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  • 301.
    Ahlstrand, Joacim
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Smärtlindring vid militära aktioner2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I de militära konflikthärdar som finns på ett flertal platser runt om vår värld är det oundvikligt att människor blir skadade och följaktligen uppleva smärta. Som sjuksköterska i fält är det av vikt att känna till vilka metoder som finns tillgängliga för att lindra detta lidande dels för att underlätta för den skadade soldaten i stunden och dels för att i positiv riktning även minska riskerna för att andra smärtrelaterade syndrom skall få fotfäste. Syftet med litteraturstudien var att belysa metoder för smärtlindring av skadade vid militära aktioner prehospitalt och på militärt sjukhus. Metoden som användes var litteraturstudie där sju artiklars resultat analyserades och sammanställdes. I resultatet framkom tre kategorier: smärtlindring med fentanyl, smärtlindring med ketamin och smärtlindring med kontinuerlig perifer nervblockad. Fortsatt forskning skulle kunna vara inriktad på ytterligare preparat samt förenklad administrering men också på vilket sätt sjuksköterskans förhållningssätt till patienten och dess traumatiska situation kan påverka smärtupplevelsen.

  • 302.
    Ahlstrand, Roland
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Regional Learning and Governance (RELL).
    Social responsibility in connection with business closures: A study of closures of Ericsson Telecom facilities in Norrköping and Linköping2010In: Economic and Industrial Democracy, ISSN 0143-831X, E-ISSN 1461-7099, Vol. 31, no 4, p. 537-555Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present article analyses why and how Ericsson Telecom assumeda greater responsibility than was legally required when it dismissedmore than 23,000 employees in Sweden at the beginning of the21st century. The analysis starts from neoinstitutional theoryand is based on case studies of the company’s closuresin Norrköping and Linköping. The article focuses,in particular, on the interaction between Ericsson, the tradeunions, the County Administrative Board, the County Labour Board,the Public Employment Service, the Swedish Employment SecurityCouncil, the government and the respective municipalities. Itis shown that the greater responsibility taken by Ericsson wasbased on its desire to maintain legitimacy by taking into considerationprevailing societal expectations regarding the company’sbehaviour.

  • 303.
    Ahlstrand, Roland
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Center for Social Analysis (CESAM), Social Change, Learning and Social Relations (SLSR).
    Strategier i tiden: En studie av telekomföretaget Ericssons nedläggningar i Norrköping och Linköping2006Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Hur gör ett företag som gör mer än det tidigare gjort för sin personal vid en nedläggning? Varför gör det överhuvudtaget mer än det tidigare gjort, eller ens behöver? I denna bok analyseras telekomföretaget Ericssons nedläggningar i Norrköping och Linköping under åren mellan 1999 och 2002. Författaren visar hur nedläggningarna utvecklades i samspel med sociala institutioner och i interaktion med fackliga organisationer såväl som bemanningsföretag, Trygghetsrådet och kommunala och statliga myndigheter. Här förfäktas idén att företagets agerande hängde samman med att etablerade organisationer genom sin tröghet till förändring hade skapat utrymme för nya organisatoriska lösningar i samband med rationaliseringar: bemanningsföretagen kunde nu ta över personalansvaret.

    Författaren gör också en genomgång av tidigare forskning om nedläggningar och personalinskränkningar, varvid modeller redovisas som förknippats med företag som ansetts ha tagit socialt ansvar när de lagt ner eller minskat på sin personal.

  • 304.
    Ahlström, Christian
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Gymnasieelevers syn på feedback i skolämnet idrott & hälsa2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to examine how high school students wish to receive feedback in physical education, if positive feedback from the P.E. teacher is perceived as beneficial to the students’ motivation and also to examine if the motivational climate is perceived as task oriented or ego oriented by the students. In total 8 high school students (4 boys, 4 girls) at the age of 16 participated. Semi structured interview guides were used during the interviews who took place in a private and neutral location. The informants wanted positive feedback and instructive feedback. Positive feedback was perceived as beneficial to the informants’ motivation. They also perceived encouragement as beneficial to their motivation. Both task oriented and ego oriented motivational climate were experienced. However the P.E. teacher was perceived as using a task oriented approach. The informants’ answers related to both Self determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000) and Achievement goal theory (Nicholls, 1989). According to the study, the P.E. teacher’s feedback approach should concentrate on positive, encouraging, instructing and constructive feedback and have a task oriented approach.

  • 305.
    Ahlström, Eva
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Månsson, Carina
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Sömn hos intensivvårdspatienter. En litteraturstudie2004Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]
    En tredjedel av en vuxen människas liv upptas av sömn. Sömnen är viktig för vårt fysiska och psykiska välbefinnande och för lite sömn fördröjer tillfrisknandet efter sjukdom. IVA patienternas sömn avbryts ofta av personalens omvårdnadsåtgärder och ljud från all apparatur samt pågående behandlingar. Syftet med studien var att belysa faktorer av betydelse för undersökning av intensivvårdspatientens sömn.Studien omfattade bearbetning av 20 vetenskapliga artiklar.Faktorer som påverkade sömnen var miljön,medicinska orsaker och läkemedel,fysiska och psykiska stressorer.Resultatet visade att patienterna sov dåligt pga. påverkan av dessa faktorer.Det visade sig att det inte bara var en enskild faktor som påverkar den dåliga sömnen hos intensivvårdspatienten utan en kombination av flera faktorer.Resultatet bekräftades i flera fall med hjälp av olika mätinstrument samt polysomnografi. Fortsatt forskning inom området som belyser intensivvårdspatientens sömnsvårigheter bör göras.Önskvärt är forskning med en kvalitativ metod,intervju/observation av patienten för att öka sjuksköterskans förståelse för patienternas sömnproblem.
  • 306.
    Ahlström, Fredrik
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Intranät: en kartläggning av fenomenet1998Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]
    Uppsatsen syftar i första hand till att strategiskt och kommunikativt kartlägga fenomenet intranät och till att generera kunskap som kan ligga till grund för vidare förståelse. Syftet är dessutom att uppsatsen ska kunna fungera som en plattform och språngbräda för vidare forskning inom ämnet. Jag vill med hjälp av praktiska exempel försöka visa på mediets strategiska och kommunikativa möjligheter, begränsningar och faror. Samt ge en bild av hur, och i vilken utsträckning mediet kan påverka organisationers internkommunikation och organisationsstruktur.
  • 307.
    Ahlström, Gunnar
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Hagtorn, Lars
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Avfuktare1987Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]
    En utrustning för avfuktning av respiratorluft vid behandling av prematurt födda barn
  • 308.
    Ahlström, Mattias
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Gustafsson, David
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    FLEXCON1996Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]
    A new system for intelligent buildings with an unique physical flexibility.
  • 309.
    Ahlström, Philip
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Bolin Olsson, Max
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Flexible Snowboard System2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    The project, Flexible Snowboard System, has been carried out by the project group independently and is a module developed for snowboarders, ski rentals and ski schools. The problems of today’s solutions are that they cause the user an inconvenient standing position when riding the ski lift or skating the transportation slope, also mounting, adjustments and disassembling of the bindings are time consuming and brings undesired wear to the screws and screw holes. In addition any adjustments require that the user steps out of the bindings and have tools at hand.

