategic decisions, by addressing questions such as: Why is information used? What kind of information does management use? How do they obtain it? And finally, where do they obtain it? In addition, a short review of the literature pertaining to the above stated questions is provided.

  • 341.
    Frishammar, Johan
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Managing Information in New Product Development: A Literature Review2005In: International Journal of Innovation and Technology Management (IJITM), ISSN 0219-8770, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 259-275Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The new product development (NPD) process is frequently described as a sequence of information processing activities, but "information in NPD" occupies a broader conceptual space than the reduction of uncertainty. This article reviews the area of "information in NPD" by examining the literature on environmental scanning, market orientation, gatekeepers, cross-functional integration, and information use. It is argued that we can understand the process of managing information in terms of three steps: Acquiring, sharing and using. A tentative framework for this area is proposed, and managerial implications resulting from this literature review and tentative frame are outlined and presented.

  • 342.
    Frishammar, Johan
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Towards a theory of managing information in new product development2005Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis deals with various information aspects of new product development (NPD). In total, the thesis consists of 6 research articles appended in full, and an introductory text that integrates and theorizes with and from these papers.

    The first paper is a review article examining the literature on and role of information in NPD. The main argument put forward here is that information processing can be understood in terms of three steps: acquiring, sharing, and using information. The second paper is a largescale survey that examines the relationship between market and entrepreneurial orien-tation and performance in NPD. A market orientation is to a large extent about acquiring, disseminating and using market information, while an entrepreneurial orientation partly is about ignoring such information, and instead trying to be innovative, proactive, and take risks. The results show that a market orientation and innovativeness are positively related to NPD performance, and that neither product nor environmental characteristics moderate these relationships. The third paper is also a survey, and investigates the extent to which management of external information is associated with innovation performance. The main findings are that scanning the technological sector of the environment was positively associated with innovation performance, while scanning customers, suppliers, and competitors proved to be negatively correlated with innovation performance. Crossfunctional integration in the form of collaboration as well as using information from the industry environment also proved to be positively related to innovation performance.

    The last three papers have a centre of gravity in “management of information & environ-ment”, and not so much in new product development per se. Paper four describes and com-pares different information processing approaches (e.g. environmental scanning, marketing research) in order to identify their similarities and differences, but also their underlying con-cepts and the course of events they represent. The main conclusion is that differences exist primarily in terms of focus and scope. Paper five is a review and tentative integration of different perspectives in organization – environment research: the adaptive, the resource-dependence, the cognitive and the population-ecology perspective. The review identifies differences and similarities among these perspectives, suggests tentative conclusions on why the adaptive perspective is so frequently utilized at the expense of the other three, and suggests constructivism as a feasible avenue for combining and integrating these perspectives. Finally, the sixth and final paper deals with information use in the context of strategic decisionmaking. With a case study approach, the questions of why information is used, what kind of information is used, where it is obtained, and how it is obtained were addressed, and the results from this paper are mainly descriptive.

    The purpose of the introductory text is two-fold. In addition to providing integration of the appended papers, the main purpose is theory construction (i.e. elicitation of constructs and propositions). In the introduction, all six appended papers together with a new literature search and a new pilot case study are used to generate propositions about management of information, information sources, and the need for cross-functional integration in three different phases of the NPD process. In addition, suggestions regarding theoretical connections are made. The introduction text concludes with reflections, managerial implications, limitations, and future research.

  • 343.
    Frishammar, Johan
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Role of Strategic Orientations for International Performance in Smaller Firms2006In: McGill Conference on international Entrepreneurship, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 344.
    Frishammar, Johan
    et al.
    Division of Entrepreneurship and Industrial Management, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    The overestimated role of strategic orientations for international performance in smaller firms2009In: Journal of International Entrepreneurship, ISSN 1570-7385, E-ISSN 1573-7349, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 57-77Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines how market orientation (MO) and entrepreneurial orientation (EO) relate to international performance in small firms. Empirically, the article draws on survey data from 188 Swedish SMEs. Results show that strategic orientations have a very limited influence on international performance in these firms. Proactiveness and, to some extent, a market orientation proved positively associated with international performance, while innovativeness and risk taking show no such relationship. Our findings highlight the problems associated with using “traditional” MO and EO constructs in an SME setting and point to the need of developing more appropriate constructs tailored to this context. We also note that the MO construct was developed from a “causal view” of marketing, while successful small international firms rely more on effectuation logic. The article also contributes to the debate between the two dominant perspectives that address firms’ early internationalization processes: the process theory of internationalization and the international new venture perspective, where our results are in favor of the latter.

  • 345.
    Frishammar, Johan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Florén, Henrik
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Research Note: What is the “fuzzy front end”, why is it important, and how can it be managed?2009In: Managing Innovation: Integrating Technological, Market and Organisational Change / [ed] Joe Tidd, John Bessant & Keith Pavitt, Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, 2009, 4, p. 341-343Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 346.
    Frishammar, Johan
    et al.
    Center for Management of Innovation and Technology in Process Industry (Promote), Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Florén, Henrik
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Where New Product Development Begins: Success Factors, Contingencies and Balancing Acts in the Fuzzy Front End2008In: Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Management of Technology, IAMOT 2008, 2008, p. 47-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In light of the increasing attention to predevelopment activities in new product development, this paper reviews the literature on the “fuzzy front end” (FFE). By means of an extensive literature study, we identify, describe and analyze 17 important success factors for organizing and managing the FFE. Our findings first highlight which success factors firms need to excel in when managing and organizing the FFE. Second, the findings show that focusing these factors is not sufficient as such, as interdependencies among factors call for a broader approach. Therefore, relationships among factors and not just the factors per se need to be taken into account. Third, the paper identifies key contingencies requiring adjustment of the FFE process at the firm level. Furthermore, the paper draws attention to several “balancing acts” which impose on firms a trade-off among important variables, where maximizing one dimension may imply the minimizing on another. The paper ends with additional post-hoc analysis of the literature, followed by implications for the scholarly literature as well as management practice.

