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  • 2901.
    Venkatanarasimhan, Aravind
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Cherukuri, Saivenkat
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Diffusion of Electric Busses for Public Transportation : A Case Study in Three Indian Municipalities2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: In India, internal combustion (IC) engines are the main concern, due to

    the exhaustion of natural fossil fuelled buses. These are the three major factors which is

    considered as an urgency to find an alternate solution. First, the energy and emission trends

    from transports. Second, efficient urban infrastructures, such as mass transit system. Third, the

    policies to adopt the cleaner and efficient technologies such as electric vehicles and other

    available alternate fuels. This made the Indian government to think about adopting electric

    vehicles as a mode of public transportation.

    PURPOSE: By initiating the use of electric buses this thesis will assist the three state transport

    corporations in India who are willing to initiate use of electric bus by overcoming their barriers.

    Furthermore, this research will be an implication for automotive industries in India towards

    their diffusion of electric buses.

    FRAMEWORK: Electric buses usage has been a major part of this diffusion process where it

    helped the authors to analyse how important it is. Adding to this the different perceived

    attributes of innovation from Rogers model has been analysed in this research to find out the

    different factors affecting towards the diffusion of electric buses.

    METHODOLOGY: This study uses the case study method to study the diffusion of electric

    buses in three municipalities. Primary data has been gathered through semi-structured

    interviews with representatives from the municipalities and suppliers. In Addition, secondary

    data, such as press releases from the municipalities and suppliers, has been collected

    CONCLUSION: It is been concluded that the adoption of electric buses is one of the major

    solution which will help the country carbon emission rate to go low with the technicalities

    involved in the electric buses. In addition to that if the private and municipality transports plan

    to expand their fleet of electric buses, complexity and nature of social system are the one of the

    major attributes which should be considered initially during the diffusion of electric buses.

    LIMITATIONS: This research has a limit in the role of internal organisation (Government or

    Companies) of the municipalities, supplier’s business model, policy related issues between the

    municipality and the government has not been analysed. All these limitations in turn is a future

    research for the further researchers.

  • 2902.
    Venkatesh, Uma Devi
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Alsamuraaiy, Omar Ali Ahmed
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Adoption of Smart Packaging: Case Study Analysis from retailer’s perspective2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the challenges faced by the retailers during the adoption of smart packaging in food packaging industry. The paper introduces three largest food retailers in Sweden, and the problems they faced during the introduction of the adoption of smart packaging technologies packaging. Introduction- The authors present the paper with complete background of the food packaging industry in general, as well as each types of smart packaging techniques. In addition, the paper introduces the adoption process for the smart packaging. The research question of this paper is: What are the hinders of adopting smart packaging technology in food packaging industry and why? • What challenges do they face during the adoption process? • What are the hinders in this adoption process? • What are the new hinders in this adoption process? Purpose- The main purpose of this paper is to find the challenges that occur during the adoption of smart packaging in food packaging industry faced by the retailers. Knowing the basic knowledge of the food packaging industry and giving importance to the challenges may lead to achieve our aim. Methodology- This research paper uses the research onion model as a methodology to analyse the gathered data. The authors performed interviews with retailers and end-users of food packaging industry to analyse their challenges during the adoption of smart packaging. The collected data are further discussed in the analysis and discussion part. Conclusion- This paper concludes the adoption in the new technology and concentrates on how each retailer has their own perspective to see the quality and use it to overcome the adoption process. This paper describes the common and unique challenges faced by the retailers during the adoption process. The main common challenges faced by all the retailers in common was to create awareness and to make end-user understand the adoption process but also the benefits of adoption. The most important challenges faced by the retailers of ICA is they consider that adopting to new technology in smart packaging is a challenge for them, because they must create an understanding about the new technology to the end-users which requires a lot of time for the adoption process. According to Coop the open to new smart packaging technologies because since they use only localize products and resources, the overall cost of the product increases which again becomes a barrier for end-user adoption. The interviewee from Willys state that they offer affordable smart packaging technologies without creating barrier for customer adoption, at the same time they are not willing to adopt new technologies without testing its feasibility with the customers. Omar, Uma Thesis in Industrial Innovation Management (IN7001) iii Limitation- The aim of this study is focused on only one element of smart packaging i.e. “Adoption”. Moreover, this study is limited to adoption of smart packaging done in three companies (Coop, Willys & ICA Maxi) in the retail sector in Halmstad, Sweden. This study is conducted from the retailer perspective, by analysing the challenges faced by the retailers during the adoption process.

  • 2903.
    Verikas, Antanas
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research. Kaunas University of Technology, Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Parker, James
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Bacauskiene, Marija
    Kaunas University of Technology, Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Olsson, M. Charlotte
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Exploring relations between EMG and biomechanical data recorded during a golf swing2017In: Expert systems with applications, ISSN 0957-4174, E-ISSN 1873-6793, Vol. 88, p. 109-117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Exploring relations between patterns of peak rotational speed of thorax, pelvis and arm, and patterns of EMG signals recorded from eight muscle regions of forearms and shoulders during the golf swing is the main objective of this article. The linear canonical correlation analysis, allowing studying relations between sets of variables, was the main technique applied. To get deeper insights, linear and nonlinear random forests-based prediction models relating a single output variable, e.g. a thorax peak rotational speed, with a set of input variables, e.g. an average intensity of EMG signals were used. The experimental investigations using data from 16 golfers revealed statistically significant relations between sets of input and output variables. A strong direct linear relation was observed between lin- ear combinations of EMG averages and peak rotational speeds. The coefficient of determination values R2 = 0 . 958 and R2 = 0 . 943 obtained on unseen data by the random forest models designed to predict peak rotational speed of thorax and pelvis , indicate high modelling accuracy. However, predictions of peak rotational speed of arm were less accurate. This was expected, since peak rotational speed of arm played a minor role in the linear combination of peak speeds. The most important muscles to predict peak rotational speed of the body parts were identified. The investigations have shown that the canon- ical correlation analysis is a promising tool for studying relations between sets of biomechanical and EMG data. Better understanding of these relations will lead to guidelines concerning muscle engagement and coordination of thorax, pelvis and arms during a golf swing and will help golf coaches in providing substantiated advices. ©2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 2904.
    Verikas, Antanas
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research. Kaunas University of Technology, Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Vaiciukynas, Evaldas
    Kaunas University of Technology, Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Gelzinis, Adas
    Kaunas University of Technology, Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Parker, James
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Olsson, M. Charlotte
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Electromyographic Patterns during Golf Swing: Activation Sequence Profiling and Prediction of Shot Effectiveness2016In: Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 16, no 4, article id 592Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyzes muscle activity, recorded in an eight-channel electromyographic (EMG) signal stream, during the golf swing using a 7-iron club and exploits information extracted from EMG dynamics to predict the success of the resulting shot. Muscles of the arm and shoulder on both the left and right sides, namely flexor carpi radialis, extensor digitorum communis, rhomboideus and trapezius, are considered for 15 golf players (∼5 shots each). The method using Gaussian filtering is outlined for EMG onset time estimation in each channel and activation sequence profiling. Shots of each player revealed a persistent pattern of muscle activation. Profiles were plotted and insights with respect to player effectiveness were provided. Inspection of EMG dynamics revealed a pair of highest peaks in each channel as the hallmark of golf swing, and a custom application of peak detection for automatic extraction of swing segment was introduced. Various EMG features, encompassing 22 feature sets, were constructed. Feature sets were used individually and also in decision-level fusion for the prediction of shot effectiveness. The prediction of the target attribute, such as club head speed or ball carry distance, was investigated using random forest as the learner in detection and regression tasks. Detection evaluates the personal effectiveness of a shot with respect to the player-specific average, whereas regression estimates the value of target attribute, using EMG features as predictors. Fusion after decision optimization provided the best results: the equal error rate in detection was 24.3% for the speed and 31.7% for the distance; the mean absolute percentage error in regression was 3.2% for the speed and 6.4% for the distance. Proposed EMG feature sets were found to be useful, especially when used in combination. Rankings of feature sets indicated statistics for muscle activity in both the left and right body sides, correlation-based analysis of EMG dynamics and features derived from the properties of two highest peaks as important predictors of personal shot effectiveness. Activation sequence profiles helped in analyzing muscle orchestration during golf shot, exposing a specific avalanche pattern, but data from more players are needed for stronger conclusions. Results demonstrate that information arising from an EMG signal stream is useful for predicting golf shot success, in terms of club head speed and ball carry distance, with acceptable accuracy. Surface EMG data, collected with a goal to automatically evaluate golf player’s performance, enables wearable computing in the field of ambient intelligence and has potential to enhance exercising of a long carry distance drive.