    Flexible Snowboard System is a universal module which means that it can be assembled with all of today’s snowboards and bindings. The module enables the user to do standing position adjustments with 360 degrees rotation within a 10 centimeters long interval along the snowboard’s length direction and saves time and wear when assembling/disassembling. Flexible Snowboard System includes few components which makes manufacturing and assembling easy and inexpensive. By an easy maneuver the user can adjust the standing position as he or she prefer.

    The result of this project is a prototype which firstly eases the snowboard session for the user when the module enables different standing options optimized for conditions like powder, park or piste. Flexible Snowboard System offers a great opportunity for ski rentals and ski schools to increase customer values on account of minimized idle time. The implementation of our product would bring low investment costs because it’s universal and fit the equipment they use today, easy to manufacture and assembly.

    The carry through of project Flexible Snowboard Binding has been according to dynamic product development and the project group has had great use of the different methods and tools such as idea generating, model making, evaluation matrixes and testing.

  • 310.
    Ahlström, Samuel
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE).
    Larsdotter, Susanna
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE).
    Tillgänglighet på Internet för Dyslektiker2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I en värld där många samhällsfunktioner och kontakter numera knyts och förvaltas via Internet finns en grupp som lätt glöms bort, nämligen dyslektiker. De tillhör också en grupp som sällan undersökts i Internetkontexter, därför valde vi att utgå ifrån dem.

    Vi har undersökt hur webbplatser som följer tillgänglighetsriktlinjer, utifrån onlinebaserade automatiska testverktyg, relaterar till våra användares upplevda till¬gänglighet och användbarhet.

    Vi använde onlinebaserade automatiska testverktyg för att välja ut fyra webbplatser, två med låg- och två med hög tillgänglighetsranking. Vi lät sedan tio användare med dyslexi och en kontrollgrupp testa webbplatserna. Därefter fick de besvara en enkät för att fånga deras upplevelser av interaktionen med webbplatserna.

    I analysen av enkätsvaren kom vi bland annat fram till att det varken fanns signifikanta skillnader mellan de olika användargrupperna eller mellan de olika webbplatsernas rankning gällande upplevd tillgänglighet och användbarhet.

  • 311.
    Ahlström, Terese
    Halmstad University, School of Humanities (HUM).
    Aspects of Code-switching in Films featuring African American Vernacular English2001Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]
    In a language there are various speech codes. When one switches one’s speech from one code to another to accomodate a change in situation, this is called code-switching. The aim with this study was to establish if African American Vernacular English speakers code-switch, and if so, then how and why. I looked into whether or not ethnicity affected any possible swithces and tried to establish what effect core- and peripheral membership of a social network had on the switching between codes. I also tried to establish if there was a difference in the switches between the different features (grammar, pronunciation, vocabulary). Due to the lack of available AAVE speakers, I decided to conduct a qualitative study based on conversation from three films. I feel the study is of great importance since the way media represent language and ethnicity promotes and reinforces certain ways of thinking, acting and speaking.
  • 312.
    Ahlström, Therese
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Andersson, Annika
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Miljö- och kretsloppsanpassat studentboende2000Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]
    Syftet med detta examensarbete är att undersöka studenters attityd till ett miljö- och kretsloppsanpassat boende samt att beskriva och diskutera vad som menas med ekologiskt byggande.
  • 313.
    Ahlström, Tove
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology.
    Kaikkonen, Amanda
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology.
    Hur kan ett e-hälsostöd designas för att främja inre motivation till fysisk rehabilitering?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Due to an increased need for health care, physical rehabilitation is an area where there is a growing need for implementation of e-health support. An unsuccessful rehabilitation plan could potentially lead to a patient's pain or discomfort not being improved as planned. This may lead to the patient needing more rehabilitation care than what had been required if the rehabilitation plan had been completed from the beginning. In addition to this being a cost for the patients themselves, it also entails an extra cost for health care services. Motivation is considered one of the main aspects to take into account as it influences people's ability and willingness to do something. If the motivational aspect is ignored in the design of e- health support in a rehabilitation context, there is a risk that the design will not possess the functions that can be crucial for the user to use the digital support. Although rehabilitation patients are provided with proper physiotherapy exercises they do not perform their exercises, which may be due to their lack of intrinsic motivation. Despite this dilemma, there are few studies that investigate how digital support can be designed to promote intrinsic motivation in a rehabilitation context. The study therefore aimed to examine how an e-health support can be designed to promote intrinsic motivation in a rehabilitation context. The research question was examined using a design-oriented approach. In order to investigate intrinsic motivation, the concept is concretized to the three psychological needs: autonomy, competence and relatedness. The study then resulted in nine design proposals that informed how an e-health support could be designed to promote intrinsic motivation by supporting the three basic psychological needs: autonomy, competence and relatedness.

  • 314.
    Ahlsund, Mathias
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE).
    Evesson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE).
    Inline Pallet Brake: Aktiv bromsning av takpannor2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]
    ABECE AB in Enstaberga is developing and producing machinery for concrete roof tile production. The company wanted to investigate if there was a way to increase the production rate, decrease operation perturbations and reduce the setup time for new production sites. In the current process the tiles are only braked by the friction between the form pallet and the slide bearings. The purpose of this brake is to receive unhardened tiles on steel or aluminum pallet without deforming or breaking the tile. With this feature the speed, which the tiles are inserted, can be increased allowing for a higher production rate. The complete systems were tested with unhardened tiles and operated as planned.
  • 315.
    Ahlzen, Håkan
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Edwall, Michael
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Hellström, Jonas
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Rosendahl, Carl
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Intern Marknadsföring : Ur företagskulturellt perpsektiv2002Student paper second termStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]
    Vi har undersökt två banker i Halmstad gällande skillnader mellan ledningens och anställdas syn på intern marknadsföring. Vi har främst studerat om företagsledningen använder sig av intern marknadsföring då det gäller att skapa en företagskultur som främjar företagets målsättning.
  • 316.
    Ahlzén, Håkan
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Forsberg, Lars
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Segmenteringsprocessen i små företag2003Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
  • 317.
    Ahlén, Karin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Johansson, Erik
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Ulvenblad, Per-Ola
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Cash management1988Student paper second termStudent thesis
  • 318.
    Ahmad, Alzghoul
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE).
    Screening Web Breaks in a Pressroom by Soft Computing2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Web breaks are considered as one of the most significant runnability problems

    in a pressroom. This work concerns the analysis of relation between various

    parameters (variables) characterizing the paper, printing press, the printing

    process and the web break occurrence. A large number of variables, 61 in

    total, obtained off-line as well as measured online during the printing process

    are used in the investigation. Each paper reel is characterized by a vector x

    of 61 components.