  • 347.
    Frishammar, Johan
    et al.
    Center for Management of Innovation and Technology in Process Industry, Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Florén, Henrik
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Joakim, Wincent
    Division of Entrepreneurship, Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Patterns of Uncertainty and Equivocality during Predevelopment: Findings from Process‐Based Firms2009In: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Management of Technology, 2009, p. 14-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous literature suggests that innovation managers should prioritize uncertainty reduction in early phases of innovation projects. When uncertainty is high, the general prediction is negative consequences in the form of time‐delays, waste of resources, unclear team vision and, ultimately, concept failure. There are strong reasons to believe, however, that simultaneous management of equivocality is equally important, but this concept has largely been neglected in previous research. By means of a case‐study relying upon exploratory interviews addressing unique observations of 58 innovation projects, we notice that the perhaps most significant challenge for being successful or not is not the initial levels of uncertainty. Rather, it is managerial attempts to actively fight for reducing uncertainty but also addressing the equivocality dimension in the pre‐development stages of the innovation process. We observe reduced patterns of uncertainty and equivocality in successful product innovation and process innovation projects in pre‐development stages. This was not the case for unsuccessful projects. Similarly, we find significantly lower levels of equivocality for successful projects, which is a contribution to prior research suggesting that uncertainty is the major concern during predevelopment. Moreover, our results show that perceived patterns of uncertainty and equivocality differ between product innovation and process innovation projects in different sub‐phases of pre‐development. Key results are summarized as propositions which not only provide guidance for future research, but also provide direct managerial implications on how to address uncertainty and equivocality in different sub‐phases of predevelopment.

  • 348.
    Frishammar, Johan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Florén, Henrik
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Beyond Managing Uncertainty: Insights from Studying Equivocality in the Fuzzy Front-End of Product and Process Innovation Projects2011In: IEEE transactions on engineering management, ISSN 0018-9391, E-ISSN 1558-0040, Vol. 58, no 3, p. 551-563Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has shown uncertainty reduction to be critical in the fuzzy front end of the innovation process, but little attention has been given to the equally important concept of equivocality, although it is a defining characteristic of many front-end projects. To address this research gap, this paper report the resultsfrom a longitudinal, multiple case study of four large companiesoriented to both product and process innovation. First, our results show that both uncertainty and equivocality is more effectively reduced in successful front-end projects than in unsuccessful ones. Second, the negative consequences of equivocality appear more critical to front-end performance than the consequences following uncertainty. Third, our results show that uncertainty and equivocality are reduced sequentially in successful projects and simultaneously in unsuccessful projects. Finally, uncertainty and equivocality takes longer time to reduce in process innovation projects than in product innovation projects, which is a consequence of the systemic nature of process innovation. Altogether, these findings provide strong implications for managing front-end projects more proficiently.

  • 349.
    Frishammar, Johan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Hörte, Sven Åke
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    The role of market orientation and entrepreneurial orientation for new product development performance in manufacturing firms2007In: Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, ISSN 0953-7325, E-ISSN 1465-3990, Vol. 19, no 6, p. 765-788Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall purpose of this article is to examine the relationships between two strategic orientations and performance in new product development. The first orientation considered is market orientation; the second one considered is entrepreneurial orientation, which reflects a firm's propensity to innovate, to be proactive, as well as its willingness to take risks. Drawing upon a sample of 224 mid-sized manufacturing firms, multiple regressions with and without interaction terms were used for testing seven hypotheses. The results show that a market orientation and innovativeness were positively related to performance in new product development, while proactiveness and risk taking show no such relationship. The results also show that neither product characteristics nor environmental characteristics moderate these relationships. In terms of implications, our results suggest that contradictory and to some extent paradoxical capabilities are needed to increase performance in new product development, and that the different components of an entrepreneurial orientation do not impact new product development performance equally.

  • 350.
    Frishammar, Johan
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Hörte, Sven-Åke
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Managing External Information in Manufacturing Firms: The Impact on Innovation Performance2005In: The Journal of product innovation management, ISSN 0737-6782, E-ISSN 1540-5885, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 251-266Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Drawing upon a sample of 206 medium-sized manufacturing firms, this article investigates the extent to which management of external information is associated with innovation performance. The overall purpose of the article is to examine whether or not those organizations that are better at managing external information are also those that are the better innovators. The research strategy used was a survey, and data were collected by means of mail questionnaires (with a 62.4% response rate). A multiple regression analysis was used for hypothesis testing. The results show that scanning the technological sector of the environment was positively associated with innovation performance, while scanning customers, suppliers, and competitors proved to be negatively correlated with innovation performance. Cross-functional integration in the form of collaboration also proved significantly correlated with innovation performance, while interaction showed no such relationship. Further, decision-making based on information from the industry environment correlated significantly with innovation performance. Research and managerial implications of these findings are presented and are discussed.

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