  • 2905.
    Vestergård Nielsen, Pernille
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Efterfrågan på bostäder: En studie kring hur bostadsbristen har sett ut sedan 1950-talet i Sverige2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 2906.
    Victor, Mofjell
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Case studies about swedish companies2016Student paper other, 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose with this paper is to investigate and get deeper understanding of case studies about Swedish companies. I will focus on the way the case studies have been constructed, the purposes of the studies and how well the findings may be implemented to other contexts. I find this interesting because case studies are something that can benefit every company in other to in some way improve and streamline the business. The data used in this paper will be obtained from various case studies within the subject “Swedish companies” and therefore analyzed to draw conclusions.

    The findings from this study is that every case study is unique, and there is not one single, optimal way to construct a case study. One must take the purpose of the study into consideration and establish the study from this. However, there are common traits between case studies, such as the ways of obtaining data for the studies and the uniqueness of research question. How well the findings of a case study can be generalized to other contexts also depends on the uniqueness of the purpose of the study.

  • 2907.
    Victor, Mofjell
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Factors for universities to consider for trade shows: Exhibit marketing for universities2017Student paper other, 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates factors universities should consider when attending trade shows. The findings are based both on earlier studies, but also a research on this subject. The purpose of this study is to examine important aspects of exhibit marketing for universities which subsequently could be improved to improve the performance at a trade show. The findings of this study are that the booth staff, the layout of the booth, pre-show communication with the desired audience, among others, are important factors for universities to consider when attending trade show.

  • 2908.
    Victor, Mofjell
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    How could universities use trade shows better?: Exhibit marketing for universities2017Student paper other, 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 2909.
    Vidovic, Vladan
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Ahmad, Ammar
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Glassögon upphittaren2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Följande examensarbetes rapport handlar om utveckla konstruktion, modellering samt ner skalning av ett projekt, glasögon upphittaren. Arbetet som rapporten bygger på är utfört i samarbete med uppdragsgivaren Birger Klasson. Projektet innefattar utvecklingen av ett gammalt projekt som gjorts på högskolan innan som handlar om glasögon upphittare, deras grupp fokuserade på teknologin som användes för att mota signaler. Skälet bakom utvecklingen är att skala ner den gamla prototypen men även modellera en smidigare design för skalet. Genom några möten mellan uppdragsgivaren och författarna har idén kommit fram om att uppdatera chipet med GPS sändare inbyggt med ljud-enheten. De ska kopplas ihop med en mobil enhet genom Bluetooth-signaler. Flera olika lösningsförslag har utarbetats där det till slut uppenbarats två olika koncept på lösningar. De två lösningarna har vägts upp mot varandra utifrån metoden från principkonstruktionen. Resultatet av dessa bedömningar blev ett förslag där skalet komprimeras till chipets storlek för smidigare grepp runt bågarna, samt att den inte tar lika mycket utrymme. Prototypen visade sig vara lyckad,  onstruktionens dimension är hälften jämfört med den ursprungliga prototypen. Produkten har en ny smalare design, fäster sig lättare på glasögon samt uppdaterad teknologi i chip och mottagare.  De olika metoderna som följdes under arbetets gång kom från tillverknings-, primär-, och principkonstruktions kurserna.

  • 2910.
    Voitkane, Aija
    et al.
    Department of Economics and Technology and Society, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Johansson, Jeaneth
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL). Department of Economics and Technology and Society, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Malmström, Malin
    Department of Economics and Technology and Society, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Department of Entrepreneurship, Management and Organisation, Hanken School of Economics, Helsinki, Finland & Institute of Technology Management, University of St. Gallen, St. Gallen, Switzerland.
    How much does the “same-gender effect” matter in VCs' assessments of entrepreneurs?2019In: Journal of Business Venturing Insights, ISSN 2352-6734, Vol. 12, article id e00133Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our study uses cognitive mapping techniques to take into account how the same/opposite gender influences the cognitive evaluations of venture capitalists (VCs). Contrary to what has often been discussed in previous entrepreneurship literature, our results report women VCs evaluate women entrepreneurs more critically, and men VCs evaluate men entrepreneurs more critically. However, overall, the VCs' vaguer processing and lower rating of women's venturing compared to men's indicate a general structure of subordinating women's venturing compared to men's venturing. Ultimately, this contributes with an alternative view to explain what we see on the VC scene: women entrepreneurs are more likely to be rejected. We discuss implications of these results as well as implications for future study. © 2019 Elsevier Inc. 

  • 2911.
    Voitkane, Aija
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Johansson, Jeaneth
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL). Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Malmström, Malin
    Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    How vague entrepreneurial identities of Swedish women entrepreneurs are performed by government financiers2018In: Women entrepreneurs and the myth of 'underperformance': a new look at women's entrepreneurship research / [ed] Shumaila Yousafzai, Alain Fayolle, Adam Lindgreen, Colette Henry, Saadat Saeed & Shandana Sheikh, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2018, p. 107-124Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 2912.
    Voordeckers, Wim
    et al.
    Hasselt University, Hasselt, Belgium.
    Van Gils, Anita
    Maastricht University, Maastricht, Netherlands.
    Gabrielsson, Jonas
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL). Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Politis, Diamanto
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Huse, Morten
    University of Witten/Herdecke, Germany & Department of Communication and Culture, Norwegian School of Management BI, Oslo, Norway.
    Board structures and board behaviour: A cross-country comparison of privately held SMEs in Belgium, the Netherlands and Norway2014In: International Journal of Business Governance and Ethics, ISSN 1477-9048, E-ISSN 1741-802X, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 197-219Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we examine and compare formal board structures and actual board behaviour in privately held SMEs. We integrate and build on ideas from institutional theory and the behavioural theory of the firm to propose that privately held firms have specific governance needs that 'decouple' formal board structures from actual board behaviour. Following this logic, we expect board structures to vary across countries while board behaviour does not. We test this in a cross-country sample of SMEs in Belgium, the Netherlands and Norway. The empirical results support the proposition that board structures are largely decoupled from actual board behaviour in privately held SMEs. Overall, the findings imply that it is possible to coordinate and disseminate board development research and practice across countries despite national differences in formal board structures. Copyright © 2014 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