    Two main approaches are explored. The first one treats the problem as a

    data classification task into "break" and "non break" classes. The procedures

    of classifier training, the selection of relevant input variables and the selection

    of hyper-parameters of the classifier are aggregated into one process based on

    genetic search. The second approach combines procedures of genetic search

    based variable selection and data mapping into a low dimensional space. The

    genetic search process results into a variable set providing the best mapping

    according to some quality function.

    The empirical study was performed using data collected at a pressroom

    in Sweden. The total number of data points available for the experiments

    was equal to 309. Amongst those, only 37 data points represent the web

    break cases. The results of the investigations have shown that the linear

    relations between the independent variables and the web break frequency

    are not strong.

    Three important groups of variables were identified, namely Lab data

    (variables characterizing paper properties and measured off-line in a paper

    mill lab), Ink registry (variables characterizing operator actions aimed to

    adjust ink registry) and Web tension. We found that the most important

    variables are: Ink registry Y LS MD (adjustments of yellow ink registry

    in machine direction on the lower paper side), Air permeability (character-

    izes paper porosity), Paper grammage, Elongation MD, and four variables

    characterizing web tension: Moment mean, Min sliding Mean, Web tension

    variance, and Web tension mean.

    The proposed methods were helpful in finding the variables influencing

    the occurrence of web breaks and can also be used for solving other industrial

    problems.

  • 319.
    Ahmad, Shilan
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Fotstöd till Volvos barnstolar1998Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]
    Syftet med mitt projekt var att åstakomma preliminära lösningar till ett fotstöd för barn mellan 3-10år som skall användas tillsammans med de redan befintliga barnstolarna i bilen. Resultatet skall presenteras i form av prototyper och 3D modeller. De viktigaste kraven är att fotstödet ska ge stöd för barnens fötter och att det ska sitta fast i bilen på ett säkert sätt.
  • 320.
    Ahmadi, Lina
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology.
    Green Driving Application: Eco Driving2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Eco-driving has acquired great importance in recent years because it is a way to reduce energy consumption that can be applied to any type of vehicle. However, for these rules to be applied requires a process of continuous learning and motivation. For this reason many eco-driving assistants have emerged.

    This paper presents Green Driving, a driver safety app for Android that detects inattentive driving behaviors and gives corresponding feedback to drivers, scoring their driving and alerting them in case their behaviors are unsafe.  It’s about changing a person’s driving behavior by providing some kind of advice to the driver.  I have worked on an algorithm that is meant to reduce the fuel consumption of users. The algorithm is deployed in an android application.

    This application “Green Driving” is aimed at users with cars. It is basically like an assistant, suggesting the user when he should make the right gear changes, when to increase/decrease speed and avoids hard braking and rapid acceleration and etc. It is in order to drive economically, ecologic and in turn save money and safety. This is a smart way of letting a user drive economically and ecologic since almost everyone has an Android smartphone now. 

  • 321.
    Ahmadi, Nasser S.
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Månsson, Jörgen
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lindblad, Ulf
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hildingh, Cathrine
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health promotion and disease prevention.
    Breathlessness in everyday life from a patient perspective: A qualitative study using diaries2014In: Palliative & Supportive Care, ISSN 1478-9515, E-ISSN 1478-9523, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 189-194Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Breathlessness is a subjective symptom, which makes it difficult to define and understand. The aim of the present study was to illuminate how patients suffering from breathlessness experience their everyday life. Method: The study was a qualitative study, and the focus of the analysis was the patients' descriptions of their experiences of breathlessness using a diary with two unstructured questions for a period of 7 consecutive days. Sixteen participants: 7 men, mean age 65 ± 7 (range 55-73 years old), and 9 women, mean age 65 ± 9 (range 50-72 years old) participated in the study. Results: Two themes emerged from the analysis: 1) Impaired quality of life and 2) symptom tolerance and adaptation. The theme "impaired quality of life" included the categories limited physical ability, psychological burdens, and social life barriers. The theme "symptom tolerance and adaptation" included importance of health care, social support, hobbies and leisure activities, and coping strategies. Significance of results: The findings in our study showed that patients, in spite of considerable difficulties with shortness of breath, found relief in several types of activities, in addition to drug therapy. The result indicates that the "biopsychosocial model" is an appealing approach that should be discussed further to gain a better understanding of breathlessness. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2013.

  • 322.
    Ahmed Ali, Gulaed
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Eyob Kflemariam, Samuel
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Konstruktion av 3D-skrivare medeffektivisering av munstycke2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 323.
    Ahmed, Iftikhar
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE).
    Farooq, Muhammad
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE).
    Switched Multi-hop Priority Queued Networks-Influence of priority levels on Soft Real-time Performance2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the last few years, the number of real-time applications has increased. These applications are sensitive and require the methods to utilize existing network capacity efficiently to meet performance requirements and achieve the maximum throughput to overcome delay, jitter and packet loss. In such cases, when the network needs to support highly interactive traffic like packet-switched voice, the network congestion is an issue that can lead to various problems. If the level of congestion is high enough, the users may not be able to complete their calls and have existing calls dropped or may experience a variety of delays that make it difficult to participate smooth conversation.

    In this paper, we investigate the effect of priority levels on soft real-time performance. We use the priority queues to help us manage the congestion, handle the interactive traffic and improve the over all performance of the system. We consider switched multi-hop network with priority queues. All the switches and end-nodes control the real-time traffic with “Earlier Deadline First” scheduling. The performance of the network is characterized in terms of the average delay, the deadline missing ratio and the throughput.

    We will analyze these parameters with both the bursty traffic and evenly distributed traffic. We will analyze different priority levels and will see how the increase in priority level increases the performance of the soft real-time system.

  • 324.
    Ahmed, Mansoor
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE).
    Murtaza, Ali
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE).
    Decision algorithm and procedure for fast handover between 3G and WLAN2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Different types of wireless network systems have been developed to offer Internet access to mobile end users. Now days a burning issue is to provide the network facility to end users on anywhere and anytime bases. Typical examples of wireless networks are 3G and WLAN (wireless local area network). An important issue is to integrate these heterogeneous networks and manage the mobile nodes while moving across heterogeneous networks with session continuity, low latency for handover between networks that are based on different technologies (vertical handover) and minimum packet loss. To achieve this, it is important to find the right point in time to perform a handover between two networks and to find a new network that, in fact, improves the connectivity over a reasonable time span. In this thesis, we propose vertical handover techniques for mobile users, based on predictive and adaptive schemes for the selection of the next network. The handover decision between the technologies takes the velocity of the mobile node, battery condition of mobile node, signal to interference ratio (SIR), application requirements and received signal strength RSS) as decision parameters. In order to reduce unnecessary handover, the concept of dwell timer is used and to reduce the handover latency, the predictive mode of Fast Mobile IPv6 (FMIPv6) and for minimum packet loss, the concept of tunnelling and buffering of packets on new access router in advance are proposed.

  • 325.
    Ahmed, Rizwan
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE).
    Abbas, Shahid
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE).
    Electrical and Optical Characteristics of InP Nanowires based p-i-n Photodetectors2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Photodetectors are a kind of semiconductor devices that convert incoming light to an electrical signal. Photodetectors are classified based on their different structure, fabrication technology, applications and different sensitivity. Infrared photodetectors are widely used in many applications such as night vision, thermal cameras, remote temperature sensing, and medical diagnosis etc.

     

    All detectors have material inside that is sensitive to incoming light. It will absorb the photons and, if the incoming photons have enough energy, electrons will be excited to higher energy levels and if these electrons are free to move, under the effect of an external electric field, a photocurrent is generated.

     

    In this project Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Spectroscopy is used to investigate a new kind of photodiodes that are based on self-assembled semiconductor nanowires (NWs) which are grown directly on the substrate without any epi-layer. The spectrally resolved photocurrent (at different applied biases) and IV curves (in darkness and illumination) for different temperatures have been studied respectively. Polarization effects (at low and high Temperatures) have been investigated.  The experiments are conducted for different samples with high concentration of NWs as well as with lower concentration of NWs in the temperature range from 78 K (-195ºC) to 300 (27ºC). These photodiodes are designed to work in near infrared (NIR) spectral range.

     

    The results show that the NW photodetectors indeed are promising devices with fairly high break down voltage, change of photocurrent spectra with polarized light, low and constant reverse saturation current (Is). The impact of different polarized light on photocurrent spectra has been investigated and an attempt has been made to clarify the observed double peak of InP photocurrent spectrum. Our investigations also include a comparison to a conventional planar InP p-i-n photodetector.

     

  • 326.
    Ahmeti, Teuta
    Halmstad University, School of Education, Humanities and Social Science.
    Läsning inom Svenska som andra språk: Lärarnas syn på litteratuläsning och förförståelse2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim with this study was to study how preunderstanding of a text or literature makes the reading easier for second language learners. I wanted to find out how we can work with preunderstanding in school and help our students.  The study is based on interviews I did with three teachers.

    Science shows us that reading consists of two main activities, a visual analysis of the text and an interpretation of what the textual means. These activities run together where the information in the textual and the preunderstanding the reader has cooperates together.

    The study shows that preunderstanding is very important for second language students. An important reason is to understand a book even if you don`t get every word in it. The study also shows that the teachers use preunderstanding every day in different ways.  They use pictures, discussions and the experiences that the students have. The teachers in the study explained that they let the students choose literature sometimes, but they also decide what the students are going to read. The reason for that is to develop more knowledge among students about new appearances.

  • 327.
    Ahmeti, Zejnullah
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Hamad, Fahmy
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Prefabricerade broar: En studie av prefabricerade broar i USA, Storbritannien och Nederländerna2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 328.
    Ahmetovic, Amina
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Faur, Mariia
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Det är ansvar och frihet: En kvalitativ studie om socialsekreterares upplevelser av sitt handlingsutrymme2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Social Workers work in the Social Services Addiction Unit is challenged to meet the client's needs while responding to the organization's resources. This is due to insufficient resources placed on abuse because the target group is not a priority. Therefore, it is important that social workers have a margin of action to make thoughtful actions in relation to both parties. The purpose of the essay is to investigate and analyze the factors that social workers perceive may affect the social investigative work and how social workers experience power in the investigative work with adult clients who have ongoing abuse problems. The purpose is expressed in issues that take into account what opportunities and limitations social workers experience in the law investigation work and how they experience the exercise of power in relation to the client in investigation according to the law.

    The study is based on 7 qualitative semi structured interviews with social workers who work with investigations with substance abusers in Halland and Skåne County. The material was analyzed using Lipsky's concept discretion and Foucault's power theory. The results show that missions, laws and guidelines, resources, customer attitude and social workers' subjectivity are regarded by social security as both the possibilities and limitations in the SoL investigation. In addition, the social workers find that they have power in relation to the client with the help of knowledge about the subject, but they also have the ambition to lift the client that leads to a relational power. Social workers also act in an uncertainty where the social workers' scope for action, including factors that enable and limit the investigative work is important for the work in the social field.

  • 329.
    Ahnfelt, Camilla
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Wolmestam, Malena
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Distriktsköterskans strategier för att stärka egenvård hos personer med hjärtsvikt i hemmet: En integrativ litteraturstudie2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The older population in Sweden increases dramatically while resources are decreasing. Heart failure is one of the most common diseases in Sweden which causes hospitalization for elderly people. Symptoms of heart failure can be stressful and affect the quality of life negatively for both patients and close relatives. A lot of old people with heart failure lives at home and need support to cope with their illness and reduce hospitalization. The aim of the literature study is to describe district nurses' strategies to strengthen self-care in patients with heart failure in home care. The method is an integrative literature study where 19 articles of both qualitative and quantitative methods are included. The results show four categories that address strategies district nurses can apply to strengthen self-care in patients with heart failure. These are essential conditions for district nurse, the importance of starting from the patient's situation and needs, to work with goals and follow-up as well as offer education and knowledge. The essential conditions are mainly that higher education and experience are of great importance in the work of self-care. Other strategies emerging is to see each individual person as unique, work with participation, involve relatives and individualized education as well as follow up. There is no general strategy to strengthen self-care that works for all. District Nurse skills are necessary in the work of providing individual support that strengthens selfcare.