  • 2913.
    Vretare Strand, Viveka
    et al.
    Limnology, Department of Ecology, Lund University, Sweden.
    Weisner, Stefan E.B.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Wetland Research Centre.
    Interactive effects of pressurized ventilation, water depth and substrate conditions on Phragmites australis2002In: Oecologia, ISSN 0029-8549, E-ISSN 1432-1939, Vol. 131, no 4, p. 490-497Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pressurized ventilation acts to increase the oxygen supply to roots and rhizomes in some species of emergent plants. In a greenhouse experiment, we investigated how pressurized ventilation affected growth, biomass allocation and mineral content of Phragmites australis in two water depths (15 cm or 75 cm) and two substrates (organic sediment or sand). Through perforating each stem above the water surface, pressurized ventilation was inhibited without affecting oxygen diffusion. In controls, 10-20% of the stems were perforated to make certain that lack of efflux sites would not limit pressurized ventilation. Plants with inhibited pressurized ventilation had lower oxygen concentrations in their stem bases than control plants. Growth was lower in plants with inhibited pressurized ventilation compared to controls except when plants grew in a combination of sand and shallow water. In plants grown in an organic sediment, but not in those grown in sand, inhibition of pressurized ventilation resulted in decreased biomass allocation to soil roots but increased allocation to aquatic roots. Stem perforation affected the tissue concentrations of nitrogen, phosphorus, magnesium, manganese and aluminium but not of calcium or iron. We suggest that the lower growth in plants with inhibited pressurized ventilation was caused by decreased mineral uptake, which may have resulted from the decreased proportional allocation to soil root weight, from decreased mineral availability or from impaired root function. In plants grown in sand in shallow water, diffusion seemed to cover the oxygen demand, as pressurized ventilation did not affect growth.

  • 2914.
    Vriens, Dirk
    et al.
    Radboud University, Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    Solberg Søilen, Klaus
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Disruptive intelligence - How to gather information to deal with disruptive innovations2014In: Journal of Intelligence Studies in Business, ISSN 2001-015X, E-ISSN 2001-015X, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 63-78Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Disruptive innovations are innovations that have the capacity to transform a whole business into one with products that are more accessible and affordable (cf. Christensen et al. 2009). As Christensen et al. argue no business is immune to such disruptive innovations. If these authors are right, it might be relevant to be able to recognize these innovations before they disrupt a business. Incumbents may use this information to protect their business and others may use it to participate in the disruption. Either way, gathering information about potential disruptive innovations is a relevant activity. The production of this information (we call this information "disruptive Intelligence") is the topic of this paper. In particular, we analyze disruptive innovation theory and formulate several intelligence topics which may help in predicting disruptive innovations. In addition, we formulate several ’biases’ which may impair the production of ’disruptive intelligence’.

  • 2915.
    Vu-Thi, Xoan
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Stenberg, Emma
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    A Literature Review of the field of Knowledge Management Systems2017Student paper other, 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge Management Systems (KMS) studies, with roots from the information theory, knowledge and knowledge management (KM) has increased during the past years and moved to a broader spread of occupations. Therefore, a need of a literature review on the field of KMS arose and is fulfilled in this article. From selected ample scientific articles in the field some major similarities and controversies as well as research gaps were discovered.  Conclusions from the review result in that even if there are some differences in the field regarding knowledge and KM most authors agree on the bases of KMS. Another conclusion result in a connection to the information theory that mainly concern about information exchange and the relevant process, which was first developed by the founder Claude E. Shannon from the thematic school.  

  • 2916.
    Vu-Thi, Xoan
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Stenberg, Emma
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Local History of Scania: The Embedded Drivers in Movement from Agriculture to Industry2017Student paper other, 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 2917.
    Vu-Thi, Xoan
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Stenberg, Emma
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Local-History-of-Scania-the-embedded-drivers-in-movement-from-agriculture-to-industry-Stenberg-Vu-Thi2017Student paper other, 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Scania is well known for its agriculture, previously the region consisted of mostly agricultural landscape and farming. Scania is the wealthiest part in Sweden of agricultural landscape and stands out from the rest of the country’s landscape. In the late eighteenth century the industrialization came to the region and the agriculture developed in pace with the industry. Most previous studies have described the evolution from agriculture to industrialization and urbanization of the region but seemed to fail to investigate the embedded drivers that drove the transformation. Therefore this study investigated embedded drivers during the period from agriculture to industrialization in the region of Scania. The result showed that factors of agricultural transformation, social change and entrepreneurship were the key embedded drivers for transformation.

  • 2918.
    Vårdal, Hege
    et al.
    Department of Systematic Zoology, Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Sahlén, Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Ronquist, Fredrik
    Department of Systematic Zoology, Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Morphology and evolution of the cynipoid egg (Hymenoptera)2003In: Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, ISSN 0024-4082, E-ISSN 1096-3642, Vol. 139, no 2, p. 247-260Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We describe gross egg morphology and provide the first data on eggshell ultrastructure in cynipoids (Hymenoptera) based on species representing three distinctly different life histories: internal parasitoids of endopterygote larvae, gall inducers and phytophagous inquilines (guests in galls). We then use existing phylogenetic hypotheses to identify putative changes in egg structure associated with evolutionary life-history transitions. We find four major structural changes associated with the shift from parasitoids laying their eggs inside a host larva to gall inducers laying their eggs in or on plants: (1) from a narrow and gradually tapering gross form to a distinct division into a stout body and a long and thin stalk; (2) from a thin to a thick eggshell; (3) from a flexible to a rigid endochorion; and (4) from crystal bundles with shifting orientation in the exochorion to layers of parallel crystal rods. By contrast, we find no major changes in egg structure associated with the transition from gall inducers to inquilines. Comparison between pre- and post-oviposition eggs of one gall inducer and one inquiline suggests that mechanical stress during the passage through the egg canal gives rise to numerous tiny stress fractures in the boundary separating the exo- and endochorion. In one of the gall inducers, Diplolepis rosae, that end of the egg, which is inserted into the plant, has a specialized and apparently porous shell that may permit chemical exchange between the embryo and the plant. Other structures that could facilitate chemical communication with the host plant through the eggshell were, however, not observed in the eggs of gall inhabitants.