  • 330.
    Ahnlund, Jenny
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Danielsson, Stefan
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    DogProof -Den dolda skyddsärmen2004Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]
    Produktutvecklingsprojekt på c-nivå. Rikspolisstyrelsen har upplevt ett behov av en ny skyddsärm att använda för att kontrollera att färdigutbildade polishundar biter i en skarp situation. För detta ändamål krävs att skyddsärmen inte utgör något visuellt stimuli för hunden, vilket innebär att skyddsärmen måste vara tillräckligt tunn för att kunna bäras dold under en jacka. Figuranten måste tillåtas ha ett naturligt rörelsemönster för att efterlikna en verklig situation. Hunden får heller inte riskera att skada tänder och tandkött då den biter i skyddet samtidigt som ärmen självklart måste ge användaren ett fullgott skydd. Projektet har genomförts med hjälp av studier av hundar, hundförare och olika materialegenskaper. Undersökningarna har till största delen gjorts genom studiebesök hos olika företag och institutioner. Projektet har resulterat i tre olika prototyper, två baserade på ett filtkompositmaterial och en med plast som grund, vilka samtliga genomgått tester med polishundar.
  • 331.
    Ahrenberg, Lena
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Persson, Camilla
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Hälsobokslut: en studie om varför och hur hälsobokslut upprättas2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]
    Allt fler inser att hälsa och ekonomi faktiskt hör ihop och att hälsan påverkar organisationens förmåga att skapa resultat i sin verksamhet. Den 1 juli 2003 började enny lag gälla som kräver att arbetsgivare som har mer än tio anställda ska redovisa sjukfrånvaron i årsredovisningen, ett så kallat hälsobokslut. Syftet med denna uppsats är att beskriva hur hälsobokslut upprättas och förklara varför organisationer väljer att arbeta med hälsobokslut. För att uppnå syftet har fallstudier utförts på Kristianstads kommun samt Landstinget Halland som båda arbetat länge med hälsobokslut. Vi har kunnat konstatera att de intervjuade företagen mäter unefär samma områden i sina hälsobokslut, men också att man kan arbeta med hälsobokslut på många olika sätt. En modell passar inte alla organisationer så företag bör känna sig fram för att finnna ett arbetssätt som passar just dem. Det viktigaste är att arbetet är anpassat efter varje organisations behov och förutsättningar.
  • 332.
    Ahrenkiel, Hanna
    Halmstad University, School of Humanities (HUM).
    Gotik och nygotik, sett ur ett idéhistoriskt perspektiv2002Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]
    Avsikten med uppsatsen är att belysa de två epokerna, gotiken och nygotiken, sedda ur ett idéhistoriskt perspektiv samt genom den tankestil som Ludwig Fleck var upphovsman till. För att underlätta förståelsen för dåtidens agerande inleds studien med viktiga bakgrundsfakta, för att sedan behandla epokerna och dess stilar från ursprungsland och vidare till andra länder i Europa. Frågor som gotikens födelseland, dess anda, det arkitektoniska idéspråket och byggnadsteknik för läsaren fram till hur stilen under resans gång modifierades, mottogs och till slut utvecklade sig i Sverige. Då den gotiska stilen åter blommade upp, nu kallad nygotik, förändrades både dess förutsättningar och idémässiga innehåll. Under arbetets gång besvaras frågor om nygotikens idémässiga innehåll, hur arkitekturen påverkade samhället och vilka föreställningar människorna hade om vad som var värt att bevara från gotiken. Nygotiken fick till uppgift att fylla den känsla av brist som allt mer gjorde sig hörd framförallt i England, men även i det övriga Europa. Vem var förespråkarna för epoken i Sverige och hur uppfattades den av etablissemanget?
  • 333.
    Ahrling, Malin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Education, Humanities and Social Science.
    Zlatunic, Marina
    Halmstad University, School of Education, Humanities and Social Science.
    Hur ska vi kunna förstå varandra?: Förskollärares samtal kring barns andraspråkslärande2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka hur förskollärare uttrycker sig om barns andraspråkslärande i förskolan samt vilka tolkningsrepertoarer som framkommer i dessa samtal. I denna studie undersöks vad och hur förskollärarna uttrycker sig gällande barns andraspråkslärande samt hur förskollärarna uttrycker sig om barns modersmål och föräldrars delaktighet i relation till barns andraspråkslärande. Studien tar utgångspunkt i problematiken gällande att det än idag finns brister kring barns andraspråkslärande och att barns språkutveckling skiljer sig beroende på vilken stöttning de får i sitt andraspråkslärande. Tidigare forskning inom området lyfter bland annat olika arbetssätt som pedagoger arbetar med i förskolan, men även modersmålets och hemmets betydelse för andraspråkslärande. Det vetenskapsteoretiska utgångspunkt som denna studie utgår ifrån är socialkonstruktionism, detta paradigm inriktar sig på att det finns flera versioner av verkligheten. Som forskningsmetod har vi använt oss av diskursanalys då vi har fokuserat på förskollärarnas användning av språket. Inom diskursanalys har vi utgått från analysmetoden diskurspsykologi. Vi har använt oss av semistrukturerade intervjuer med tio förskollärare för att producera empiri till studien. I resultatet framgår det att samtliga förskollärare uttrycker sig positivt kring barns modersmål i relation till andraspråkslärande, dock uttrycker de sig negativt om resurser och förutsättningar för andraspråkslärande. Argument som framförs är bland annat att det finns ont om tid, få resurser och för många språk. Det framkommer även att en del förskollärare samtalar om föräldrarnas delaktighet som en utmaning på grund av språkliga skillnader. Medan övriga förskollärare samtalar om föräldrarnas delaktighet som en positiv inverkan på barns andraspråkslärande, då deras deltagande bidrar med stöd och trygghet för barnen. 

  • 334.
    Aichernig, Bernhard K.
    et al.
    Graz University of Technology, Graz, Austria.
    Mostowski, Wojciech
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Mousavi, Mohammad Reza
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES). Department of Informatics, University of Leicester, Leicester, UK.
    Tappler, Martin
    Graz University of Technology, Graz, Austria.
    Taromirad, Masoumeh
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Model Learning and Model-Based Testing2018In: Machine Learning for Dynamic Software Analysis: Potentials and Limits / [ed] Amel Bennaceur, Reiner Hähnle, Karl Meinke, Heidelberg: Springer, 2018, p. 74-100Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a survey of the recent research efforts in integrating model learning with model-based testing. We distinguished two strands of work in this domain, namely test-based learning (also called test-based modeling) and learning-based testing. We classify the results in terms of their underlying models, their test purpose and techniques, and their target domains. © Springer International Publishing AG

  • 335.
    Aidenmark, Joakim
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE).
    Broms, Mikael
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE).
    A Study of Industrial Control Systems and New Approaches to Hydraulic Press Line Control1995Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
  • 336.
    Aigbiremonlen, Abasikpongke
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Sharma, Priya
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Umgängesförmåga, ett bristande faktor: En kvalitativ studie angående gruppdynamik och sammanhållning i en arbetsgrupp bestående av undersköterskor2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Abstrakt

    Vårdyrket anses som ett av de mest ansträngande yrken där sjukskrivningar förekommer redan i tidig ålder. I dagens senmoderna samhälle är det ett vanligt problem för anställda i olika verksamheter att hitta en balans mellan sin professionella yrkesroll som består av flexibilitet och ojämna arbetstider och sitt privatliv. Det är denna balans mellan arbetstid och privatliv som vi har undersökt och hur den påverkar anställdas välmående inom omsorgen. Det vi särskilt har undersökt är kommunikation och hur kommunikationen fungerar inom arbetsgruppen. Kommunikation kan ses som en ”tvåvägs - process” där två personer utbyter tankar, funderingar och meningar. Enkelt sett så är det ett sätt att föra vidare information från den ena personen till den andra. Undersökningen utgår från följande frågor: Hur är sammanhållningen inom gruppen? Vad är bra eller mindre bra på arbetsplatsen, vad kan förbättras? Vilka förändringar har skett på arbetsplatsen och vad tycker de anställda om det? Hur fungerar ledarskapet och ledningen på arbetsplatsen? Vi har använt oss av kvalitativt fältarbete som består av 10 semi- strukturerade intervjuer samt observationer.

    Nyckelord: Gruppdynamik, Sammanhållning, Kommunikation, Ledarskap och Flexibilitet.

  • 337.
    Aili, Anna-Karin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Andreasson, Kristina
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Träff, Anna
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Sjuksköterskors erfarenheter av familjecentrerad enkelrumsvård på neonatalavdelning: - En intervjustudie2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There are 36 neonatal wards in Sweden, which demands a highly specialized healthcare. Therefore, neonatal nurses need to have adequate education and have good knowledge within their field. Not every ward in Sweden conducts family centered single-room care. This care-model means that parents take care of their child throughout the day with the support from nurses.

    The aim of this study was to highlight nurses’ experience of family-centered single-room care in a neonatal ward. Semi-structured interviews were conducted and were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. From the result three categories emerged; nurses and family-centered single-rooms care, parents and family-centered single rooms care and children and family-centered single room.

    The result showed that family-centered single-room care is preferred from both nurses and families. Experience shows that nurses’ role has changed from being the one closest to the child and performs nursing care, to leave that responsibility to the parents and instead assume a teaching role. This allows parents to grow in their roles and strengthens the connection with the child. Communication between nurses and families is important for this form of care to succeed, and therefore needs to be highlighted in future educations. Neonatal wards need to discussed communication and structured up how it should be carried out on the workplace.

  • 338.
    Aili, K.
    et al.
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden & FoU Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Andersson, M.
    FoU Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden & Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Bremander, Ann
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). FoU Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Haglund, Emma
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). FoU Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Bergman, S.
    FoU Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden & University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sleep problems and fatigue as a predictor for the onset of chronic widespread pain over a 5- and 18-year perspective: a 20-year prospective study2018In: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, ISSN 0003-4967, E-ISSN 1468-2060, Vol. 77, no Suppl. 2, p. 87-87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: If localised pain represent one end of a pain spectra, with overall better general health, chronic widespread pain (CWP) and fibromyalgia represent the other end of the spectra with worse general health and more comorbidities with other somatic diseases and mental illness. Sleep problems and fatigue are common among individuals reporting CWP and previous research indicate that sleep problems may be an important predictor for pain prognosis.

    Objectives: The aim of this population-based study was to investigate if sleep problems and fatigue predict the onset of CWP 5 and 18 years later.

    Methods: In order to get more stable baseline classifications of CWP, a wash-out period was used, including only individuals who had not reported CWP (according to ACR 1990 criteria for fibromyalgia) at baseline (−98) and three years prior baseline (−95). In all, data from 1249 individuals entered the analyses for the 5 year follow-up (−03) and 791 entered for the 18 year follow-up (−16). Four parameters related to sleep (difficulties initiating sleep, maintaining sleep, early morning awakening and non-restorative sleep), and one parameter related to fatigue (SF-36 vitality scale) were investigated as predictors for CWP. Binary logistic regression analysis were used for analyses.

    Results: All investigated parameters predicted the onset of CWP five years later (problems with initiating sleep (OR 1.91; 1.16–3.14), maintaining sleep (OR 1.85; 1.14–3.01), early awakening (OR 2.0; 1.37–3.75), non-restorative sleep (OR 2.27; 1.37–3.75) and fatigue (OR 3.70; 1.76–7.84)) in a model adjusted for age, gender, socio-economy and mental health. All parameters except problems with early awakening predicted the onset of CWP also 18 years later. In all, 785 individuals did not report any of the sleeping problems at baseline (fatigue not included), 268 reported one of the problems, 167 two, 128 three and 117 subjects reported to have all four sleep problems. Reporting all four sleep problems was significantly associated with CWP at follow-up at both time points when adjusting for age, gender, socio economy and mental health (OR 4.00; 2.03–7.91 and OR 3.95; 1.90–8.20); adjusting for age, gender, socio economy and number of pain regions (OR 2.94; 1.48–5.82 and OR 2.65; 1.24–5.64) and in a model adjusting for age, gender, socio economy and pain severity (OR 2.97;1.53–5.76; and OR 3.02;1.47–6.21) for the 5 year and 18 year follow-up respectively, compared to not reporting any of the sleep problems at baseline.

    Conclusions: Both sleeping problems and fatigue predicts the onset of CWP 5- and 18 years later. The results highlight the importance of the assessment of sleep quality in the clinic.

  • 339.
    Aili, Katarina
    et al.
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden & FoU Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Andersson, Maria
    FoU Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden & Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Bremander, Ann
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). FoU Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Haglund, Emma
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). FoU Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Larsson, Ingrid
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI). FoU Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Bergman, Stefan
    FoU Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden & Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sleep problems and fatigue as a predictor for the onset of chronic widespread painover a 5- and 18-year perspective: a 20-year prospective study2018In: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, ISSN 0003-4967, E-ISSN 1468-2060, Vol. 77, p. 87-87, article id OP0072Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: If localised pain represent one end of a pain spectra, with overall better general health, chronic widespread pain (CWP) and fibromyalgia represent the other end of the spectra with worse general health and more comorbidities with other somatic diseases and mental illness. Sleep problems and fatigue are common among individuals reporting CWP and previous research indicate that sleep problems may be an important predictor for pain prognosis.

    Objectives: The aim of this population-based study was to investigate if sleep problems and fatigue predict the onset of CWP 5 and 18 years later.

    Methods: In order to get more stable baseline classifications of CWP, a wash-out period was used, including only individuals who had not reported CWP (according to ACR 1990 criteria for fibromyalgia) at baseline (−98) and three years prior baseline (−95). In all, data from 1249 individuals entered the analyses for the 5 year follow-up (−03) and 791 entered for the 18 year follow-up (−16). Four parameters related to sleep (difficulties initiating sleep, maintaining sleep, early morning awakening and non-restorative sleep), and one parameter related to fatigue (SF-36 vitality scale) were investigated as predictors for CWP. Binary logistic regression analysis were used for analyses.

    Results: All investigated parameters predicted the onset of CWP five years later (problems with initiating sleep (OR 1.91; 1.16–3.14), maintaining sleep (OR 1.85; 1.14–3.01), early awakening (OR 2.0; 1.37–3.75), non-restorative sleep (OR 2.27; 1.37–3.75) and fatigue (OR 3.70; 1.76–7.84)) in a model adjusted for age, gender, socio-economy and mental health. All parameters except problems with early awakening predicted the onset of CWP also 18 years later. In all, 785 individuals did not report any of the sleeping problems at baseline (fatigue not included), 268 reported one of the problems, 167 two, 128 three and 117 subjects reported to have all four sleep problems. Reporting all four sleep problems was significantly associated with CWP at follow-up at both time points when adjusting for age, gender, socio economy and mental health (OR 4.00; 2.03–7.91 and OR 3.95; 1.90–8.20); adjusting for age, gender, socio economy and number of pain regions (OR 2.94; 1.48–5.82 and OR 2.65; 1.24–5.64) and in a model adjusting for age, gender, socio economy and pain severity (OR 2.97;1.53–5.76; and OR 3.02;1.47–6.21) for the 5 year and 18 year follow-up respectively, compared to not reporting any of the sleep problems at baseline.

    Conclusions: Both sleeping problems and fatigue predicts the onset of CWP 5- and 18 years later. The results highlight the importance of the assessment of sleep quality in the clinic.