  • 2919.
    Vårhammar, Annelie
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Is there canine distemper virus in the Antarctic seal populations?2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The highly contagious canine distemper virus (CDV) has caused many so called epizootics, i.e. widespread transmissions of severe diseases in animal populations. Antibodies to CDV have been found several times in the northern hemisphere, but only once in the 1980’s in the phocid seal populations on the remote continent of Antarctica. This raises the question of whether the virus is enzootic or if it has been eliminated from the seal populations, which brings forth this study with serological testing on recently sampled seals. In this study, samples of 49 crabeater seals (Lobodon carcinophagus), 49 Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii) and 14 Ross seals (Ommatophoca rossii) from two separate expeditions with the Swedish icebreaker Oden in year 2008/2009 and 2010/2011 were tested for antibodies to CDV using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The ELISA was repeated three times on the same samples but unexpectedly showed inconsistent results. Statistical analysis revealed that there were significant differences in titre values between the three trials in all three species. The results must therefore be considered unreliable for the purpose of estimating antibody prevalence and should be discarded. The inconsistency could be explained by the ELISA kit being designed for dogs. Thus, the present study is valuable as a pilot study and shows that ELISA tests on seals developed for dogs should be treated with caution and that the samples need to be re-tested with other methods, preferably by using a virus neutralization test. The present study reviews the preceding literature concerning the prevalence of antibodies against CDV in the Antarctic seals, and also displays how the results of a future re-testing can be used to assess the susceptibility of a future outbreak of CDV in the seals of Antarctica.

  • 2920.
    Waara, Sylvia
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Wetland Research Centre.
    Dagvattnets sammansättning i Västerås stad - En kunskapssammanställning2010Report (Other academic)
  • 2921.
    Waara, Sylvia
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Landfill Leachate Ecotoxicity2013In: Encyclopedia of Aquatic Ecotoxicology / [ed] Jean-François Férard & Christian Blaise, Dordrecht: Springer, 2013, p. 649-670Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 2922.
    Waara, Sylvia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Bandaruk, Tatsiana
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Metal and Metalloid Sequestration in a Constructed Wetland System for Treatment of Landfill Leachate During 2003–20122014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The treatment of landfill leachate in constructed wetland systems is a common practice in Europe. However, very few studies were made to evaluate their performance over a long period of time. A free surface constructed wetland system consisting of sediment traps followed by 10 ponds connected with overflows was built at Atleverket near Örebro, Sweden in 2001. It receives pre-treated leachate from the municipal landfill. As part of the wetland monitoring programme a large data set on the surface concentrations of 15 metals and 2 metalloids has been collected from different sampling sites within the wetland during the operation period. In this study, the data from inlet and outlet of the wetland were compiled and analysed. The aim of this paper is therefore to estimate the removal efficiency of metals and metalloids using data on concentrations and flow and investigate the effect of wetland age on removal pattern. The elements with the highest removal efficiency were Al, As, Ba, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, V and Zn ranging from 95% for Pb to 65 % for Ca. The elements with the lowest reduction were B, Co K, Mg, Ni and S ranging from Co 56 % to 40 % for S. It was found that the removal efficiency was not related to inlet concentrations of the elements as the elements with high and low inlet concentrations were found in both groups. Analysis of reduction pattern also revealed that the group with higher removal efficiency showed fairly constant outlet concentrations during the study period, while the elements with lower removal efficiency demonstrated variable outlet concentrations. No statistical difference in removal due to age of the wetland was found. The study results showed that the wetland system has high removal efficiency of metals and metalloids and the removal pattern is not affected by age of the wetland. The influence on reduction due to leachate characteristics, wetland design and retention time will be discussed.

  • 2923.
    Waara, Sylvia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Gajewska, Magdalena
    Gdańsk University of Technology, Gdańsk, Poland.
    Cruz Blázquez, Veronica
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Alsbro, Roland
    Eskilstuna Energi och Miljö AB, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Norwald, Pernilla
    Eskilstuna Energi och Miljö AB, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Waara, Karl-Otto
    Yderängen HB, Båstad, Sweden.
    Long term performance of an FWS wetland for post-tertiary treatment of sewage: the influence of flow, temperature and age on nitrogen removal2015In: Book of Abstracts: 6th International Symposium on Wetland Pollutant Dynamics and Control: Annual Conference of the Constructed Wetland Association: 13th to 18th September, 2015, York, United Kingdom / [ed] Gabriela Dotro & Vincent Gagnon, 2015, p. 38-39Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 2924.
    Waara, Sylvia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Environmental Science, Wetland Research Centre.
    Gajewska, Magdalena
    Gdańsk University of Technology, Gdańsk, Poland.
    Dvarioniene, Jolanta
    Kaunas University of Technology, Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Ehde, Per Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Environmental Science, Wetland Research Centre.
    Gajewski, Ryszard
    Gdańska Infrastructura Wodociągowo-Kanalizacyjna, Gdańsk, Poland.
    Grabowski, Pawel
    Grupa Lotos, Gdańsk, Poland.
    Hansson, Anna
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Environmental Science, Wetland Research Centre.
    Kaszubowski, Jacek
    Gdańska Infrastructura Wodociągowo-Kanalizacyjna, Gdańsk, Poland.
    Obarska-Pempkowiak, Hanna
    Gdańsk University of Technology, Gdańsk, Poland.
    Przewlócka, Maria
    Gdańsk University of Technology, Gdańsk, Poland.
    Pilecki, Adam
    Grupa Lotos, Gdańsk, Poland.
    Nagórka-Kmiecik, Dagmara
    City Hall of Gdańsk, Environment Department , Gdańsk, Poland.
    Skarbek, Jacek
    Gdańska Infrastructura Wodociągowo-Kanalizacyjna, Gdańsk, Poland.
    Tonderski, Karin
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Weisner, Stefan
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Environmental Science, Wetland Research Centre.
    Wojciechowska, Ewa
    Gdańsk University of Technology, Gdańsk, Poland.
    Towards Recommendations for Design of Wetlands for Post-Tertiary Treatment of Waste Water in the Baltic Sea Region – Gdańsk Case Study2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There are many challenges that need to be addressed if the far reaching objectives on high environmental status as required in the EU Water Framework Directive and the Marine Strategy Framework Directive will be met in the Baltic Sea Region within the next decade. For wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) this implies, in spite of the many improvements made during the last decade, development and introduction of new technology to further reduce eutrophying compounds, hazardous chemicals and pharmaceuticals. Constructed wetlands when properly designed and operated have been shown to be robust systems with low energy requirements that may not only reduce many types of pollutants but may also provide many additional ecosystem services beyond requirements generally imposed by authorities. For example, they may support and enhance biodiversity and be used to convert brownfield areas in urban landscapes to recreational areas. Reduced cost is possible if treated water is reused in industry or for irrigation. In a project, supported by the Swedish Institute, a group of scientists, a water company and water using industry has together with local authorities through workshops, field studies and literature studies worked on finding a general first recommendation on design and operation. In this paper we will present the scientific rational and legal constraints for the general design and operation of a wetland system for post-tertiary treatment of waste water from WWTPs using Gdańsk as an example. The proposal includes a first part, which mainly will be focusing on pollutant and pathogen removal using particle traps and a HSSF wetland on land owned by the WWTP and a second part consisting of a FWS wetland which, in addition to further polishing the water, will enhance biodiversity and provide recreational areas on derelict land owned by the city.

  • 2925.
    Waara, Sylvia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Wetland Research Centre.
    Khokhotva, Oleksandr
    National Technical University of Ukraine, Kyiv Polytechnic Institute, Kyiv, Ukraine.
    The effect of environmental conditions on the stability of heavy meltal-filter material complex as assessed by the leaching of adsorbed metal ions2011In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 159, p. 146-1463Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study the influence of environmental conditions, most likely prevailing in filter beds used for intermittently discharged pollutant streams such as landfill leachate and storm water, on the stability of the heavy metalefilter complex was investigated for 2 filter materials; non-treated and urea treated pine bark, using leaching experiments. The metalefilter complex stability was higher for urea treated than for non-treated pine bark and dependent on the metal adsorbed. The type of environmental condition applied was of less importance for the extent of leaching.

  • 2926.
    Waara, Sylvia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Wetland Research Centre.
    Wojciechowska, Eva
    Faculty of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Gdansk University of Technology, Gdansk, Polen.
    Distribution and removal efficiency of heavy metals in two constructed wetlands treating landfill leachate2011In: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 64, no 8, p. 1597-1606Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The results of heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Zn, Ni, Cu, Cr, Pb, Cd) removal and partitioning between aqueous and solid phases at two treatment wetlands (TWs) treating municipal landfill leachates are presented. One of the TWs is a surface flow facility consisting of 10 ponds. The other TW is a newly constructed pilot-scale facility consisting of three beds with alternately vertical and horizontal sub-surface flow. The metals concentrations were analysed in leachate (both TWs) and bottom sediments (surface flow TW). Very high (90.9-99.9%) removal rates of metals were observed in a mature surface flow TW. The effectiveness of metals removal in a newly constructed pilot-scale sub-surface flow wetland were considerably lower (range 0-73%). This is attributed to young age of the TW, different hydraulic conditions (sub-surface flow system with much shorter retention time, unoxic conditions) and presence of metallic complexes with refractory organic matter

  • 2927.
    Waara, Sylvia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Wojciechowska, Ewa
    Faculty of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Gdansk University of Technology, Gdansk, Poland.
    Treatment of landfill leachate in a constructed free water surface wetland system over a decade – Identification of disturbance in process behaviour and removal of eutrophying substances and organic material2019In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 249, article id 109319Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An 8 ha free water surface wetland system in Orebro, Sweden, which has sediment traps followed by 10 ponds for treatment of landfill leachate in the methanogenic stage, was studied from 2003 to 2012. The wetland was irregularly loaded and the leachate characteristics showed high temporal and spatial variability, so Multivariate Statistical Process Control was chosen as the diagnostic tool for detecting anomalies prior to assessing removal efficiency for eutrophying substances and organics. Disturbances in process behaviour included those due to intermittent flow, dilution due to snowmelt, an episode of high pollutant load, and sampling technique. The wetland total nitrogen mass removal was 89%, resulting in a first order rate coefficient of 1.7 m/year. Total phosphorus mass removal was 98%, while mass reduction was lower for TOC (60%), although this was still below discharge limits. The low amount of labile organic material and phosphate are probably the main reasons for the low denitrification rate. © 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 2928.
    Wagner, Beverly
    et al.
    Department of Marketing, Strathclyde Business School, Glasgow, UK.
    Svensson, Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER). Oslo School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    A framework to navigate sustainability in business networks: The transformative business sustainability (TBS) model2014In: European Business Review, ISSN 0955-534X, E-ISSN 1758-7107, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 340-367Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    – The purpose of this paper is to describe a transformative business sustainability (TBS) model of stakeholders and sources in sustainable business practices with an interface and exchange node of resource residuals.

    Design/methodology/approach

    – The research is based upon a grounded methodology drawn from four in-depth case studies, spanning over six years in different countries and industries. Data were gathered from multiple sources, and interview transcriptions were returned to interviewees for clarification, accuracy, final proofreading and approval.

    Findings

    – The TBS model complements existing research by emphasising the importance of commitment to an overarching vision through corporate leadership assigning areas of strategic priority that respond to current and future environmental regulation and social needs.

    Research implications/limitations

    – Efforts aimed towards business sustainability and application of sustainable business practices in business networks include interfaces and interactions between involved stakeholders and sources. We argue that stakeholders and sources should be recognised as intertwined, where resources used in activities in a business network causing resource residuals may be recovered and reused by other actors in the business network.

    Practice implications

    – The TBS model can be used by managers to plan, implement and assess practices to provide a holistic view of sustainable business activities that supports the development of a company and its network. It may also be used to map and navigate interactions between elements within and external to the company.

    Originality/value

    – The principal contribution of the current research is twofold, a TBS model and a tool to map and navigate corporate sustainability efforts. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

  • 2929.
    Wagrelius, Oskar
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Eriksson, Sara
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Is fat the new skinny?: A study on weight and perception of models in green marketing2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title: Is fat the new skinny? A study on weight and perception of models in green marketing.

    Date: 2018-05-22

    Level: Bachelor Thesis in International Marketing

    Author: Oskar Wagrelius & Sara Eriksson

    Supervisor: Ulf Aagerup

    Problem formulation: How does the perceived weight and warmth/competence of a model in green marketing affect sales through perceived greenness and attractiveness?

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to increase the knowledge, for brands being green, about how the choice of models in their advertisement will impact the brand's perception and affect greenness, attractiveness, and sales. The goal is to understand if the choice of a diverse model (considering weight) might be more effective considering green marketing and brands who want to be perceived as warm and/or competent.

    Theoretical framework: In this thesis, the theoretical framework is made up of existing theories on brand positioning, brand identity, consumer behavior, the perception of people and the usage of models.

    Methodology: This thesis is conducted with a deductive approach through a quantitative study made up of 131 respondents since non-coffee drinkers and non-coffee buying respondents as well as, non-Swedish people were excluded from participating. A total of 160 people responded to the online survey. The groups were randomized as to which one of four different surveys they got to answer. Secondary sources are scientific articles and books, journals as well as websites since the topic is in an academic viewpoint under-researched.

    Empirical findings: This thesis and its findings consist of an analysis of the quantitative study which is presented through theoretical models, figures, diagrams and tables as well as text.

    Conclusion: The findings in this thesis shows that green products have a higher purchase propensity than neutral products. Therefore the first assumption is considered to be true. The second and third assumptions are however falsified through the findings that a brands (being either warm or competent) choice of model will not affect the perceived greenness, attractiveness or sales.

  • 2930.
    Wagstaffe, Jessica
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Anthropogenic impacts on an oligotrophic clear water lake in Halland, Sweden, assessed from two different data sets.2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Lake Skärsjön is a dimictic, oligotrophic, clear water lake with bottom plant communities including the rare Nostoc zetterstedtii. The lake is located in western Sweden, south of Gothenburg. During the late 1970s to mid-1980s, there was fish cage farming located near the outlet of the lake. When the fish farming was first introduced, there was concern over the health of the late which prompted a monitoring study which was conducted from 1980 to 1990 by the County Administration Board (regional governing body of Sweden). Starting in 1983, another National Monitoring study commenced simultaneously with the 10 year study. This monitoring study had one site taking measurements from 0.2-2m and collected the same data as the 10 year study.

    There were notable changes starting in 1985, the year the fish farming was closed down. After these changes, there are patterns indicating the lake returning to similar conditions before 1985. The pH of the lake is increasing and the acidity decreasing which reflects the ongoing decrease in atmospheric sulphur deposition and concentration in the lake.

    Overall, the impacts from the fish farming may have been more intense if it was located farther from the lake outlet. This would have allowed nutrient emissions from the fish cages to influence the lake more severely before exiting through the outlet. The lake is slowly recovering from this anthropogenic event and the current monitoring program, the National Monitoring study, should remain intact. 