  • 340.
    Aili, Katarina
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport. Spenshult Research and Development Center, FoU Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden & Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Andersson, Maria
    Spenshult Research and Development Center, FoU Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden & Lunds Universitet, Lund, Sweden.
    Bremander, Ann
    Spenshult Research and Development Center, FoU Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden & Lunds Universitet, Lund, Sweden & University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark & Syddansk Universitet, Graasten, Danmark.
    Haglund, Emma
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Spenshult Research and Development Center, FoU Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Larsson, Ingrid
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Nursing. Spenshult Research and Development Center, FoU Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Bergman, Stefan
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Sleep problems and fatigue as predictorsfor the onset of chronic widespread painover a 5- and 18-year perspective2018In: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, ISSN 1471-2474, E-ISSN 1471-2474, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 1-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Previous research suggests that sleep problems may be an important predictor for chronic widespread pain (CWP). With this study we investigated both sleep problems and fatigue as predictors for the onset of CWP over a 5-year and an 18-year perspective in a population free from CWP at baseline.

    Methods: To get a more stable classification of CWP, we used a wash-out period, including only individuals who had not reported CWP at baseline (1998) and three years prior baseline (1995). In all, data from 1249 individuals entered the analyses for the 5-year follow-up and 791 entered for the 18-year follow-up. Difficulties initiating sleep, maintaining sleep, early morning awakening, non-restorative sleep and fatigue were investigated as predictors separately and simultaneously in binary logistic regression analyses.

    Results: The results showed that problems with initiating sleep, maintaining sleep, early awakening and non-restorative sleep predicted the onset of CWP over a 5-year (OR 1.85 to OR 2.27) and 18-year (OR 1.54 to OR 2.25) perspective irrespective of mental health (assessed by SF-36) at baseline. Also fatigue predicted the onset of CWP over the two-time perspectives (OR 3.70 and OR 2.36 respectively) when adjusting for mental health. Overall the effect of the sleep problems and fatigue on new onset CWP (over a 5-year perspective) was somewhat attenuated when adjusting for pain at baseline but remained significant for problems with early awakening, non-restorative sleep and fatigue. Problems with maintaining sleep predicted CWP 18 years later irrespective of mental health and number of pain regions (OR 1.72). Reporting simultaneous problems with all four aspects of sleep was associated with the onset of CWP over a five-year and 18-yearperspective, irrespective of age, gender, socio economy, mental health and pain at baseline. Sleep problems and fatigue predicted the onset of CWP five years later irrespective of each other.

    Conclusion: Sleep problems and fatigue were both important predictors for the onset of CWP over a five-year perspective. Sleep problems was a stronger predictor in a longer time-perspective. The results highlight the importance of the assessment of sleep quality and fatigue in the clinic. © The Author(s). 2018

  • 341.
    Aili, Katarina
    et al.
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bergman, Stefan
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI). FoU Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden & The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bremander, Ann
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). FoU Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden & Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Haglund, Emma
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). FoU Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Larsson, Ingrid
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI). FoU Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Women’s experiences of coping with chronic widespread pain: – a qualitative study2018In: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, ISSN 0003-4967, E-ISSN 1468-2060, Vol. 77, p. 1815-1815, article id FRI10737-HPRArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Approximately ten percent of the population report chronic widespread pain (CWP), the condition is more common among women than men. For most people, the pain interferes with many aspects of every-day life and implies large consequences. However, the group reporting CWP is heterogeneous and there is a need for better understanding of the different strategies used for coping with pain in every-day life.

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to describe women’s experiences of how to cope with CWP.

    Methods: The study had a descriptive design with a qualitative content analysis approach. Individual interviews were conducted with 19 women, 31–66 of age, who had reported CWP in a survey 2016. CWP was defined according to the 1990 ACR criteria for fibromyalgia. To be considered chronic, the pain should have persisted for more than three months during the last 12 months. A manifest qualitative content analysis was used to analyze the main question “How do you cope with your chronic widespread pain?” The analysis resulted in four categories.

    Results: Women described their coping with CWP in four different ways; to take control, to continue as usual, to follow instructions and to rest. To take control meant to make deliberate decisions to handle everyday day life. It also meant to take care of oneself, to think positive and to exercise at an adequate level. To continue as usual meant not to listen to body signals and either to ignore or accept the pain. To follow instructions meant listening to the health professionals and following advices, but without taking any part of the responsibility for the treatment outcome. To rest meant to perceive an unreasonable need for recovery, to resign and let the pain set the terms for the daily living.

    Conclusions: Women expressed different ways of coping with CWP including both active and passive strategies. The coping strategies included two dimensions, where one ranged from actively taking control over the pain, to passively following instructions and the other from actively continue as usual by either accepting or ignoring the pain to passively rest and being mastered by pain.

  • 342.
    Aires, Nibia
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    A guide to the Fortran programs to calculate inclusion probabilities for conditional Poisson sampling and Pareto pi ps sampling designs2004In: Computational statistics (Zeitschrift), ISSN 0943-4062, E-ISSN 1613-9658, Vol. 19, no 3, p. 337-345Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conditional Poisson Sampling and Pareto pips Sampling designs are sampling methods with fixed sample size and with inclusion probabilities proportional to given size measures.. Algorithms were introduced to calculate first and second exact inclusion probabilities for both schemes. Methods were also provided to adjust the parameters to get predetermined inclusion probabilities. In this paper, the Fortran procedures are introduced and documented. Moreover, guidelines are provided for their use as well as examples and the programs codes commented.

  • 343.
    Aislan Antonelo, Eric
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE).
    A Neural Reinforcement Learning Approach for Behaviors Acquisition in Intelligent Autonomous Systems2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this work new artificial learning and innate control mechanisms are proposed for application

    in autonomous behavioral systems for mobile robots. An autonomous system (for mobile robots)

    existent in the literature is enhanced with respect to its capacity of exploring the environment and

    avoiding risky configurations (that lead to collisions with obstacles even after learning). The

    particular autonomous system is based on modular hierarchical neural networks. Initially,the

    autonomous system does not have any knowledge suitable for exploring the environment (and

    capture targets œ foraging). After a period of learning,the system generates efficientobstacle

    avoid ance and target seeking behaviors. Two particular deficiencies of the forme rautonomous

    system (tendency to generate unsuitable cyclic trajectories and ineffectiveness in risky

    configurations) are discussed and the new learning and controltechniques (applied to the

    autonomous system) are verified through simulations. It is shown the effectiveness of the

    proposals: theautonomous system is able to detect unsuitable behaviors (cyclic trajectories) and

    decrease their probability of appearance in the future and the number of collisions in risky

    situations is significantly decreased. Experiments also consider maze environments (with targets

    distant from each other) and dynamic environments (with moving objects).

  • 344.
    Aitha, Venkat Ramana
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE).
    Imam, Mohammad Kawsar
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE).
    Low Noise Amplifier for radio telescope at 1: 42 GHz2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This is a part of the project “Radio telescope system” working at 1.42 GHz, which includes designing of patch antenna and LNA. The main objective of this thesis is to design a two stage low noise amplifier for a radio telescope system, working at the frequency 1.42 GHz. Finally our aim is to design a two stage LNA, match, connect and test together with patch antenna to reduce

    the system complexity and signal loss.