  • 2931.
    Wahlbäck, Kalle
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    General factors that regulate survival among ectotherms at northern latitudes: a study of sand lizard, Lacerta agilis, habitat in southern Sweden2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Open sand habitats in Sweden has been declining for the past century and this is mirrored by the increasing fragmentation and attenuation of species bound to these habitats. Many threatened species coexist in the same habitats as sand lizards, habitats best described as warm sites with a long continuity. Often with a sand-based substrate and a mosaic landscape of heather Calluna vulgaris, herbs, and patches of grass. Generally, areas with open sand are one of the keys for species bound to these habitats considering many of the species use south-facing sand slopes as nesting sites since it holds a warmer microhabitat that is beneficial for incubation of eggs and thus is essential for the whole lifecycle. This study investigates four current sand lizard (Lacerta agilis) localities in the county of Skåne and compares them to four empty localities in Southern Halland with similar character. The data collected from the study sites were analyzed to see if there were any significant differences between the populated and empty localities and thus could give information if key structures in the habitat are missing. The result from the analysis clearly shows that both the study sites Vapnö and Långenäsudden have the key structures that are essential for the sand lizard and could be considered as suitable habitats for potential new sand lizard populations. Information about both recreational pressure and predator abundance in these study sites would be an essential step in the final evaluation of the adequacy of the habitat as a whole.

  • 2932.
    Walldén, Dean
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Woxö, Martin
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Militariseringen av EU: Varför valde Sverige att ingå i Pesco?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In response to the changing security environment in Europe a process started aimed at increasing cooperation in the security and defence area within the EU. This defence cooperation is called the Permanent structured cooperation (Pesco) and means a more gradual and substantial military cooperation than before in the EU. Through a membership in Pesco, the members commit to more intensively develop of its own defence capabilities in research and acquisition of defence equipment, but also to obtain and maintain a strong defence budget. In addition, the member states should also contribute with battle groups ready for military missions within the framework of the EU.

    How can we understand the logic of Sweden joining more binding defence cooperation like Pesco. The purpose of this study is to identify the underlying driving forces to understand why Sweden decided to join Pesco. This case study uses a theoretical perspective based on Graham Allison's conceptual models to achieve this purpose. Through a qualitative text analysis, the data that is studied in this case study consisting of Swedish government proposition and Defence committee report regarding Pesco and Defence bill 2016-2020. In order to widen the study, mail interviews were conducted with strategically selected informants. Those were members of the Swedish parliament and staff officers in the Swedish Armed Forces.

    The study concludes that the underlying driving forces for the decision were several. The main driving force was that Sweden previously ratified the EU solidarity clause and stated a declaration of solidarity in relation to other member states of the EU. By joining Pesco is also expected to boost Sweden's credibility as a member state of the EU. An additional driving force was to join Pesco at an early stage in order to forge cooperation and have influence in the direction in which Sweden considers compatible with own military nonalignment, and also to continue to drive the intergovernmental nature that Pesco now holds. An additional driving force was also building up the national defence, increase the operational capacity and strengthen the armed forces through the defence cooperation. A majority of the parliamentary parties agreed on joining Pesco because of the previously decided defence bill 2016-2020, which also considers as a driving force for why Sweden chose to join Pesco. 

  • 2933.
    Wallenborg, Emma
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Holmqvist, Ida
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Byggföretags förberedelser inför en lågkonjunktur: En kvalitativ studie om strategisk planering och styrning2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 2934.
    Wallin, Ellen
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    How would a case study look from a feminist perspective?2016Student paper other, 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The issue addressed in this article is how a feminist case study would look like. This includes that the one who does the research, the purpose of the study, the content of the study and to whom the case study contributes should have feminist perspectives in order to be a feminist study. The case studies mapped in this article are limited to case studies about leadership, education and organizations. By analysing 20 different case studies with feminist point of views, I concluded that feminist case studies often includes gender inequality issues like acceptation of gender inequalities or gender employment discrimination but some of them cover how feminism ideology in organizations operate.

  • 2935.
    Wallin, Fredrik
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Lindberg, Fredrik
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Kampen för tillräcklighet: En fallstudie om situationen bakom kulisserna på Livgardet2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Försvarsmakten har sedan år 2000 varit en organisation under konstant förändring. Till förmån för krigsförbanden har depåorganisationen reducerats personellt under denna förändring. Officerare i depåorganisationen har trots detta fortsättningsvis viktiga uppgifter att lösa för att Försvarsmaktens verksamhet skall fungera.

    Hur upplever officerarna vid Livgardets depåförband sin situation?

    Syftet med studien är att öka förståelsen för hur officerare i depåförbanden upplever och hanterar sin situation. Undersökningen har genomförts som en fallstudie med metoden grounded theory och datainsamling via observationer samt 8 stycken djupintervjuer.

     Slutsats: Officerarna i Livgardets depåförband upplever en orimlig arbetsbörda. Officerarna saknar verktyg för att förändra denna situation och hanterar den genom att lösa uppgifter som de upplever bidrar till att uppfylla grundläggande mänskliga behov för att känna tillräcklighet. Om denna situation inte förändras riskerar dessa officerare att drabbas av utmattning.

  • 2936.
    Wallquist, Frida
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Zetterqvist, Ronja
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Sociala medier - ett effektivt sätt att stärka varumärket: En studie om hur sociala medier används i varumärkesstärkande syfte2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 2937.
    Wamsler, Erika
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Jonsson, Linnea
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Reinventing Traditional Shopping2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Digitalization has impacted online retailing heavily, however traditional stores have not

    changed as much in comparison. Earlier studies have not only suggested how stores could

    reinvent themselves, but also indicated that brands could have great advantages by doing so.

    Furthermore, the customer experience and it’s reinforced importance within brick and mortar

    has been highlighted. It has also been established that the customer experience could be

    strengthen by implementing advanced technology. Due to the lack of research within the

    subject and a mainly theoretical discussion about how and why stores implement advanced

    technology in store, this study aims to investigate from more practical point of view how and

    why companies implement advanced technology. This study has a qualitative method, by

    conducting a total of 7 interviews. Five interviews were conducted with employees within

    different retailing companies implementing advanced technology in store; BMW, Clas

    Ohlson, Volvo Car Company, Volkswagen and Synsam Group. To continue, two

    complementary interviews from a rather general market perspective were conducted; one

    with AMF Fastigheter on their new project The Lobby focusing on the development of the

    future store and one with Curiat (NZ) Limited a subject specialist on Augmented Reality,

    which was one of the most common technologies in this study. The study identifies several

    factors correlating to how and why brands reinvent their physical stores through advanced

    technologies. In order to implement the technology successfully, such as Virtual Reality,

    Augmented reality and Interactive Digital Signage, traditional retailers have to modify their

    business models and their operational skills within the organization. One main motivation as

    for why traditional retailers implement advanced technology is a changed consumer behavior

    and market. This puts a new kind of pressure on traditional retailers and stresses the

    importance of the customer experience. The customer experience and relationships can be

    strengthened by implementing advanced technology and are two important factors as to why

    retailers utilize advanced technology in store. Traditional retailers also use the implemented

    advanced technology as a marketing tool, in order to market themselves as innovative and

    meet the new market. In addition to this, there has been a change in communication between

    customer and store. Retailers can use the advanced technology in order to not only interact in

    a new way with their customers, but also communicate through various of their channels.

    This creates a smoother and more seamless experience for the customer, and connect offline

    with online.

  • 2938.
    Wang, CangHai
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Designing the Layout of Rejmes AB Transport Service Center which Relates to Lean Production2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 2939.
    Wang, H. J.
    et al.
    School of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Beijing Information Science and Technology University, China & Key Laboratory of Modern Measurement and Control Technology, Ministry of Education, Beijing Information Science and Technology University, China.
    Han, F. X.
    School of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Beijing Information Science and Technology University, China.
    Hgu, Y.
    Key Laboratory of Modern Measurement and Control Technology, Ministry of Education, Beijing Information Science and Technology University, China.
    Rosén, Bengt Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Key Laboratory of Modern Measurement and Control Technology, Ministry of Education, Beijing Information Science and Technology University, China.
    Zou, A. N.
    School of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Beijing Information Science and Technology University, China & Key Laboratory of Modern Measurement and Control Technology, Ministry of Education, Beijing Information Science and Technology University, China.
    Evaluation method of running performance for five-axis machining center based on the "S" specimen2019In: 16th International Conference on Metrology and Properties of Engineering Surfaces (Met and Props 2017), Bristol, UK: Institute of Physics (IOP), 2019, article id 012012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the development of industries and the advanced manufacturing technology, the performance of the machine tools plays an important role for the product quality. Machining performance of five-axis machining centers, MC, in the manufacturing industry has been a hot research area, where evaluation methods based on cutting of a test piece are common, but it have proved hard to determine the relationship between test piece deviations and machine tool sensor data during manufacturing. An "S" test specimen has the characteristics of open and close angle, variable curvature, thin wall, and low stiffness. The quality of a machined "S" specimen is used to test the characteristics of five-axis MCs. Inaccurate manufacturing results in unqualified parts and the loss of business. Normally geometrical errors are hard to adjust and compensate for in the process. In order to evaluate, and map the relationship between the characteristics of geometrical work-piece deviations from a MC to in-line sensor data, a monitoring system was established in this study. The LABVIEW monitoring evaluation system is developed based on "running performance tracing". By using a coordinate measuring machine, CMM, and a Scanning Electron Microscope to measure the actual geometry and surface finish of the machined S part and compare it to the ideal geometry, a database and a running performance evaluation model for 5-axis MC based on the "S" specimen was developed. Finally, the effectiveness of the method of evaluation is verified by cutting experiments using a MAZAK five-axis MC. The Achievements reported here are helpful for solving the lack of systems to evaluate the running performance of five-axis CNC machine tools for high-end manufacturing industry in China, which has important application prospect and high economic value.

  • 2940.
    Wang, Hongjun
    et al.
    Beijing Information Science & Technology University, Beijing, China.
    Xu, Xiaoli
    Beijing Information Science & Technology University, Beijing, China.
    Rosén, Bengt-Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.
    Fault diagnosis model based on multi-manifold learning and PSO-SVM for machinery2014In: Chinese Journal of Scientific Instrument, ISSN 0254-3087, Vol. 35, no 12, p. 210-214, article id 210Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fault diagnosis technology plays an important role in the industries due to the emergency fault of a machine could bring the heavy lost for the people and the company. A fault diagnosis model based on multi-manifold learning and particle swarm optimization support vector machine(PSO-SVM) is studied. This fault diagnosis model is used for a rolling bearing experimental of three kinds faults. The results are verified that this model based on multi-manifold learning and PSO-SVM is good at the fault sensitive features acquisition with effective accuracy.

  • 2941.
    Wang, Jun
    et al.
    The Belt and Road Joint Laboratory for Winter Sports, Department of Exercise Physiology, Beijing Sport University, Beijing, ChinaBeijing Sport Univ, Dept Exercise Physiol, Belt & Rd Joint Lab Winter Sports, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Ji, Yunhui
    Department of Physical Education, Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan, China.
    Zhou, Li
    The Belt and Road Joint Laboratory for Winter Sports, Department of Exercise Physiology, Beijing Sport University, Beijing, China.
    Xiang, Yang
    School of Physical Education, Yan’an University, Yan’an, China.
    Heinonen, Ilkka
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Turku PET Centre, Department of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Zhang, Peng
    Department of Exercise Science, East Stroudsburg University of Pennsylvania, East Stroudsburg, PA, United States.
    A New Method to Improve Running Economy and Maximal Aerobic Power in Athletes: Endurance Training With Periodic Carbon Monoxide Inhalation2019In: Frontiers in Physiology, ISSN 1664-042X, E-ISSN 1664-042X, Vol. 10, article id 701Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Altitude training stimulates erythropoietin hormone (EPO) release and increases blood hemoglobin (Hb) mass, which may result in improved oxygen (O-2) transport capacity. It was hypothesized in the present study that periodic inhalation of carbon monoxide (CO) might elicit similar physiological adaptations compared to altitude training.

    Methods: Twelve male college student athletes, who were well-trained soccer players, participated. They performed a 4-week treadmill-training program, five times a week. Participants were randomly assigned into an experimental group with inhaling CO (INCO) (1 mL/kg body weight for 2 min) in O-2 (4 L) before all training sessions and a control group without inhaling CO (NOCO). CO and EPO concentrations in venous blood were first measured acutely at the 1st, 2nd, 4th, 6th, and 8th hour after INCO, and total hemoglobin mass (tHb), running economy and VO(2)max were measured before and after the 4 weeks training intervention.

    Results: HbCO% increased from 0.7 to 4.4% (P < 0.05) after 1 h of CO inhalation and EPO increased from 1.9 to 2.7 mIU/mL after 4 h post CO inhalation (P < 0.05) acutely before the intervention. After the training, the tHb and VO(2)max in the INCO group increased significantly by 3.7 and 2.7%, respectively, while no significant differences were observed in the NOCO condition. O-2 uptake at given submaximal speeds declined by approximately 4% in the INCO group.

    Conclusion: Acutely, EPO increased sharply post CO inhalation, peaking at 4 h post inhalation. 4-weeks of training with CO inhalation before exercise sessions improved tHb and VO(2)max as well as running economy, suggesting that moderate CO inhalation could be a new method to improve the endurance performance in athletes. © 2019 Frontiers Media S.A. All Rights Reserved.

  • 2942.
    Wang, Liqian
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Different Pretreatments to Enhance Biogas Production: A comparison of thermal, chemical and ultrasonic methods2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 2943.
    Wang, Qin
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Review on Mechanistic Effect Models Used in Ecological Risk Assessment of Pesticides According to the European Food Safety Authority Guidance2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In ecological risk assessment, mechanistic effect models (MEMs) are thought to overcome the limitation of standard laboratory single species test by accurately extrapolating the models to population-level. This review introduces the basic theory of MEMs-dynamic energy budget theory which can connect with toxicokinetic/ toxicodynamic models to describe the interaction of toxicants and organisms. This review summarizes some typical MEMs which simulate different scenarios, pesticides and species, and compared their modelling performance according to the guidance on good effect models of European Food Safety Authority, in order to judge if it is accounting for all modelling steps. In addition, a summary of the linkage of MEMs in pesticides ecological risk assessment have been discussed, especially evaluating the linkage results of ‘MODELINK’ workshop. However, there is no genuine application of MEMs in pesticides ecological risk assessment in real world today, because there is no validated model built with acceptable predictive power to motivate the ecological assessors or shareholders to use effect models confidently. Therefore, there is still a long way to develop an effect model which is valid enough and has strong prediction power.