    The requirements to design a two stage low noise amplifier (LNA) were well studied, topics including RF basic theory, layout and fabrication of RF circuits. A number of tools are available to design and simulate low noise amplifiers but our simulation work was done using advanced design system (ADS 2004 A). The design process includes selection of a proper device, stability check of the device, biasing, designing of matching networks and layout of total design and fabrication. A lot of time has been

    spent on designing of impedance matching network, fabrication and testing of the design circuits and finally a two stage low noise amplifier (LNA) was designed. After the fabrication work, the circuits were tested by the spectrum analyzer in between 9 KHz to 25 GHz frequency range. Finally the resulting noise figure 0.299 dB and gain 24.25 dB are obtained from the simulation.

    While measuring the values from the fabricated circuit board, we found that bias point is not stable due to self oscillations in the amplifier stages at lower frequencies like 149 MHz for first stage and 355 MHz for second stage.

  • 345.
    Ajan, Linda
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Teacher Education (LUT).
    Nilsson, Tony
    Halmstad University, School of Teacher Education (LUT).
    Individualisering i skolan2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]
    Syftet med detta examensarbete är att undersöka hur elever på grundskolans senare del uppfattar individualisering i undervisningen. Det teoretiska utgångspunterna är styrdokumenten och litteratur som beskriver individualisering ur ett historiskt perspektiv utifrån en skolutveckling och sociologisk vinkel. Underlaget för studiens empiriska del utgörs av en enkät med 34 frågor om hurvida eleverna upplever informellt inflytande i undervisningen, samt hur de skulle önska att det såg ut. Enkäten delades ut till 77 elever i årskurs nio fördelade på två skolor i västra och en i södra Sverige. Undersökningens resultat visar på att elverna inte uppfattar sig individualiserade i undervisningen.
  • 346.
    Ajkunic, Said
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Skagervik, Oskar
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Varumärkesvärdering och tillämpningen av ISO 106682018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: It has become increasingly common to divide the intangible assets into different categories. One of these categories is the value of the brand itself, which can become useful when a brand is being bought, sold and exposed to other legal situations. In order to distinguish the brand, it is necessary to make a valuation of the brand. However, there has been no consensus on how this will happen, which led to the emergence of a new standard, ISO 10668.

    Problem: The reliability of brand valuation has been low, as there have been several different ways of valuing a brand and thus resulted in the fact that the valuations are severely divided. In 2010, the standard ISO 10668 was developed to increase the reliability and transparency of brand valuations. But what valuation methods are used to achieve ISO 10668 and a reliable brand valuation?

    Purpose: The purpose of the study is to investigate whether the new ISO standard has been accepted and applied in practice. We also want to investigate whether there has been a reduction in the problems that have arisen around brand weather and the methods used to achieve the ISO 10668 standard and a reliable brand valuation.

    Method: We have conducted a qualitative study where we interviewed people with good experience in brand valuation. The theoretical frame of reference has been designed for literature, scientific articles and other internet sources.

    Conclusion: To valuing a brand can be a costly process and therefore only when there is a specific purpose, for example, for legal, economic or market reasons. In order to make the valuation as credible as possible, experts recommend to comply with the ISO 10668 standard. This is often done at higher valuations or for example acquisitions or litigation. In order to achieve the standard, it is not merely a method used, but is determined by the purpose of valuation. 

  • 347.
    Akbarzadeh, Farzin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE).
    Lund, Stefan
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE).
    VLSI Implementation of the REMAP-y- Massively Parallel, SIMD Array for Embedded Computing1997Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
  • 348.
    Akbarzadeh, Farzin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Lund, Stefan
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    VLSI Implementation of the REMAP-y: Massively Parllel, SIMD Array for Embedded Computing1997Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
  • 349.
    Akel, Rachelle
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Reklam i Populärpress: en semiotisk bildanalys av livsstilsreklam och könsskildring i svensk populärpress, 20032003Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]
    I denna uppsats görs det en semiotisk bildanalys av livsstilsreklam och könsskildring i fyra olika tidsskrifter, Plaza Café, Cosmopolitan och Femina. Uppsatsen syfte är att besvara två olika frågor den första är: På vilket sätt spelar reklambilderna på begreppet livsstil? och hur framställs kvinnan respektive mannen i livsstilsreklambilderna? Med hjälp av den semiotiska bildanalysen och en kvalitativ arbetssätt nådde uppsatsen sitt syfte. Efter att ha analyserat 26 olika reklamannonser kunde studie dra slutsatsen att de livsstils dimensioner som analysen utgick från kunde tydligt genomspåras i vardera reklamannons. Textens och bildens betydelse som förmedlas i livsstilsreklamerna utgick från eller använder sig av olika livsstilar med dimensioner som personlighet, stil, smak eller prestige och status för att fånga publikens uppmärksamhet. Livsstilsreklamen vill meddela att det är möjligt att köpa eller konsumera en livsstil med hjälp av marknadens varuutbud. Genom att köpa en Omega klocka eller Ray-Ban solglasögon så låter man produkten vara ett uttryck för den egna personligheten eller den egna stilen/smaken eller referera till en viss status och prestige. När det gäller hur kvinnan respektive mannen framställs i de utvalda reklamannonserna är att kvinnan framställs för det mesta snygg, smal, ung, sexig, lättklädd och passiv medan mannen som snygg, smal men muskulös, påklädd eller med bar överkropp, aktiv och behöver inte alltid vara ung. Vi utsätts ständigt för reklam var vi än befinner oss och kanske därför är det sällan vi stannar till och tittar noggrant på dess utformning. Reklamen har ett eget språksystem där varje bild eller text som finns med en annons är väl genomtänkt och har stor betydelse på hur den ska tolkas och fångas av publiken.
  • 350.
    Akerö, Emma
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Nursing.
    Zetterström, Linda
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Inblick i en annan livsvärld: Att belysa omvårdnadsåtgärder vid positiva symtom hos patienter med schizofreni.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Schizophrenia is a complex disease including positive symptoms, such as for example delusions and auditory hallucinations. This group of patients can be difficult for nurses to reach. The condition entails patient exclusion and stigmatization, also an increased risk of suicide. People with schizophrenia have shown insufficient compliance in drug treatment, which in turn can negatively affect care. Previous research shows a need for increased knowledge to achieve better efficacy in the treatment of these patients. Therefore, the specific aim of this study is to illustrate the care activities in case of positive symptoms in schizophrenia. Four databases were searched and the searches resulted in 18 articles. The results showed that individualized care, based on the patient's life-world, is essential to reach the patient and thus to identify the most beneficial care activities. Patients with positive symptoms need support from nurses to find strategies to cope with these. With the support of this study, nurses can support patients to find these coping strategies. Behavior that is commonly considered destructive is not necessarily negative, it can also be a coping strategy for patients with positive symptoms in schizophrenia.

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