  • 2944.
    Wang, Tianyi
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Towards the development of an indicator system for  environmental risk assessment of electronic waste: A preliminary study focusing on mobile phones2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays, large quantities of waste mobile phones are generated each year due to the large consumption and fast updating speed of this electronic product. This has become a rapidly growing pollution problem as mobile phones contain many harmful substances and these substances will be released to the environment if waste mobile phones are treated improperly. Therefore, it is necessary to develop risk assessment methods to determine the contamination degree of this waste to the environment and then take effective measures to reduce the pollution. Considering the complexity of risk assessment procedure, an indicator system for waste mobile phones is here established instead, consisting of totally 30 indicators. The system is developed as a hierarchy structure and has four layers including object layer, factor layer, indicator layer and sub-indicator layer.

  • 2945.
    Wang, Xiaoyan
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Patel, Parthkumar
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Transfer Mold Design2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The following report conducted with the collaboration with the University of Halmstad

    and Halmstad Gummi Fabric (HGF) rubber company which is in Halmstad.

    The focus on the project is to reduce the cost of the transfer mold material, increase

    efficiency of production, save energy and redesign the transfer mold.

    The methodology used in this project is based on the Quality Functional Deployment

    (QFD) which is widely appreciated globally in the product development, and other

    product development and mold design methods, FEM analysis are applied to achieve

    the goals.

    The implementation of this methods is efficient and beneficial to reduce the material

    cost and redesign the transfer mold without compromising the initial quality of the

    product.

    This thesis resulted in, for the transfer molding plates we recommended the proper

    material for the plates and the insulation parts. And we redesign the transfer mold

    plates and optimized the design for reducing the cost. We did FEM analysis for

    optimization purpose, and the benefits to optimizing this is to reduce the material cost,

    machining cost and labour cost. As well as, we add the insulation plates in the design

    so that the transfer molding plates works efficiently with the reducing the energy wastes.

  • 2946.
    Ware, Jessica L.
    et al.
    Rutgers University, Newark, NJ, USA.
    Karlsson, Maria
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Sahlén, Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Koch, Kamilla
    Johannes Gutenberg Universität Mainz, Mainz, Germany.
    Evolution of reproductive strategies in libellulid dragonflies (Odonata: Anisoptera)2012In: Organisms Diversity & Evolution, ISSN 1439-6092, E-ISSN 1618-1077, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 313-323Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Libellulidae, oocyte production has been assumed to be continuous, with periods of egg-laying interspersed with periods of resting/eating; however, recent work suggests that two types of oocyte production are common: either (a) continuous or (b) step-wise. These are mirrored in the arrangement of the ovarioles in the ovaries. Likewise, two types of mate-guarding behavior have been observed in Libellulidae: (1) non–contact guarding and (2) tandem guarding in which the male either hovers above the female or is physically attached to her during oviposition. Using molecular (mitochondrial and nuclear) data we explored the evolution of female reproductive traits, focusing on ovariole morphology, as well as guarding behavior, in Libellulidae. Continuous egg production appears to have evolved more than once, as have tandem and non-contact guarding. We discuss how the evolution of different ovariole types and guarding behavior may have been influenced by habitat instability, dispersal and crowded oviposition sites; thus, migratory behavior or habitat availability may have been the driving force of ovariole evolution.

  • 2947.
    Warolin, Alexander
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK).
    Sunesson, Jonathan
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK).
    Incinerator 2.02014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta examensarbete är i grunden ett konstruktionsprojekt med syfte att utveckla en ny generation av dekontamineringsutrustning kallad Incinerator åt Getinge Sterilization AB. Incineratorn är en tryckbehållare som ska avdöda farliga sporer och utvecklades ursprungligen på 70-talet. Denna har uppdaterats flera gånger under dess livsspann men konstruktionen för med sig flera problem som nu ska lösas med en helt ny generation, kallad Incinerator 2.0. Projektet har främst handlat om konstruktion men beskriver även processteknik och dekontamineringprocess av farligt media. Då detta examensarbete berör tryckbehållare och dekontamineringsprocesser så har flera standarder och direktiv som t.ex. ASME BPVC och AFS2005:01 följts.  I detta examensarbete har en grund till Incineratorn 2.0 tagits fram i form av princip- och primärkonstruktion. Den här rapporten är en sammanställning av resultaten som har uppkommit under arbetets gång samt det slutliga resultatet som har uppnåtts. 

  • 2948.
    Wasserman Stexgård, Katarina
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Walter, Emil
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Att organisera och leda militär verksamhet vid påfrestningar: Utmaningar och lösningar2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish armed forces are normally organized for education and training on a daily basis, for the purpose of rapidly being able to deal with sudden events or strains. What signifies a military organization and command dealing with these kinds of strains whilst maintaining a high level of operational effect? What challenges do they face and what kinds of solutions are available? In order to expand the perspective a comparison was made with a military unit and an emergency hospital. This study was carried out withan inductive and qualitative method, and seven semi-structured interviews were conducted. By the perspectives of High Reliability Organizations and Ambidextrous Organizations, the results are discussed. The resemblances between the two researched units are surprisingly striking in the investigated areas of interest. In order to improve organization and command at the researched military unit, the authors recommend the following actions: the use of joint functions command groups to a greater extent in order to enhance the ability to handle strains and sudden events, to strive for a greater level of situational awareness on all levels in the organization and the demand for loyalty to organization and structure of management decided by the commander. These actions are deemed to increase the level of operational effect at the unit.

  • 2949.
    Waters, Rupert
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Clusters and resilience: economic growth in Oxfordshire and Cambridgeshire2015In: International Journal of Global Environmental Issues, ISSN 1466-6650, E-ISSN 1741-5136, Vol. 14, no 1/2, p. 132-150Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Oxfordshire and Cambridgeshire are two of the most important knowledge economies in the UK. Home to world class research universities and public and private research laboratories as well as a full range of business and professional services to support the development of the knowledge economy, they have been identified as exemplars of high technology local economies by both policy makers and academics (see for example, DTI, 2002; Garnsey and Lawton Smith, 1998). This paper draws on national datasets relating to economic issues such as new firm formation, sectoral composition and gross value added to review the continued development of these centres, before conclusions are drawn on the extent to which the presence of successful clusters (Spencer et al., 2010) influences outcomes for the local economy more generally, and how Oxfordshire and Cambridgeshire have performed over the last ten years. Copyright © 2015 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

  • 2950.
    Waters, Rupert
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER). Birkbeck, University of London, London, United Kingdom.
    Lawton Smith, Helen
    Birkbeck, University of London, London, United Kingdom.
    Global economic crises and local fortunes: The case of Oxfordshire and Buckinghamshire2016In: Global Economic Crisis and Local Economic Development: International cases and policy responses / [ed] Jason Begley, Dan Coffey, Tom Donnely & Carole Thornley, New York, NY: Routledge, 2016, p. 30-46Chapter in book (Refereed)
56575859606162 2901 - 2950 of 3119
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